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Sample records for age sex disease

  1. Age, APOE and sex: Triad of risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Brandalyn C; Thompson, Paul M; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Age, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE) and chromosomal sex are well-established risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD; AD). Over 60% of persons with AD harbor at least one APOE-ε4 allele. The sex-based prevalence of AD is well documented with over 60% of persons with AD being female. Evidence indicates that the APOE-ε4 risk for AD is greater in women than men, which is particularly evident in heterozygous women carrying one APOE-ε4 allele. Paradoxically, men homozygous for APOE-ε4 are reported to be at greater risk for mild cognitive impairment and AD. Herein, we discuss the complex interplay between the three greatest risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, age, APOE-ε4 genotype and chromosomal sex. We propose that the convergence of these three risk factors, and specifically the bioenergetic aging perimenopause to menopause transition unique to the female, creates a risk profile for AD unique to the female. Further, we discuss the specific risk of the APOE-ε4 positive male which appears to emerge early in the aging process. Evidence for impact of the triad of AD risk factors is most evident in the temporal trajectory of AD progression and burden of pathology in relation to APOE genotype, age and sex. Collectively, the data indicate complex interactions between age, APOE genotype and gender that belies a one size fits all approach and argues for a precision medicine approach that integrates across the three main risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26969397

  2. Age-sex distribution of various diseases with particular reference to toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, J. K.; Fleck, D. G.; Kwantes, W.; Ludlam, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of some human diseases which affect one sex more than the other. An age-sex realtionship has been noted among British patients with acquired toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. This is compared with the findings of other European workers. A possible explanation is offered taking all these diseases into consideration together with some of the experimental work done in animals and some of the variations in immunological responses by man. PMID:1063216

  3. Sex, Aging, and Preexisting Cerebral Ischemic Disease in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Acker, Michael A.; Bilello, Michel; Melhem, Elias R.; Stambrook, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have a high frequency of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions, the presence of which appears to predict cognitive sequelae. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS) incur an exceptionally high risk for perioperative cerebral ischemia. The extreme risk in this subgroup may arise from the preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. We tested the hypotheses that increasing age, female sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS are predictive of the severity of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions. Methods A total of 95 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were imaged on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanners to obtain multimodal image sets which were used for the automatic segmentation of cerebral lesion volume. The dependence of lesion volume upon age, sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS were tested. Results The results demonstrate a strong correlation between aging, female sex, and white matter and ischemia-like lesion volume in patients with aortic stenosis. Conclusions Women and those of advanced age presenting for aortic valve replacement for AS may incur a particularly high risk for postoperative neurologic sequelae due to an exceptional preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:20868818

  4. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  5. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: genotype-specific risks by age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Bickeböller, H; Campion, D; Brice, A; Amouyel, P; Hannequin, D; Didierjean, O; Penet, C; Martin, C; Pérez-Tur, J; Michon, A; Dubois, B; Ledoze, F; Thomas-Anterion, C; Pasquier, F; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Moreaud, O; Babron, M C; Meulien, D; Guez, D; Chartier-Harlin, M C; Frebourg, T; Agid, Y; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE epsilon3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [epsilon4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE epsilon2 allele (OR[epsilon2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the epsilon4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[epsilon4/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[epsilon3/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the epsilon4 allele versus the epsilon3 allele, OR(epsilon4), were not equal in all age classes: OR(epsilon4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In epsilon3/epsilon4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. PMID:9012418

  6. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  8. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  9. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  10. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  11. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  12. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Age and Sex on Inflammatory Disease Risk in Semi-Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  13. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  14. Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, M

    2007-01-01

    Suicide was estimated to be the 25th leading cause of death in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region in the year 2000. Using data from the WHO global burden of disease project, estimated rates of suicidal deaths were plotted for different sex and age groups. Overall rates of suicide were higher in females than males in age groups 5-14 and 15-29 years. The peak age for suicides among females was 15-29 years (8.6 per 100,000) and for males 60+ years (100,000). As a proportion of all deaths due to injury, suicides were substantially higher in females than males. Females in high-income countries had the lowest rates of suicide in all age groups and males in high-income countries had a lower rate than males in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:17955778

  15. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  16. Sex and Age Differences in the Association of Depression With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Adverse Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit J.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Zaragoza‐Macias, Elisa; Patel, Riyaz; Eapen, Danny J.; Neeland, Ian J.; Pimple, Pratik M.; Zafari, A. Maziar; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with coronary heart disease have high rates of depression and a higher risk of adverse events than men of similar age. Whether depression has a higher prognostic value in this group than in men and older women is not known. Our objective was to assess whether depression in young women is associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse outcomes compared with similarly aged men and older women. Methods and Results We examined 3237 patients undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD and followed them for 2.9 years (median). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)‐9, and CAD burden was dichotomized based on its presence or absence. After multivariable adjustment for CAD risk factors, depressive symptoms predicted CAD presence in women aged ≤55 years (odds ratio=1.07 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.13 per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years or women aged >55 years. Depressive symptoms also predicted increased risk of death in women aged ≤55 years (adjusted hazard ratio=1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14, per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years and women aged >55 years, with P=0.02 for the depression‐sex interaction and P=0.02 for depression‐sex‐age interaction. Conclusions Among patients with suspected or established CAD, depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of death, particularly in young women. This group may be especially vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of depression. PMID:24943475

  17. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  18. Sex chromosome aneuploidy and aging.

    PubMed

    Stone, J F; Sandberg, A A

    1995-10-01

    Loss of an X chromosome in females and of the Y chromosome in males are phenomena associated with aging. X chromosome loss occurs in and may be limited to PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. In males, the loss of the Y is most evident in bone marrow cells, but also occurs to a lesser extent in PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. X chromosome loss is associated with premature centromere division leading to anaphase lag and elimination in micronuclei. The mechanism of Y chromosome loss has not been elucidated. No pathological consequence of either X or Y chromosome loss has been convincingly demonstrated. With the advent of FISH technology, measurement of sex chromosome aneuploidy may prove to be a convenient assay for cellular senecence and aging. PMID:7565866

  19. Morbidity and mortality in motor neuron disease: comparison with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: age and sex specific rates and cohort analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T M; Swash, M; Alberman, E

    1985-01-01

    The cause of motor neuron disease (MND) remains unknown although recent reports have suggested a possible rise in mortality rate. The present account describes age-specific patterns in morbidity rate and cross-sectional and cohort analyses of mortality rate, and compares these with those in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. First hospital admission rate for motor neuron disease (a proxy for incidence rates) rose steadily with age in males and females until the age of 75 years or more, but then fell, but only in females. This irregular pattern suggested the possibility of an environmental effect on certain older birth cohorts. The validity of the results was supported by a similar pattern in the two hospital regional authorities studied and the difference between this pattern and that found in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Age-specific mortality rates of motor neuron disease between 15 and 64 years for males and females in England and Wales from 1940 to 1982 rose steadily with age. Mortality rates after the age of 65 fell in all female cohorts studied, but only in the earlier male cohorts. Unlike Parkinson's disease there was no strong birth cohort effect. However an analysis of Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (Registrar General) reports has revealed a slight increase in the age-specific mortality rate in both males and females aged 65 and over for successive birth cohorts born since 1900. Neither changes in ICD coding or in diagnostic habits could account for this pattern, which differed from that seen in Parkinson's disease. No such effect was seen in multiple sclerosis. PMID:3873517

  20. Sex-dependent alterations in social behaviour and cortical synaptic activity coincide at different ages in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bories, Cyril; Guitton, Matthieu J; Julien, Carl; Tremblay, Cyntia; Vandal, Milène; Msaid, Meriem; De Koninck, Yves; Calon, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Besides memory deficits, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer from neuropsychiatric symptoms, including alterations in social interactions, which are subject of a growing number of investigations in transgenic models of AD. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these behavioural alterations are poorly understood. Here, a social interaction paradigm was used to assess social dysfunction in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). We observed that transgenic mice displayed dimorphic behavioural abnormalities at different ages. Social disinhibition was observed in 18 months old 3xTg-AD males compared to age and sex-matched control mice. In 3xTg-AD females, social disinhibition was present at 12 months followed by reduced social interactions at 18 months. These dimorphic behavioural alterations were not associated with alterations in AD neuropathological markers such as Aβ or tau levels in the frontal cortex. However, patch-clamp recordings revealed that enhanced social interactions coincided temporally with an increase in both excitatory and inhibitory basal synaptic inputs to layer 2-3 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. These findings uncover a novel pattern of occurrence of psychiatric-like symptoms between sexes in an AD model. Our results also reveal that functional alterations in synapse activity appear as a potentially significant substrate underlying behavioural correlates of AD. PMID:23029404

  1. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    PubMed

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences. PMID:26970680

  2. Sex Steroid Signaling: Implications for Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Venkatachalem; Martin, Yvette N.; Prakash, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are still not well-understood. Accordingly, it becomes important to ask the following questions: 1) Which sex steroids are involved? 2) How do they affect different components of the lung under normal circumstances? 3) How does sex steroid signaling change in or contribute to lung disease, and in this regard, are sex steroids detrimental or beneficial? As our understanding of sex steroid signaling in the lung improves, it is important to consider whether such information can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to target lung diseases, perhaps in both sexes or in a sex-specific manner. In this review, we focus on the basics of sex steroid signaling, and the current state of knowledge regarding how they influence structure and function of specific lung components across the life span and in the context of some important lung diseases. We then summarize the potential for sex steroids as useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets in these lung diseases as a basis for future translational research in the area of gender and individualized medicine. PMID:25595323

  3. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  4. Employment Discrimination: Age, Sex and National Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.; Lawson, Miriam

    Chapter 17 of a book on school law is an historical review of judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to employment. The purpose of the chapter is to analyze those cases concerned with discrimination because of sex, age, or national origin, and to discuss the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in these areas. Not until the…

  5. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  6. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  7. Purpose-in-Life Test: Age and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Augustine; Edwards, Henry

    1974-01-01

    This study examined age and sex differences, and the interaction of age x sex, with respect to "meaning in life" as defined by Frankl and measured by the Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL) developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. (Author)

  8. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  9. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  10. Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are spent, browse our financial information. Learn More Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease? By Laura Marsh, M. ... elevated, expansive, grandiose or irritable mood states. Pathological gambling Pathological gambling refers to recurrent, maladaptive gambling behaviors, ...

  11. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  12. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  13. Sex Differences in Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer’s disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer’s disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer’s disease in men and women. PMID:24434111

  14. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex

  15. Stop Aging Disease! ICAD 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilia, Stambler

    2015-01-01

    On November 1–2, 2014, there took place in Beijing, China, the first International Conference on Aging and Disease (ICAD 2014) of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD). The conference participants presented a wide and exciting front of work dedicated to amelioration of aging-related conditions, ranging from regenerative medicine through developing geroprotective substances, elucidating a wide range of mechanisms of aging and aging-related diseases, from energy metabolism through genetics and immunomodulation to systems biology. The conference further emphasized the need to intensify and support research on aging and aging-related diseases to provide solutions for the urgent health challenges of the aging society. PMID:25821637

  16. Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk

  17. Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Hall, Matthew D; Simpson, Stephen J; Dessmann, Josephine; Clissold, Fiona J; Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Raubenheimer, David; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict that fitness-related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance (especially sexual advertisement) will increase with age. In both bodies of theory, diet should mediate age-dependent changes in reproductive performance. In this study, we show that the sexes exhibit dramatic, qualitative differences in age-dependent reproductive performance trajectories and patterns of reproductive ageing in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. In females, fecundity peaked early in adulthood and then declined. In contrast, male sexual advertisement increased across the natural lifespan and only declined well beyond the maximum field lifespan. These sex differences were robust to deviations from sex-specific dietary requirements. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection can be at least as important as sex-dependent mortality in shaping the signal of reproductive ageing. PMID:19627271

  18. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  19. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  20. Age and Sex Differences in Interaction with a Human Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. O.

    1981-01-01

    Examines sex differences in vocalizations and play behaviors displayed toward an infant by preschoolers, preadolescents, and adults. Preschoolers showed less interaction than older subjects. Males talked and played less with the baby than did females at all ages; however, among adult subjects, no sex-role effects were found. (Author/RH)

  1. Compensated for Life: Sex Work and Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunachalam, Raj; Shah, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Sex workers draw a premium for engaging in unprotected sex. We theoretically motivate a test of whether this premium represents a compensating differential for disease, thereby mitigating sex workers' propensity to use condoms. Using transaction-level data and biological STI markers from sex workers in Ecuador, we exploit within-worker…

  2. Sex and Genotype Differences in Odor Detection in the 3×Tg-AD and 5XFAD Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Roddick, Kyle M; Roberts, Amelia D; Schellinck, Heather M; Brown, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in odor identification and detection are early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two transgenic mouse models of AD, the 5XFAD and the 3×Tg-AD mice and their wildtype controls, were assessed for olfactory detection with decreasing concentrations of ethyl acetate in a go no-go operant olfactometer task at 6 months of age. For both the 5XFAD and their B6SJLF1 wildtype littermates, females made fewer errors in detecting the ethyl acetate than males on all but the lowest odor concentrations. Female 5XFAD mice performed slightly better than their female wildtype littermates on the higher odor concentrations, though not at the lowest concentration. The 3×Tg-AD females showed decreased olfactory detection compared with their wildtype B6129S1 controls, whereas there was no difference in the males. Therefore, although the 5XFAD mice showed no olfactory detection deficits, female 3×Tg-AD mice had impaired olfactory detection at low odor concentrations but males did not. This difference in odor detection should be considered in studies of olfactory learning and memory, as differences in performance may be due to sensory rather than cognitive factors, though detection seems unimpaired at high odor concentrations. PMID:26969629

  3. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9-593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65-74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  4. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  5. Infographic: How Sex and Gender Influence Health and Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff ORWH 25th Anniversary Infographic: How Sex and Gender Influence Health and Disease Share: Enlarge Infographic (PDF, ... Enlarge Infographic (PDF, 558 KB) Resources Sex and Gender Differences from A to Z: Get the facts. ...

  6. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  7. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  8. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  9. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  10. Sex and gender differences in Alzheimer's disease: recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Christine L; Resnick, Eileen M; Mallampalli, Monica; Kalbarczyk, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both prevalence and severity; however, the biologic mechanisms underlying these sex differences are not fully understood. Sex differences in the brain, such as in brain anatomy, age-related declines in brain volume, and brain glucose metabolism, have been documented and may be important in understanding AD etiology. The full impact of sex as a basic biologic variable on this neurodegenerative disease remains elusive. To address the evidence for sex differences in AD, the Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) convened an interdisciplinary roundtable of experts from academia, clinical medicine, industry, and the government to discuss the state-of-the-science in sex and gender differences in AD. Roundtable participants were asked to address gaps in our knowledge and identify specific sex-based research questions for future areas of study. PMID:22917473

  11. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  12. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  13. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  14. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  15. Serotonin modulation of cerebral glucose metabolism: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Workman, Clifford I; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S

    2012-11-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. PMID:22836227

  16. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  17. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  18. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  19. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  20. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. PMID:26939790

  1. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  2. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24583768

  3. Sex Differences in Participation, Performance, and Age of Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, Jonathon; Smith, Carolyn; Hunter, Sandra K

    2016-07-01

    The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45-160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix. Men were faster than women for all events (18.7% ± 5.8%, P < .001). The sex difference in speed was the least for 100 km (14.9% ± 4.2%) and greatest for 45-50 km (19.3% ± 5.8%). The top-10 men were younger than the top-10 women (37.7 ± 3.2 and 39.0 ± 3.1 y, respectively, P < .001). The sex difference in speed increased with finishing place (1st place 15.6% ± 6.6% vs 10th 20.8% ± 5.6%, P < .001). Association analysis showed that the sex difference in speed was largest when there were fewer women than men finishers in a race; the strength of the association was greatest for the 80-km distance and least for the 160-km. Lower participation rates of women than men in the lower-distance ultramarathons and less depth among lower-placed women runners inflate the sex difference in ultramarathon performance. PMID:26561864

  4. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  5. The age-sex structure of the slave population in Harris County, Texas: 1850 and 1860.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1987-10-01

    The effect of the slave system on demography can be revealed by examining the age-sex structure of slave populations. The age-sex structure of slaves in Harris County, Texas is investigated using the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules. Median ages for black and mulatto slaves suggest that the population was young. Population pyramids exhibit a narrow base and top with a broad middle. The high proportion of slaves between 10 and 30 years of age and the increase in population size between 1850 and 1860 were mainly related to the importation of slaves and only partly due to natural increase. The data also show that black slaves were older on small plantations while mulattoes were older on larger farms. It is suggested that differential treatment in terms of purchase practices, assignment of tasks, food allocation, and/or differential susceptibility to infectious diseases may account for this pattern. PMID:3322029

  6. Spatial distribution of intracortical porosity varies across age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Nirody, Jasmine A.; Cheng, Karen P.; Parrish, Robin M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone porosity is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue. The goal of this work was to investigate changes in spatial distribution and microstructure of cortical porosity associated with aging in men and women. The specific aims were to: 1) develop an automated technique for spatial analysis of cortical microstructure based on HR-pQCT data, and; 2) apply this technique to explore sex- and age-specific spatial distribution and microstructure of porosity within the cortex. We evaluated HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from a cross-sectional cohort of 145 individuals, characterizing detectable pores as being in the endosteal, midcortical, or periosteal layers of the cortex. Metrics describing porosity, pore number, and pore size were quantifiedwithin each layer and compared across sexes, age groups, and cortical layers. The elderly cohort (65–78 years, n=22) displayed higher values than the young cohort (20–29 years, n=29) for all parameters both globally and within each layer. While all three layers displayed significant age-related porosity increases, the greatest difference in porosity between the young and elderly cohort was in the midcortical layer (+344%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the midcortical layer reflected the greatest differences between young and elderly cohorts in both pore number (+243%, p < 0.001) and size (+28%, p < 0.001). Females displayed greater age-related changes in porosity and pore number than males. Females and males displayed comparable small to non-significant changes with age in pore size. In summary, considerable variability exists in the spatial distribution of detectable cortical porosity at the distal tibia, and this variability is dependent on age and sex. Intracortical pore distribution analysis may ultimately provide insight into both mechanisms of pore network expansion and biomechanical consequences of pore distribution. PMID:25701139

  7. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  8. Sex Differences in Circadian Dysfunction in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuljis, Dika A; Gad, Laura; Loh, Dawn H; MacDowell Kaswan, Zoë; Hitchcock, Olivia N; Ghiani, Cristina A; Colwell, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects men and women in equal numbers, but some epidemiological studies indicate there may be sex differences in disease progression. One of the early symptoms of HD is disruptions in the circadian timing system, but it is currently unknown whether sex is a factor in these alterations. Since sex differences in HD could provide important insights to understand cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and designing early intervention strategies, we used the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (BACHD) to examine whether sex differences in circadian behavioral rhythms are detectable in an animal model of the disease. Similar to BACHD males, BACHD females display circadian disruptions at both 3 and 6 months of age; however, deficits to BACHD female mouse activity levels, rhythm precision, and behavioral fragmentation are either delayed or less severe relative to males. These sex differences are associated with a smaller suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in BACHD male mice at age of symptom onset (3 months), but are not associated with sex-specific differences in SCN daytime electrical activity deficits, or peptide expression (arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide) within the SCN. Notably, BACHD females exhibited delayed motor coordination deficits, as measured using rotarod and challenge beam. These findings suggest a sex specific factor plays a role both in non-motor and motor symptom progression for the BACHD mouse. PMID:26871695

  9. Sex Differences in Circadian Dysfunction in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuljis, Dika A.; Gad, Laura; Loh, Dawn H.; MacDowell Kaswan, Zoë; Hitchcock, Olivia N.; Ghiani, Cristina A.; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects men and women in equal numbers, but some epidemiological studies indicate there may be sex differences in disease progression. One of the early symptoms of HD is disruptions in the circadian timing system, but it is currently unknown whether sex is a factor in these alterations. Since sex differences in HD could provide important insights to understand cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and designing early intervention strategies, we used the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (BACHD) to examine whether sex differences in circadian behavioral rhythms are detectable in an animal model of the disease. Similar to BACHD males, BACHD females display circadian disruptions at both 3 and 6 months of age; however, deficits to BACHD female mouse activity levels, rhythm precision, and behavioral fragmentation are either delayed or less severe relative to males. These sex differences are associated with a smaller suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in BACHD male mice at age of symptom onset (3 months), but are not associated with sex-specific differences in SCN daytime electrical activity deficits, or peptide expression (arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide) within the SCN. Notably, BACHD females exhibited delayed motor coordination deficits, as measured using rotarod and challenge beam. These findings suggest a sex specific factor plays a role both in non-motor and motor symptom progression for the BACHD mouse. PMID:26871695

  10. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. PMID:26219977

  11. Cerebrovascular disease in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have more in common than their association with ageing. They share risk factors and overlap neuropathologically. Most patients with AD have Aβ amyloid angiopathy and degenerative changes affecting capillaries, and many have ischaemic parenchymal abnormalities. Structural vascular disease contributes to the ischaemic abnormalities in some patients with AD. However, the stereotyped progression of hypoperfusion in this disease, affecting first the precuneus and cingulate gyrus, then the frontal and temporal cortex and lastly the occipital cortex, suggests that other factors are more important, particularly in early disease. Whilst demand for oxygen and glucose falls in late disease, functional MRI, near infrared spectroscopy to measure the saturation of haemoglobin by oxygen, and biochemical analysis of myelin proteins with differential susceptibility to reduced oxygenation have all shown that the reduction in blood flow in AD is primarily a problem of inadequate blood supply, not reduced metabolic demand. Increasing evidence points to non-structural vascular dysfunction rather than structural abnormalities of vessel walls as the main cause of cerebral hypoperfusion in AD. Several mediators are probably responsible. One that is emerging as a major contributor is the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (EDN1). Whilst there is clearly an additive component to the clinical and pathological effects of hypoperfusion and AD, experimental and clinical observations suggest that the disease processes also interact mechanistically at a cellular level in a manner that exacerbates both. The elucidation of some of the mechanisms responsible for hypoperfusion in AD and for the interactions between CVD and AD has led to the identification of several novel therapeutic approaches that have the potential to ameliorate ischaemic damage and slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26711459

  12. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  13. Genetics of cardiovascular disease: importance of sex and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Miller, Virginia M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and prevalence of and morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are well documented. However, many studies examining the genetic basis for cardiovascular disease fail to consider sex as a variable in the study design, in part, because there is an inherent difficulty in studying the contribution of the sex chromosomes in women due to X chromosome inactivation. This paper will provide general background on the X and Y chromosomes (including gene content, the pseudoautosomal regions, and X chromosome inactivation), discuss how sex chromosomes have been ignored in Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular diseases, and discuss genetics influencing development of cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis with particular attention to carotid intima-medial thickness, and coronary arterial calcification based on sex-specific studies. In addition, a brief discussion of how ethnicity and hormonal status act as confounding variables in sex-based analysis will be considered along with methods for statistical analysis to account for sex in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25817330

  14. Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Keith R; Irvine, Karen; Gale, Tim M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain imaging, post-mortem analyses, hormone therapy and genetics suggesting that AD affects men and women differently. We provide an overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD. Indeed, men significantly outperform women in several cognitive domains, including: Language and semantic abilities, visuospatial abilities and episodic memory. These differences do not appear to be attributable to any differences in age, education, or dementia severity. Reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. Assessment of cognitive abilities contributes to the diagnosis of the condition and thus, it is crucial to identify the role of sex differences if potentially more accurate diagnoses and treatments are to emerge. PMID:27014598

  15. Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Irvine, Karen; Gale, Tim M

    2016-03-22

    Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain imaging, post-mortem analyses, hormone therapy and genetics suggesting that AD affects men and women differently. We provide an overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD. Indeed, men significantly outperform women in several cognitive domains, including: Language and semantic abilities, visuospatial abilities and episodic memory. These differences do not appear to be attributable to any differences in age, education, or dementia severity. Reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. Assessment of cognitive abilities contributes to the diagnosis of the condition and thus, it is crucial to identify the role of sex differences if potentially more accurate diagnoses and treatments are to emerge. PMID:27014598

  16. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship. PMID:16880222

  17. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  18. [Old age and joint disease].

    PubMed

    d'Harcourt, G; Meignan-Debray, S; Mémin, Y

    1987-01-01

    The seriousness of articular diseases in old persons is related to the loss of function and the rapid way this can lead to them being bed ridden. Rheumatoid polyarthritis is often difficult to distinguish from rhizomelic pseudopolyarthritis, these two diseases resemble each other at this age with the asthenia and loss of general health, the inflammatory pains which are peripheral and of nerve root origin. Among the metabolic arthropathies, articular chondrocalcinosis is frequent, and often latent, but sometimes it is destructive in particular in the hips and knees; septic arthritis today mainly occurs in the elderly, and the algoneurodystrophies are more frequent in old persons than in young subjects, following trauma or a hemiplegia. Arthrosis is obviously the main articular disease of senescence especially involving the joints of the lower limb, hip disease being less incapacitating than knee disease where surgical treatment is less often considered. The arthroses of the upper limbs especially of the shoulder are well tolerated. Osteochondromatosis, osteonecrosis of the internal condyle of the knee, the rapidly destructive arthropathies and hemarthrosis can develop as a complication of a simple arthrosis. In the spine vertebral hyperostosis is especially a disease of the elderly, it can occur alone or with an arthrosis of the posterior vertebral joints, a narrow spinal canal straight or narrowed. Medical treatment, physiotherapy, and finally surgery can give very satisfactory results in an old patient, avoiding loss of function, a miserable existence and becoming bed ridden. PMID:3496925

  19. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  20. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E; Beck, Stephan; Suchiman, H Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  1. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent of smokers begin before age 18. Middle-Aged Women: At menopause, a woman's heart disease risk ... risk of developing high blood pressure for women aged 55 is about 90 percent. Beginning at age ...

  2. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  3. Sex differences with aging in the fatigability of dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Doyel, Ryan; Widule, Claire; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the sex difference with aging in fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles during a dynamic fatiguing task, and explored the associated mechanisms. We compared fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles in 18 young (20.2 ± 1 years: 9 men) and 36 old adults (73.5 ± 1 years: 16 men) during and in recovery from repeated dynamic contractions (~60°/s) with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (an increase in the superimposed twitch, SIT) and the peak rate of muscle relaxation. Time to failure was briefer for the men than the women (6.1 ± 2.1 vs. 9.7 ± 5.5 min, respectively; P=0.02) with no difference between young and old adults (7.2 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 5.2 min, respectively, P=0.45) and no interaction (P>0.05). The relative decline in peak relaxation rate with fatigability was similar for young and old adults (P=0.11), but greater for men than women (P=0.046). Supraspinal fatigue increased for all groups and was associated with the time to failure (P<0.05). Regression analysis however, indicated that the time to failure was best predicted by the peak relaxation rate (baseline values and slowing with fatigability) (r(2)=0.55). Rate-limiting contractile mechanisms (e.g. excitation-contraction coupling) were responsible for the increased fatigability of the elbow flexors of men compared with women for a dynamic fatiguing task of slow angular velocity, and this sex difference was maintained with aging. The age difference in fatigability for the dynamic task was diminished for both sexes relative to what is typically observed with isometric fatiguing contractions. PMID:26159162

  4. Obesity and sex interact in the regulation of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moser, V Alexandra; Pike, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, for which a number of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors have been identified. A significant modifiable risk factor is obesity in mid-life. Interestingly, both obesity and AD exhibit sex differences and are regulated by sex steroid hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests interactions between obesity and sex in regulation of AD risk, although the pathways underlying this relationship are unclear. Inflammation and the E4 allele of apolipoprotein E have been identified as independent risk factors for AD and both interact with obesity and sex steroid hormones. We review the individual and cooperative effects of obesity and sex on development of AD and examine the potential contributions of apolipoprotein E, inflammation, and their interactions to this relationship. PMID:26708713

  5. Sex Differences in Circadian Timing Systems: Implications for Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamicadrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions. PMID:24287074

  6. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  7. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  8. Sex differences in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Objective This review examines the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic adult disease, with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a sub-optimal fetal environment. Methods This is a selective review that focuses on current findings regarding sex differences in fetal programming and the mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Results The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and involve alterations in the regulatory systems involved in the long-term control of arterial pressure. Sex differences are observed in animal models of fetal programming and recent studies suggests sex hormones modulate activity of regulatory systems leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared to males. Conclusions Animal models of fetal programming demonstrate that female offspring are protected from the adverse effects of fetal insult, and are providing insight into the mechanisms by which sex hormones contribute to sexual dimorphism in adult disease. PMID:18395678

  9. Depressive symptoms, sex, and risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dal Forno, Gloria; Palermo, Mark T; Donohue, Janet E; Karagiozis, Helen; Zonderman, Alan B; Kawas, Claudia H

    2005-03-01

    Depression associates with increased risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although it is unclear whether it represents an actual risk factor or a prodrome. To determine the relative hazard of premorbid depressive symptomatology for development of dementia and AD, we studied risk for incident dementia and AD over a 14-year period in 1,357 community-dwelling men and women participating in the 40-year prospective Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Screening for depressive symptoms, comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluations were prospectively collected every 2 years. Time-dependent proportional hazards of development of AD or dementia were calculated separately for men and women, with symptoms of depression detected at 2-, 4-, and 6-year intervals before onset of dementia symptoms. Vascular risk factors were analyzed as covariates. Premorbid depressive symptoms significantly increased risk for dementia, particularly AD in men but not in women. Hazard ratios were approximately two times greater than for individuals without history of depressive symptoms, an effect independent of vascular disease. We conclude that the impact of depressive symptoms on risk for dementia and AD may vary with sex. Further studies assessing separately the role of depression as a risk factor in men and women are necessary. PMID:15732103

  10. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Apolipoprotein E and Sex Bias in Cerebrovascular Aging of Men and Mice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Shams, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles. Mouse transgenic models add further complexities to sex-ApoE ɛ4 allele interactions, with female excess of both CMBs and brain amyloid. We conclude that brain aging and AD pathogenesis cannot be understood in humans without addressing major gaps in the extent of sex differences in cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27546867

  12. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  13. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  14. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  15. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes. PMID:27511128

  16. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23126652

  17. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  18. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E.C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p = .03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p = .006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  19. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H., Jr.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  1. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    in the literature. The developed models of rib cage anatomy can be used to study age and sex variations in thoracic injury patterns due to motor vehicle crashes or falls, and clinically relevant changes due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other diseases evidenced by structural and anatomic changes to the chest. PMID:24917069

  2. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    the literature. The developed models of rib cage anatomy can be used to study age and sex variations in thoracic injury patterns due to motor vehicle crashes or falls, and clinically relevant changes due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other diseases evidenced by structural and anatomic changes to the chest. PMID:24917069

  3. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  4. Age and Sex Pattern of Cardiovascular Mortality, Hospitalisation and Associated Cost in India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Though the cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in India, little is known about the human and economic loss attributed to the disease. The aim of this paper is to account the age and sex pattern of mortality, hospitalisation and the cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Data and Methods Data for the present study has been drawn from multiple sources; 52nd and 60th rounds of the National Sample Survey, Special Survey of Death, 2001–03 and the Sample Registration System 2004–2010. Under the changing demographics and constant assumptions of mortality, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation, we have estimated the deaths, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India during 2004 to 2021. Descriptive analyses and multivariate techniques were used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Findings In India, the cardiovascular diseases accounted for an estimated 1.4 million deaths in 2004 and it is likely to be 2.1 million in 2021. An estimated 6.7 million people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases in 2004, and projected to be 10.9 million by 2021. Unlike mortality, majority of the hospitalisation due to cardiovascular diseases will be in the prime working age group (25–59). The estimated cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was 94/− billion rupees in 2004 and expected to be 152/− billion rupees by 2021, at 2004 prices. The cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was significantly high in private health centres, high fertility states and among high socio-economic groups. Conclusion The cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation will be largely concentrated in the prime working age group and the cost of hospitalisation is expected to increase substantially in coming years. This calls for mobilising resources, increasing access to health insurance and devising

  5. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  6. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  7. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24470773

  8. Glycoconjugate changes in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Ando, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The significance of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins is discussed in their relation to normal aging and pathological aging, aging with diseases. Healthy myelin that looks stable is found to be gradually degraded and reconstructed throughout life for remodeling. An exciting finding is that myelin P0 protein is located in neurons and glycosylated in aging brains. In pathological aging, the roles of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins as risk factors or protective agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are discussed. Intensive studies have been performed aiming to remove the risks from and to restore the functional deficits of the brain. Some of them are expected to be translated to therapeutic means. PMID:25151390

  9. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  10. Modulating Human Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is progressing rapidly in many industrialized countries. The United States population aged 65 and over is expected to double in size within the next 25 years. In sedentary people eating Western diets aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. About 80 percent of adults over 65 years of age have at least one chronic disease, and 50 percent have at least two chronic diseases. These chronic diseases are the most important cause of illness and mortality burden, and they have become the leading driver of healthcare costs, constituting an important burden for our society. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical trials indicate that many age-associated chronic diseases can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. Several recent studies suggest that more drastic interventions (i.e. calorie restriction without malnutrition and moderate protein restriction with adequate nutrition) may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and hormonal factors that are implicated in the biology of aging itself. Additional studies are needed to understand the complex interactions of factors that regulate aging and age-associated chronic disease. PMID:19364477

  11. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  12. Age, sex and APOE ε4 effects on memory, brain structure and β-amyloid across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Machulda, Mary M.; Gregg, Brian E.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Typical cognitive aging may be defined as age associated changes in cognitive performance in individuals who remain free of dementia. Ideally the full adult age spectrum should be included to assess brain imaging findings associated with typical aging. Objective To compare age, sex and Apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) effects on memory, brain structure (adjusted hippocampal volume, HVa) and amyloid PET in cognitively normal individuals aged 30 to 95 years old. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross sectional observational study (Marc 2006 to October 2014) at an academic medical center. We studied 1246 cognitively normal subjects; 1209 participants aged 50–95 years old enrolled in a population-based study of cognitive aging and 37 self-selected volunteers aged 30–49. Main Outcomes and Measures Memory, HVa, and amyloid PET Results Overall, memory worsened from age 30 years through the 90s. HVa worsened gradually from 30 years to the mid-60s and more steeply beyond that age. The median amyloid PET was low until age 70 years and increased thereafter. Memory was worse in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 40 years. HVa was lower in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 60 years. There was no sex difference in amyloid PET at any age. Within each sex, memory performance and HVa were not different by APOE ε4 at any age. From age 70 years onward APOE ε4 carriers had significantly greater median amyloid PET load than noncarriers. However the ages at which 10% of the population were amyloid PET positive were 57 years for APOE ε4 carriers and 64 years for non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance Male sex is associated with worse memory and HVa among cognitively normal individuals while APOE ε4 is not. In contrast, APOE ε4 is associated with greater amyloid PET values (from age 70 years onward) while sex is not. Worsening memory and HVa occur at earlier ages than abnormal amyloid PET. Therefore

  13. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  14. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495

  15. Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinical manifestations, response to treatments, and mortality. Although mortality from all-cause cardiovascular diseases has declined in women over the past five years, due in part to increased educational campaigns regarding the recognition of symptoms and application of treatment guidelines, the mortality in women still exceeds that of men. The physiological basis for these differences requires further research, with particular attention to two physiological conditions which are unique to women and associated with hormonal changes: pregnancy and menopause. Both conditions have the potential to impact life-long cardiovascular risk, including cerebrovascular function and cognition in women. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of hypertensive pregnancy disorders on cardiovascular disease and cognitive function later in life, and examines the effects of post-menopausal hormone treatments on cardiovascular risk and cognition in midlife women. We suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders and menopause activate vascular components, i.e., vascular endothelium and blood elements, including platelets and leukocytes, to release cell-membrane derived microvesicles that are potential mediators of changes in cerebral blood flow, and may ultimately affect cognition in women as they age. Research into specific sex differences for these disease processes with attention to an individual’s sex chromosomal complement and hormonal status is important and timely. PMID:23537114

  16. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    that selective blockade of COX-1 or COX-2 produced age-dependent changes in cerebrovascular reactivity to VP and that VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production were enhanced by endogenous estrogen in younger F. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its effects may lead to new age- and sex-specific therapeutic agents for the prevention and/or treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:25780555

  17. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  18. Age Group and Sex of Students. Fall 1974. Report No. 8-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature of higher education regarding significant changes in student body characteristics. The data in this document examines distribution of students at the State University of New York system by age group and sex. Tables array four fundamental student characteristics: age, sex, level…

  19. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  20. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  1. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  2. Sex Differences in Clinical Features of Early, Treated Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Erika F.; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Umeh, Chizoba C.; Videnovic, Aleksandar; Cambi, Franca; Wills, Anne-Marie A.; Elm, Jordan J.; Zweig, Richard M.; Shulman, Lisa M.; Nance, Martha A.; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Suchowersky, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To improve our understanding of sex differences in the clinical characteristics of Parkinson’s Disease, we sought to examine differences in the clinical features and disease severity of men and women with early treated Parkinson’s Disease (PD) enrolled in a large-scale clinical trial. Methods Analysis was performed of baseline data from the National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson’s Disease (NET-PD) Long-term Study-1, a randomized, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 10 grams of oral creatine/day in individuals with early, treated PD. We compared mean age at symptom onset, age at PD diagnosis, and age at randomization between men and women using t-test statistics. Sex differences in clinical features were evaluated, including: symptoms at diagnosis (motor) and symptoms at randomization (motor, non-motor, and daily functioning). Results 1,741 participants were enrolled (62.5% male). No differences were detected in mean age at PD onset, age at PD diagnosis, age at randomization, motor symptoms, or daily functioning between men and women. Differences in non-motor symptoms were observed, with women demonstrating better performance compared to men on SCOPA-COG (Z = 5.064, p<0.0001) and Symbol Digit Modality measures (Z = 5.221, p<0.0001). Conclusions Overall, men and women did not demonstrate differences in clinical motor features early in the course of PD. However, the differences observed in non-motor cognitive symptoms suggests further assessment of the influence of sex on non-motor symptoms in later stages of PD is warranted. PMID:26171861

  3. Sex-Specific Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1 in 500 people living in the United States and generally occurs with equal frequency in men and women. However, despite equal sex distribution of the disease, men and women face unique challenges that can significantly impact quality of life. As more is discovered regarding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of IBD, physiologic and psychological differences between men and women with IBD have become increasingly apparent. It is important to understand these differences, as they have the potential to affect patient care and outcomes. This article will review sex-specific issues in IBD, such as impaired body image and sexuality, increased risk of cervical cancer, altered menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, and low bone mineral density. PMID:27482181

  4. Sex-Specific Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Elizabeth; Kane, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1 in 500 people living in the United States and generally occurs with equal frequency in men and women. However, despite equal sex distribution of the disease, men and women face unique challenges that can significantly impact quality of life. As more is discovered regarding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of IBD, physiologic and psychological differences between men and women with IBD have become increasingly apparent. It is important to understand these differences, as they have the potential to affect patient care and outcomes. This article will review sex-specific issues in IBD, such as impaired body image and sexuality, increased risk of cervical cancer, altered menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, and low bone mineral density. PMID:27482181

  5. Age, Sexual Dimorphism, and Disease Associations in the Developing Human Fetal Lung Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Kho, Alvin T; Chhabra, Divya; Sharma, Sunita; Qiu, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent J; Gaedigk, Roger; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Tantisira, Kelan G; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-06-01

    The fetal origins of disease hypothesis suggests that variations in the course of prenatal lung development may affect life-long pulmonary function growth, decline, and pathobiology. Many studies support the existence of differences in the developing lung trajectory in males and females, and sex-specific differences in the prevalence of chronic lung diseases, such as asthma and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The objectives of this study were to investigate the early developing fetal lung for transcriptomic correlates of postconception age (maturity) and sex, and their associations with chronic lung diseases. We analyzed whole-lung transcriptome profiles of 61 females and 78 males at 54-127 days postconception (dpc) from nonsmoking mothers using unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear regression models. We identified dominant transcriptomic correlates for postconception age and sex with corresponding gene sets that were enriched for developing lung structural and functional ontologies. We observed that the transcriptomic sex difference was not a uniform global time shift/lag, rather, lungs of males appear to be more mature than those of females before 96 dpc, and females appear to be more mature than males after 96 dpc. The age correlate gene set was consistently enriched for asthma and bronchopulmonary dysplasia genes, but the sex correlate gene sets were not. Despite sex differences in the developing fetal lung transcriptome, postconception age appears to be more dominant than sex in the effect of early fetal lung developments on disease risk during this early pseudoglandular phase of development. PMID:26584061

  6. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  7. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood. PMID:27091185

  8. Nutritional Interventions in Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary interventions have proven to be the most robust and consistent means of ameliorating the diseases and dysfunctions of aging. A large literature includes both quantitative (caloric restriction [CR]) and qualitative (micronutrients, antioxidants, etc.) alterations of nutrient and caloric inta...

  9. Dietary Echium Oil Increases Long-Chain n–3 PUFAs, Including Docosapentaenoic Acid, in Blood Fractions and Alters Biochemical Markers for Cardiovascular Disease Independently of Age, Sex, and Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n–3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20–35 and 49–69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n–3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n–3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (−5% and −23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15–20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n–3 PUFA in human nutrition. This trial

  10. Comorbidity Analysis According to Sex and Age in Hypertension Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Ma, James; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Ligui; Cao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension, an important risk factor for the health of human being, is often accompanied by various comorbidities. However, the incidence patterns of those comorbidities have not been widely studied. Aim: Applying big-data techniques on a large collection of electronic medical records, we investigated sex-specific and age-specific detection rates of some important comorbidities of hypertension, and sketched their relationships to reveal the risk for hypertension patients. Methods: We collected a total of 6,371,963 hypertension-related medical records from 106 hospitals in 72 cities throughout China. Those records were reported to a National Center for Disease Control in China between 2011 and 2013. Based on the comprehensive and geographically distributed data set, we identified the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension, and disclosed the sex-specific and age-specific patterns of those comorbidities. A comorbidities network was constructed based on the frequency of co-occurrence relationships among those comorbidities. Results: The top four comorbidities of hypertension were coronary heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipemia, and arteriosclerosis, whose detection rates were 21.71% (21.49% for men vs 21.95% for women), 16.00% (16.24% vs 15.74%), 13.81% (13.86% vs 13.76%), and 12.66% (12.25% vs 13.08%), respectively. The age-specific detection rates of comorbidities showed five unique patterns and also indicated that nephropathy, uremia, and anemia were significant risks for patients under 39 years of age. On the other hand, coronary heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipemia, and cerebral infarction were more likely to occur in older patients. The comorbidity network that we constructed indicated that the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension had strong co-occurrence correlations. Conclusions: Hypertension patients can be aware of their risks of comorbidities based on our sex-specific results, age-specific patterns, and the comorbidity network

  11. Negative and interactive effects of sex, aging, and alcohol abuse on gray matter morphometry.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Rachel E; Hagerty, Sarah L; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Claus, Eric D; Hutchison, Kent E; Weiland, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    Chronic alcohol use is associated with declines in gray matter (GM) volume, as is the normal aging process. Less apparent, however, is how the interaction between aging and heavy alcohol use affects changes in GM across the lifespan. There is some evidence that women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of alcohol use on GM than men. In the current study, we examined whether localized GM was related to measures of alcohol use disorder (e.g., AUDIT score) in a large sample (N = 436) of participants, ages 18-55 years, with a range of disease severity, using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). We also explored whether GM associations with alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity are moderated by sex and age. Results showed significant negative associations between AUD severity and GM volume throughout temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Women showed more negative effects of alcohol use than men for cortical thickness in left orbitofrontal cortex, but evidence for increased vulnerability based on sex was limited overall. Similarly, a specific age by alcohol use interaction was observed for volume of right insula, but other regional or global interactions were not statistically supported. However, significant negative associations between heavy alcohol use and GM volumes were observed as early as 18-25 years. These findings support that alcohol has deleterious effects on global and regional GM above and beyond age, and, of particular importance, that regional associations emerge in early adulthood. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2276-2292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26947584

  12. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K.; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Martin, William J.; Kosgei, Rose J.; Carter, E. Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; George, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  13. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  14. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ≥40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  15. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  16. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  17. Liver diseases and aging: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Di Biase, Stefano; Koonen, Debby; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2013-12-01

    The liver is the only internal human organ capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue, as little as 25% of a liver can regenerate into a whole liver. The process of aging predisposes to hepatic functional and structural impairment and metabolic risk. Therefore, understanding how aging could affect the molecular pathology of liver diseases is particularly important, and few studies to date have tackled this complex process. The most common liver disease, affecting one-third of the overall population, is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an intrahepatic accumulation of lipids. NAFLD can evolve into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation. NASH is a serious risk factor for disabling and deadly liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Old age seems to favor NAFLD, NASH, and ultimately HCC, in agreement with the inflamm-aging theory, according to which aging accrues inflammation. However, the incidence of HCC drops significantly in the very elderly (individuals aged more than 70) and the relationship between the progression of NAFLD/NASH/HCC and very old age is obscure. In this review, we discuss the literature and we argue that there might be an age window in which the liver becomes resistant to the development of injury; this needs to be studied to understand fully the interaction between age and liver diseases from a therapeutic perspective. PMID:23815295

  18. The age factor in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, and it is characterized by a decline in memory or other thinking skills. The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is advanced age. A recent genome-wide study identified a locus on chromosome 17 associated with the age at onset, and a specific variant in CCL11 is probably responsible for the association. The association of a protective haplotype with a 10-year delay in the onset of Alzheimer's disease and the identification of a CCL11 variant with possible functional roles in this association might allow the future development of immunomodulators with the potential to halve disease incidence. PMID:26482651

  19. Plasma electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein reference intervals in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and influences of age, sex, season, and location.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Byrd, John; Cray, Carolyn; Allender, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of plasma electrophoretic profiles and acute phase protein concentrations may play a valuable role in health assessment of reptiles; however, little is known about reference intervals in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of protein electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein ([HBP] as determined by a haptoglobin assay) in free-ranging eastern box turtles and to assess any possible correlations between varying age class (adults vs. juvenile), sex (male, female, or unknown), season (spring, summer, or fall), or location (Tennessee vs. Illinois). Blood samples were obtained from 324 eastern box turtles from 2010 to 2012 at three sites in Illinois and one site in Tennessee, USA. Significant differences were observed with total protein (sex, season, state, Illinois location), albumin (age class, season, state, Illinois location), α-1 globulins (sex, season, Illinois location), α-2 globulins (sex, season, state, Illinois location), β globulins (age class, sex, season, state, Illinois location), γ globulins (sex, season state, Illinois location), and hemoglobin binding protein (age class, sex, state, Illinois location). The use of electrophoretic profiles and acute phase proteins is a relatively new concept in reptilian medicine, and this study allowed for establishment of references intervals in the eastern box turtle and emphasized differences that occured based on age, sex, season, and location. Future research in this area can now build on these data to determine changes in population health over time or alterations due to specific environmental or disease threats. PMID:25632671

  20. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field. PMID:25677794

  1. Age-specific and sex-specific morbidity and mortality from avian influenza A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Joseph P; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    We used data on age and sex for 136 laboratory confirmed human A(H7N9) cases reported as of 11 August 2013 to compare age-specific and sex-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality from the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with those of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Human A(H7N9) cases exhibit high degrees of age and sex bias: mortality is heavily biased toward males >50 years, no deaths have been reported among individuals <25 years old, and relatively few cases documented among children or adolescents. The proportion of fatal cases (PFC) for human A(H7N9) cases as of 11 August 2013 was 32%, compared to a cumulative PFC for A(H5N1) of 83% in Indonesia and 36% in Egypt. Approximately 75% of cases of all A(H7N9) cases occurred among individuals >45 years old. Morbidity and mortality from A(H7N9) are lowest among individuals between 10 and 29 years, the age group which exhibits the highest cumulative morbidity and case fatality rates from A(H5N1). Although individuals <20 years old comprise nearly 50% of all human A(H5N1) cases, only 7% of all reported A(H7N9) cases and no deaths have been reported among individuals in this age group. Only 4% of A(H7N9) cases occurred among children<5 years old, and only one case from the 10 to 20 year age group. Age- and sex-related differences in morbidity and mortality from emerging zoonotic diseases can provide insights into ecological, economic, and cultural factors that may contribute to the emergence and proliferation of novel zoonotic diseases in human populations. PMID:24091087

  2. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  3. Adolescent Girls' Sex Role Development: Relationship with Sports Participation, Self-Esteem, and Age at Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice E.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explores its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. Concludes that relationship of sex role orientation with sports participation and self-esteem was not an interactive one, but was reflective of individual differences beginning in late…

  4. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Nilsson, Sara K; Grossi, Anette B; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6, 16, 24 and 40–48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli. PMID:26310463

  5. Age and Sex Variation In Prevalence Of Chronic Medical Conditions In Older Residents of U.S. Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly L.; Boscardin, W. John; Steinman, Michael A.; Schwartz, Janice B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the agespan of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING U.S. nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3003 (25%) men and 8785 women) aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) was used to group ICD-9 codes to identify the 20 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions. RESULTS Average age was 84 y, with women older than men (85 vs. 81, p=0.02) with 67% of women ages 80–95. Women required more ADL assistance. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (53, 56%: men, women), dementia (45, 52%), depression (31, 37%), arthritis (26, 35%), diabetes mellitus (26, 23%), gastrointestinal reflux -GERD (23, 23%), atherosclerosis (24, 20%), congestive heart failure -CHF (18, 21%), cerebrovascular disease (24, 19%) and anemia (17, 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, and dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in both men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes, hypertension, and Parkinson’s disease. CONCLUSION The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the agespan of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care. PMID:22463062

  6. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  7. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  8. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  9. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  10. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, CJIS Division, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,......

  11. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  12. Shoe midsole hardness, sex and age effects on lower extremity kinematics during running.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Benno M; Baltich, Jennifer; Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of shoe midsole hardness on running kinematics have often used male subjects from within a narrow age range. It is unknown whether shoe midsole hardness has the same kinematic effect on male and female runners as well as runners from different age categories. As sex and age have an effect on running kinematics, it is important to understand if shoe midsole hardness affects the kinematics of these groups in a similar fashion. However, current literature on the effects of sex and age on running kinematics are also limited to a narrow age range distribution in their study population. Therefore, this study tested the influence of three different midsole hardness conditions, sex and age on the lower extremity kinematics during heel-toe running. A comprehensive analysis approach was used to analyze the lower-extremity kinematic gait variables for 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years. Participants ran at 3.33±0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsoles. A principal component analysis combined with a support vector machine showed that running kinematics based on shoe midsole hardness, sex, and age were separable and classifiable. Shoe midsole hardness demonstrated a subject-independent effect on the kinematics of running. Additionally, it was found that age differences affected the more dominant movement components of running compared to differences due to the sex of a runner. PMID:22507350

  13. Age-at-onset in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Michael; Schwenke, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: In Huntington disease, the accurate determination of age-at-onset is critical to identify modifiers and therapies that aim to delay it. Methods: Retrospective data from the European Huntington’s Disease Network’s REGISTRY and PREDICT-HD, a longitudinal study in prodromal huntingtin gene expansion mutation carriers. Data (age, gender, CAG repeat length, parent affected, and Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale motor score, total functional capacity) from at least three visits in 423 REGISTRY and 124 PREDICT-HD participants were included. Data based extrapolations of individual age-at-onset using generalized linear mixed models based on individual slopes of motor score or total functional capacity, and predictions using the Langbehn, or Ranen formula, were compared with clinicians’ estimates. Results: Concordance was best for the observed age-at-onset in PREDICT-HD and the calculated onset using the PREDICT-HD UHDRS longitudinal motor scores. This was superior to the REGISTRY data. For total functional capacity, the investigator’s estimate was 4 years before the data derived age-at-onset. The concordance of predictions of probability of age-at-onset is better with the observed age-at-onset in the PREDICT-HD data (difference in 25%tile -5 to 10 years) than the REGISTRY data (±20 years). Conclusions: Estimating or predicting age-at-onset in Huntington disease may be inaccurate. It can be useful to 1) add in the manifest population motor score regression derived age-at-onset as additional motor onset and 2) add total functional capacity regression derived age-at-onset for the onset of functional impact of Huntington disease when patients are in mid- to late-stage. PMID:22453877

  14. Inflammatory networks in ageing, age-related diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Vasto, Sonya; Candore, Giuseppina; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Caruso, Marco; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Grimaldi, Maria Paola; Listi, Florinda; Nuzzo, Domenico; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation is considered a response set by the tissues in response to injury elicited by trauma or infection. It is a complex network of molecular and cellular interactions that facilitates a return to physiological homeostasis and tissue repair. The individual response against infection and trauma is also determined by gene variability. Ageing is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation state clearly showed by 2-4-fold increase in serum levels of inflammatory mediators. A wide range of factors has been claimed to contribute to this state; however, the most important role seems to be played by the chronic antigenic stress, which affects immune system thorough out life with a progressive activation of macrophages and related cells. This pro-inflammatory status, interacting with the genetic background, potentially triggers the onset of age-related inflammatory diseases as atherosclerosis. Thus, the analysis of polymorphisms of the genes that are key nodes of the natural immunity response might clarify the patho-physiology of age-related inflammatory diseases as atherosclerosis. On the other hand, centenarians are characterized by marked delay or escape from age-associated diseases that, on average, cause mortality at earlier ages. In addition, centenarian offspring have increased likelihood of surviving to 100 years and show a reduced prevalence of age-associated diseases, as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and less prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. So, genes involved in CVD may play an opposite role in human longevity. Thus, the model of centenarians can be used to understand the role of these genes in successful and unsuccessful ageing. Accordingly, we report the results of several studies in which the frequencies of pro-inflammatory alleles were significantly higher in patients affected by infarction and lower in centenarians whereas age-related controls displayed intermediate values. These findings point to a strong relationship between the genetics

  15. Haematology and blood chemistry of Cebus apella in relation to sex and age.

    PubMed

    Riviello, M C; Wirz, A

    2001-12-01

    An effective health care program entails the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. A knowledge of baseline values in clinically normal individuals is essential for determining the limits between good health and disease and for understanding the changes produced by pathogenic agents. However, very little information is currently available concerning the blood chemistry and haematological values of different species of monkeys, particularly new-world primates. The values of some haematological and chemical parameters in Cebus apella were determined. The aim of the present work was to verify the effect of age and sex on normal blood values. Blood samples were collected once a year for two successive years from 36 monkeys living in large captive social groups. Significant differences between males and females were found for AST, GGT, urea nitrogen and creatinine, erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Significant differences between juveniles and adults were found for calcium, AST, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, neutrophils, lymphocytes and serum protein parameters. PMID:11990530

  16. The aging mouth: differentiating normal aging from disease.

    PubMed

    Lamster, Ira B; Asadourian, Lynda; Del Carmen, Tessa; Friedman, Paula K

    2016-10-01

    Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth. Severe periodontitis occurs in 10.5-12% of the population, with the peak incidence being observed at 35-40 years of age. Changes to the mucosal tissue that occur with age include reduced wound-healing capacity. However, environmental factors, such as smoking, dramatically increase the risk of mucosal pathology. Reduced salivary gland function is often seen in association with medication usage, as well as with disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Both medication use and chronic disorders are more common in older adults. Masticatory function is of particular importance for older adults. Maintenance of a nutritionally complete diet is important for avoiding sarcopenia and the frailty syndrome. Successful oral aging is associated with adequate function and comfort. A reduced, but functional, dentition of 20 teeth in occlusion has been proposed as a measure of successful oral aging. Healthy oral aging is important to healthy aging from both biological and social perspectives. PMID:27501493

  17. Sex-specific age-related changes of information processing rate indicators during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Mislav S; Budimir, Sanja; Merkas, Marina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators--two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls ceased at the age of 12, and in boys around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. Generally similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators. Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two non-average indicators: girls showed minor sd_t and boys showed minor min_t. In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non

  18. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shin-ichiro; Guarente, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a classical coenzyme mediating many redox reactions. NAD(+) also plays an important role in the regulation of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, including sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs), and CD38/157 ectoenzymes. NAD(+) biosynthesis, particularly mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and SIRT1 function together to regulate metabolism and circadian rhythm. NAD(+) levels decline during the aging process and may be an Achilles' heel, causing defects in nuclear and mitochondrial functions and resulting in many age-associated pathologies. Restoring NAD(+) by supplementing NAD(+) intermediates can dramatically ameliorate these age-associated functional defects, counteracting many diseases of aging, including neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the combination of sirtuin activation and NAD(+) intermediate supplementation may be an effective antiaging intervention, providing hope to aging societies worldwide. PMID:24786309

  19. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  20. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  1. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age. PMID:16574118

  2. Latent Constructs in Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: An Examination by Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cari Jo; Henderson, Kimberly M.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of 10 psychosocial measures and the association of identified factors with self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were 4,128 older adults from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among the psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling to test for measurement invariance across race and sex subgroups. A factor-based scale score was created for invariant factor(s). Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s) and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race–sex subgroup was tested. A two-factor model fit the data well (comparative fit index = 0.986; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.969; root mean square error of approximation = 0.039). Depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction loaded on Factor I. Social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion loaded on Factor II. Only Factor I, re-named distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups. Distress was associated with a 37% increased odds of self-reported CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence intervals: 1.25, 1.50; p-value < 0.0001). This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value = 0.43). This study identified two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables; only one, distress, was validly measured across race–sex subgroups. This construct was robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22347196

  3. Age and sex-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Rocío; Gianotti, Magdalena; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Aging is responsible for the decline in the function of mitochondria and their increase in size and number--adaptive mechanism to restore mitochondrial function. Estrogens increase mitochondrial function, especially in female rats. The aim of this study was to determine the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function focusing on sex differences. Cellular and mitochondrial protein and DNA content, mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylative function in male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Mitochondria protein/DNA content decreased with aging shifting toward lesser mitochondrial functional capacity and the mitochondria number increased. A sex dimorphism was determined, with female rat brain showing mitochondria with greater functional capacity than males. These sex differences gradually increased during aging. PMID:21471708

  4. Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nisbett, R E; Braver, A; Jusela, G; Kezur, D

    1975-02-01

    Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were examined in the rat. Circadian rhythm, emotionality, and taste responsiveness (except for responsiveness to quinine adulteration) were found to shift, in one or both sexes, toward a pattern suggesting decreased VMH functioning with increasing age. A post hoc analysis of the configuration of positive and negative results suggests that, for those behaviors known to show both immediate and sustained effects of VMH lesion, male rats show a marked trend toward the lesioned pattern of behavior with increasing age, whereas females show weaker or nonexistent age trends in the same behaviors. For those behaviors that have been shown to change only during the static, obese phase, or for which data re controversial as to whether changes take place as a result of the VMH lesion at all, this age and sex pattern does not emerge. PMID:1150946

  5. Molecular mechanisms of ageing and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Human and other multicellular life species age, and ageing processes become dominant during the late phase of life. Recent studies challenge this dogma, suggesting that ageing does not occur in some animal species. In mammals, cell replicative senescence occurs as early as before birth (i.e. in embryos) under physiological conditions. How the molecular machinery operates and why ageing cells dominate under some circumstances are intriguing questions. Recent studies show that cell ageing involves extensive cellular remodelling, including telomere attrition, heterochromatin formation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial disorders and lysosome processing organelles and chromatins. This article provides an update on the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing of various cell types, the newly described developmental and programmed replicative senescence and the critical roles of cellular organelles and effectors in Parkinson's disease, diabetes, hypertension and dyskeratosis congenita. PMID:24798238

  6. Commercial sex workers in Kathmandu Valley: profile and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, P; Thapa, S; Neupane, S; Baker, J; Friedman, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a socioeconomic profile and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among 341 female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kathmandu Valley. Most of the CSWs are from outside the valley, but from within Nepal. Over 50% of the CSWs have a secondary or higher level of education. The average age of the CSWs is 21 years. The average age of first sexual intercourse was 16 years; and, at entering the sex trade, 18 years. The most frequently reported type of sexual activity is vaginal intercourse followed by anal intercourse. Although a large proportion of CSWs are aware of condoms, only one-fifth of them reported using condoms most of the time they had intercourse. The majority of the CSWs are aware of general types of STDs. Slightly over 60% are aware of AIDS, and the majority of them know of at least one mode of AIDS transmission. Gynecological examination based on symptoms revealed that 72% of the CSWs were infected with some type of STD. About 47% had vaginal discharges, 36% had pelvic inflammatory disease, 24% had ulcerative disease, and 4% had urethritis. Blood tests of the CSWs revealed that 28% had VDRL (a test for syphilis), hepatitis B, or HIV. The prevalence of VDRL was the most common, followed by hepatitis B. Of the 341 CSWs, 3 (0.9%) were HIV-positive. PMID:12154941

  7. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves. PMID:1914629

  8. Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…

  9. Age at disease onset: a key factor for understanding psoriatic disease.

    PubMed

    Queiro, Rubén; Tejón, Patricia; Alonso, Sara; Coto, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    Psoriasis and PsA are immune-mediated diseases with a strong genetic component. More than 20 new loci have been recently linked to these diseases. However, interactions between these genes and the phenotypic traits of both diseases are poorly understood at present. Stratification of psoriatic disease according to the sex of the patients, genetic factors or age at onset has allowed in the last few years a better understanding of the principles governing the onset and progression of these processes. The age of onset of psoriasis has been used for decades as an appropriate descriptor to define two subpopulations of psoriatic patients (types I and II) whose clinical and immunogenetic characteristics have been very well differentiated. Moreover, in patients with PsA this distinction between type I and II psoriasis also seems equally operative. In patients with PsA expressing the HLA-C*06 antigen, the latency between the onset of psoriasis and onset of joint symptoms is longer than in those without this marker. It is also known that PsA tends to appear earlier in patients with HLA-B*27 positivity, and that these patients also show a shorter interval of time between the onset of cutaneous lesions and the onset of joint disease. This review highlights the growing importance of age at disease onset as a key stratification factor in worldwide clinical and genetic studies of psoriatic disease. PMID:24273020

  10. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  11. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  12. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

  13. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  14. The Influence of Age and Sex on Responsiveness to Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, S. Shirley; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Interest in babies was assessed for 32 children aged 8 to 9 years and 32 children aged 14 to 15 years. Data were collected by means of a 6-second time sampling of waiting room behaviors in the presence of a live baby and by reactions to pictures of babies versus other objects. (Author/JMB)

  15. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  16. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age. PMID:26597735

  17. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  18. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  19. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Denda, M; Koyama, J; Hori, J; Horii, I; Takahashi, M; Hara, M; Tagami, H

    1993-01-01

    We measured six stratum corneum sphingolipid species (ceramides 1-6) in 26 males and 27 females, and found a significant change in their percentage composition only among female subjects of different age groups. There was a significant increase in ceramide 1 and 2 with a corresponding decrease in ceramide 3 and 6 from prepubertal age to adulthood. Thereafter the ratio of ceramide 2 to total sphingolipids decreased with age in contrast to ceramide 3 which showed an increase. Such a pattern of change in the aging population is different from that observed in scaly skin experimentally induced by tape stripping. The present results suggest a significant influence of female hormones on the composition of stratum corneum sphingolipids. Moreover, the different patterns of change in sphingolipid composition of stratum corneum lipids between scales from inflammatory skin and those from aged skin also suggest that epidermal biosynthesis of sphingolipids is influenced by epidermal proliferative activity. PMID:8304781

  20. Maximal lactate values following competitive performance varying according to age, sex and swimming style.

    PubMed

    Avlonitou, E

    1996-03-01

    Peak blood lactate concentration for a given individual in a given event could be considered as indicator of exercise effort, especially if the race is fast as it occurs following competitive swimming events. The present study attempts to describe the postcompetition lactate profile across all the swimming distances and strokes according to the age and sex of the swimmer. Blood samples (100 micro lambda) were taken from an arterialized fingertip of a total of 337 swimmers (171 males and 166 females) at the end of 3rd and 6th minutes of competition over 50 to 1500 meter distances and for the following 3 age group divisions: AGE1 = > 18 years of age, AGE2 = 16-17 years of age and AGE3 = 14-15 years of age. For AGE1 group the subjects who were picked up for testing were all the first three who met the criteria for this age category in the OPEN winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. For AGE2 and AGE3 groups the subjects who were picked up for testing were ranked among the first three in their age group winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. Results showed that the highest mean peak lactate values for groups AGE2 and AGE3 were recorded in 200 medley event for both sexes while for group AGE1 the highest mean peak lactate value was recorded in 200 and 400 meter medley events for males and females respectively. On the other hand, the lowest mean lactate value was recorded in long distance events of 1500 and 800 meters for males and females respectively and for all the age group divisions. Furthermore, swimming performance was related to peak lactate values which subsequently was independent of sex but dependent on age with higher lactate values and older age documented by the subjects with faster times. PMID:8699834

  1. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances. PMID:10883788

  2. Some Effects of Sex, Age, and Household Structure on Family Drawings of Barbadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Monica A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children ages 7-11. Reveals a correlation among sex, age, and household structure and the inclusion or omission of figures, as well as the size and positioning of the figures of parent and self. (MJP)

  3. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  4. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  5. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  6. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  7. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  8. Aging, inflammation, immunity and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Graves, Christina L; Gonzalez, Octavio A; Dawson, Dolph; Morford, Lorri A; Huja, Pinar Emecen; Hartsfield, James K; Huja, Sarandeep S; Pandruvada, Subramanya; Wallet, Shannon M

    2016-10-01

    The increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease have long been associated with aging, such that this oral condition affects the majority of the adult population over 50 years of age. Although the immune system is a critical component for maintaining health, aging can be characterized by quantitative and qualitative modifications of the immune system. This process, termed 'immunosenescence', is a progressive modification of the immune system that leads to greater susceptibility to infections, neoplasia and autoimmunity, presumably reflecting the prolonged antigenic stimulation and/or stress responses that occur across the lifespan. Interestingly, the global reduction in the host capability to respond effectively to these challenges is coupled with a progressive increase in the general proinflammatory status, termed 'inflammaging'. Consistent with the definition of immunosenescence, it has been suggested that the cumulative effect of prolonged exposure of the periodontium to microbial challenge is, at least in part, a contributor to the effects of aging on these tissues. Thus, it has also been hypothesized that alterations in the function of resident immune and nonimmune cells of the periodontium contribute to the expression of inflammaging in periodontal disease. Although the majority of aging research has focused on the adaptive immune response, it is becoming increasingly clear that the innate immune compartment is also highly affected by aging. Thus, the phenomenon of immunosenescence and inflammaging, expressed as age-associated changes within the periodontium, needs to be more fully understood in this era of precision and personalized medicine and dentistry. PMID:27501491

  9. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids. PMID:27329492

  10. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  11. So! What's aging? Is cardiovascular aging a disease?

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-06-01

    "Inside every old person is a young person wondering what happened." So, what is aging? Aging is a manifestation of progressive, time-dependent failure of molecular mechanisms that create disorder within a system of DNA and its environment (nuclear, cytosolic, tissue, organ, organism, other organisms, society, terra firma, atmosphere, universe). Continuous signaling, transmitted with different kinetics across each of these environments, confers a "mutual enslavement" that creates ordered functions among the components within the system. Accrual of this molecular disorder over time, i.e. during aging, causes progressive changes in the structure and function of the heart and arteries that are quite similar in humans, non-human primates, rabbits and rats that compromise cardiovascular reserve function, and confer a marked risk for incident cardiovascular disease. Nearly all aspects of signaling within the DNA environment system within the heart and arteries become disordered with advancing age: Signals change, as does sensing of the signals, transmission of signals and responses to signals, impaired cell renewal, changes in the proteome due to alterations in genomic transcription, mRNA translation, and proteostasis. The density of some molecules becomes reduced, and post-translational modifications, e.g. oxidation and nitration phosphorylation, lead to altered misfolding and disordered molecular interactions. The stoichiometry and kinetics of enzymatic and those reactions which underlie crucial cardiac and vascular cell functions and robust reserve mechanisms that remove damaged organelles and proteins deteriorate. The CV cells generate an inflammatory defense in an attempt to limit the molecular disorder. The resultant proinflammatory milieu is not executed by "professional" inflammatory cells (i.e. white blood cells), however, but by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone endothelin signaling cascades that leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle and

  12. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  13. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  14. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  15. Proinflammatory cytokines, aging, and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Martin; Balardy, Laurent; Moulis, Guillaume; Gaudin, Clement; Peyrot, Caroline; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation is a physiological process that repairs tissues in response to endogenous or exogenous aggressions. Nevertheless, a chronic state of inflammation may have detrimental consequences. Aging is associated with increased levels of circulating cytokines and proinflammatory markers. Aged-related changes in the immune system, known as immunosenescence, and increased secretion of cytokines by adipose tissue, represent the major causes of chronic inflammation. This phenomenon is known as "inflamm-aging." High levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein are associated in the older subject with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In particular, cohort studies have indicated TNF-α and IL-6 levels as markers of frailty. The low-grade inflammation characterizing the aging process notably concurs at the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines (through a variety of mechanisms, such as platelet activation and endothelial activation) may play a major role in the risk of cardiovascular events. Dysregulation of the inflammatory pathway may also affect the central nervous system and be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease).The aim of the present review was to summarize different targets of the activity of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in the risk of pathological aging. PMID:23792036

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group. PMID:10560725

  17. Impact of sex and APOE4 on cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Mitsuru; Murray, Melissa E; Frank, Ryan D; Shinohara, Motoko; DeTure, Michael; Yamazaki, Yu; Tachibana, Masaya; Atagi, Yuka; Davis, Mary D; Liu, Chia-Chen; Zhao, Na; Painter, Meghan M; Petersen, Ronald C; Fryer, John D; Crook, Julia E; Dickson, Dennis W; Bu, Guojun; Kanekiyo, Takahisa

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) often coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOE4 is a strong genetic risk factor for both AD and CAA. Sex-dependent differences have been shown in AD as well as in cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effects of APOE4, sex, and pathological components on CAA in AD subjects. A total of 428 autopsied brain samples from pathologically confirmed AD cases were analyzed. CAA severity was histologically scored in inferior parietal, middle frontal, motor, superior temporal and visual cortexes. In addition, subgroups with severe CAA (n = 60) or without CAA (n = 39) were subjected to biochemical analysis of amyloid-β (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) by ELISA in the temporal cortex. After adjusting for age, Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage and Thal amyloid phase, we found that overall CAA scores were higher in males than females. Furthermore, carrying one or more APOE4 alleles was associated with higher overall CAA scores. Biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of detergent-soluble and detergent-insoluble Aβ40, and insoluble apoE were significantly elevated in individuals with severe CAA or APOE4. The ratio of Aβ40/Aβ42 in insoluble fractions was also increased in the presence of CAA or APOE4, although it was negatively associated with male sex. Levels of insoluble Aβ40 were positively associated with those of insoluble apoE, which were strongly influenced by CAA status. Pertaining to insoluble Aβ42, the levels of apoE correlated regardless of CAA status. Our results indicate that sex and APOE genotypes differentially influence the presence and severity of CAA in AD, likely by affecting interaction and aggregation of Aβ40 and apoE. PMID:27179972

  18. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  19. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  20. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  1. Ageism, Sex, and Age: A Factorial Survey Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Uses the factorial survey approach to measure directly the perceived status of various ages, and of both males and females. Results indicate that there is an inverted U-curve of status across the life span, and that the perceived status of females is lower than that of males in the midlife period. (Author/CT)

  2. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276

  3. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  4. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  5. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human ear.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Binelli, Miriam; Tommasi, Davide G; Rosati, Riccardo; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-05-30

    The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left-right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 497 male and 346 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, paired ear width and length, the relevant ratios, ear areas and angles relative to the facial midline, as well as indices of left-right symmetry, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All ear dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.001). A significant effect of age was found (p<0.001), with larger values in older individuals. The ear width-to-length ratio and the sagittal angle of the auricle significantly decreased as a function of age (p<0.001) but without sex-related differences. On average, the three-dimensional position of ears was symmetric, with symmetry coefficients ranging between 92% and 96%. Asymmetry was found in the sagittal angle of the auricle (both sexes), in the ear width-to-length ratio and ear width (men only). Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a data base for the quantitative description of human ear morphology and position during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic applications (evaluations of traumas, craniofacial alterations, teratogenic-induced conditions, facial reconstruction, aging of living and dead persons, personal identification) may also benefit from age- and sex-based data banks. PMID:19356871

  6. Age- and Sex-Dependency of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy Measurements of Optic Nerve Vessel Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Naoko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nitta, Fumihiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Omodaka, Kazuko; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between various characteristics of a normal population and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) measurements of mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods A total of 189 eyes of 189 normal subjects (93 male, 96 female, mean age 45 ± 14 years old, age range: 20–72) without any history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes were enrolled. ONH microcirculation was measured with LSFG and overall MBR (MA), vessel-area MBR (MV), and tissue-area MBR (MT) were derived from these measurements. The statistical association of these measurements with characteristics such as sex, age, intraocular pressure (IOP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was then determined. Results There was a trend towards decreased IOP and MV and increased SBP with age (P = 0.002, P = 0.035, and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, IOP, MV and SBP were correlated with age (r = -0.23, P = 0.011; r = -0.24, P < 0.001; and r = 0.30, P < 0.001, respectively). Separate multiple regression analyses of independent contributing factors revealed that sex and IOP contributed to MA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), sex, IOP, and age contributed to MV (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.024, respectively), while only IOP contributed to MT (P = 0.003). Conclusion In a normal population, MBR was affected by IOP in both the large vessel and capillary areas of the ONH, but not by SBP. MV was also affected by age and sex, while MT was stable independent of age or sex. PMID:26872348

  7. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at <30 years and ≥35 years of age for young and late onset groups, respectively. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis I disorders (SCID-P) was used prospectively for diagnoses. Premorbid personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. PMID:24495576

  8. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  9. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  10. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  11. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. PMID:24326246

  12. Molecular genetics of Alzheimer's disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Cacabelos, Ramon; Fernandez-Novoa, Lucia; Lombardi, Valter; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a genetically complex disorder associated with multiple genetic defects, either mutational or of susceptibility. Although potentially associated with an accelerated stochastically driven aging process, Alzheimer's disease is an independent clinical entity in which the aging process exerts a deleterious effect on brain activity in conjunction with polymodal genetic factors and other pathological conditions (i.e., age-related cerebrovascular deterioration) and environmental factors (i.e., nutrition). Alzheimer's disease genetics does not explain in full the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, it is likely that environmental factors and/or epigenetic phenomena also contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathology and phenotypic expression of dementia. The genomics of Alzheimer's disease is still in its infancy, but this field is aiding the understanding of novel aspects of this disease, including genetic epidemiology, multifactorial risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms associated with genetic networks and genetically regulated metabolic cascades. Alzheimer's disease genomics is also helping to develop new strategies in pharmacogenomic research and prevention. Functional genomics, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, high-throughput methods, combinatorial chemistry and modern bioinformatics will greatly contribute to accelerate drug development for Alzheimer's disease and other complex disorders. The multifactorial genetic dysfunction in dementia includes mutational loci (APP, PS1, PS2, TAU) and diverse susceptibility loci (APOE, alpha2M, alphaACT, LRP1, IL1 alpha, TNF, ACE, BACE, BCHE, CST3, MTHFR, GSK3 beta, NOS3 and many other genes) distributed across the human genome, probably converging in a common pathogenic mechanism that leads to premature neuronal death, in which mitochondrial DNA mutations may contribute to increased genetic variability and heterogeneity. In Alzheimer's disease, multiple pathogenic events, including genetic factors

  13. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  14. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  15. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  16. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  17. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  18. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals. PMID:26582043

  19. Autoimmune heart disease: role of sex hormones and autoantibodies in disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, DeLisa; Petri, Michelle A; Coronado, Michael J; Cooper, Leslie T

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and autoimmune diseases (ADs) are the first and third highest causes of death in the USA, respectively. Men have an increased incidence of the majority of CVDs, including atherosclerosis, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. By contrast, nearly 80% of all ADs occur in women. However, in one category of ADs, rheumatic diseases, CVD is the main cause of death. Factors that link rheumatic ADs to CVD are inflammation and the presence of autoantibodies. In this review we will examine recent findings regarding sex differences in the immunopathogenesis of CVD and ADs, explore possible reasons for the increased occurrence of CVD within rheumatic ADs and discuss whether autoantibodies, including rheumatoid factor, could be involved in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22390491

  20. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  2. Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C.A.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Malik, Rainer; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M.; Maguire, Jane M.; Koblar, Simon A.; Bevan, Steve; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Levi, Chris; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Evidence from epidemiological studies points to differences in factors predisposing to stroke by age and sex. Whether these arise because of different genetic influences remained untested. Here, we use data from 4 genome-wide association data sets to study the relationship between genetic influence on stroke with both age and sex. Methods— Using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods, we performed 4 analyses: (1) we calculated the genetic correlation between groups divided by age and (2) by sex, (3) we calculated the heritability of age-at-stroke-onset, and (4) we evaluated the evidence that heritability of stroke is greater in women than in men. Results— We found that genetic factors influence age at stroke onset (h2 [SE]=18.0 [6.8]; P=0.0038), with a trend toward a stronger influence in women (women: h2 [SE]=21.6 [3.5]; Men: h2 [SE]=13.9 [2.8]). Although a moderate proportion of genetic factors was shared between sexes (rG [SE]=0.68 [0.16]) and between younger and older cases (rG [SE]=0.70 [0.17]), there was evidence to suggest that there are genetic susceptibility factors that are specific to sex (P=0.037) and to younger or older groups (P=0.056), particularly for women (P=0.0068). Finally, we found a trend toward higher heritability of stroke in women although this was not significantly greater than in men (P=0.084). Conclusions— Our results indicate that there are genetic factors that are either unique to or have a different effect between younger and older age groups and between women and men. Performing large, well-powered genome-wide association study analyses in these groups is likely to uncover further associations. PMID:26443828

  3. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions. PMID:27304509

  4. Sex Behavior as a Clue to Mental Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzanowski, Gerard

    1971-01-01

    While certain forms of sex behavior may serve as a clue to the existence of mental illness, care must be taken not to view such behavior outside the overall context of a person's particular life situation, since sex behavior is a reflection of the totality of human existence. (Author)

  5. Soap Opera Portrayals of Sex, Contraception, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Dennis T.; Towles, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Replicates a 1979 study of sexual behavior on afternoon soap operas, classifying sexual behavior in terms of physical acts, implied acts, and verbal references. Finds a substantial increase in sex between unmarried persons and a norm of promiscuous sex, with few attendant consequences. (MS)

  6. Menstrual cycle, sex hormones in female inflammatory bowel disease patients with and without surgery.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Kulkarni, Geeta; Shen, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Healthy women at reproductive age experience a cyclical alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology during their menstrual cycle. Additionally, the majority of healthy women also complain of worsening of GI symptoms either during the premenstrual or menstrual phase. Despite conflicting evidence, studies suggest that sex hormones may increase GI transit time during the luteal phase. Similar phenomenon is also observed in women with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism underlying this complex pathophysiology is still not completely understood. However, a possible influence of sex hormones on the brain-gut-microbiota axis is hypothesized. The diagnosis of IBD is associated with a delay in menarche as well as menstrual function irregularities including alterations in cycle length and the duration of flow. There is little data on the effect of menopause on IBD disease activity and conflicting data on the effect of IBD diagnosis on the onset of menopause. The role of contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies on the development or disease activity of IBD has not been yet established. Moreover, IBD patients with concomitant dysmenorrhea report heightened pain during menses. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in treating primary dysmenorrhea on the disease course of IBD is unknown. In addition, the effect of IBD medications including immunomodulators and biologics on menstrual function remains unclear. Also, the role of IBD surgery on menstrual irregularities needs to be fully elucidated. Hence, understanding the influence of menstrual function on IBD disease activity and vice versa and the maintenance of normal menstrual function in those patients is important in improving overall reproductive health and fertility and outcome of IBD. PMID:25851437

  7. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  8. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  9. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  10. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  11. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  12. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  13. A study into regional, age, and sex differences in students' ratings of cartoon humor.

    PubMed

    Lowis, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Funniness ratings of cartoon humour by 366 university students showed no differences for age, sex, and region of origin, except for higher scores by men on work-related items. Ratings appear to be largely uninfluenced by factors other than how inherently amusing the items seem to be. PMID:12186227

  14. Looking, Smiling, Laughing, and Moving in Restaurants: Sex and Age Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert M.; Kirkevold, Barbara

    Body movements and facial expressions of males and females in a restaurant setting were examined, with the goal of providing differences in frequency as a function of age and sex. The subjects (N-197 males and N=131 females) were seated in three Seattle fast food restaurants and were selected on a semi-random basis and then observed for three…

  15. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  16. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  17. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  18. A Longitudinal Analysis of Sex Differences in Math and Spatial Skills in Primary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming…

  19. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  20. Relationships between age, body weight, physical fitness and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Semmens, J B; Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Masarei, J R

    1983-10-14

    The associations between sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity (SHBG), age, body mass index (BMI), and physical fitness have been studied in 34 men and 36 women. Multivariate analysis was used to look for independent associations with SHBG. The data indicate that when controlled for a number of other factors SHBG levels are related, in men but not in women, to age (positively, p less than 0.001) and BMI (negatively, p less than 0.001). PMID:6685004

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in the soft tissues of the orbital region.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Catti, Francesca; Tommasi, Davide G; Ugolini, Alessandro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-03-10

    The orbital region plays a predominant role in the evaluation of the craniofacial complex. In the current study information about normal sex-related dimensions of the orbital region, and growth, development and aging, were provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the orbits and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 531 male and 357 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, biocular and intercanthal widths, paired height and inclination of the orbit relative to both the true horizontal (head in natural head position) and Frankfurt plane, length and inclination of the eye fissure, the relevant ratios, soft-tissue orbital area, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. Biocular and intercanthal widths, length of the eye fissure, soft-tissue orbital area, and the inclination of the orbit relative to the true horizontal, were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.01), with a significant effect of age (p<0.001), and significant agexsex interactions (p<0.001). Orbital height, and the height-to-width ratio increased as a function of age (p<0.001), but without gender-related differences. The inclination of the orbit relative to Frankfurt plane, and the inclination of the eye fissure did not differ between men and women, but modified as a function of age (p<0.001), with different sex-related patterns (sexxage interaction, p<0.001). On average, the paired measurements were symmetric, with similar values within each sex and age group. Overall, when compared to literature data, some differences were found due to both ethnicity, and different instruments. Nevertheless, during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, the age-related trends for linear dimensions were similar to those found in previous studies, while no previous data exist for older adults. During aging an increment in soft-tissue orbital

  2. Sex, Race, and Age Disparities in the Improvement of Survival for Gastrointestinal Cancer over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Yang, Li-feng; Shen, Yun-zhu; Jia, Hui-xun; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    There have been notable improvements in survival over the past 2 decades for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, the degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. We analyzed data from 9 population-based cancer registries included in the SEER program of the National Cancer Institute (SEER 9) in 1990 to 2009 (n = 288,337). The degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex was longitudinally measured. From 1990 to 2009, improvements in survival were greater for younger age groups. For patients aged 20 to 49 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.83), 0.49 (95% CI, 0.37–0.64), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65–0.76), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.54–0.69), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42–0.76), for cancer of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. Compared with African Americans, whites experienced greater improvement in small intestinal and anal cancer survival. Female anal cancer and regional anal cancer patients experienced no improvement. Our data suggest that different improvement in survival in age, sex and race exists. PMID:27406065

  3. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  4. Muscularity as a function of species, sex and age in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the body skeletal muscle mass SMM (measured as a function of the ratio between the body creatine mass and the fat-free muscle creatine), and in muscularity (expressed as the ratio of SMM to fat-free body mass) were studied as functions of age, sex, and species in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. Six animals of each sex were examined in eight age cohorts ranging from 1 to 24 months. Both species and age factors affect SMM. Strong sexual dimorphism in the SMM changes with age was displayed by mouse, rat, and guinea pig, whereas the hamster and rabbit were statistically monomorphic. The mouse, rat, and hamster attain a maximal SMM at about 1 year of age, whereas in the guinea pig and rabbit the decrease in SMM starts after 2 years. The value of muscularity reached a peak at age of 2-3 months in all animals of both sexes, with a pronounced difference among the species. The mouse emerged as the most muscular, while the guinea pig the least muscular, of all species.

  5. Sex-specific influence of aging on exercising leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Pelberg, Justin A; Mishkin, Aaron D; Proctor, David N

    2008-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P < 0.01) to exercise compared with young women. Relative (percentage of maximal) work rate comparisons of all groups combined also revealed attenuated vasodilator responses in older women (P < 0.01 for age x sex x work rate interaction). These sex-specific age differences were not abolished by consideration of hemoglobin, quadriceps muscle, muscle recruitment, and mechanical influences on muscle perfusion. Collectively, these findings suggest that local factors contribute to the sex-specific effects of aging on exercising leg hemodynamics in healthy adults. PMID:18162481

  6. Astrocytes in physiological aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arellano, J J; Parpura, V; Zorec, R; Verkhratsky, A

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes are fundamental for homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Loss of astroglial function and astroglial reactivity contributes to the aging of the brain and to neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in astroglia in aging and neurodegeneration are highly heterogeneous and region-specific. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) astrocytes undergo degeneration and atrophy at the early stages of pathological progression, which possibly may alter the homeostatic reserve of the brain and contribute to early cognitive deficits. At later stages of AD reactive astrocytes are associated with neurite plaques, the feature commonly found in animal models and in human diseased tissue. In animal models of the AD reactive astrogliosis develops in some (e.g. in the hippocampus) but not in all regions of the brain. For instance, in entorhinal and prefrontal cortices astrocytes do not mount gliotic response to emerging β-amyloid deposits. These deficits in reactivity coincide with higher vulnerability of these regions to AD-type pathology. Astroglial morphology and function can be regulated through environmental stimulation and/or medication suggesting that astrocytes can be regarded as a target for therapies aimed at the prevention and cure of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25595973

  7. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions*

    PubMed Central

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings), which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765) to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. In addition, this study clarifies the importance of two additional measurement assumptions, cross-respondent vignette equivalence and cross-character vignette equivalence. It also presents empirical findings of significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups, and thus support the potential utility of the anchoring vignette method. PMID:25621079

  8. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age. PMID:11081424

  9. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  10. Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. Methodology/Principal Finding We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. Conclusions/Significance These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km2 in

  11. Microglial P2 Purinergic Receptor and Immunomodulatory Gene Transcripts Vary By Region, Sex, and Age in the Healthy Mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Jessica M.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage in many neurodegenerative diseases is restricted to certain regions of the CNS, and while microglia have long been implicated in the pathology of many of these disorders, information comparing their gene expression in different CNS regions is lacking. Here we tested the hypothesis that the expression of purinergic receptors, estrogen receptors and other neuroprotective and pro-inflammatory genes differed among CNS regions in healthy mice. Because neurodegenerative diseases vary in incidence by sex and age, we also examined the regional distribution of these genes in male and female mice of four different ages between 21 days and 12 months. We postulated that pro-inflammatory gene expression would be higher in older animals, and lower in young adult females. We found that microglial gene expression differed across the CNS. Estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) mRNA levels were often lower in microglia from the brainstem/spinal cord than from the cortex, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα) expression was several times higher. In addition, the regional pattern of gene expression often changed with animal age; for example, no regional differences in P2X7 mRNA levels were detected in 21 day-old animals, but at 7 weeks and older, expression was highest in cerebellar microglia. Lastly, the expression of some genes was sexually dimorphic. In microglia from 12 month-old animals, mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, but not Tnfα, were higher in females than males. These data suggest that microglial gene expression is not uniformly more pro-inflammatory in males or older animals. Moreover, microglia from CNS regions in which neuronal damage predominates in neurodegenerative disease do not generally express more pro-inflammatory genes than microglia from regions less frequently affected. This study provides an in-depth assessment of regional-, sex- and age-dependent differences in key microglial transcripts from the healthy mouse CNS. PMID

  12. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  13. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  14. Neural control of the circulation: how sex and age differences interact in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked interindividual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2-mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast postmenopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These major findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  15. Intimate Relationship of Sex and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s important for parents to emphasize that they value more than physical perfection.” Your support can ensure ... 1995) and Sex for Dummies by Ruth Westheimer, Ph.D. (IDG Books Worldwide, 1995). For a comprehensive ...

  16. Brain atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Pini, Lorenzo; Pievani, Michela; Bocchetta, Martina; Altomare, Daniele; Bosco, Paolo; Cavedo, Enrica; Galluzzi, Samantha; Marizzoni, Moira; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to its safety and accessibility, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extensively used in clinical routine and research field, largely contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the main findings in AD and normal aging over the past twenty years, focusing on the patterns of gray and white matter changes assessed in vivo using MRI. Major progresses in the field concern the segmentation of the hippocampus with novel manual and automatic segmentation approaches, which might soon enable to assess also hippocampal subfields. Advancements in quantification of hippocampal volumetry might pave the way to its broader use as outcome marker in AD clinical trials. Patterns of cortical atrophy have been shown to accurately track disease progression and seem promising in distinguishing among AD subtypes. Disease progression has also been associated with changes in white matter tracts. Recent studies have investigated two areas often overlooked in AD, such as the striatum and basal forebrain, reporting significant atrophy, although the impact of these changes on cognition is still unclear. Future integration of different MRI modalities may further advance the field by providing more powerful biomarkers of disease onset and progression. PMID:26827786

  17. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  18. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  19. Suicide mortality trends by sex, age and method in Taiwan, 1971–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2008-01-01

    Background Method-specific suicide trends varied across countries, and studies of the trends in different countries can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in suicide trends by sex, age and method in the years 1971 to 2005 in Taiwan. Methods Mortality data files of suicide and undetermined deaths for the years 1971–2005 were obtained for analyses. Age-, sex- and method-specific suicide rates were calculated by four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–64 and 65 and above) and five suicide methods (solids/liquids poisoning, other gases poisoning, hanging, jumping, and others). Results Both sexes experienced downward trends from 1971 to 1993, and then an upward trend since 1993. People aged 65 years and above had the highest suicide rates throughout the study periods. However, males aged 25–64 years experienced the steepest increasing trends. As to suicide methods, an annual increase, since 1991, of people jumping from heights to commit suicide, and a marked increase, since 1998, of people completing suicide by poisoning with other gases (mainly charcoal-burning) were observed. Conclusion Suicide by means of charcoal-burning and jumping from heights has become a serious public health problem in Taiwan. Preventive measures to curb these increasing trends are urgently needed. PMID:18179723

  20. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  1. Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Petzold, Andreas; Koch, Philipp; Downie, Bryan R; Hartmann, Nils; Pietsch, Stefan; Baumgart, Mario; Chalopin, Domitille; Felder, Marius; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Arisi, Ivan; Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth S; Sharma, Virag; Kraus, Johann M; Schmid, Florian; Priebe, Steffen; Liehr, Thomas; Görlach, Matthias; Than, Manuel E; Hiller, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be bred in the laboratory. Its rapid growth, early sexual maturation, fast aging, and arrested embryonic development (diapause) make it an attractive model organism in biomedical research. Here, we report a draft sequence of its genome that allowed us to uncover an intra-species Y chromosome polymorphism representing-in real time-different stages of sex chromosome formation that display features of early mammalian XY evolution "in action." Our data suggest that gdf6Y, encoding a TGF-β family growth factor, is the master sex-determining gene in N. furzeri. Moreover, we observed genomic clustering of aging-related genes, identified genes under positive selection, and revealed significant similarities of gene expression profiles between diapause and aging, particularly for genes controlling cell cycle and translation. The annotated genome sequence is provided as an online resource (http://www.nothobranchius.info/NFINgb). PMID:26638077

  2. Age and sex structured model for assessing the demographic impact of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Z; Garira, W

    2007-08-01

    Age and sex structured HIV/AIDS model with explicit incubation period is proposed as a system of delay differential equations. The model consists of two age groups that are children (0-14 years) and adults (15-49 years). Thus, the model considers both mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and heterosexual transmission of HIV in a community. MTCT can occur prenatally, at labour and delivery or postnatally through breastfeeding. In the model, we consider the children age group as a one-sex formulation and divide the adult age group into a two-sex structure consisting of females and males. The important mathematical features of the model are analysed. The disease-free and endemic equilibria are found and their stabilities investigated. We use the Lyapunov functional approach to show the local stability of the endemic equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of the model including positivity and boundedness of solutions, and persistence are also presented. The basic reproductive number ([Symbol: see text](0)) for the model shows that the adult population is responsible for the spread HIV/AIDS epidemic, thus up-to-date developed HIV/AIDS models to assess intervention strategies have focused much on heterosexual transmission by the adult population and the children population has received little attention. We numerically analyse the HIV/AIDS model to assess the community benefits of using antiretroviral drugs in reducing MTCT and the effects of breastfeeding in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence ratio using demographic and epidemiological parameters for Zimbabwe. PMID:17453306

  3. Oxytocin's effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Feifel, David; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin's central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin's effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala-mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala-mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest. PMID:27032063

  4. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID

  5. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  6. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Morphometric analysis of variation in the sternum with sex and age.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Nguyen, Callistus M; Lynch, Sarah K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-11-01

    Age and sex-related variations in sternum morphology may affect the thoracic injury tolerance. Male and female sternum size and shape variation was characterized for ages 0-100 from landmarks collected from 330 computed tomography scans. Homologous landmarks were analyzed using Procrustes superimposition to produce age and sex-specific functions of 3D-sternum morphology representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Significant changes in the combined size and shape variation and isolated shape variation of the sternum were found to occur with age in both sexes. Sternal size increased from birth through age 30 and retained a similar size for ages 30-100. The manubrium expanded laterally from birth through age 30, becoming wider in relation to the sternal body. In infancy, the manubrium was 1.1-1.2 times the width of the sternal body and this width ratio increased to 1.6-1.8 for adults. The manubrium transformed from a circular shape in infancy to an oval shape in early childhood. The distal sternal body became wider in relation to the proximal sternal body from birth through age 30 and retained this characteristic throughout adulthood. The most dramatic changes in sternum morphology occur in childhood and young adulthood when the sternum is undergoing ossification. The lesser degree of ossification in the pediatric sternum may be partly responsible for the prevalence of thoracic organ injuries as opposed to thoracic skeletal injuries in pediatrics. Sternum fractures make up a larger portion of thoracic injury patterns in adults with fully ossified sternums. The lack of substantial size or shape changes in the sternum from age 30-100 suggests that the increased incidence of sternal fracture seen in the elderly may be due to cortical thickness or bone mineral density changes in the sternum as opposed to morphological changes. PMID:24935890

  8. A Review of the Relationships Between Endogenous Sex Steroids and Incident Ischemic Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease Events

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Lisabeth, Lynda; Redberg, Rita F.; Safford, Monika M.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, it has been recognized that men have a higher age-adjusted risk of ischemic cardiovascular (CVD) events compared to women, thus generating hypotheses that sex steroids contribute to CVD risk. Potential mechanisms include genomic and non-genomic effects of sex steroids as well as mediation through classic CVD risk factors and obesity. However, results from randomized studies suggest that sex steroid supplementation in men and women do not result in improved CVD outcomes and may increase CVD risk. In contrast, prospective observations from endogenous sex steroid studies, i.e. among participants not using sex steroids, have suggested the opposite relationship. We reviewed the findings of prospective observational studies in men (17 studies) and women (8 studies) that examined endogenous sex steroids and CVD risk. These studies suggested a lack of association or that lower levels of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone are associated with higher CVD risk in both men and women. Higher, rather than lower, estradiol levels were associated with higher CVD risk in women. There were several significant gaps in the literature. First, it is unclear whether more sensitive measures of sex steroid levels might detect significant differences. Second, there are few prospective studies in women. Similarly, no studies report outcomes for high-risk groups such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Finally, few studies report upon ischemic coronary disease as opposed to ischemic stroke separately, although relationships between sex steroids and CVD may vary by vascular bed. Future investigations need to examine high risk groups and to distinguish between subtypes of CVD. PMID:25563292

  9. Mandibular ramus length as an indicator of chronological age and sex.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Soares, Mariana Quirino Silveira; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex estimation is crucial in forensic investigations, whether in legal situations that involve living people or to identify mortal remains. The aim of this study was to establish reference values in a Brazilian population to estimate age and sex by measuring the length of the mandibular ramus on lateral cephalometric radiographs, and to determine the probability that an individual being is 18 years or older, based on the results that were obtained. Two hundred and eighteen scanned lateral cephalograms of individuals between 6 and 20 years of age (101 males and 117 females) were measured with reference to mandibular ramus length (the distance between Condylion superior (Cs) and Gonion (Go)) using ImageJ 1.41 software (NIH, Bethesda, MA, USA). The results showed that sexual dimorphism was not observed until 16 years and, based on the ramus length measurements in this sample, it is possible to predict sex with an accuracy of only 54 %. There was a positive correlation between age and ramus length (r = 0.90; p < 0.001). From the linear regression analysis, one formula was derived; therefore, it was possible to calculate the individual's age, given his or her ramus length. The results showed that if an individual's ramus length is 7.0 cm or more, then there is an 81.25 % chance that the individual is 18 years old or older. In conclusion, the mandibular ramus length was not effective in discriminating sex. Mandibular length is strongly related to chronological age and can be used to predict whether an individual is 18 years or older with high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:25270589

  10. Fiber: The Rx for Disease-Free Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159530.html Fiber: The Rx for Disease-Free Aging Lots of this dietary nutrient can keep you ... a host of chronic diseases," she said. "Successful aging" was defined in the study as the continued ...

  11. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  12. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  13. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease. PMID:26508081

  14. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Langenickel, Thomas; Petruck, Jesika; Kode, Kiran; Rajman, Iris; Chandra, Priya; Zhou, Wei; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    LCZ696, a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, is in development for the treatment of heart failure. Administration of LCZ696 results in systemic exposure to sacubitril (inactive prodrug of LBQ657), LBQ657 (neprilysin inhibitor), and valsartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker). We investigated the potential effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) in an open-label, single oral dose (400 mg), parallel-group study in healthy subjects. Among 36 enrolled subjects, there were 19 male and 17 female subjects; 18 subjects were 18-45 years old (young), and 18 subjects were 65 years of age or older (elderly). Compared with young subjects, the AUCinf and T1/2 for LBQ657 were 42% and 30% greater, respectively, in elderly subjects. The Cmax for LBQ657 was similar between age groups. The AUCinf, Cmax, and T1/2 for valsartan were 30%, 24% greater, and 3.35 hours longer, respectively, in the elderly when compared with young subjects. All pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) were similar between male and female subjects, indicating no effect on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes based on sex. Considering the magnitude of change and its clinical significance, dose adjustment based on age or sex is not considered necessary. PMID:26073563

  15. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292

  16. Sex Difference in the Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Bo-Youn; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Moon-Jong; Park, Kye-Seon; Kim, Young-Sang; Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 150 men and 132 women who participated in medical examination programs in Korea from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were screened for fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound and patient blood samples were collected to measure homocysteine levels. Patients that consumed more than 20 grams of alcohol per day were excluded from this study. Results The homocysteine level (11.56 vs. 8.05 nmol/L) and the proportion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (60.7% vs. 19.7%) were significantly higher in men than in women. In men, elevated serum homocysteine levels were associated with a greater prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (quartile 1, 43.6%; quartile 4, 80.6%; P=0.01); however, in females, there was no significant association between serum homocysteine levels and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age and potential confounding parameters, the odds ratio for men was significantly higher in the uppermost quartile (model 3, quartile 4: odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidential interval, 1.67 to 27.56); however, serum homocysteine levels in women were not associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the crude model or in models adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Serum homocysteine levels were associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in men. PMID:27468343

  17. Impact of Sex Hormone Metabolism on the Vascular Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C.; Beauregard, Katie G.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to age-related changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  18. The development of sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality: a historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, S V; Mamaev, V B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about why males have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates than do females. An important factor that has hampered efforts in this regard is the lack of clarity about whether male excess mortality from CVD has existed throughout history. To answer this question, an investigation was conducted of trends in CVD mortality differences between the sexes from the time when data first became available until the present, including the full range of age groups. METHODS: Mortality statistics for CVD in England and Wales from 1861 through 1992 and in the United States from 1900 through 1991 were used. RESULTS: Three stages in the relationship between male and female CVD mortality were found: (1) An early stage of equal male and female mortality, (2) a stage of the appearance of sex differences in mortality, and (3) a stage with consistently present male excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Male excess mortality from CVD has not always been present in the historical record. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of this excess mortality. PMID:9736875

  19. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    fracture resistance, whereas regulating the level of the cytokine TGF-beta can offer significant improvements in the stiffness, strength and toughness of bone, and as such may be considered as a therapeutic target to treat increased bone fragility induced by aging, drugs, and disease.

  20. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  1. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  2. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  3. Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy. Influence of age, sex and dose.

    PubMed

    Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S

    1988-05-01

    Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio (L/D) has been studied in 536 outpatients distributed in groups according to age, sex and drug dosage. Samples were obtained prior to the first morning dose. Plasma levels that correspond to the steady-state phase were determined by homogeneous enzymatic immunoassay (EMITR). From the results it must be pointed out: 1) An increase of L/D as the age increases within each group; 2) A decrease of L/D as the dose of phenobarbital increases in the overall sample; 3) Sex does not affect L/D in any of the subgroups studied; 4) For a given dose higher blood levels are reached in children 7 to 15 years old in our sample than in other comparable studies in Spain. PMID:3398650

  4. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  5. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  6. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  7. Age and Sex Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphology Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Daniel; Ardekani, Babak; Ikuta, Toshikazu; John, Majnu; Peters, Bart; DeRosse, Pamela; Wellington, Robin; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest inter-hemispheric white matter tract in the human brain, and is characterized by pronounced differences in morphology among individuals. There are limited data, however, regarding typical development, sex differences, and the neuropsychological correlates of individual differences within CC subregions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exams were collected in a large cohort (N = 305) of healthy individuals (ages 8 to 68). We used a highly reliable program to automatically identify the mid-sagittal plane and obtain CC subregion measures according to approaches described by Witelson (1989) and Hampel (1998) and a measure of whole CC shape (i.e., circularity). CC measurement parameters, including area, perimeter, length, circularity and CC subregion area values were generally characterized by inverted U-shaped curves across the observed age range. Peak values for CC subregions were observed between ages 32 and 45, and descriptive linear correlations were consistent with sharper area changes in development. We also observed differing age-associated changes across the lifespan between males and females in the CC subregion corresponding to the genu (Witelson’s subregion 2), as well as CC circularity. Mediation analysis using path modeling indicated that genu area mediated the relationship between age and processing speed for females, and the relationship between age and visual learning and executive functioning for males. Taken together, our findings implicate sex differences in CC morphology across the lifespan that are localized to the genu, which appear to mediate neuropsychological functions. PMID:25833103

  8. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  9. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  10. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development but this has not been examined systematically using neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 females; 4–18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyse language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal, language related, areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the pre-teen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for pre-surgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  11. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  12. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  13. No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Gaulin, Steven J C; Dunbar, Matt D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6-82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities. PMID

  14. [Sodium and diseases in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; del Corso Daniela Moruzzo, L; Romanelli, A M

    The authors describe serum sodium levels in elderly patients at hospitalization and evaluate the role attributable to drugs, diseases, nutrition and fluid balance. Among 167 patients (average age 75.29 +/- 7.14), 132 (79.04%) had normal sodium balance, 34 (20.36%) were hyponatremic and only 1 (0.60%) was hypernatremic. Patients who had serum sodium levels above 129 mEq/l were asymptomatic. In five cases hyponatremia was acute and severe (less than or equal to 127 mEq/l). Seven patients who had serum sodium levels less than 127 mEq/l presented psychiatric and neurological manifestations, which subsided completely after prompt correction of the electrolyte disorder. The authors suggest that the pathogenesis of hyponatremia in pathological states in the elderly is complex, although iatrogenic causes play a fundamental role. PMID:1836167

  15. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking. PMID:26665936

  16. Methods of suicide by age: sex and race differences among the young and old.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J L; Santos, J F

    The elderly have the highest suicide rate in the United States. In partial explanation of this finding, a common statement in the suicide literature is that older persons tend to use more drastic and effective methods of suicide. However, little, if any, data have been presented in defense of this explanation. In order to investigate the validity of this contention, annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (whites, blacks, nonwhites excluding black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. For white males, blacks of both sexes, and nonwhites excluding black females, the findings confirmed the use of more violent methods by the elderly than by the young in terms of the proportion of suicides by firearms and/or hanging. Less support and, in fact, opposite results for method-related age differences were obtained for white females and nonwhites excluding black males. Another general finding was an increase in the use of firearms for most of the groups studied. The need for data for specific groups within the nonwhite category excluding blacks is apparent both from the available literature and from the present findings. Possible explanations and implications of the observed results are discussed. PMID:3830918

  17. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  18. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  19. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  20. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  1. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  2. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  3. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Materials and methods Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ≥5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. Conclusion ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions. PMID:25298732

  4. Prenatal sex determination in suspicious cases of X-linked recessive diseases by the amelogenin gene

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Amir Abbas; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Ahangari, Ghasem; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To determine the fetal discernment in suspected cases of sex linked recessive disease in the first trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: After collection of 100 Chorionic Villi samples, the DNAs were extracted and baby gender was determined. Meanwhile, after increasing the sensitivity, the system was able to detect the sex of each cell which was obtained by biopsy. Results: Early fetal gender of 100 Chorionic Villi samples were assessed by PCR. After increasing sensitivity of the assay, the sexes in 13 fetuses that were in different cellular stages were detected. Morover, sexes were detected in two unfertilized and one fertilized ovum but without any division. Conclusion: Sex detection of fetus before delivery in the first trimester of pregnancy, will prevent babies with abnormalities being born. It can also be used in detection of recessive sex related diseases in In Vitro Fertilization cases for sex detection and to transfer female fetus to the mother. Our optimized molecular detection system was designed on the basis of amelogenin gene, which can determine the sex in blood, chorionic villi, and single cell in vitro fertilization with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:24711898

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Mortality Associated With the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Eisenstein, Jana; Reid, Ann H.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. Methods. Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911–1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex. Results. The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9–10 years, a maximum at ages 24–26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56–59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females. Conclusions. The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859–1862, 1892–1894, and 1908–1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors. PMID:23230061

  6. Analysis of the protein network of cholesterol homeostasis in different brain regions: an age and sex dependent perspective.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Di Giovanni, Annalaura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-07-01

    Although a great knowledge about the patho-physiological roles of cholesterol metabolism perturbation in several organs has been reached, scarce information is available on the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain where this lipid is involved in the maintenance of several of neuronal processes. Currently, no study is available in literature dealing how and if sex and age may modulate the major proteins involved in the regulatory network of cholesterol levels in different brain regions. Here, we investigated the behavior of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in adult (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) male and female rats. The analyses were performed in four different brain regions: cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and cerebellum which represent brain areas characterized by different neuronal cell types, metabolism, cytoarchitecture and white matter composition. The results show that in hippocampus HMGR is lower (30%) in adult female rats than in age-matched males. Differences in LDLr expression are also observable in old females with respect to age-matched males: the protein levels increase (40%) in hippocampus and decrease (20%) in cortex, displaying different mechanisms of regulation. The mechanism underlying the observed modifications are ascribable to Insig-1 and SREBP-1 modulation. The obtained data demonstrate that age- and sex-related differences in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance exist among brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, important for learning, memory and affection. Some of these differences could be at the root of marked gender disparities observed in clinical disease incidence, manifestation, and prognosis. PMID:23280554

  7. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  8. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  9. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  10. Changes of sleep or waking habits by age and sex in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Man; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Seo, Yoo Jin; Kang, Min Jeong; Nagashima, Hidetoshi

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of age and sex on habitual sleep/wake rhythm and Morningness-Eveningness scores of 2,252 subjects (6-89 years) randomly selected in Shimonoseki, Japan. Subjects were divided into 21 age groups with a matching number of men and women in each age group. The most common sleep parameter patterns by age showed a v- or inverted v-pattern with a turning point in young adulthood or at the period of puberty. During the period between 6 yr. of age to puberty or young adulthood, the bedtimes on weekdays and weekends and the waking times on weekends were delayed, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to the evening type, and sleep length on weekdays decreased. After that period, across groups of increasing age, bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends became earlier, sleep length on weekdays and sleep latency increased, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to morning type, and the number of awakenings increased. The number of daytime naps increased in the 16-19 yr. group, decreased slightly after that age group, but increased again in older groups. The weekday bedtimes of women above 40 yr. of age was significantly later and their sleep lengths significantly shorter than those of men of the same age. Average sleep latency was longer for women than men. The number of awakenings was larger in women above 50 yr. of age than men of the same age group. The turning point of age, gained from the two linear regressions on data for subjects that have a minimum sum of squared error, was between 16 and 25 yr. of age. Average phase of sleep/wake rhythm shifted backward and sleep length decreased in groups from age 6 to puberty or young adulthood. After early adolescence, the average phase of the sleep/wake rhythm shifted forward, sleep latency became longer, and daytime napping increased. Number of awakenings increased rapidly for women's groups over 40 yr. of age and for men's groups after 50 yr. of age. Sex differences in our research are in apparent

  11. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  12. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  13. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  14. Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

    2012-01-20

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

  15. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  16. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases. PMID:25616486

  17. Influences of Sex and Age on the Hematological Profile of the Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira do; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Hilbig, Cleonice Cristina; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Azevedo, Ana Carolina Barni de; Dean, Andressa Fierli; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, sex and age influenced the hematological profiles of Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen. Females showed lower levels of hemoglobin, young fish increased lymphocyte counts, and older fish increased hematocrit values. These results indicate that, depending on age and sex, the fish have disparate hematological profiles. For this reason, it is important to consider the sex and age of an R. quelen when examining the impact of environmental and management factors on this species in terms of their hematological profiles. Received May 24, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485153

  18. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  19. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  20. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009–2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents’ health status of 3,542 children aged 4–12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics. PMID:25248543

  2. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    PubMed

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  3. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  4. Mortality in mild cognitive impairment varies by subtype, sex and lifestyle factors. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Vassilaki, Maria; Cha, Ruth H.; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Etiologic differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes may impact mortality. Objective To assess the rate of death in MCI overall, and by subtype, in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Methods Participants aged 70–89 years at enrollment were clinically evaluated at baseline and 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. Mortality in MCI cases vs. cognitively normal (CN) individuals was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 331 of 862 (38.4%) MCI cases and 224 of 1292 (17.3%) cognitively normal participants died. Compared to CN individuals, mortality was elevated in persons with MCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.61 to 2.55), and was higher for non-amnestic MCI (naMCI; HR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.39) than for amnestic MCI (aMCI; HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.41) after adjusting for confounders. Mortality varied significantly by sex, education, history of heart disease, and engaging in moderate physical exercise (p for interaction <0.05 for all). Mortality rate estimates were highest in MCI cases who were men, did not exercise, had heart disease, and had higher education vs. CN without these factors, and for naMCI cases vs. aMCI cases without these factors. Conclusions These findings suggest stronger impact of etiologic factors on naMCI mortality. Prevention of heart disease, exercise vigilance, may reduce MCI mortality. Delayed MCI diagnosis in persons with higher education impacts mortality, and higher mortality in men may explain similar dementia incidence by sex in our cohort. PMID:25697699

  5. Shear Wave Elastography of Passive Skeletal Muscle Stiffness: Influences of Sex and Age throughout Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Sarah F.; Cloud, Beth A.; Brandenburg, Joline E.; Giambini, Hugo; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous structural and compositional changes – related not only to age, but also activity level and sex – may affect skeletal muscle stiffness across the adult age-span. Measurement techniques available thus far have largely limited passive stiffness evaluations to those of entire joints and muscle-tendon units. Shear wave elastography is an increasingly popular ultrasound technique for evaluating the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle tissue. The purpose of this study was to quantify the passive stiffness, or shear modulus, of the biceps brachii throughout adulthood in flexed and extended elbow positions. We hypothesized that shear modulus would be higher in males relative to females, and with advanced age in both sexes. Methods Shear wave elastography quantified biceps brachii stiffness at 90° elbow flexion and full extension in a large sample of adults between 21–94 years old (n=133; 47 males). Findings Regression analysis found sex and age were significant parameters for older adults (>60 years) in full extension. As expected, shear modulus values increased with advancing age; however, shear modulus values for females tended to be higher than those for males. Interpretation This study begins to establish normative trends for skeletal muscle shear modulus throughout adulthood. Specifically, this work establishes for the first time that the higher passive joint torque often found in males relative to females likely relates to parameters other than muscle shear modulus. Indeed, perhaps increases in skeletal muscle passive stiffness, though potentially altering the length-tension curve, serve a protective role – maintaining the tendon-muscle-tendon length-tension curve within a functional range. PMID:25483294

  6. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  7. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    PubMed

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. PMID:23461314

  8. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences. PMID:27189591

  9. Sex differences in age-related changes on peripheral warm and cold innocuous thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Gerrett, Nicola; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Umino, Yasue; Kiuchi, Saeko; Amano, Tatsuro; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous thermal sensitivity to a warm and cold stimulus was compared amongst 12 older (OF, 65.2±1.0year) and 29 younger (YF, 21.6±0.2years) female participants, and 17 older (OM, 66.2±1.5years) and 13 younger (YM, 21.2±0.4years) male participants to examine the effects of ageing and sex. In a neutral condition (27.5°C, 50% RH) during rest, warm and cold thermal sensitivity was measured on eight body regions (forehead, chest, back, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot). Using the method of limits, a thermal stimulator was applied to the skin at an adapting temperature and either increased or decreased at a constant rate (0.3°C/s) until the participants detected the temperature with a push button. Thermal sensitivity declined with ageing to both a cold (older: 1468.6±744.7W/m(2), younger: 869.8±654.7W/m(2), p<0.001) and warm (older: 2127.0±1208.3W/m(2), younger: 1301.7±1055.2W/m(2), p<0.001) innocuous stimulus. YF and OF were more sensitive than YM and OM to both a warm and cold stimulus (p<0.05). There was no interaction between age and sex suggesting that whilst thermal sensitivity decreases with age the decrease is similar between the sexes (p>0.05). There was an interaction between temperatures, age and location and it seemed that cold thermal sensitivity was more homogenous for young and older participants however warm thermal sensitivity was more heterogeneous especially in the younger participants (p<0.05). Although the pattern was not similar between ages or sexes it was evident that the forehead was the most sensitive region to a warm and cold stimulus. Interestingly the decline in sensitivity observed with ageing occurred for all locations but was attenuated at the forehead in both males and females (p>0.05). PMID:27237043

  10. SEX-SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Tiniakou, Eleni; Costenbader, Karen H.; Kriegel, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in autoimmune diseases are evolutionarily tied to the fact that the female immune system is confronted with intense alterations during menstrual cycles, pregnancy and childbirth. These events may be associated with breaches in the mucosal epithelial layers that are shielding us from environmental factors. Associations between environmental agents and autoimmune diseases have been described extensively in prior studies. Little evidence, however, exists for sex-specific environmental effects on autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize studies involving this often-neglected aspect. We give examples of environmental factors that may influence the sex bias in autoimmunity. We conclude that most studies do not give insight into sex-specific environmental effects due to the influence of gender-selective social, occupational or other exposures. Prospective studies are needed in order to determine true sex-biased environmental influences. Finally, humanized murine models might aid in better understanding the mechanisms involved in sex-specific environmental effects on autoimmune diseases. PMID:23507400

  11. Sex and Age Aspects in Patients Suffering From Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Piegeler, Tobias; Thoeni, Nils; Kaserer, Alexander; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Mueller, Stefan M.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R.; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Several studies suggest a sex- and age-based bias in the treatment of these patients. This particular bias may have a significant impact on the patient's outcome. However, the reasons for these findings are still unclear and discussed controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze treatment and out-of-hospital survival rates for potential sex- and age-based differences in patients requiring out-of-hospital CPR provided by an emergency physician in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 3961 consecutive patients (2003–2009) were included in this retrospective analysis to determine the frequency of out-of-hospital CPR and prehospital survival rate, and to identify potential sex- and age-based differences regarding survival and treatment of the patients. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients required CPR during the study period. Seventeen patients had to be excluded because of incomplete or inconclusive documentation, resulting in 743 patients (511 males, 229 females) undergoing further statistical analysis. Female patients were significantly older, compared with male patients (68 ± 18 [mean ± SD] vs 64 ± 18 years, P = .012). Men were resuscitated slightly more often than women (86.4% vs 82.1%). Overall out-of-hospital mortality rate was found to be 81.2% (492/632 patients) with no differences between sexes (82.1% for males vs 79% for females, odds ratio 1.039, 95% confidence interval 0.961–1.123). No sex differences were detected in out-of-hospital treatment, as assessed by the different medications administered, initial prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, and prehospital suspected leading diagnosis. The data of our study demonstrate that there was no sex-based bias in treating patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting in our physician-led emergency ambulance service. PMID:27149475

  12. Sex-Specific Genomic Biomarkers for Individualized Treatment of Life-Threatening Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hojin; Lopez, Karen L.; Lin, Grace I.; Chen, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated sex differences in drug reactions to the same drug treatment, steering away from the traditional view of one-size-fits-all medicine. A premise of this study is that the sex of a patient influences difference in disease characteristics and risk factors. In this study, we intend to exploit and to obtain better sex-specific biomarkers from gene-expression data. We propose a procedure to isolate a set of important genes as sex-specific genomic biomarkers, which may enable more effective patient treatment. A set of sex-specific genes is obtained by a variable importance ranking using a combination of cross-validation methods. The proposed procedure is applied to three gene-expression datasets. PMID:24302811

  13. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  14. Variations of CT-Based Trunk Muscle Attenuation by Age, Sex, and Specific Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fat accumulation in muscle may contribute to age-related declines in muscle function and is indicated by reduced attenuation of x-rays by muscle tissue in computed tomography scans. Reduced trunk muscle attenuation is associated with poor physical function, low back pain, and increased hyperkyphosis in older adults. However, variations in trunk muscle attenuation with age, sex and between specific muscles have not been investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional examination of trunk muscle attenuation in computed tomography scans was performed in 60 younger (35–50 years) and 60 older (75–87 years) adults randomly selected from participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Multidetector Computed Tomography Study. Computed tomography attenuation of 11 trunk muscles was measured at vertebral levels T8 and L3, and the effects of age, sex, and specific muscle on computed tomography attenuation of trunk muscles were determined. Results. Muscle attenuation varied by specific muscle (p < .001), was lower in older adults (p < .001), and was generally lower in women than in men (p < .001), although not in all muscles. Age-related differences in muscle attenuation varied with specific muscle (p < .001), with the largest age differences occurring in the paraspinal and abdominal muscles. Conclusions. Trunk muscle attenuation is lower in older adults than in younger adults in both women and men, but such age-related differences vary widely between muscle groups. The reasons that some muscles exhibit larger age-related differences in fat content than others should be further explored to better understand age-related changes in functional capacity and postural stability. PMID:22904095

  15. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  16. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  17. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  18. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  19. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  20. Impact of Age and Sex on Outcomes and Hospital Cost of Acute Asthma in the United States, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Teague, W. Gerald; Koroukian, Siran M.; Schlitz, Nicholas K.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Busse, William B.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Israel, Elliot; Wenzel, Sally E.; Holguin, Fernando; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, asthma is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden, with significant gender and racial disparities. However, little attention has been given to the independent role of age on lifetime asthma severity and hospitalization. We aimed to assess the effect of age, gender, race and ethnicity on indicators of asthma severity including asthma related hospitalization, mortality, hospital cost, and the rate of respiratory failure. Methods We analyzed the 2011 and 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project- National Inpatient Sample (NIS). We validated and extended those results using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP; 2002–2011) database. Severe asthma was prospectively defined using the stringent American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition. Results Hospitalization for asthma was reported in 372,685 encounters in 2012 and 368,528 in 2011. The yearly aggregate cost exceeded $2 billion. There were distinct bimodal distributions for hospitalization age, with an initial peak at 5 years and a second at 50 years. Likewise, this bimodal age distribution of patients with severe asthma was identified using SARP. Males comprised the majority of individuals in the first peak, but women in the second. Aggregate hospital cost mirrored the bimodal peak distribution. The probability of respiratory failure increased with age until the age of 60, after which it continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Severe asthma is primarily a disease of young boys and middle age women. Greater understanding of the biology of lung aging and influence of sex hormones will allow us to plan for targeted interventions during these times in order to reduce the personal and societal burdens of asthma. PMID:27294365

  1. Gender differences in chronic HBsAg carriers in Italy: Evidence for the independent role of male sex in severity of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Esvan, Rozenn; Biliotti, Elisa; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2015-11-01

    It has been shown that sexual hormones have an opposite effect on hepatic fibrosis progression and hepatocellular carcinoma development. Sex differences among 2,762 chronic HBsAg carriers consecutively referring Italian hospitals in 2001 and in 2007 have been evaluated, particularly focusing on the role of gender on severity of liver disease. The overall sex ratio (males/females) was 2.6. Females were more likely born abroad and new diagnosis cases; but less likely HIV coinfected. No sex difference was observed regarding coinfection with other hepatitis viruses. The sex ratio linearly increased with increasing severity of liver disease, being 1.3 in normal ALT, 2.8 in chronic hepatitis, 3.6 in liver cirrhosis, and 6.8 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Adjustment by multiple logistic regression analysis for the confounding effect of age, alcohol intake, HDV infection, HCV infection, and BMI shows that male gender is an independent predictor of the likelihood of more severe liver disease (O.R. 1.7; C.I. 95% = 1.3-2.1). HBV-DNA levels resulted not associated with the outcome of chronic HBV infection. Despite some potential risk factors associated with liver disease, such as HBV genotype or mutations, not having been controlled for due to lack of availability, the observed sex disparity in the outcome of chronic HBV infection may support biological observation that HBV infection could be considered a sex hormone-responsive virus. PMID:26037919

  2. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  3. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  4. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  5. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  6. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  7. [Car driving, cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Fabrigoule, Colette; Lafont, Sylviane

    2015-10-01

    Older drivers are more numerous on the roads. They are expert drivers, but with increasing age certain physiological changes can interfere with driving, which is a complex activity of daily living. Older drivers are involved in fewer accidents than younger drivers, but they have a higher accident rate per kilometer driven. The elderly are heavily represented in the balance sheet of road deaths, being motorists or pedestrians. This high mortality is largely explained by their physical frailty. In the presence of deficits, self-regulation of driving habits, changes/reductions or stopping in driving activity occur in the elderly. But cognitive deficits are associated with an increased risk of accidents. Among drivers with Alzheimer's disease, there is a heterogeneity of driving ability, making difficult the advisory role of a physician for driving. A protocol for physicians was developed to assess cognitive impairments that may affect driving in an elderly patient. The car plays an important role in the autonomy of the elderly and patient advice on stopping driving should take into account the risk/benefit ratio. PMID:26009241

  8. AID in aging and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    FRASCA, DANIELA; ANDRISANI, GIANLUCA; DIAZ, ALAIN; FELICE, CARLA; GUIDI, LUISA; BLOMBERG, BONNIE B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of B cell responses in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and healthy individuals of different ages, vaccinated with the pandemic (p)2009 influenza vaccine. The in vivo response was measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, which represents the most established correlate with vaccine protectiveness. The in vitro response was measured by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in cultures of vaccine-stimulated PBMC. Both responses are somewhat impaired in IBD patients undergoing anti-TNF-α treatment but these are much more decreased in IBD patients undergoing treatment with anti-TNF-α and immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. These latter patients had in vivo and in vitro B cell responses similar to those of elderly individuals. Moreover, as we have previously demonstrated in healthy subjects, the in vitro response to the polyclonal stimulus CpG may be used as a biomarker for subsequent vaccine response and AID activation is correlated with the serum response in IBD patients, as it is in healthy individuals. These results altogether indicate that IBD patients on anti-TNF-α and IS have significantly impaired in vivo and in vitro B cell responses, as compared to those on monotherapy. This is the first report to demonstrate that B cell defects, as measured by the autonomous AID reporter, in IBD patients contribute to reduced humoral responses to the influenza vaccine, as we have previously shown for elderly individuals. PMID:23190037

  9. Sexual dimorphism of miRNA expression: a new perspective in understanding the sex bias of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rujuan; Ahmed, S Ansar

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases encompass a diverse group of diseases which emanate from a dysregulated immune system that launches a damaging attack on its own tissues. Autoimmune attacks on self tissues can occur in any organ or body system. A notable feature of autoimmune disease is that a majority of these disorders occur predominantly in females. The precise basis of sex bias in autoimmune diseases is complex and potentially involves sex chromosomes, sex hormones, and sex-specific gene regulation in response to internal and external stimuli. Epigenetic regulation of genes, especially by microRNAs (miRNAs), is now attracting significant attention. miRNAs are small, non-protein-coding RNAs that are predicted to regulate a majority of human genes, including those involved in immune regulation. Therefore, it is not surprising that dysregulated miRNAs are evident in many diseases, including autoimmune diseases. Because there are marked sex differences in the incidence of autoimmune diseases, this review focuses on the role of sex factors on miRNA expression in the context of autoimmune diseases, an aspect not addressed thus far. Here, we initially review miRNA biogenesis and miRNA regulation of immunity and autoimmunity. We then summarize the recent findings of sexual dimorphism of miRNA expression in diverse tissues, which imply a critical role of miRNA in sex differentiation and in sex-specific regulation of tissue development and/or function. We also discuss the important contribution of the X chromosome and sex hormones to the sexual dimorphism of miRNA expression. Understanding sexually dimorphic miRNA expression in sex-biased autoimmune diseases not only offers us new insight into the mechanism of sex bias of the disease but will also aid us in developing new sex-based therapeutic strategies for the efficient treatment of these diseases with a sex bias. PMID:24623979

  10. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases nigrostriatal dopamine release in vitro: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Stephen J; Trksak, George H; Cohen, Ori S; Simeone, Benjamin P; Jackson, Denise

    2004-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure, age, sex, and estrous phase on the functional development of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Striatal tissue was obtained from prepubescent and adult rats of both sexes after bidaily exposure to saline (1 ml/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg/ml saline) from embryonic days 15-21. Tissue levels, basal release, and electrically evoked (1 or 8 Hz) overflow of endogenous DA and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), as well as their efflux in response to superfusion with the DA transport blocker, nomifensine (10 microM), were measured from superfused striatal slices. Generally, these measures were highest in tissue from males and adults. Tissue DA and DOPAC levels and the rate of DA turnover were unaffected by PCOC exposure. Slices from PCOC-exposed juvenile and adult male rats exhibited significantly reduced basal and electrically evoked DA release at both stimulation intensities, in conjunction with higher levels of presynaptic DA reuptake. Female rats were largely spared from the effects of PCOC exposure, and measures did not vary with estrous phase. These findings demonstrate that the effects of PCOC exposure on various parameters of nigrostriatal DA neuronal function are not uniform across age, sex, or phases of the estrous cycle. These novel alterations in nigrostriatal DA transmission are in need of independent replication, but they may have profound implications for behavioral activities regulated by these neurons and, thus, may provide a basis for sex-selective effects of PCOC in exposed humans. Possible mechanisms of deleterious effects of PCOC exposure in select groups are discussed. PMID:15170820

  11. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology.

    PubMed

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  12. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  13. Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Gabory, Anne; Roseboom, Tessa J; Moore, Tom; Moore, Lorna G; Junien, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences occur in most non-communicable diseases, including metabolic diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric and neurological disorders and cancer. In many cases, the susceptibility to these diseases begins early in development. The observed differences between the sexes may result from genetic and hormonal differences and from differences in responses to and interactions with environmental factors, including infection, diet, drugs and stress. The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). There is accumulating evidence to demonstrate the sex-specific relationships between diverse environmental influences on placental functions and the risk of disease later in life. As one of the few tissues easily collectable in humans, this organ may therefore be seen as an ideal system for studying how male and female placenta sense nutritional and other stresses, such as endocrine disruptors. Sex-specific regulatory pathways controlling sexually dimorphic characteristics in the various organs and the consequences of lifelong differences in sex hormone expression largely account for such responses. However, sex-specific changes in epigenetic marks are generated early after fertilization, thus before adrenal and gonad differentiation in the absence of sex hormones and in response to environmental conditions. Given the abundance of X-linked genes involved in placentogenesis, and the early unequal gene expression by the sex chromosomes between males and females, the role of X- and Y-chromosome-linked genes, and especially those involved in the peculiar placenta-specific epigenetics processes, giving rise to the unusual placenta epigenetic landscapes deserve particular attention. However, even with recent developments in this field, we still know little about the mechanisms

  14. Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences occur in most non-communicable diseases, including metabolic diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric and neurological disorders and cancer. In many cases, the susceptibility to these diseases begins early in development. The observed differences between the sexes may result from genetic and hormonal differences and from differences in responses to and interactions with environmental factors, including infection, diet, drugs and stress. The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). There is accumulating evidence to demonstrate the sex-specific relationships between diverse environmental influences on placental functions and the risk of disease later in life. As one of the few tissues easily collectable in humans, this organ may therefore be seen as an ideal system for studying how male and female placenta sense nutritional and other stresses, such as endocrine disruptors. Sex-specific regulatory pathways controlling sexually dimorphic characteristics in the various organs and the consequences of lifelong differences in sex hormone expression largely account for such responses. However, sex-specific changes in epigenetic marks are generated early after fertilization, thus before adrenal and gonad differentiation in the absence of sex hormones and in response to environmental conditions. Given the abundance of X-linked genes involved in placentogenesis, and the early unequal gene expression by the sex chromosomes between males and females, the role of X- and Y-chromosome-linked genes, and especially those involved in the peculiar placenta-specific epigenetics processes, giving rise to the unusual placenta epigenetic landscapes deserve particular attention. However, even with recent developments in this field, we still know little about the mechanisms

  15. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity. PMID:16295466

  16. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    SciTech Connect

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect.

  17. [Mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic, by sex and age in 1950-1984].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1987-01-01

    Postwar mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic has run through 2 different stages with the turning point being 1960. Since about the beginning of the 1960s, the mortality level in the Czech Socialist Republic has quickly declined for both sexs and in each age category. The rate of decline has slowed with increasing age. Since the 1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline or has worsened; with men, this phenomenon spread even as low as 40 years old. Infant and child mortality, male mortality under 40 years of age, and female mortality under 50 years of age positively contributed to a longer life span, except between 1960 and 1970. The present mortality situation in the Czech Socialist Republic is the result of the unfavorable developments of the last 20 years, especially in the decade 1960-1970. The present age structure of mortality is characterized by higher infant mortality, higher male mortality above 40 years of age, and higher female mortality at 50-55 years of age. A certain improvement observed in the last few years is relative, as the mortality of the male population over 30 is the same today as it was 35 years ago and the mortality of the female population is the same as it was in the mid-1960s. PMID:12314972

  18. Age-Associated Chronic Diseases Require Age-Old Medicine: Role of Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Most chronic diseases - such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity - are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471

  19. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  20. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism. PMID:26688295

  1. Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

    1993-01-01

    As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure

  2. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  3. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  4. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  5. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  6. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  7. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  8. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  9. Sex ratios and hormones in HLA related rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1991-01-01

    The major diseases associated with HLA-B27 (Reiter's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, acute anterior uveitis, and psoriatic arthritis) all occur much more commonly in men. Published evidence indicates that the antigen HLA-B27 is associated with high testosterone concentrations in men. Moreover, the antigen HLA-B44 exerts a protective effect on one of these diseases (psoriatic arthritis), and there are external grounds for supposing that HLA-B44 indexes an antiandrogenic process. These data are interpreted as support for the hypothesis (first adumbrated nearly 20 years ago) that HLA antigens index unusual hormone concentrations, which in turn are causally related to the diseases. An examination of published reports suggests that sibs of probands with ankylosing spondylitis (and perhaps Reiter's disease) contain an excess of men, and that sibs of probands with rheumatoid arthritis contain an excess of women. These data lend further support to the hypothesis. PMID:2059084

  10. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  11. Sex differences in children's response to parental divorce: 2. Samples, variables, ages, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, M J

    1989-01-01

    This second of a two-part review examines four possibilities for explaining the discrepancy across studies in findings of sex differences in children's responses to parental divorce: sample type, nature of outcome variables, age of the child, and sources of data. Recommendations are made for further research that could clarify the nature and origins of differences by child gender in reactions to parental divorce. Part 1, reviewing research methodology and post divorce family forms, was published by this Journal in July 1988. PMID:2648853

  12. Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

    1979-01-01

    The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

  13. Sex differences in the outcomes of peripheral arterial disease: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohamad A.; Lindsay, Thomas F.; Mamdani, Muhammad; Wang, Xuesong; Verma, Subodh; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of sex in the outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has been poorly studied. We sought to investigate differences in the long-term adverse cardiovascular and limb outcomes between men and women with PAD. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study with up to 7 years of follow-up using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients aged 40 years or older who visited a vascular surgeon between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2007 (index date), and carried a diagnosis of PAD comprised the study cohort. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospital admission for stroke or myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included lower limb amputation or revascularization. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to compute unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and HRs adjusted for baseline covariates. Results: A total of 6915 patients were studied, of whom 2461 (35.6%) were women. No significant differences in the risk of the primary outcome were observed between men and women (adjusted HR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05]). Women were less likely than men to undergo minor amputation (adjusted HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.62-0.85]) and arterial bypass surgery (adjusted HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.71-0.94]) but were more likely to be admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.00-1.31]). There were no sex differences in the rates of major amputation or transluminal percutaneous angioplasty. Interpretation: We identified no significant differences in the composite risk of major adverse cardiovascular events between women and men with PAD, although our findings suggest men may be at increased risk for adverse limb events compared with women. Cardiovascular health campaigns should focus on both women and men to promote early diagnosis and management of PAD. PMID:27280110

  14. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables. PMID:24486976

  15. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  16. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  17. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  18. Proceedings from the Scientific Symposium: Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and Implications for Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Saralyn; Boyan, Barbara D.; Jacobs, Alice K.; Shah, Prediman K.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Taylor, Doris; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A consortium of investigator-thought leaders was convened at the Heart Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and produced the following summary points: Point 1: Important sex differences exist in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that affect disease initiation, diagnosis, and treatment.Implication: Research that acknowledges these differences is needed to optimize outcomes in women and men.Point 2: Atherosclerosis is qualitatively and quantitatively different in women and men; women demonstrate more plaque erosion and more diffuse plaque with less focal artery lumen intrusion.Implication: Evaluation of CVD strategies that include devices should be used to explore differing anatomical shapes and surfaces as well as differing drug coating and eluting strategies.Point 3: Bone marrow progenitor cells (PCs) engraft differently based on the sex of the donor cell and the sex of the recipient.Implication: PC therapeutic studies need to consider the sex of cells of the source and the recipient.Point 4: Women have a greater risk of venous but not arterial thrombosis compared with men, as well as more bleeding complications related to anticoagulant treatment. Several genes coding for proteins involved in hemostasis are regulated by sex hormones.Implications: Research should be aimed at evaluation of sex-based differences in response to anticoagulation based on genotype.Point 5: Women and men can have differences in pharmacological response.Implication: Sex-specific pharmacogenomic studies should be included in pharmacological development.Point 6: CVD progression results from an imbalance of cell injury and repair in part due to insufficient PC repair, which is affected by sex differences, where females have higher circulating levels of PCs with greater rates of tissue repair.Implication: CVD regenerative strategies should be directed at learning to deliver cells that shift the recipient balance from injury toward repair. CVD repair strategies should ideally be tested

  19. Sex differences in disease presentation, treatment and clinical outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-centre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ladenheim, Maya R; Kim, Nathan G; Nguyen, Pauline; Le, An; Stefanick, Marcia L; Garcia, Gabriel; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sex differences in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk are well known, it is unclear whether sex differences also exist in clinical presentation and survival outcomes once HCC develops. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1886 HCC patients seen in a US medical centre in 1998–2015. Data were obtained by chart review with survival data also by National Death Index search. Results The cohort consisted of 1449 male and 437 female patients. At diagnosis, men were significantly younger than women (59.9±10.7 vs 64.0±11.6, p<0.0001). Men had significantly higher rates of tobacco (57.7% vs 31.0%, p<0.001) and alcohol use (63.2% vs 35.1%, p<0.001). Women were more likely to be diagnosed by routine screening versus symptomatically or incidentally (65.5% vs 58.2%, p=0.03) and less likely to present with tumours >5 cm (30.2% vs 39.8%, p=0.001). Surgical and non-surgical treatment utilisation was similar for both sexes. Men and women had no significant difference in median survival from the time of diagnosis (median 30.7 (range=24.5–41.3) vs 33.1 (range=27.4–37.3) months, p=0.84). On multivariate analysis, significant predictors for improved survival included younger age, surgical or non-surgical treatment (vs supportive care), diagnosis by screening, tumour within Milan criteria and lower Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, but not female sex (adjusted HR=1.01, CI 0.82 to 1.24, p=0.94). Conclusions Although men have much higher risk for HCC development, there were no significant sex differences in disease presentation or survival except for older age and lower tumour burden at diagnosis in women. Female sex was not an independent predictor for survival. PMID:27493763

  20. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  1. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  2. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Similarly, Kv current density was 25% greater in ventricular myocytes from young adult males (P < 0.05). Germ-line Kcne4 deletion eliminated the sex-specific Kv current disparity by diminishing ventricular fast transient outward current (Ito,f) and slowly activating K(+) current (IK,slow1). Kcne4 deletion also reduced Kv currents in male mouse atrial myocytes, by >45% (P < 0.001). As we previously found for Kv4.2 (which generates mouse Ito,f), heterologously expressed KCNE4 functionally regulated Kv1.5 (the Kv α subunit that generates IKslow1 in mice). Of note, in postmenopausal female mice, ventricular repolarization was impaired by Kcne4 deletion, and ventricular Kcne4 expression increased to match that of males. Moreover, castration diminished male ventricular Kcne4 expression 2.8-fold, whereas 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implants in castrated mice increased Kcne4 expression >3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  3. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper-Goodman, T.; Hilts, C.; Billiard, S.M.; Kiparissis, Y.; Richard, I.D.K.; Hayward, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4ng OTA kg bw−1, except for 1–4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  4. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  5. Prediction of plantar soft tissue stiffness based on sex, age, bodyweight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-02-01

    15% of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients suffer high risk of ulceration and 85% of the amputation involving DM population is caused by non-healing ulcers. These findings elucidate the fact that foot ulcer can result in major amputation especially to the DM and elderly population. Therefore, early diagnosis of abnormally stiffened plantar soft tissue is needed to prevent the catastrophic tissue damage. In order to differentiate between normal and pathological tissues, a threshold reference value that defines healthy tissue is required. The objective of this study is to perform a multivariate analysis to estimate the healthy plantar tissue stiffness values based on the individuals physical attributes such as bodyweight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their age and sex. 100 healthy subjects were recruited. Indentation was performed on 2nd metatarsal head pad at 3 different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. The results showed the important influences of BW, height and BMI in determining the plantar tissue stiffness. On the other hand, age and sex only play minimal roles. The study can be further extended to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed predictive model by evaluating several other related parameters such as body fat content, footwear usage, frequency of sports participation, etc. PMID:26474035

  6. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Kuiper-Goodman, T; Hilts, C; Billiard, S M; Kiparissis, Y; Richard, I D K; Hayward, S

    2010-02-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4 ng OTA kg bw(-1), except for 1-4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  7. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts. PMID:24170671

  8. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  9. Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Horta, Marilyn; Lin, Tian; Feifel, David; Fischer, Håkan; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex. PMID:26441637

  10. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  11. TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2004-01-01

    The advanced stage of the glycation process (one of the post-translational modifications of proteins) leads to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of angiopathy in diabetic patients, in aging, and in neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is still not clear which AGEs subtypes play a pathogenetic role and which of several AGEs receptor mediate AGEs effects on cells. We have provided direct immunochemical evidence for the existence of six distinct AGEs structures (AGEs-1 to -6) within the AGEs-modified proteins and peptides that circulate in the serum of diabetic patients. Recently we demonstrated for the first time that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (AGEs-2) and glycolaldehyde-derived AGEs (AGE-3) have diverse biological activities on vascular wall cells, mesangial cells, Schwann cells, malignant melanoma cells and cortical neurons. We also demonstrated for the first time that acetaldehyde (AA)-derived AGEs (AA-AGE) have cytotoxic activity on cortical neurons and the AA-AGE epitope was detected in human brain of alcoholics. These results indicate that of the various types of AGEs structures that can form in vivo, the toxic AGEs (TAGE) structures (AGEs 2, 3, and AA-AGE), but not non-toxic AGEs (N-carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, pyrraline etc.) are likely to play an important role in the pathophysiological processes associated with AGEs formation. PMID:15288366

  12. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  13. Blue Journal Conference. Aging and Susceptibility to Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thannickal, Victor J.; Murthy, Mahadev; Balch, William E.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie; White, Eric S.; Levy, Bruce D.; Busse, Paula J.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Antony, Veena B.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several oral symposiums and poster sessions at the annual ATS meeting. In this article, we used the input gathered at the conference to develop a broad framework and perspective to stimulate basic, clinical, and translational research to understand how the aging process contributes to the onset and/or progression of lung diseases. A consistent theme that emerged from the conference was the need to apply novel, systems-based approaches to integrate a growing body of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data and elucidate the relationship between biologic hallmarks of aging, altered lung function, and increased susceptibility to lung diseases in the older population. The challenge remains to causally link the molecular and cellular changes of aging with age-related changes in lung physiology and disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to stimulate further research to identify new strategies to prevent or treat age-related lung disease. PMID:25590812

  14. Distinct Mechanisms of Impairment in Cognitive Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapstone, Mark; Dickerson, Kathryn; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Similar manifestations of functional decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease obscure differences in the underlying cognitive mechanisms of impairment. We sought to examine the contributions of top-down attentional and bottom-up perceptual factors to visual self-movement processing in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We administered a novel…

  15. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  16. Dietary Approaches that Delay Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet—disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood

  17. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and

  18. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  19. [Decline in renal function in old age : Part of physiological aging versus age-related disease].

    PubMed

    Braun, F; Brinkkötter, P T

    2016-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism. Furthermore, CKD directly leads to and aggravates geriatric syndromes and in particular the onset of frailty. Therapeutic strategies to halt progression of CKD not only comprise treatment of the underlying disease but also efficient blood pressure and diabetic control and the avoidance of nephrotoxic medications. PMID:27457360

  20. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex sttraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction. Adult B. cockerelli r...

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of the various volumes of canines to determine age and sex: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tardivo, Delphine; Sastre, Julien; Ruquet, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Adalian, Pascal; Leonetti, Georges; Foti, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Canines are usually used in anthropological and forensic sciences for sex and age determination. The best methods to estimate age are based on secondary dentine apposition, evaluated from periapical X-rays. The aim of this study was to propose a new method of sex and age estimation using 3D models to obtain more precise predictions using tooth volumes. Fifty-eight dental CT scans of patients aged 14-74 with a well-balanced sex ratio composed the sample. One hundred and thirty-three healthy canines were modeled (Mimics 12.0). The sample was divided into a training sample and a validation sample. An age formula was determined using the "pulp volume/tooth volume" ratio. Sex prediction was adjusted with total volumes. Applying the equations to the validation sample, no significant difference was found between the real and predicted ages, and 100% of the sex predictions were correct. This preliminary study gives interesting results, and this method is worth being tested on a larger data sample. PMID:21361946

  2. Insights into neurogenesis and aging: potential therapy for degenerative disease?

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Robert A; Thomas, Rosanne M; Peterson, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which new neural cells are generated from a small population of multipotent stem cells in the adult CNS. This natural generation of new cells is limited in its regenerative capabilities and also declines with age. The use of stem cells in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease may hold great potential; however, the age-related incidence of many CNS diseases coincides with reduced neurogenesis. This review concisely summarizes current knowledge related to adult neurogenesis and its alteration with aging and examines the feasibility of using stem cell and gene therapies to combat diseases of the CNS with advancing age. PMID:20806052

  3. Aromatase, adiposity, aging and disease. The hypogonadal-metabolic-atherogenic-disease and aging connection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P G

    2001-06-01

    In males, aging, health and disease are processes that occur over physiologic time and involve a cascade of hormonal, biochemical and physiological changes that accompany the down-regulation of the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-testicular axis. As aging progresses there are relative increases of body fat and decreases in muscle mass. The increased adipose tissue mass is associated with the production of a number of newly generated factors. These include aromatase, leptin, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and the dyslipidemias, all of which can lead to tissue damage. Fatty tissue becomes the focal point for study as it represents the intersection between energy storage and mobilization. The increase in adipose tissue is associated with an increase in the enzyme aromatase that converts testosterone to estradiol and leads to diminished testosterone levels that favor the preferential deposition of visceral fat. As the total body fat mass increases, hormone resistance develops for leptin and insulin. Increasing leptin fails to prevent weight gain and the hypogonadal-obesity cycle ensues causing further visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The progressive insulin resistance leads to a high triglyceride-low HDL pattern of dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. All of these factors eventually contribute to the CHAOS Complex: coronary disease, hypertension, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, obesity and/or stroke as permanent changes unfold. Other consequences of the chronic hypogonadal state include osteopenia, extreme fatigue, depression, insomnia, loss of aggressiveness and erectile dysfunction all of which develop over variable periods of time. PMID:11399122

  4. Polymerase Gamma Disease through the Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saneto, Russell P.; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The most common group of mitochondrial disease is due to mutations within the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, polymerase gamma 1 ("POLG"). This gene product is responsible for replication and repair of the small mitochondrial DNA genome. The structure-function relationship of this gene product produces a wide variety of diseases that at times, seems…

  5. Sex and gender differences in chronic kidney disease: progression to end-stage renal disease and haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Gabriela; Hecking, Manfred; Port, Friedrich K; Exner, Isabella; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-07-01

    Sex and gender differences are of fundamental importance in most diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Men and women with CKD differ with regard to the underlying pathophysiology of the disease and its complications, present different symptoms and signs, respond differently to therapy and tolerate/cope with the disease differently. Yet an approach using gender in the prevention and treatment of CKD, implementation of clinical practice guidelines and in research has been largely neglected. The present review highlights some sex- and gender-specific evidence in the field of CKD, starting with a critical appraisal of the lack of inclusion of women in randomized clinical trials in nephrology, and thereafter revisits sex/gender differences in kidney pathophysiology, kidney disease progression, outcomes and management of haemodialysis care. In each case we critically consider whether apparent discrepancies are likely to be explained by biological or psycho-socioeconomic factors. In some cases (a few), these findings have resulted in the discovery of disease pathways and/or therapeutic opportunities for improvement. In most cases, they have been reported as merely anecdotal findings. The aim of the present review is to expose some of the stimulating hypotheses arising from these observations as a preamble for stricter approaches using gender for the prevention and treatment of CKD and its complications. PMID:27252402

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in Japanese female commercial sex workers working in massage parlors with cell baths.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Motonobu; Babazono, Akira; Kato, Masumi; Takagi, Shigeru; Chimura, Hiroshi; Une, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of Japanese female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) working in massage parlors with cell baths (MPCBs) was conducted between July 1999 and December 2001. The study subjects were 171 FCSWs aged from 19 to 36 years. A questionnaire included sexual characteristics in addition to working name and date of birth. We serologically or bacteriologically confirmed the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. There were no differences in the clinical characteristics of FCSWs working in standard-class MPCBs (group A) and those working in expensive-class MPCBs (group B). With respect to sexual characteristics, HIV-1 and HIV-2 were not confirmed in any subjects, but N. gonorrhoeae was detected in 1.2%. Use of condoms was 98.4% in group A and 83.3% in group B ( P < 0.01). No HIV infection and an extremely low prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were recognized in Japanese FCSWs working in standard- and expensive-class MPCBs. PMID:14513394

  7. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  8. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-21

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  9. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  10. Age Differences in Reaction Time and Attention in a National Telephone Sample of Adults: Education, Sex, and Task Complexity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tun, Patricia A.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an…

  11. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  12. Birth Cohort, Age, and Sex Strongly Modulate Effects of Lipid Risk Alleles Identified in Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kulminski, Alexander M.; Culminskaya, Irina; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Arbeeva, Liubov; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Stallard, Eric; Wu, Deqing; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2015-01-01

    Insights into genetic origin of diseases and related traits could substantially impact strategies for improving human health. The results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often positioned as discoveries of unconditional risk alleles of complex health traits. We re-analyzed the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with total cholesterol (TC) in a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis. We focused on three generations of genotyped participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). We show that the effects of all ten directly-genotyped SNPs were clustered in different FHS generations and/or birth cohorts in a sex-specific or sex-unspecific manner. The sample size and procedure-therapeutic issues play, at most, a minor role in this clustering. An important result was clustering of significant associations with the strongest effects in the youngest, or 3rd Generation, cohort. These results imply that an assumption of unconditional connections of these SNPs with TC is generally implausible and that a demographic perspective can substantially improve GWAS efficiency. The analyses of genetic effects in age-matched samples suggest a role of environmental and age-related mechanisms in the associations of different SNPs with TC. Analysis of the literature supports systemic roles for genes for these SNPs beyond those related to lipid metabolism. Our analyses reveal strong antagonistic effects of rs2479409 (the PCSK9 gene) that cautions strategies aimed at targeting this gene in the next generation of lipid drugs. Our results suggest that standard GWAS strategies need to be advanced in order to appropriately address the problem of genetic susceptibility to complex traits that is imperative for translation to health care. PMID:26295473

  13. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  14. Recent development of ischaemic heart disease in sex difference

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Wang; Lei, Wang; Peng, Song

    2007-01-01

    Despite a dramatic decline in mortality over the past years, coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. At the same time, with the great improvement of medical science, there is a growing population of postmyocardial infarction, postrevascularisation and heart failure survivors. Furthermore, there are rising rates of cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the world. All the above contribute to the rising incidence rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among women and men. This review highlights sex‐specific issues in IHD presentation, evaluation and outcomes, with several new results published from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation study. New evidence on traditional and novel risk markers as well as sex‐specific differences in symptoms and diagnostic approaches have also been discussed. PMID:17403950

  15. Biological validation of feline serum cystatin C: The effect of breed, age and sex and establishment of a reference interval.

    PubMed

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Duchateau, L; Taffin, E R L; Marynissen, S; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in cats, but the routine renal markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sensitive or specific enough to detect early CKD. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) has advantages over sCr, both in humans and dogs, and sCysC concentration is significantly higher in cats with CKD than in healthy cats. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex and breed on feline sCysC and to establish a reference interval for feline sCysC. In total, 130 healthy cats aged 1-16 years were included. sCysC was determined using a validated particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. sCr, urea, urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were also measured. No significant differences in sCysC concentration were observed among young, middle-aged and geriatric cats, female intact, female neutered cats, male intact and male neutered cats, or among purebred and domestic short-or longhaired cats. The 95% reference interval for feline sCysC was determined to be 0.58-1.95 mg/L. sCr was significantly higher in geriatric cats than young cats. Serum urea in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P <0.001, respectively). SBP in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in both middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, respectively). Male neutered and female neutered cats had significantly higher serum urea concentrations than female intact cats (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively). Male intact cats had a significantly higher UPC than female intact and female neutered cats (P = 0.02 for each comparison). There were no significant differences among sex groups for USG. It is of concern that sCysC in the majority of cats with CKD in previous studies falls within the reference interval calculated in this study. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic value of sCysC as a renal marker in

  16. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  17. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  18. Age, Sex, and Telomere Dynamics in a Long-Lived Seabird with Male-Biased Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Young, Rebecca C.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Descamps, Sebastien; Orben, Rachael A.; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia), a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1) cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years) from one colony and 2) longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF), a lower window of TRF (TOE), and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ) or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to be the

  19. Regional variation of intracortical porosity in the midshaft of the human femur: age and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C David L; Feik, Sophie A; Clement, John G

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated age and sex differences in patterns of porosity distribution in the midshaft of the human femur. Cross-sections were obtained from 168 individuals from a modern Australian population. The sample comprised 73 females and 95 males, aged between 20 and 97 years. Microradiographs were made of 100-µm sections and pore and bone areas were determined using image processing software. Initially the sample was divided by age: young (20–44 years), middle (45–64 years) and old (65+ years), but it was found that analysis on the basis of the ratio of medullary area to total subperiosteal area gave clearer results. The cortex was divided into three rings radially and into octants circumferentially and the porosity of each segment was calculated. Results showed that a pattern with raised porosity in the posterior and anterolateral regions, and with greater porosity in the inner parts of the cortex, becomes more pronounced with age. In males this pattern develops steadily; in females there are much greater differences between the middle and older groups than earlier in life. The patterns observed are consistent with progressive bone loss occurring along a neutral axis of the cortex where bending stress is lowest and the mechanical advantage of the bone is least. PMID:15730477

  20. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. Methods: using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50–89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. Results: after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. Conclusions: possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. PMID:26826237

  1. Age and sex influence the balance between maximal cardiac output and peripheral vascular reserve.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Samuel J; Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Gonzales, Joaquin U; Beck, Kenneth C; Proctor, David N

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of age and sex on the relationship between central and peripheral vasodilatory capacity. Healthy men (19 younger, 12 older) and women (17 younger, 17 older) performed treadmill and knee extensor exercise to fatigue on separate days while maximal cardiac output (Q, acetylene uptake) and peak femoral blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) were measured, respectively. Maximal Q was reduced with age similarly in men (Y: 23.6 +/- 2.7 vs. O: 17.4 +/- 3.5 l/min; P < 0.05) and women (Y: 17.7 +/- 1.9 vs. O: 12.3 +/- 1.6 l/min; P < 0.05). Peak FBF was similar between younger (Y) and older (O) men (Y: 2.1 +/- 0.5 vs. O: 2.2 +/- 0.7 l/min) but was lower in older women compared with younger women (Y: 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. O: 1.4 +/- 0.4 l/min; P < 0.05). Maximal Q was positively correlated with peak FBF in men (Y: r = 0.55, O: r = 0.74; P < 0.05) but not in women (Y: r = 0.34, O: r = 0.10). Normalization of cardiac output to appendicular muscle mass and peak FBF to quadriceps mass reduced the correlation between these variables in younger men (r = 0.30), but the significant association remained in older men (r = 0.68; P < 0.05), with no change in women. These data suggest that 1) aerobic capacity is associated with peripheral vascular reserve in men but not women, and 2) aging is accompanied by a more pronounced sex difference in this relationship. PMID:19959767

  2. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    PubMed

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  3. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed Central

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  4. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  5. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  6. Peripheral vs. Central Sex Steroid Hormones in Experimental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Simon; Gillies, Glenda E.

    2011-01-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females) or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatized to estrogen centrally) have negligible effects on dopaminergic neuron survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realize the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies

  7. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  8. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  9. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: Investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sarah E.; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Lee, Phil H.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p = .048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p = .51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p = .005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p = .002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p = 1.96 × 10−8), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p = 1.52 × 10−7). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p = 8.24 × 10−7). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  10. Correlation of patient's mental attitude with age, sex, and educational level: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shweta; Kumar, Ajit; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine any relationship, if exists, between the patient's mental attitude with age, sex, or educational qualification. Methods: A total of 200 patients who attended the outpatient department during a span of 1 year, for the fabrication of new complete dentures, were chosen for the study. After completing a routine case history and examination, a questionnaire was filled by the clinician as answered by the patient. Participants were evaluated and categorized based on the questionnaire and clinical experience during treatment according to a predefined classification of determining mental attitudes. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with participant gender, age, and educational status. Results: The male to female ratio was 83:117, out of the 200 enrolled participants. The results from the questionnaire showed that females were found to be more exacting (P = 0.007) in nature, while males, on the other hand, revealed more indifferent attitude (P = 0.02); both differences being statistically significant. Of the three age group categories: Participants in the age group of 45–54 years revealed a significant inclination toward an exacting attitude when compared with other age groups (P < 0.001). In regards to educational status, an illiterate or minimally educated group significantly outnumbered the college graduates in the indifferent attitude group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be said that the mental attitudes of patients could vary according to gender, age, and educational status, which could affect patient cooperation and satisfaction with oral rehabilitation, eventually manipulating the overall success of the treatment rendered. PMID:27011735

  11. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  12. Prostate diseases--role of sex steroids and their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Welén, Karin; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2011-04-01

    The normal prostate as well as prostatic diseases are influenced by androgens. The exact reason for an altered and uncontrolled response to androgens, whether benign as in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or malignant as in the case of prostate cancer (PC), is not known in detail. Nevertheless, restriction of androgen receptor activation by reduction of available androgens is of great clinical value in both diseases. In BPH the inhibition of the conversion of testosterone into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase (5AR) is highly efficient and used in general practice, while the situation in PC is more complex. Specific inhibition of 5AR does not provide as efficient relief of symptoms as general androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and the use of 5ARI for PC prevention is still under debate. Further, the altered steroid metabolism in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) together with the complex paracrine signalling between different androgen responsive cell types, make the development of more specific drugs targeting androgen receptor signalling both more relevant and challenging. PMID:21397203

  13. Astroglia dynamics in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Zorec, Robert; Rodríguez, Jose J; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Ageing of the brain is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders that result in cognitive decline and senile dementia. Ageing astrocytes undergo complex and region specific remodelling which can reflect life-long adaptive plasticity. In neurodegeneration, astroglial cells are similarly a subject for morpho-functional changes hampering the homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Region-specific astroglial atrophy with the loss of function and astroglial reactivity have been reported in virtually all forms of neurodegenerative pathologies. Modulating these astroglia changes may represent a fertile ground for novel therapeutic intervention strategies to prevent, delay progression and/or ameliorate pathology. While at present this bodacious goal represents a wishful thinking, further understanding of astroglial role in ageing and neurodegeneration could bring us closer to laying the foundations for such cell-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:26515274

  14. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  15. Cell Death Atlas of the Postnatal Mouse Ventral Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Effects of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Todd H.; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V.; Murray, Elaine K.; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. PMID:23296992

  16. Impairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moyse, Evelyne; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric; Brédart, Serge

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for any function in social cognition is the perception and processing of social cues. Age estimation is a skill that is used in everyday life and is fundamental in social interactions. This study evaluated whether facial age estimation is impaired in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current age of faces is known to have an impact on age estimation, and therefore stimuli belonging to different age groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults' faces) were used. As expected, an impairment of age estimation from faces was observed in mild to moderate AD patients. However, the profile of impairment depended on the age of faces and stage of the disease. Mild AD patients presented difficulties mainly in assessing the age of middle-aged adults. In moderate disease stage, these difficulties also affected the age estimation of young adult faces. Interestingly, AD patients remained relatively good at estimating the age of older adults' faces, compared to healthy controls. PMID:25589725

  17. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  18. Osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure in human iliac crest as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Brüel, Annemarie; Jensen, Michael Vinkel; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Birkedal, Henrik; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-10-01

    Osteocytes are suggested to play a central role in bone remodeling. Evaluation of iliac crest biopsies is a standard procedure for evaluating bone conditions in the clinical setting. Despite the widespread use of such biopsies, little is known about the population of osteocytes in the iliac crest from normal individuals. Contradicting results have been reported on osteocyte lacunar properties in human bone. Hence, a solid understanding of the osteocyte population in healthy bone and the effect of age and sex is needed as good reference data are lacking. Furthermore, the role of cortical bone in bone quality has recently been suggested to be more important than previously realized. Therefore, the present study assesses osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure of the iliac crest as a function of age and sex. A total of 88 iliac crest bone samples from healthy individuals (46 women, aged 18.5-96.4years and 42 men, aged 22.6-94.6years) with an even age-distribution were examined using synchrotron radiation μCT and in house μCT, with >5×10(6) osteocyte lacunae measured and analyzed. The study revealed that osteocyte lacunar volumes were unaffected by both age and sex. Osteocyte lacunar density did not differ between women and men, and only showed a significant decrease with age when pooling data from both sexes. Cortical porosity and Haversian canal density increased while cortical thickness decreased with age, with cortical thinning dominating the age-related cortical bone loss. None of the cortical microstructural parameters showed any sex dependency. Only weak links between osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructural properties in iliac crest bone were found. Interestingly, the Haversian canal diameters were significantly but weakly negatively correlated with osteocyte lacunar volumes. PMID:27397700

  19. Influence of sex hormones and phytoestrogens on heart disease in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathy, Poornima; Haines, Christopher Dean; Leinwand, Leslie Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women worldwide. According to the WHO, by 2015, almost 20 million people will die from CVD each year. It is well established that men and women differ not only in baseline cardiac parameters, but also in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment outcomes of CVD. Women tend to develop heart disease later in life than men. This difference has been attributed to the loss of estrogen during the menopausal transition; however, the biological explanations for the sexual dimorphism in CVD are more complex and seem unlikely to be due to estrogen alone. The current controversy that has arisen regarding the effects of HRT on CVD in women is a case in point. In this review, the sex-based differences in cardiac (patho-) physiology are discussed with emphasis on the impact of sex hormones, hormone receptors and diet on heart disease. PMID:20088732

  20. Skin Disease in Laminopathy-Associated Premature Aging.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Tomás; Sola Carvajal, Agustín; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear lamina, a protein network located under the nuclear membrane, has during the past decade found increasing interest due to its significant involvement in a range of genetic diseases, including the segmental premature aging syndromes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, restrictive dermopathy, and atypical Werner syndrome. In this review we examine these diseases, some caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, and their skin disease features. Advances within this area might also provide novel insights into the biology of skin aging, as recent data suggest that low levels of progerin are expressed in unaffected individuals and these levels increase with aging. PMID:26290387

  1. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  2. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys. PMID:8570363

  3. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (± 29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children. PMID:26130299

  4. Mood states and sleepiness in college students: influences of age, sex, habitual sleep, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Jean-Louis, G; von Gizycki, H; Zizi, F; Nunes, J

    1998-10-01

    Survey and laboratory evidence suggests several factors affecting sleep-wake patterns of college students. These factors include social and academic demands, diminution of parental guidance, reduction of total sleep time, delayed bedtime, and increased nap episodes. In this study, we examined the problem of falling asleep in school as a correlate of negative moods in this population (N = 294). A multivariate analysis showed significant main effects of sleepiness on mood states based on the Profile of Mood States. Students who fell asleep in school reported higher negative mood states. Significant interactions were observed among sleepiness and age, sex, race, and duration of sleep. Specifically, younger men reported higher negative moods. No interactions were noted for alcohol and marijuana consumption; however, students who fell asleep in school consumed more alcoholic beverages and smoked more than those who did not. Perhaps falling asleep in school could be used as an index that characterizes students who manifest adaptive or psychological difficulty. PMID:9842593

  5. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  6. Mercury and Selenium Balance in Endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal Depend on Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Lyytikäinen, Merja; Pätynen, Juuso; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Sipilä, Tero; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-10-01

    The endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis) is exposed to relatively high concentrations of mercury (Hg) in freshwaters poor in selenium (Se), a known antagonist of Hg. The impact of age and sex on the bioaccumulation of Hg and Se was studied by analyzing liver, muscle, and hair samples from seals of different age groups. Adult females were found to accumulate significantly more Hg in the liver (with ca. 60% as HgSe), and less Hg in the muscles compared to adult males, which may be explained by accelerated metabolism during gestation and lactation. In adult seals, molar Se:Hg ratios in the muscles fall below one, which is considered a threshold for the emergence of adverse effects. As a result, Saimaa ringed seals may be at risk of developing health and reproductive problems. According to mass balance calculations, the pups are exposed to considerable amounts (μg/d) of mercury during gestation, although lactation is their main exposure route. In lanugo pups, Hg concentrates in the hair, and molting serves as a main detoxification route. For other age groups, demethylation followed by the formation of HgSe is the main detoxification route, and the demethylation capability develops in pups by the time of weaning. PMID:26372071

  7. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  8. Age- and sex-related characteristics of tonic GABA currents in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  9. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease. PMID:26761383

  10. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  11. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  12. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  13. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and 9-year old children (n=358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in 9-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (p=0.02 for o,p′ -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies. PMID:24375655

  14. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  15. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  16. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance. PMID:21900466

  17. Mentoring Interdisciplinary Research Teams for the Study of Sex and Gender Differences in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, Rebecca S.

    2013-01-01

    Initiatives to hasten the translation of basic science discoveries to clinical care have necessitated the development of new approaches to interdisciplinary collaboration and training of future investigators. This has been nowhere more important than in the study of sex differences with implications for extension into areas of gender medicine. Clearly, gaining better understanding of the role that sex and gender play in health and disease is essential to the implementation of truly individualized medicine. This case report will describe our experiences in developing the Mayo Clinic Building Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Women's Health (BIRCWH) program, an interdisciplinary research and training program in women's health and sex and gender differences. We identify both our successes and the barriers we have encountered in order that others who are developing similar programs might benefit from our experiences. PMID:24278849

  18. Mentoring interdisciplinary research teams for the study of sex and gender differences in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Virginia M; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2013-09-01

    Initiatives to hasten the translation of basic science discoveries to clinical care have necessitated the development of new approaches to interdisciplinary collaboration and training of future investigators. This has been nowhere more important than in the study of sex differences with implications for extension into areas of gender medicine. Clearly, gaining better understanding of the role that sex and gender play in health and disease is essential to the implementation of truly individualized medicine. This case report will describe our experiences in developing the Mayo Clinic Building Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Women's Health (BIRCWH) program, an interdisciplinary research and training program in women's health and sex and gender differences. We identify both our successes and the barriers we have encountered in order that others who are developing similar programs might benefit from our experiences. PMID:24278849

  19. Discover the network mechanisms underlying the connections between aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V.; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E.; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named “GeroNet” to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to “response to decreased oxygen levels”, “insulin signalling pathway”, “cell cycle”, etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly “predict” if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315

  20. Discover the network mechanisms underlying the connections between aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-Min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named "GeroNet" to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to "response to decreased oxygen levels", "insulin signalling pathway", "cell cycle", etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly "predict" if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315

  1. Mitochondrial Acetylation and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gregory R.; Payne, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a prominent and conserved regulatory posttranslational modification that is abundant on numerous enzymes involved in the processes of intermediary metabolism. Well-characterized mitochondrial processes of carbon utilization are enriched in acetyl-lysine modifications. Although seminal discoveries have been made in the basic biology of mitochondrial acetylation, an understanding of how acetylation states influence enzyme function and metabolic reprogramming during pathological states remains largely unknown. This paper will examine our current understanding of eukaryotic acetate metabolism and present recent findings in the field of mitochondrial acetylation biology. The implications of mitochondrial acetylation for the aging process will be discussed, as well as its potential implications for the unique and localized metabolic states that occur during the aging-associated conditions of heart failure and cancer growth. PMID:21437190

  2. Hematopoiesis during development, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Johannes; Buisman, Sonja; de Haan, Gerald

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells were once considered identical. However, in the mid-1990s, it became apparent that stem cells from a person's early developmental phases are superior to those from adults, and aged stem cells are defective compared with young stem cells. It has since become clear that polycomb group proteins are important regulators of stem cell functioning. Polycomb group proteins are chromatin-associated proteins involved in writing or reading epigenetic histone modifications. Polycomb group proteins are involved in normal blood cell formation, in cancer, and possibly in aging. In this review, we describe how the different phases of hematopoietic stem cells-birth, maintenance, functional decline, derailment, and death-are continuous processes that may be controlled by polycomb group proteins. PMID:27235755

  3. Exercise training in aging and diseases.

    PubMed

    Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Corbi, Graziamaria; Filippelli, Amelia

    2012-05-01

    Sedentary lifestyle along with high blood pressure, abnormal values for blood lipids, smoking, and obesity are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and for many other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, osteoporosis, breast and colon cancer. Several studies conducted on large cohort of individuals have documented the protective effects of physical activity for both vascular and nonvascular syndromes. Exercise training is an integral part of cardiac rehabilitation, a complex therapeutic approach, effective both in young and elderly patients. Despite the number of evidences underling the benefits associated with physical fitness, the cardiac rehabilitation is still an underused medical resource. The molecular mechanism behind physical activity protective effect is presently unresolved, and further studies are also needed to establish the best protocol in terms of specificity, volume and duration of the training. PMID:23905056

  4. The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations.

    PubMed

    Childs, Dylan Z; Sheldon, Ben C; Rees, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has not yet been developed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are increasingly being used to understand the interplay between changes in labile characters, life histories and population dynamics. One limitation of the IPM approach is that it relies on phenotypic associations between parents and offspring traits to capture inheritance. However, it is well-established that many different processes may drive these associations, and currently, no clear consensus has emerged on how to model micro-evolutionary dynamics in an IPM framework. We show how to embed quantitative genetic models of inheritance of labile traits into age-structured, two-sex models that resemble standard IPMs. Commonly used statistical tools such as GLMs and their mixed model counterparts can then be used for model parameterization. We illustrate the methodology through development of a simple model of egg-laying date evolution, parameterized using data from a population of Great tits (Parus major). We demonstrate how our framework can be used to project the joint dynamics of species' traits and population density. We then develop a simple extension of the age-structured Price equation (ASPE) for two-sex populations, and apply this to examine the age-specific contributions of different processes to change in the mean phenotype and breeding value. The data-driven framework we outline here has the potential to facilitate greater insight into the nature of selection and its

  5. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. PMID:26878754

  6. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  7. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hägg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=−0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: −0.0035, −0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ∼6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  8. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  9. The Transition to Adulthood: Sex Differences in Educational Attainment and Age at Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Educational attainment is the most important variable mediating the transition to adulthood for both sexes. However, the relationship between educational attainment and the timing of entry into family roles differs for the two sexes. (Author/AM)

  10. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  11. Effect of Age and Sex on Jumping Mechanography and Other Measures of Muscle Mass and Function

    PubMed Central

    Siglinsky, Ellen; Krueger, Diane; Ward, Rachel E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Binkley, Neil; Buehring, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sarcopenia increases falls and fracture risk. Sarcopenia clinical trials require robust quantitative tools to evaluate muscle function; jumping mechanography (JM) is likely one such tool. However, US data comparing JM with traditional tests across the lifespan is limited. This study evaluated the effect of age and sex on JM compared with traditional function tests and lean mass. Methods US adults (213 women/119 men; mean age 65.4 years, range 27–96) performed functional tests including JM, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and grip strength (GS). Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was measured using DXA. Results Men had higher relative jump power [mean (SD) 28.5 (10.52) vs. 21.9 (7.11) W/kg], GS [35.5 (9.84) vs. 22.7 (6.98) kg] and ALM/ht2 [.25 (1.35) vs. 6.99 (1.38) kg/m2] (all p<0.0001); no difference was observed for SPPB components. JM parameters were more strongly correlated with age than traditional tests (R2=0.38–0.61 vs. R2=0.01–0.28) and weakly with GS and chair rise time (R2=0.30–0.36). Conclusion JM parameters are correlated with GS and chair rise time and demonstrate stronger correlations with age. JM shows promise as a valuable tool to evaluate and monitor interventions for sarcopenia as it could potentially detect change in muscle function more precisely than existing tools. PMID:26636275

  12. Does the quality of dental images depend on patient's age and sex ?- Explanations from the forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Gelbrich, B; Gelbrich, G; Lessig, R

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate the dependency of image quality of dental panoramic radiographs on patient's age and sex, and to demonstrate that forensic science can explain these relationships. The image qualities of 100 dental panoramic radiographs obtained from 50 patients with two devices were assessed by ten independent observers of different specialisations. Image quality decreased with increasing age of the patients (P=0.003). One of the devices turned out to be superior to the other; however, this difference between the devices was present only in older patients but not in young ones (P=0.03). Image quality was higher in women than in men (P=0.01). The observed influences of age and sex are explained by results of forensic investigations concerning age-related changes of the dental pulp and sex differences of the skull geometry. Thus forensic science can elucidate effects relevant for everyday clinical practice. Studies on dental image quality must consider age and sex of the patients. PMID:22717952

  13. The effect of age, sex and obesity on fundamental motor skills among 4 to 6 years-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Shams, Amir; Shamsipour Dehkordi, Parvane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of age, sex and obesity on Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) in 4 to 6 years-old children. Methodology: A total of 400 preschool children (200 boys and 200 girls) between the ages of 4 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Fundamental motor skills (FMS) were assessed with using the OSU-SIGMA scale. Body mass index (BMI) was directly measured from height(m)2/weight(kg) for each child and based on CDC growth charts, normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined. Results: The results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on walking and running skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Also, these variables had a significant effect on jumping, skipping, hopping and ladder climbing. In both ages, boys in jumping and ladder climbing skills were better than girls, but the girls were better in skipping and hopping skills (P<0.05). Moreover, the results showed that age and BMI variables have a significant effect on stair climbing skill, but sex was not significant (P>0.05). For object control skills, the results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on catching and throwing skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Finally, the age, sex and BMI variables were a significant effect on kicking and sticking skills. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that boys performed better than girls, and both overweight and obese children have lower performance than normal children. PMID:24353582