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Sample records for age sex ethnicity

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  2. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  3. Perspiration Functions in Different Ethnic, Age, and Sex Populations: Modification of Sudomotor Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The sudomotor mechanism, wich contributes to tolerating thermal environments, is affected by not only the body temperature, but also sex, ethnicity, exercise training, region, season, and heat adaptation. Aging attenuates the sudomotor function by the decreased peripheral sensitivity to acetylcholine and demyelination of innervating nerves. Women show less sudomotor activity than men. Heat adaptation with sudomotor modification is induced by repetitive physical and/or thermal training. Short-term heat acclimation increases sweat gland activity. Long-term heat acclimation results in a reduction in the sweating response to stimuli. Residents of tropical areas sweat less and more slowly than residents of temperate areas. Short-term heat acclimation enhances the sweating response. Long-term heat acclimation, from seasonal change or migration, diminishes the sweating response. Also, deacclimation can be induced by migration from a tropical area to a temperate area. Body composition, especially brown adipose tissue, and weight affect thermal responses. Further studies should investigate BAT and endocrinal pyrogens as additional factors. PMID:27584970

  4. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  5. Age, Sex and Ethnic Trade-Offs in Faculty Employment: You Can't Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Robert H.

    Age, sex, and ethnic trade-offs in faculty employment in higher education give rise to dilemmas--situations requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives. When an over-age-65 faculty member retains a full time position, someone else--probably a woman, ethnic minority, and/or young person--is deprived of a position. The problem of age…

  6. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  7. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  8. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  9. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  10. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  11. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  12. Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Lundblad, Mia; Ramsjo, Margareta; Kang, Ju-Hee; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine. PMID:25977991

  13. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  14. Cognitive Styles: Sex and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J.

    This paper reviews the hallmark studies of field dependence-independence and considers the evidence for sex and ethnic differences in cognitive style. Research has traditionally linked females' early verbal superiority with field dependence and males' superior visuospatial skills with field independence. Studies challenging this picture cite…

  15. A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17 years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-α diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50 years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-α diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (>30 kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

  16. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  17. Sex Differences in Subclinical Atherosclerosis by Race/Ethnicity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Polak, Joseph F.; Post, Wendy S.; Siscovick, David S.; Watson, Karol E.; Vahratian, Anjel M.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality are more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, but it is unknown whether this variation is present in the earlier subclinical stages of disease. The authors examined racial/ethnic variation in sex differences in coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intimal media thickness at baseline in 2000–2002 among participants (n = 6,726) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using binomial and linear regression. Models adjusted for risk factors in several stages: age, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioral risk factors, psychosocial factors, and adult socioeconomic position. Women had a lower prevalence of any CAC and smaller amounts of CAC when present than men in all racial/ethnic groups. Sex differences in the prevalence of CAC were more pronounced in non-Hispanic whites than in African Americans and Chinese Americans after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, and further adjustment for behavioral factors, psychosocial factors, and socioeconomic position did not modify these results (for race/sex, Pinteraction = 0.047). Similar patterns were observed for amount of CAC among adults with CAC. Racial/ethnic variation in sex differences for carotid intimal media thickness was less pronounced. In conclusion, coronary artery calcification is differentially patterned by sex across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:21685409

  18. Sex and Ethnic-Group Differences on Accomplishments Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bennett, Randy Elliot

    2001-01-01

    Studied sex and ethnic group differences on 6 scales that measure accomplishments for 739 male and 1,746 female graduate school applicants. With the exception of the scale measuring mechanical accomplishment, men and women did not differ in performance, and ethnic groups did not differ on any scale. (SLD)

  19. Ethnicity, Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethnicity and the mental health problems of the elderly in American society? This paper offers some suggestions and reviews some data that might encourage further efforts in this area. (Author)

  20. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, A. E.; Broyles, S. T.; Gupta, A. K.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated ethnic and sex differences in the distribution of fat during childhood and adolescence. Design and Methods A cross-sectional sample (n=382), aged 5 to 18 years, included African American males (n=84), White males (n=96), African American females (n=118), and White females (n=84). Measures for total body fat (TBF) mass and abdominal adipose tissue (total volume and L4–L5 cross-sectional area) for both subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) depots were assessed by DXA and MRI, respectively. ANCOVAs were used to determine ethnic and sex differences in TBF (adjusted for age) and ethnic and sex differences in SAT and VAT (adjusted for both age and TBF). Results Age-adjusted TBF was greater in African Americans (p=0.017) and females (p<0.0001) compared to Whites and males, respectively. In age- and TBF-adjusted ANCOVAs, no differences were found in the SAT. The VAT volume was, however, greater in Whites (p<0.0001) and males (p<0.0001) compared to African Americans and females, respectively. Similar patterns were observed in SAT and VAT area at L4–L5. Conclusions The demonstrated ethnic and sex differences are important confounders in the prevalence of obesity and in the assignment of disease risk in children and adolescents. PMID:23670982

  1. Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in School Children: A Cross-Sex and Ethnic Examination

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Lindsay E.; Little, Michelle; Caterino, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the cross-sex and -ethnic (Hispanic/ Latino, non-Hispanic White) measurement invariance of anxiety symptoms based on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) as well as SCAS anxiety symptoms’ correspondence with scores on the 5-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and teacher ratings of child anxiety. Based on data corresponding to 702 children (M age= 9.65, SD=0.70; 51.9 % girls; 55 % Hispanic/Latino), findings showed some sex and ethnic variations in SCAS measured anxiety at the item and scale levels. Moreover, SCAS correspondence to the 5-item SCARED was found across ethnicity and sex. SCAS correspondence to teacher ratings was found for non-Hispanic White boys and non-Hispanic White girls, marginally in Hispanic/Latino boys, and poorly in Hispanic/ Latino girls. PMID:24993313

  2. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  3. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  4. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the “normative” and “non-normative” entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories – “early,” “normative,” “late,” and “inexperienced,” and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. Methods The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Results Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Conclusions Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for

  5. Individual and interpersonal risk factors for physical intimate partner violence perpetration by biological sex and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Renner, Lynette M; Whitney, Stephen D; Vasquez, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that reaches across age, sex, and ethnicity. In this study, we examined risk factors for physical IPV perpetration among young adult males and females from four ethnic groups. Data were taken from Waves 1-3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample included 10,141 Wave 3 respondents (ages ranged from 18-27 years old) who reported being in a current romantic relationship. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 14.10% of White, 23.28% of Black, 18.82% of Latino, and 18.02% of Asian males. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 19.01% of White, 24.80% of Black, 25.97% of Latina, and 19.21% of Asian females. Following an ecological framework, proximal risk factors at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels were included in the analyses. Despite finding fairly consistent percentage of physical IPV perpetration across sample groups, the risk factors for physical IPV perpetration were rather uncommon across sex and ethnicity. Only 1 factor--psychological IPV perpetration toward a romantic partner--was consistently associated with physical IPV perpetration across all groups. Our findings have implications for tailoring prevention and intervention efforts toward risk factors of physical IPV perpetration that are uniquely associated with biological sex and ethnicity. PMID:25774417

  6. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. PMID:26553738

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1003 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 1003 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex of the applicant on...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1003 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 1003 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex of the applicant on...

  9. Genetics of cardiovascular disease: importance of sex and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Miller, Virginia M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and prevalence of and morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are well documented. However, many studies examining the genetic basis for cardiovascular disease fail to consider sex as a variable in the study design, in part, because there is an inherent difficulty in studying the contribution of the sex chromosomes in women due to X chromosome inactivation. This paper will provide general background on the X and Y chromosomes (including gene content, the pseudoautosomal regions, and X chromosome inactivation), discuss how sex chromosomes have been ignored in Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular diseases, and discuss genetics influencing development of cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis with particular attention to carotid intima-medial thickness, and coronary arterial calcification based on sex-specific studies. In addition, a brief discussion of how ethnicity and hormonal status act as confounding variables in sex-based analysis will be considered along with methods for statistical analysis to account for sex in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25817330

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Young Men’s Sex and Contraceptive Education

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Amy H.; Vanderberg, Rachel; Sucato, Gina S.; Miller, Elizabeth; Akers, Aletha Y.; Borrero, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic disparities exist in young men’s contraceptive knowledge. This study examines whether the likelihood of receiving sexual health education varies by race/ethnicity. Study Design We examined racial/ethnic differences in sex and contraceptive education both in school and from parents with multivariable logistic regression models among 4,104 men aged 15–24 years using data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Results Nearly all respondents (96.6%) reported formal sex education. Fewer reported formal birth control education (66.6%), parental sex discussions (66.8%), and parental discussions specifically about birth control (49.2%). In multivariable analysis, black men were less likely than white men to report receiving formal contraceptive education (aOR:0.70;95%CI:0.51–0.96). Black and US-born Hispanic men reported more parental sex discussions than white men (aOR:1.44;95%CI:1.07–1.94, aOR:1.47;95%CI:1.09–1.99, respectively). Conclusions Nearly all respondents reported having received formal sexual health education. Fewer reported receiving education about birth control either at school or at home. Black men were less likely to report receiving formal contraceptive education. PMID:25797633

  11. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  12. Gender and ethnic differences in body image and opposite sex figure preferences of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, LaShanda R; Fries, Elizabeth; Danish, Steven J

    2007-03-01

    This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 years) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:18089257

  13. Ethnic and sex differences in skeletal maturation among the Birth to Twenty cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J; Rousham, Emily K; Hawley, Nicola L; Cameron, Noel; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine ethnic and sex differences in the pattern of skeletal maturity from adolescence to adulthood using a novel longitudinal analysis technique (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR)). Setting Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants 607 boys and girls of black as well as white ethnicity from the Birth to Twenty bone health study, assessed annually from 9 to 20 years of age. Outcome measure Bone maturity scores (Tanner–Whitehouse III radius, ulna, and short bones (TW3 RUS)) assessed longitudinally from hand-wrist radiographs were used to produce individual and mean growth curves of bone maturity and analysed by the SITAR method. Results The longitudinal analysis showed that black boys matured later by 7.0 SE 1.6 months (p<0.0001) but at the same rate as white boys, whereas black girls matured at the same age but at a faster rate than white girls (by 8.7% SE 2.6%, p=0.0007). The mean curves for bone maturity score consistently showed a midpubertal double kink, contrasting with the quadratic shape of the commonly used reference centile curves for bone maturity (TW3). Conclusions Skeletal maturity was reached 1.9 years earlier in girls than boys, and the pattern of maturation differed between the sexes. Within girls, there were no ethnic differences in the pattern or timing of skeletal maturity. Within boys, however, skeletal maturity was delayed by 7 months in black compared with white ethnicity. Skeletal maturation, therefore, varies differentially by sex and ethnicity. The delayed maturity of black boys, but not black girls, supports the hypothesis that boys have greater sensitivity to environmental constraints than girls. PMID:25409981

  14. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and...

  19. Association Between Sex Hormones and Adiposity: Qualitative Differences in Women and Men in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ouyang, Pamela; Szklo, Moyses; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Woodward, Mark; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex hormones may influence adipose tissue deposition, possibly contributing to sex disparities in cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We hypothesized that associations of sex hormone levels with visceral and subcutaneous fat differ by sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with sex hormone levels at baseline and visceral and subcutaneous fat measurements from computed tomography at visit 2 or 3 (n = 1835). Main Outcome Measures: Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the relationships between sex hormones and adiposity. Testing for interaction by sex, race/ethnicity, and age was conducted. Results: In adjusted models, there was a modest significant positive association between estradiol and visceral fat in both sexes (percent difference in visceral fat for 1% difference in hormone [95% confidence interval] in women, 5.44 [1.82, 9.09]; and in men, 8.22 [0.61, 16.18]). Higher bioavailable T was significantly associated with higher visceral and subcutaneous fat in women and with the reverse in men (women, 14.38 [10.23, 18.69]; men, −7.69 [−13.06, −1.00]). Higher dehydroepiandrosterone was associated with higher visceral fat in women (7.57 [1.71, 13.88]), but not in men (−2.47 [−8.88, 4.29]). Higher SHBG was associated with significantly lower levels of adiposity in both sexes (women, −24.42 [−28.11, −20.55]; men, −27.39 [−32.97, −21.34]). There was no significant interaction by race/ethnicity or age. Conclusion: Sex hormones are significantly associated with adiposity, and the associations of androgens differ qualitatively by sex. This heterogeneity may help explain the complexity of the contribution of sex hormones to sex differences in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25636047

  20. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  1. The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Snjezana; Zerr, Argero A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Di Giunta, Laura; Pina, Armando A.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Sallquist, Julie; Edwards, Alison; Kupfer, Anne; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael A.; Taylor, Heather B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement invariance of a one-factor model of effortful control (EC) was tested for 853 low-income preschoolers (M age = 4.48 years). Using a teacher-report questionnaire and seven behavioral measures, configural invariance (same factor structure across groups), metric invariance (same pattern of factor loadings across groups), and partial scalar invariance (mostly the same intercepts across groups) were established across ethnicity (European Americans, African Americans and Hispanics) and across sex. These results suggest that the latent construct of EC behaved in a similar way across ethnic groups and sex, and that comparisons of mean levels of EC are valid across sex and probably valid across ethnicity, especially when larger numbers of tasks are used. The findings also support the use of diverse behavioral measures as indicators of a single latent EC construct. PMID:20593008

  2. Sex chromosome aneuploidy and aging.

    PubMed

    Stone, J F; Sandberg, A A

    1995-10-01

    Loss of an X chromosome in females and of the Y chromosome in males are phenomena associated with aging. X chromosome loss occurs in and may be limited to PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. In males, the loss of the Y is most evident in bone marrow cells, but also occurs to a lesser extent in PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. X chromosome loss is associated with premature centromere division leading to anaphase lag and elimination in micronuclei. The mechanism of Y chromosome loss has not been elucidated. No pathological consequence of either X or Y chromosome loss has been convincingly demonstrated. With the advent of FISH technology, measurement of sex chromosome aneuploidy may prove to be a convenient assay for cellular senecence and aging. PMID:7565866

  3. Male Sex Roles and Epithets for Ethnic Women in American Slang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Irving Lewis

    1984-01-01

    Research shows that derogatory names used for women of ethnic outgroups (1) are aimed disproportionately at women of racial minorities; (2) stereotype physical differences between ethnic groups; (3) make derogatory sexual allusions, often using food and animal metaphors; and (4) display the strains of traditional male sex roles in ethnic and…

  4. The Anthropological Implications of Sex Role Differences: Class and Ethnic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jerome W.

    The implications of physical and biological sex differences on sex role behavior cannot be understood without analyzing the complementary role of the sociocultural meaning of sex roles. The normative aspect of gender role behavior is fluid and can be affected by culture, class, and ethnicity. All societies recognize differences between the sexes.…

  5. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  6. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  7. Racial/ethnic preferences, sex preferences, and perceived discrimination related to end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sonia A; Jackson, Frances C; Schim, Stephanie M; Ronis, David L; Fowler, Karen E

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial/ethnic preferences, sex preferences, and perceived discrimination related to end-of-life care. Ten focus groups and a follow-up survey were conducted to obtain in-depth information on end-of-life preferences across five racial/ethnic groups in Michigan stratified by sex. There were 73 focus group participants, including Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, Hispanics, blacks, and whites. The mean age+/-standard deviation was 67+/-8.5 (range 50-83). A focus group screener was used to recruit participants. A moderator discussion guide was used to guide the focus groups. A take-home questionnaire asked about demographic information and end-of-life issues. Arab Americans were in favor of making peace on earth and were against assisted suicide, extending life artificially, nursing homes, and telling the patient "bad news." Hispanic and black women were against assisted suicide and in favor of extending life, whereas the men in these groups felt the opposite. Hispanic women spoke of not wanting a feeding tube and would consider alternative medicine. Blacks were least opposed to nursing homes. For whites, it was important to have choices. When asked about discrimination related to end-of-life care, Muslim women spoke of cultural barriers, blacks spoke of inequities in the past, and whites spoke of age discrimination and abandonment when dying. As the population becomes more diverse and continues to age, it will be important to provide culturally and sex-sensitive end-of-life interventions to increase patient/family satisfaction and allocate resources appropriately. PMID:16420213

  8. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974

  9. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Occupational Stereotyping by Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Frederica; Diamond, Esther E.

    1979-01-01

    Children were surveyed regarding career choice and perceptions of appropriateness of selected occupations for male and female adults and children. Responses were analyzed by ethnic membership and sex. Hispanic and Anglo girls chose more nontraditional occupations than Black girls. (Author)

  10. Maternal and Adolescent Expectations and Aspirations as Related to Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship of demographic variables (socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and sex) and maternal orientations, and its effect on adolescent expectations and aspirations. Subjects were 190 Black and White adolescents. (CM)

  11. Sex ratio at birth in twenty-first century Greece: the role of ethnic and social groups.

    PubMed

    Gavalas, V; Rontos, K; Nagopoulos, N

    2015-05-01

    The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant deviation from this 'global average' is considered to be unnatural and is attributed to sex-selective under-reporting of births, sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide or other man-made factors. The present paper uses data on civil registration from 2004-2011 to investigate the sex ratio at birth in modern Greece. It was found that the SRB is extremely masculine when the parents originate from the Indian sub-continent and China. The SRB is also unnaturally high (more than 113 boys per 100 girls) in the case of legitimate births born to Greek mothers who are illiterate. These findings are strong evidence that sex-selective abortions are taking place in Greece within population groups with a certain ethnic and social profile. Other parameters, such as age of mother at birth, birth order, legal status of birth and geographical location, were also investigated and they were found to play a role in the variation of SRB, but not to the extent education and ethnic group do. PMID:24849079

  12. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  13. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  14. Do Sexual Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Differ by Race/Ethnicity?

    PubMed

    Tieu, Hong-Van; Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Cerda, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Latkin, Carl; Koblin, Beryl A

    2016-01-01

    The United States HIV epidemic disproportionately affects Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). This disparity might be partially explained by differences in social and sexual network structure and composition. A total of 1267 MSM in New York City completed an ACASI survey and egocentric social and sexual network inventory about their sex partners in the past 3 months, and underwent HIV testing. Social and sexual network structure and composition were compared by race/ethnicity of the egos: black, non-Hispanic (N = 365 egos), white, non-Hispanic (N = 466), and Hispanic (N = 436). 21.1% were HIV-positive by HIV testing; 17.2% reported serodiscordant and serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last 3 months. Black MSM were more likely than white and Hispanic MSM to report exclusively having partners of same race/ethnicity. Black and Hispanic MSM had more HIV-positive and unknown status partners than white MSM. White men were more likely to report overlap of social and sex partners than black and Hispanic men. No significant differences by race/ethnicity were found for network size, density, having concurrent partners, or having partners with ≥10 years age difference. Specific network composition characteristics may explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection rates among MSM, including HIV status of sex partners in networks and lack of social support within sexual networks. Network structural characteristics such as size and density do not appear to have such an impact. These data add to our understanding of the complexity of social factors affecting black MSM and Hispanic MSM in the U.S. PMID:26745143

  15. Effects of Ethnic, Sex, and Attitude Similarity on Counselor Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on perceptions of counselor credibility in 127 Mexican American community college students who responded to written and tape recorded counselor information, and completed the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale. Results showed attitude similarity rather than ethnicity influenced students' perceptions. (JAC)

  16. Employment Discrimination: Age, Sex and National Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.; Lawson, Miriam

    Chapter 17 of a book on school law is an historical review of judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to employment. The purpose of the chapter is to analyze those cases concerned with discrimination because of sex, age, or national origin, and to discuss the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in these areas. Not until the…

  17. Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

  18. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  19. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  20. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  1. Understanding the Decision to Enroll in Graduate School: Sex and Racial/Ethnic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2004-01-01

    Women continue to receive fewer doctoral and first-professional degrees than men, even though women receive more bachelor's degrees. The underrepresentation of women holds even after allowing for time to complete an advanced degree. Although researchers have examined sex and racial/ethnic group differences in undergraduate enrollment (e.g.,…

  2. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  3. Bibliography of Multi-Ethnic and Sex-Fair Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Equal Educational Opportunities.

    This annotated bibliography lists both nondiscriminatory instructional materials (largely audio-visual) for classroom use and works for teachers' use that promote multi-ethnic and sex fair education. The materials listed include films, filmstrips, slide presentations and video tapes, bibliographies of curriculum materials, books, handbooks and…

  4. Risky Sex: Interactions among Ethnicity, Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Inhibition, and Sexual Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hong V.; Koo, Kelly H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, vary across ethnic minority groups, yet few studies have evaluated sexual risk behaviors and their psychological correlates to determine if risk and protective factors vary by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess sexual sensation seeking (SSS), sexual inhibition (SIS1 and SIS2), and sexual excitation (SES) as correlates of risky sexual behaviors in 106 (55 male and 51 female) Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasian Americans. Results revealed that higher SSS was associated with more vaginal and anal sex partners. Further, the association between SSS and the number of anal sex partners was positive among Asian Americans and Caucasians, but non-significant among African Americans. SIS1 was positively associated with unprotected sex on the first date among Asian Americans and African Americans. However, the association was not significant for Caucasians. SIS2 was negatively associated with general unprotected sex, and SES was positively associated with the number of vaginal sex partners. Findings suggest that ethnicity plays an important moderating role in the relationship between sexual traits and risky sexual behaviors. PMID:22350123

  5. Risky sex: interactions among ethnicity, sexual sensation seeking, sexual inhibition, and sexual excitation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong V; Koo, Kelly H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Otto, Jacqueline M; Hendershot, Christian S; Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette

    2012-10-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, vary across ethnic minority groups, yet few studies have evaluated sexual risk behaviors and their psychological correlates to determine if risk and protective factors vary by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess sexual sensation seeking (SSS), sexual inhibition (SIS1 and SIS2), and sexual excitation (SES) as correlates of risky sexual behaviors in 106 (55 male and 51 female) Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasian Americans. Results revealed that higher SSS was associated with more vaginal and anal sex partners. Further, the association between SSS and the number of anal sex partners was positive among Asian Americans and Caucasians, but non-significant among African Americans. SIS1 was positively associated with unprotected sex on the first date among Asian Americans and African Americans. However, the association was not significant for Caucasians. SIS2 was negatively associated with general unprotected sex, and SES was positively associated with the number of vaginal sex partners. Findings suggest that ethnicity plays an important moderating role in the relationship between sexual traits and risky sexual behaviors. PMID:22350123

  6. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  7. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  8. Purpose-in-Life Test: Age and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Augustine; Edwards, Henry

    1974-01-01

    This study examined age and sex differences, and the interaction of age x sex, with respect to "meaning in life" as defined by Frankl and measured by the Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL) developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. (Author)

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association between Arrest and Unprotected Anal Sex among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Kapadia, Farzana; Bates, Francesca C; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-08-01

    This analysis aimed to determine whether the relationship between a history of arrest and unprotected anal sex (UAS) is the same for Black/Latino gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as compared to White/Asian/Pacific Islander (API) YMSM in New York City (NYC). Baseline audio-computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) and interviewer-administered survey data from a sample of 576 YMSM aged 18-19 years old who self-reported being HIV-negative were analyzed. Data included history of arrest and incarceration as well as UAS in the past 30 days. Race/ethnicity was an effect modifier of the association between arrest and UAS among YMSM: White/API YMSM with a lifetime arrest history were more than three times as likely to report UAS, and Black/Latino YMSM with a lifetime history of arrest were approximately 70 % less likely to report UAS as compared with White/API YMSM with no reported arrest history. Race/ethnicity may modify the relationship between arrest and sexual risk behavior because the etiology of arrest differs by race, as partially evidenced by racial/ethnic disparities in police stop, arrest, and incarceration rates in NYC. Arrest could not only be an indicator of risky behavior for White/API YMSM but also an indicator of discrimination for Black/Latino YMSM. Further research is needed to assess whether the differential associations observed here vis-à-vis race/ethnicity are robust across different populations and different health outcomes. PMID:25677880

  10. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  11. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  12. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  13. Incidence of oral cancer among South Asians and those of other ethnic groups by sex in West Yorkshire and England, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Csikar, Julia; Aravani, Ariadni; Godson, Jenny; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 there were 11682 cases of oral cancer in the United Kingdom; this is 16.41/100000 population, and 3.7% of all cancers. Ethnic coding of these data is poor, and so databases were combined to report rates for the incidence of oral cancer in South Asians compared with those among other ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, 2001-2006. A total of 2157 patients with oral cancer were identified in West Yorkshire, 138 of whom were South Asian (6.4%). We analysed them by ethnicity, sex, area in which they lived, and site of cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more common among South Asian women than those from other ethnic groups in England and West Yorkshire, and in England alone it was significantly more common in men of other ethnic groups than those from South Asia. Patients from South Asia were at higher risk of being diagnosed with oral cancer than those of other ethnic groups within West Yorkshire, when data were adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex. In England and in West Yorkshire there was a significantly higher rate of oral cancer among Southern Asian women than among those of other ethnic groups, and men in other ethnic groups had a higher incidence than those from South Asia (England only). The excess of oral cancers gives further weight to the association between smokeless tobacco, smoking, alcohol, and dietary intake by ethnic group. This information is particularly pertinent in areas such as West Yorkshire where there are large groups of Asian people. PMID:22495403

  14. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  15. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  16. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  17. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895

  18. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  19. Sex and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Premature Mortality Due to HIV: Florida, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Fennie, Kristopher P.; McKelvey, Karma; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to characterize premature mortality among people diagnosed with HIV infection from 2000 to 2009 in Florida, by sex and race/ethnicity, to estimate differences in premature mortality that could be prevented by linkage to HIV care and treatment. Methods Florida surveillance data for HIV diagnoses (excluding concurrent AIDS diagnoses) were linked with vital records data to ascertain deaths through 2011. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) were obtained from the expected number of remaining years of life at a given age from the U.S. sex-specific period life tables. Results Among 41,565 people diagnosed with HIV infection during the study period, 5,249 died, and 2,563 (48.8%) deaths were due to HIV/AIDS. Age-standardized YPLL (aYPLL) due to HIV/AIDS per 1,000 person-years was significantly higher for females than males (372.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 349.8, 396.2 vs. 295.2, 95% CI 278.4, 312.5); for non-Hispanic black (NHB) females than non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic females (388.2, 95% CI 360.7, 416.9; 294.3, 95% CI 239.8, 354.9; and 295.0, 95% CI 242.9, 352.5, respectively); and for NHB males compared with NHW and Hispanic males (378.7, 95% CI 353.7, 404.7; 210.6, 95% CI 174.3, 250.8; and 240.9, 95% CI 204.8, 280.2, respectively). In multilevel modeling controlling for individual factors, NHB race was associated with YPLL due to HIV/AIDS for women (p=0.04) and men (p<0.001). Conclusion Among people diagnosed with HIV infection, females and NHB people had a disproportionately high premature mortality from HIV/AIDS, suggesting the need for enhanced efforts to improve linkage to and retention in care and medication adherence for these groups. PMID:26327728

  20. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  1. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  2. Social Interaction, Age, and Ethnicity: An Examination of the "Double Jeopardy" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.; Bengston, Vern L.

    This paper explores the relationships among ethnicity, age and inherent social dilemmas. The study examines selected dependent variables (economic and health indicators, social interaction, and life satisfaction items) in an effort to determine the extent to which different configurations of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status produce varying…

  3. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  4. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  5. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions*

    PubMed Central

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings), which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765) to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. In addition, this study clarifies the importance of two additional measurement assumptions, cross-respondent vignette equivalence and cross-character vignette equivalence. It also presents empirical findings of significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups, and thus support the potential utility of the anchoring vignette method. PMID:25621079

  6. Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Hall, Matthew D; Simpson, Stephen J; Dessmann, Josephine; Clissold, Fiona J; Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Raubenheimer, David; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict that fitness-related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance (especially sexual advertisement) will increase with age. In both bodies of theory, diet should mediate age-dependent changes in reproductive performance. In this study, we show that the sexes exhibit dramatic, qualitative differences in age-dependent reproductive performance trajectories and patterns of reproductive ageing in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. In females, fecundity peaked early in adulthood and then declined. In contrast, male sexual advertisement increased across the natural lifespan and only declined well beyond the maximum field lifespan. These sex differences were robust to deviations from sex-specific dietary requirements. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection can be at least as important as sex-dependent mortality in shaping the signal of reproductive ageing. PMID:19627271

  7. Ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination and the maintenance of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter. PMID:25978646

  8. Ethnicity- and Sex-Based Discrimination and the Maintenance of Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter. PMID:25978646

  9. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  10. Individual Differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Executive Dysfunction and Traits: Sex, Ethnicity, and Family Income

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to investigate sex, ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and risk markers, including executive dysfunction and temperament traits. Participants were 109 children who were 3 to 6 years old (64% male; 36% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers and teachers who completed a multistage, multi-informant screening, and diagnostic procedure. Parents completed a diagnostic interview and diagnostic and temperament questionnaires, teachers completed questionnaires, and children completed cognitive control tasks. Because of targeted overrecruitment of clinical cases, 56% of children in the sample were diagnosed with ADHD. Results suggested minimal sex differences, but prominent ethnic differences, in ADHD symptoms and temperament and executive function risk markers. Further, low family income was associated with increased ADHD symptoms and more temperament and executive function risk markers, and low family income explained many ethnic differences in ADHD symptoms and these risk markers. There were prominent interactions among child sex, ethnicity, and family income. Thus, study results suggest that children with multiple individual difference demographic risk factors (e.g., such as being male and ethnic minority) are at highly increased risk of ADHD symptoms and associated risk markers in the temperament and executive function domains. PMID:23889009

  11. Race/ethnicity and sex in U.S. occupations, 1970–2010: Implications for research, practice, and policy

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Fouad, Nadya; Wen, Yao

    2015-01-01

    We used census data on the civilian non-institutional adult population to analyze trends in labor force participation by race/ethnicity and sex in U.S. occupations from 1970 to 2010 in decennial periods. We examined these data for the main effects and interactions of race/ethnicity and sex across the total labor market and within 35 detailed occupations. Results from a log-linear analysis revealed that, as a whole (across race/ethnicity), more women participated in the labor force from 1970 to 2010. The proportions of working racial/ethnic minorities to both the population and the people in the labor force increased across all decades except for Black men. Although White (Caucasian) men continuously comprised the largest racial/ethnic–sex group working across five decades in absolute numbers, their percentage of the total working population declined from 1970 (54%) to 2010 (37%). In our analyses of 35 occupations, significant sex differences within racial/ethnic groups emerged. Overall, with some exceptions, Asian men and women and White women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with professional status whereas Black, Hispanic, and American Indian men and women were more likely to be absorbed into occupations typically associated with low skill, low wages, and low status. Implications for the role of psychologists in future research, practice, and policy are discussed. PMID:25937638

  12. Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

    1997-05-01

    An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

  13. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  14. Age and Sex Differences in Interaction with a Human Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. O.

    1981-01-01

    Examines sex differences in vocalizations and play behaviors displayed toward an infant by preschoolers, preadolescents, and adults. Preschoolers showed less interaction than older subjects. Males talked and played less with the baby than did females at all ages; however, among adult subjects, no sex-role effects were found. (Author/RH)

  15. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  16. Strategies for Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35…

  17. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

  18. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  19. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  20. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:25397640

  1. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  2. Strategies for managing racism and homophobia among U.S. ethnic and racial minority men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35 in-depth interviews with African American, Latino, and Asian and Pacific Islander MSM (aged 18 or older) recruited in Los Angeles. This process revealed five strategies that MSM of color employed in order to mitigate the impact of racism and homophobia. To minimize opportunities for stigmatization, men used (a) concealment of homosexuality and (b) disassociation from social settings associated with stigmatization. To minimize the impact of experienced stigma, men (c) dismissed the stigmatization and (d) drew strength and comfort from external sources. Men also actively countered stigmatization by (e) direct confrontation. More research is needed to understand the efficacy of these coping strategies in mitigating negative health consequences of stigmatization and discrimination. PMID:21517663

  3. Age- and sex-related changes in the soft tissues of the orbital region.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Catti, Francesca; Tommasi, Davide G; Ugolini, Alessandro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-03-10

    The orbital region plays a predominant role in the evaluation of the craniofacial complex. In the current study information about normal sex-related dimensions of the orbital region, and growth, development and aging, were provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the orbits and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 531 male and 357 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, biocular and intercanthal widths, paired height and inclination of the orbit relative to both the true horizontal (head in natural head position) and Frankfurt plane, length and inclination of the eye fissure, the relevant ratios, soft-tissue orbital area, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. Biocular and intercanthal widths, length of the eye fissure, soft-tissue orbital area, and the inclination of the orbit relative to the true horizontal, were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.01), with a significant effect of age (p<0.001), and significant agexsex interactions (p<0.001). Orbital height, and the height-to-width ratio increased as a function of age (p<0.001), but without gender-related differences. The inclination of the orbit relative to Frankfurt plane, and the inclination of the eye fissure did not differ between men and women, but modified as a function of age (p<0.001), with different sex-related patterns (sexxage interaction, p<0.001). On average, the paired measurements were symmetric, with similar values within each sex and age group. Overall, when compared to literature data, some differences were found due to both ethnicity, and different instruments. Nevertheless, during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, the age-related trends for linear dimensions were similar to those found in previous studies, while no previous data exist for older adults. During aging an increment in soft-tissue orbital

  4. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  5. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  6. The organization of sex work in low and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Liu; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E.; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in high and low-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

  7. Investigating Possible Effects of Ethnicity and Age on Gambling as an Escape.

    PubMed

    Cookman, Matthew L; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that there are a number of risk factors for disordered and problem gambling, including an individual's ethnicity and age. Endorsing gambling as an escape has also been shown to contribute to and maintain disordered gambling. The present study examined potential interactions between ethnicity and age as they relate to disordered gambling, as well as if ethnicity and age would be predictors of endorsing gambling as an escape. Three hundred fifteen adults from the United States completed measures relating to gambling. Participants were grouped into ethnic categories of Caucasian and non-Caucasian, and age groups of 18-25, 26-35, 36-55, and 56 years old and above. Non-Caucasians reported more gambling problems than Caucasians. A significant interaction was found between ethnicity and age for 36-55 year olds. Overall, participants were more likely to gamble for positive than negative reinforcement. However, only gambling as an escape was a significant predictor of disordered gambling. Implications and limitations are discussed with the thought that these results are informative to practitioners treating disordered gambling. PMID:26032667

  8. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  9. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  10. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE (REGULATION C) Pt. 203, App. B Appendix B to Part 203—Form and Instructions for...

  12. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  13. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  14. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  15. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  16. Serotonin modulation of cerebral glucose metabolism: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Workman, Clifford I; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S

    2012-11-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. PMID:22836227

  17. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  18. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  19. Anal Cancer Screening: Barriers and Facilitators Among Ethnically Diverse Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Masongsong, Emmanuel; Wiley, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and beliefs about anal cancer screening among gay and other men who have sex with men remains unclear, despite data that suggests significant risk for intra-anal HPV-related cancers. Nevertheless, community-based screening activities may be most effective when stake-holder perspectives are addressed. We conducted four focus groups among 16 male and 3 female health care advocates experienced in working with diverse gay and other men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. Barriers to anal cancer screening included lack of awareness, stigma, psychological and physical discomfort, the anus as hidden/private, primary concern with HIV, and men's lack of healthcare seeking. Facilitators were community screening sites, novel strategies such as home testing, health care system changes and targeted educational campaigns, which may increase anal cancer awareness and screening among ethnically diverse men who have sex with men. PMID:21165164

  20. Epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, S; Elford, J; Rice, B; Brown, A; Sinka, K; Evans, B; Gill, O; Fenton, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales (E&W). Methods: Ethnicity data from two national HIV/AIDS surveillance systems were reviewed (1997–2002 inclusive), providing information on new HIV diagnoses and those accessing NHS HIV treatment and care services. In addition, undiagnosed HIV prevalence among MSM attending 14 genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics participating in the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme and having routine syphilis serology was examined by world region of birth. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, 1040 BME MSM were newly diagnosed with HIV in E&W, representing 12% of all new diagnoses reported among MSM. Of the 1040 BME MSM, 27% were black Caribbean, 12% black African, 10% black other, 8% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, and 44% other/mixed. Where reported (n = 395), 58% of BME MSM were probably infected in the United Kingdom. An estimated 7.4% (approximate 95% CI: 4.4% to 12.5%) of BME MSM aged 16–44 in E&W were living with diagnosed HIV in 2002 compared with 3.2% (approximate 95% CI: 2.6% to 3.9%) of white MSM (p<0.001). Of Caribbean born MSM attending GUM clinics between 1997 and 2002, the proportion with undiagnosed HIV infection was 15.8% (95% CI: 11.7% to 20.8%), while among MSM born in other regions it remained below 6.0%. Conclusions: Between 1997–2002, BME MSM accounted for just over one in 10 new HIV diagnoses among MSM in E&W; more than half probably acquired their infection in the United Kingdom. In 2002, the proportion of BME MSM living with diagnosed HIV in E&W was significantly higher than white MSM. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence in Caribbean born MSM was high. These data confirm the need to remain alert to the sexual health needs and evolving epidemiology of HIV among BME MSM in E&W. PMID:16061545

  1. Age, APOE and sex: Triad of risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Brandalyn C; Thompson, Paul M; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Age, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE) and chromosomal sex are well-established risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD; AD). Over 60% of persons with AD harbor at least one APOE-ε4 allele. The sex-based prevalence of AD is well documented with over 60% of persons with AD being female. Evidence indicates that the APOE-ε4 risk for AD is greater in women than men, which is particularly evident in heterozygous women carrying one APOE-ε4 allele. Paradoxically, men homozygous for APOE-ε4 are reported to be at greater risk for mild cognitive impairment and AD. Herein, we discuss the complex interplay between the three greatest risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, age, APOE-ε4 genotype and chromosomal sex. We propose that the convergence of these three risk factors, and specifically the bioenergetic aging perimenopause to menopause transition unique to the female, creates a risk profile for AD unique to the female. Further, we discuss the specific risk of the APOE-ε4 positive male which appears to emerge early in the aging process. Evidence for impact of the triad of AD risk factors is most evident in the temporal trajectory of AD progression and burden of pathology in relation to APOE genotype, age and sex. Collectively, the data indicate complex interactions between age, APOE genotype and gender that belies a one size fits all approach and argues for a precision medicine approach that integrates across the three main risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26969397

  2. Sex Differences in Participation, Performance, and Age of Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, Jonathon; Smith, Carolyn; Hunter, Sandra K

    2016-07-01

    The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45-160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix. Men were faster than women for all events (18.7% ± 5.8%, P < .001). The sex difference in speed was the least for 100 km (14.9% ± 4.2%) and greatest for 45-50 km (19.3% ± 5.8%). The top-10 men were younger than the top-10 women (37.7 ± 3.2 and 39.0 ± 3.1 y, respectively, P < .001). The sex difference in speed increased with finishing place (1st place 15.6% ± 6.6% vs 10th 20.8% ± 5.6%, P < .001). Association analysis showed that the sex difference in speed was largest when there were fewer women than men finishers in a race; the strength of the association was greatest for the 80-km distance and least for the 160-km. Lower participation rates of women than men in the lower-distance ultramarathons and less depth among lower-placed women runners inflate the sex difference in ultramarathon performance. PMID:26561864

  3. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  5. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  6. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  7. Variations in Students' School- and Teacher-Related Attitudes across Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined differences across gender, ethnicity, and age with regard to the nature of participants' self-reported attitudes toward school and teachers, based on previous research suggesting that students' school- and teacher-related attitudes appear to have an influence on academic achievement. This study employed an archival…

  8. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  9. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  10. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): Norms for Age, Education, and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehr, Michael C.; Heaton, Robert K.; Miller, Walden; Grant, Igor

    1998-01-01

    Demographic influences on performance on a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (D. Gronwall and H. Sampson, 1974), a measure of some cognitive functions, were studied with 566 healthy North-American adults. Age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors. A formula and tables are presented for computing T scores…

  11. Spatial distribution of intracortical porosity varies across age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Nirody, Jasmine A.; Cheng, Karen P.; Parrish, Robin M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone porosity is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue. The goal of this work was to investigate changes in spatial distribution and microstructure of cortical porosity associated with aging in men and women. The specific aims were to: 1) develop an automated technique for spatial analysis of cortical microstructure based on HR-pQCT data, and; 2) apply this technique to explore sex- and age-specific spatial distribution and microstructure of porosity within the cortex. We evaluated HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from a cross-sectional cohort of 145 individuals, characterizing detectable pores as being in the endosteal, midcortical, or periosteal layers of the cortex. Metrics describing porosity, pore number, and pore size were quantifiedwithin each layer and compared across sexes, age groups, and cortical layers. The elderly cohort (65–78 years, n=22) displayed higher values than the young cohort (20–29 years, n=29) for all parameters both globally and within each layer. While all three layers displayed significant age-related porosity increases, the greatest difference in porosity between the young and elderly cohort was in the midcortical layer (+344%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the midcortical layer reflected the greatest differences between young and elderly cohorts in both pore number (+243%, p < 0.001) and size (+28%, p < 0.001). Females displayed greater age-related changes in porosity and pore number than males. Females and males displayed comparable small to non-significant changes with age in pore size. In summary, considerable variability exists in the spatial distribution of detectable cortical porosity at the distal tibia, and this variability is dependent on age and sex. Intracortical pore distribution analysis may ultimately provide insight into both mechanisms of pore network expansion and biomechanical consequences of pore distribution. PMID:25701139

  12. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  13. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  14. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  15. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  16. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  17. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  18. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  19. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  20. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  1. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  2. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  3. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions. PMID:21586668

  4. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  5. The Ethnic Elderly in Metro Toronto Hospitals, Nursing Homes, and Homes for the Aged: Communication and Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldov, Morris; Chow, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Developed database on ethnic elderly persons; examined extent of communication problems they face in hospitals, nursing homes, and homes for aged in Metro Toronto; and reported on institutional response. Nursing home supervisors (n=77) reported that communication was essential to health care needs of ethnic elderly individuals. Most health care…

  6. Sex differences with aging in the fatigability of dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Doyel, Ryan; Widule, Claire; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the sex difference with aging in fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles during a dynamic fatiguing task, and explored the associated mechanisms. We compared fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles in 18 young (20.2 ± 1 years: 9 men) and 36 old adults (73.5 ± 1 years: 16 men) during and in recovery from repeated dynamic contractions (~60°/s) with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (an increase in the superimposed twitch, SIT) and the peak rate of muscle relaxation. Time to failure was briefer for the men than the women (6.1 ± 2.1 vs. 9.7 ± 5.5 min, respectively; P=0.02) with no difference between young and old adults (7.2 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 5.2 min, respectively, P=0.45) and no interaction (P>0.05). The relative decline in peak relaxation rate with fatigability was similar for young and old adults (P=0.11), but greater for men than women (P=0.046). Supraspinal fatigue increased for all groups and was associated with the time to failure (P<0.05). Regression analysis however, indicated that the time to failure was best predicted by the peak relaxation rate (baseline values and slowing with fatigability) (r(2)=0.55). Rate-limiting contractile mechanisms (e.g. excitation-contraction coupling) were responsible for the increased fatigability of the elbow flexors of men compared with women for a dynamic fatiguing task of slow angular velocity, and this sex difference was maintained with aging. The age difference in fatigability for the dynamic task was diminished for both sexes relative to what is typically observed with isometric fatiguing contractions. PMID:26159162

  7. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  8. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  9. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  10. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    PubMed

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA <200 copies/mL last measured in year). The cascades were stratified by calendar year, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p < 0.05) higher percent linkage, filled ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p < 0.05) with retention, filled ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p < 0.05) retention than whites or blacks in all years, with similar retention comparing blacks and whites. Filled ART and viral suppression was increased (p < 0.05) for whites compared with all racial/ethnic groups in all years. Cascade methodology requiring success at upstream stages before measuring success at later stages (i.e., "dependent" methodology) underreported performance by up to 20% compared with evaluating each stage separately ("independent"). Thus, care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing. PMID:26505968

  11. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008–2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...

  12. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  14. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  15. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  16. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Golden, Sherita Hill; Allison, Matthew A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Szklo, Moyses; Woodward, Mark; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race. Methods CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity. Results Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (p<0.001), waist to hip ratio (p<0.001), and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05) differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), hip circumference (p = 0.006), and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001) with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity. Conclusion The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used. PMID:26448048

  17. Ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on birth prevalence of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood, B; Pryde, P; Wall, S; Singh, J; Mittendorf, R; Lee, K S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on the risk of Down syndrome might reflect differences in use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. METHODS: Maternal age-specific odds of Down syndrome and amniocentesis use were compared among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites via birth data for the years 1989 to 1991. RESULTS: The odds ratio and population attributable risk of Down syndrome due to maternal age of 35 years or older were highest for Mexican Americans, intermediate for African Americans, and lowest for non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age has a greater impact on the risk of Down syndrome for African American and, particularly, Mexican American women than for non-Hispanic White women. This difference in impact might reflect lower availability or use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. PMID:11076250

  18. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  19. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  20. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H., Jr.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  1. To Teach Family Day Care Caregivers How Not to Be Discriminative with Sex Roles and to Encourage Positive Self Images with Children of Different Ethnic Cultures. (A Proposal).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Deryl Ann

    This document presents a portion of the Family Day Care Task Force's overall training program for family day care caregivers designed specifically to re-educate caregivers with regard to attitudes toward ethnic and sex stereotyping. Training objectives, procedures for the training sessions, and class outlines are presented. Also included are…

  2. Degrees Conferred in Institutions of Higher Education, by Race-Ethnicity and Sex: 1976-77 through 1986-87. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Henry A.; Brown, Patricia Q.

    The report summarizes data on higher education degrees conferred in the United States in the decade between 1976-77 and 1986-87. Information is given in textual and tabular form, and data are detailed by race/ethnicity; sex; and field of study for bachelor's, master's, doctor's, and first professional degrees. Data on degrees awarded to…

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  4. High prevalence of sexual concurrency and concurrent unprotected anal intercourse across racial/ethnic groups among a national, web-based study of men who have sex with men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Eli S.; Khosropour, Christine M.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the largest HIV risk-group in the United States. Sexual concurrency may contribute to high HIV incidence, or to racial/ethnic HIV disparities among MSM. Limited information is available on concurrency and racial/ethnic differences among MSM, or on the extent to which MSM engage in concurrent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Methods Data are from baseline responses in a prospective online study of MSM aged ≥ 18 years, having ≥ 1 male sex partner in the past 12 months, and recruited from social networking websites. Pair-wise sexual concurrency and UAI in the previous 6 months among up to 5 recent partners was measured, using an interactive questionnaire. Period prevalences of concurrency and concurrent UAI were computed and compared across racial/ethnic groups at the individual and triad (a respondent and 2 sex partners) levels. Results 2,940 MSM reported on 8,911 partnerships; 45% indicated concurrent partnerships and 16% indicated concurrent UAI in the previous 6 months. Respondents were more likely to have UAI with two partners when they were concurrent, compared to serially monogamous (OR [95% CI] = 1.93 [1.75, 2.14]). No significant differences in levels of individual concurrency or concurrency among triads were found between non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men. Conclusions Concurrency and concurrent UAI in the previous 6 months was common. Although there were no differences by race/ethnicity, the high levels of concurrency and concurrent UAI may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in general. PMID:23001260

  5. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  6. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  7. Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Duan, Song; Duan, Qixiang; Pu, Yongcheng; Yang, Yuecheng; Ding, Yingying; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. Method A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. Results In total, 455 (94.4%) out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03–7.43), ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06–4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34–7.62), higher education (OR1–6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99–3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09–5.06) and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67–4.32). About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16–25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22–49.60, OR26–35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06–7.35, OR36–45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57–7.58), hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00–3.97) and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19–7.58) were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. Conclusions High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading. PMID:23626712

  8. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  9. Sexual Health Screening Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Storholm, Erik D.; Barton, Staci C.; Solomon, Todd M.; Jones, Donovan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Screening for sexually transmitted infections is a crucial element of improving health and reducing disparities, and young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face high rates of both STIs and HIV. We examined sexual health screening among a diverse sample of adolescent YMSM living in New York City. Methods Between 2009 – 2011, cross-sectional data were collected from 590 YMSM in New York City. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health and healthcare related factors and two main outcomes: having sought a recent sexual health screening (past 6 months) and having a rectal sexual health screening (lifetime). Results Overall, 46% reported a sexual health screening in the prior 6 months, but only 16% reported ever having a rectal screening for STIs. Rates were higher among ethnic minority YMSM and men who accessed care at clinics. Multivariable results indicated that gay community affiliation, recent unprotected anal sex, and number of lifetime male partners were also associated with seeking a recent screening. Conclusions Though half of the sample reported recent general screening, rates of lifetime rectal screening are low. Efforts to increase screening may focus on improving provider knowledge and guideline adherence, and educating and encouraging YMSM to access sexual health check-ups. PMID:23298989

  10. Internet Sex Ads for MSM and Partner Selection Criteria: The Potency of Race/Ethnicity Online

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay P.; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The explosive growth in Internet use by MSM to find sexual partners has been noted in the research literature. However, little attention has been given to the impact of participating in this online sexual marketplace for MSM of color, despite race/ethnicity as a frequently used selection criterion in personal ads or profiles. Six focus group discussions [n=50], and 35 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with African American, Latino, Asian and Pacific Islander MSM in Los Angeles, which included discussion of their use of Internet sites to meet/interact with other MSM. Men reported race/ethnicity as a pervasive and powerful factor in facilitating or derailing Internet-mediated sexual encounters. The racialized interactions that MSM of color reported ranged from simple expressions of race-based preferences to blatantly discriminatory/hostile interactions and often demeaning race-based sexual objectification. Experiences of rejection and a perceived hierarchy of value in the sexual market based on race had definite costs for these MSM using these online sites. Furthermore, the private and solitary nature of seeking partners online meant that there was little to buffer the corrosive aspects of those negative experiences. These online dynamics have implications for the power balance in Internet-mediated sexual liaisons, including sexual decision-making and sexual risk. PMID:21322176

  11. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  12. Variations in GP–patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctor–patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor–patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. Aim To determine how reported GP–patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Design and setting Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, including 1 599 801 responders. Method A composite score was created for doctor–patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. Results There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP–patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor–patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as ‘Any other white’. Conclusion The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP–patient communication — older, female, Asian patients and younger ‘Any other white’ patients — underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. PMID:26541182

  13. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  14. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  15. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  16. Age Group and Sex of Students. Fall 1974. Report No. 8-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature of higher education regarding significant changes in student body characteristics. The data in this document examines distribution of students at the State University of New York system by age group and sex. Tables array four fundamental student characteristics: age, sex, level…

  17. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  18. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  19. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  20. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood. PMID:27091185

  1. Intraocular Pressure, Ethnicity, and Refractive Error

    PubMed Central

    Manny, Ruth E.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Zadnik, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The ethnically-diverse Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study cohort provides a unique opportunity to explore associations among intraocular pressure (IOP), ethnicity, and refractive error while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Methods Mixed linear models were used to examine the effect of age, refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction), ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol on IOP (Tono-pen) in 3,777 children, aged 6-14 years at their first CLEERE visit (1995-2009). Children who became myopic during follow-up were used to examine the relationship between time since myopia onset and IOP. Clinically meaningful differences in IOP were preset at > 2 mm Hg. Results IOP differed among refractive error categories with higher IOP in children with low/moderate myopia than those with high hyperopia (differences < 1 mm Hg). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and IOP that depended on ethnicity (interaction p<0.0001) and measurement protocol (interaction p<0.0001). The relationship between sex and IOP depended on measurement protocol (interaction p=0.0004). For children who became myopic during follow-up, the adjusted mean IOP showed a significant decline for only Asian (p=0.024) and White children (p=0.004). As with other statistically significant results, these changes in mean adjusted IOPs from two years before to two years after myopia onset were < 2 mm Hg. Conclusions Small but significant differences in IOP by refractive error category were found in this ethnically diverse cohort of children. Relationships between IOP and age, ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol were complicated by significant interactions between these parameters. Longitudinal analysis of children before and after myopia onset showed changes in IOP over time that varied by ethnicity. Higher IOPs before and at myopia onset were not present in all ethnic groups, with differences before and after

  2. Effects of Age, Sex, and Comorbidities on the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is an outcomes assessment tool developed to allow measurement of health-related quality of life in children with disorders having musculoskeletal impact. The instrument was tested by Hunsaker and colleagues on a large population-based sample of children (n=5300), and partial results of that survey were published in 2002. Further publication of the findings did not occur. The PODCI was designed to collect data on age, sex, comorbidities, race and ethnicity, makeup of the household, and other demographic data that could have an impact on function and psychosocial issues. This retrospective study evaluated the impact of age, sex, and health/comorbid conditions on the subscales of the PODCI. Methods: Using the database that was developed by Hunsaker and colleagues for the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, a 1-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to determine effects of prior comorbid condition versus no prior comorbid condition on the dependent variables of the PODCI Upper Extremity Function, Transfers and Basic Mobility, Sports and Physical Function, Comfort, and Happiness scales by parent respondent. A follow-up analysis of the health/comorbid condition, age, and sex of the child on the PODCI subscales using independent samples t tests was performed. Results: Significant differences in the PODCI subscales of Transfers and Basic Mobility, Sports and Physical Function, Comfort, and Happiness occurred between children with a prior comorbid condition versus no prior reported comorbid condition. The sex of the child with a comorbid condition versus without a comorbidity appears to affect the PODCI subscale scores except for the Upper Extremity Function subscale. PODCI scales show an initial increase with age. Age at plateau varies, as do patterns of scores after plateau, with gradual decreases in quality-of-life scales. Conclusions: With further exploration of the population

  3. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ≥40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  4. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  5. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  6. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. Methods. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. Results. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and “Other African” countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. Conclusions. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (<50 years) than in natives of Sweden (>50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:21266400

  7. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  8. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  9. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  10. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  11. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  12. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  13. Performance of San Joaquin Delta College Freshmen Students in Reading, Writing and Math by Ethnicity, High School Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; And Others

    A study was conducted in fall 1985 to determine how well students at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) were prepared in reading, writing, and mathematics, comparing students by ethnicity, high school status, and age. SJDC uses the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Tests to to assess all new students who do not have an Associate of Arts degree or…

  14. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  15. Investigating possible ethnicity and sex bias in clinical examiners: an analysis of data from the MRCP(UK) PACES and nPACES examinations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bias of clinical examiners against some types of candidate, based on characteristics such as sex or ethnicity, would represent a threat to the validity of an examination, since sex or ethnicity are ‘construct-irrelevant’ characteristics. In this paper we report a novel method for assessing sex and ethnic bias in over 2000 examiners who had taken part in the PACES and nPACES (new PACES) examinations of the MRCP(UK). Method PACES and nPACES are clinical skills examinations that have two examiners at each station who mark candidates independently. Differences between examiners cannot be due to differences in performance of a candidate because that is the same for the two examiners, and hence may result from bias or unreliability on the part of the examiners. By comparing each examiner against a ‘basket’ of all of their co-examiners, it is possible to identify examiners whose behaviour is anomalous. The method assessed hawkishness-doveishness, sex bias, ethnic bias and, as a control condition to assess the statistical method, ‘even-number bias’ (i.e. treating candidates with odd and even exam numbers differently). Significance levels were Bonferroni corrected because of the large number of examiners being considered. Results The results of 26 diets of PACES and six diets of nPACES were examined statistically to assess the extent of hawkishness, as well as sex bias and ethnicity bias in individual examiners. The control (odd-number) condition suggested that about 5% of examiners were significant at an (uncorrected) 5% level, and that the method therefore worked as expected. As in a previous study (BMC Medical Education, 2006, 6:42), some examiners were hawkish or doveish relative to their peers. No examiners showed significant sex bias, and only a single examiner showed evidence consistent with ethnic bias. A re-analysis of the data considering only one examiner per station, as would be the case for many clinical examinations, showed that analysis

  16. Adolescent Girls' Sex Role Development: Relationship with Sports Participation, Self-Esteem, and Age at Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice E.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explores its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. Concludes that relationship of sex role orientation with sports participation and self-esteem was not an interactive one, but was reflective of individual differences beginning in late…

  17. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  18. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  19. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  20. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  1. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  2. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  3. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  4. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, CJIS Division, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,......

  5. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  6. Shoe midsole hardness, sex and age effects on lower extremity kinematics during running.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Benno M; Baltich, Jennifer; Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of shoe midsole hardness on running kinematics have often used male subjects from within a narrow age range. It is unknown whether shoe midsole hardness has the same kinematic effect on male and female runners as well as runners from different age categories. As sex and age have an effect on running kinematics, it is important to understand if shoe midsole hardness affects the kinematics of these groups in a similar fashion. However, current literature on the effects of sex and age on running kinematics are also limited to a narrow age range distribution in their study population. Therefore, this study tested the influence of three different midsole hardness conditions, sex and age on the lower extremity kinematics during heel-toe running. A comprehensive analysis approach was used to analyze the lower-extremity kinematic gait variables for 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years. Participants ran at 3.33±0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsoles. A principal component analysis combined with a support vector machine showed that running kinematics based on shoe midsole hardness, sex, and age were separable and classifiable. Shoe midsole hardness demonstrated a subject-independent effect on the kinematics of running. Additionally, it was found that age differences affected the more dominant movement components of running compared to differences due to the sex of a runner. PMID:22507350

  7. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  8. Sex-specific age-related changes of information processing rate indicators during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Mislav S; Budimir, Sanja; Merkas, Marina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators--two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls ceased at the age of 12, and in boys around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. Generally similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators. Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two non-average indicators: girls showed minor sd_t and boys showed minor min_t. In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non

  9. Ethnicity in the Electronic Age: Looking at the Internet through a Multicultural Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Thomas

    This research report examines the unique preferences, attitudes, motivations, and practices of ethnic Internet users, particularly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, discussing implications for marketing to U.S. ethnic communities. Data come from field research collected between August-November 2000. Researchers partnered with popular…

  10. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  11. Language, Education and Ethnicity: Whose Rights Will Prevail in an Age of Globalisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Education and ethnicity cannot be discussed without taking language into account. This paper will argue that any discussion of ethnic minorities cannot ignore the question of language, nor can any discussion of human rights ignore the question of language rights. Unfortunately, in today's globalised world, governments and minorities are faced with…

  12. Sex- and age-dependent association of SLC11A1 polymorphisms with tuberculosis in Chinese: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kim Hung; Yip, Shea Ping; Wong, Wa Sang; Yiu, Lap San; Chan, Kam Keung; Lai, Wai Man; Chow, Eudora YD; Lin, Che Kit; Yam, Wing Cheong; Chan, Kin Sang

    2007-01-01

    Background Host genetic factors are important determinants in tuberculosis (TB). The SLC11A1 (or NRAMP1) gene has been studied extensively for genetic association with TB, but with inconsistent findings. In addition, no study has yet looked into the effect of sex and age on the relationship between SLC11A1 polymorphisms and TB. Methods A case-control study was conducted. In total, 278 pulmonary TB patients and 282 sex- and age-matched controls without TB were recruited. All subjects were ethnic Chinese. On the basis of linkage disequilibrium pattern, three genetic markers from SLC11A1 and one from the nearby IL8RB locus were selected and examined for association with TB susceptibility. These markers were genotyped using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis or fragment analysis of amplified products. Results Statistically significant differences in allele (P = 0.0165, OR = 1.51) and genotype (P = 0.0163, OR = 1.59) frequencies of the linked markers SLC6a/b (classically called D543N and 3'UTR) of the SLC11A1 locus were found between patients and controls. With stratification by sex, positive associations were identified in the female group for both allele (P = 0.0049, OR = 2.54) and genotype (P = 0.0075, OR = 2.74) frequencies. With stratification by age, positive associations were demonstrated in the young age group (age ≤65 years) for both allele (P = 0.0047, OR = 2.52) and genotype (P = 0.0031, OR = 2.92) frequencies. All positive findings remained significant even after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant differences were noted in either the male group or the older age group. No significant differences were found for the other markers (one SLC11A1 marker and one IL8RB marker) either. Conclusion This study confirmed the association between SLC11A1 and TB susceptibility and demonstrated for the first time that the association was restricted to females and the young age group. PMID:17371589

  13. Impact of Age and Sex on Outcomes and Hospital Cost of Acute Asthma in the United States, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Teague, W. Gerald; Koroukian, Siran M.; Schlitz, Nicholas K.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Busse, William B.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Israel, Elliot; Wenzel, Sally E.; Holguin, Fernando; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, asthma is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden, with significant gender and racial disparities. However, little attention has been given to the independent role of age on lifetime asthma severity and hospitalization. We aimed to assess the effect of age, gender, race and ethnicity on indicators of asthma severity including asthma related hospitalization, mortality, hospital cost, and the rate of respiratory failure. Methods We analyzed the 2011 and 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project- National Inpatient Sample (NIS). We validated and extended those results using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP; 2002–2011) database. Severe asthma was prospectively defined using the stringent American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition. Results Hospitalization for asthma was reported in 372,685 encounters in 2012 and 368,528 in 2011. The yearly aggregate cost exceeded $2 billion. There were distinct bimodal distributions for hospitalization age, with an initial peak at 5 years and a second at 50 years. Likewise, this bimodal age distribution of patients with severe asthma was identified using SARP. Males comprised the majority of individuals in the first peak, but women in the second. Aggregate hospital cost mirrored the bimodal peak distribution. The probability of respiratory failure increased with age until the age of 60, after which it continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Severe asthma is primarily a disease of young boys and middle age women. Greater understanding of the biology of lung aging and influence of sex hormones will allow us to plan for targeted interventions during these times in order to reduce the personal and societal burdens of asthma. PMID:27294365

  14. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  15. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age. PMID:16574118

  16. Age and sex-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Rocío; Gianotti, Magdalena; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Aging is responsible for the decline in the function of mitochondria and their increase in size and number--adaptive mechanism to restore mitochondrial function. Estrogens increase mitochondrial function, especially in female rats. The aim of this study was to determine the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function focusing on sex differences. Cellular and mitochondrial protein and DNA content, mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylative function in male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Mitochondria protein/DNA content decreased with aging shifting toward lesser mitochondrial functional capacity and the mitochondria number increased. A sex dimorphism was determined, with female rat brain showing mitochondria with greater functional capacity than males. These sex differences gradually increased during aging. PMID:21471708

  17. Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nisbett, R E; Braver, A; Jusela, G; Kezur, D

    1975-02-01

    Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were examined in the rat. Circadian rhythm, emotionality, and taste responsiveness (except for responsiveness to quinine adulteration) were found to shift, in one or both sexes, toward a pattern suggesting decreased VMH functioning with increasing age. A post hoc analysis of the configuration of positive and negative results suggests that, for those behaviors known to show both immediate and sustained effects of VMH lesion, male rats show a marked trend toward the lesioned pattern of behavior with increasing age, whereas females show weaker or nonexistent age trends in the same behaviors. For those behaviors that have been shown to change only during the static, obese phase, or for which data re controversial as to whether changes take place as a result of the VMH lesion at all, this age and sex pattern does not emerge. PMID:1150946

  18. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  19. Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the ability of metabolic syndrome criteria to predict elevations in fasting insulin in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Dong, Lili; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate racial/ethnic and sex differences in the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis and fasting insulin among adolescents. Study design We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey 1999–2008 for 3,693 non-Hispanic-white, non-Hispanic-black and Hispanic adolescents (12–19y). We used linear regression to evaluate differences in fasting insulin between those with and without an adolescent adaptation of ATPIII-MetS in a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis. Results Females had higher insulin levels than males and non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had higher levels than non-Hispanic whites. Adolescents with MetS had higher insulin levels than those without MetS. The difference in insulin levels between those with and without MetS was greater among non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites (p<0.05) but not Hispanics (p=0.10). The sensitivity of MetS for detecting elevated insulin levels was lower among non-Hispanic blacks and females compared with other ethnicities and males, respectively. Correlations between insulin and individual MetS components were similar among ethnicities. Conclusion MetS diagnosis performed more poorly in predicting elevated insulin levels among non-Hispanic blacks and among females. These data support the hypothesis that non-Hispanic blacks do not meet current criteria for MetS until they have reached a more advanced degree of insulin resistance. PMID:21784441

  20. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  1. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves. PMID:1914629

  2. Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…

  3. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  4. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

  5. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  6. The Influence of Age and Sex on Responsiveness to Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, S. Shirley; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Interest in babies was assessed for 32 children aged 8 to 9 years and 32 children aged 14 to 15 years. Data were collected by means of a 6-second time sampling of waiting room behaviors in the presence of a live baby and by reactions to pictures of babies versus other objects. (Author/JMB)

  7. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  8. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age. PMID:26597735

  9. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  10. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  11. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Denda, M; Koyama, J; Hori, J; Horii, I; Takahashi, M; Hara, M; Tagami, H

    1993-01-01

    We measured six stratum corneum sphingolipid species (ceramides 1-6) in 26 males and 27 females, and found a significant change in their percentage composition only among female subjects of different age groups. There was a significant increase in ceramide 1 and 2 with a corresponding decrease in ceramide 3 and 6 from prepubertal age to adulthood. Thereafter the ratio of ceramide 2 to total sphingolipids decreased with age in contrast to ceramide 3 which showed an increase. Such a pattern of change in the aging population is different from that observed in scaly skin experimentally induced by tape stripping. The present results suggest a significant influence of female hormones on the composition of stratum corneum sphingolipids. Moreover, the different patterns of change in sphingolipid composition of stratum corneum lipids between scales from inflammatory skin and those from aged skin also suggest that epidermal biosynthesis of sphingolipids is influenced by epidermal proliferative activity. PMID:8304781

  12. Maximal lactate values following competitive performance varying according to age, sex and swimming style.

    PubMed

    Avlonitou, E

    1996-03-01

    Peak blood lactate concentration for a given individual in a given event could be considered as indicator of exercise effort, especially if the race is fast as it occurs following competitive swimming events. The present study attempts to describe the postcompetition lactate profile across all the swimming distances and strokes according to the age and sex of the swimmer. Blood samples (100 micro lambda) were taken from an arterialized fingertip of a total of 337 swimmers (171 males and 166 females) at the end of 3rd and 6th minutes of competition over 50 to 1500 meter distances and for the following 3 age group divisions: AGE1 = > 18 years of age, AGE2 = 16-17 years of age and AGE3 = 14-15 years of age. For AGE1 group the subjects who were picked up for testing were all the first three who met the criteria for this age category in the OPEN winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. For AGE2 and AGE3 groups the subjects who were picked up for testing were ranked among the first three in their age group winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. Results showed that the highest mean peak lactate values for groups AGE2 and AGE3 were recorded in 200 medley event for both sexes while for group AGE1 the highest mean peak lactate value was recorded in 200 and 400 meter medley events for males and females respectively. On the other hand, the lowest mean lactate value was recorded in long distance events of 1500 and 800 meters for males and females respectively and for all the age group divisions. Furthermore, swimming performance was related to peak lactate values which subsequently was independent of sex but dependent on age with higher lactate values and older age documented by the subjects with faster times. PMID:8699834

  13. Sociodemographic correlates of cognition in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Residents of 6 U.S. commun...

  14. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances. PMID:10883788

  15. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D)

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J.; Skinner, Asheley C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index. PMID:27335953

  16. Some Effects of Sex, Age, and Household Structure on Family Drawings of Barbadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Monica A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children ages 7-11. Reveals a correlation among sex, age, and household structure and the inclusion or omission of figures, as well as the size and positioning of the figures of parent and self. (MJP)

  17. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  18. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  19. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  20. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  1. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  2. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  3. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  4. Age-sex distribution of various diseases with particular reference to toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, J. K.; Fleck, D. G.; Kwantes, W.; Ludlam, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of some human diseases which affect one sex more than the other. An age-sex realtionship has been noted among British patients with acquired toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. This is compared with the findings of other European workers. A possible explanation is offered taking all these diseases into consideration together with some of the experimental work done in animals and some of the variations in immunological responses by man. PMID:1063216

  5. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  6. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  7. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  8. Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Jennifer; Hummer, Robert; Elo, Irma; Mehta, Neil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid population aging and increasing racial/ethnic and immigrant/native diversity make a broad documentation of U.S. health patterns during both mid- and late life particularly important. OBJECTIVE We aim to better understand age- and gender-specific racial/ethnic and nativity differences in physical functioning and disability among adults aged 50 and above. METHODS We aggregate 14 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey and calculate age- and gender-specific proportions of physical functioning and two types of disability for each population subgroup. RESULTS Middle-aged foreign-born individuals in nearly every subgroup exhibit lower proportions of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites. This pattern of immigrant advantage is generally reversed in later life. Moreover, most U.S.-born minority groups have significantly higher levels of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites in both mid- and late life. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of functional limitations and disability among U.S.-born minority groups and immigrant populations in older adulthood pose serious challenges for health providers and policymakers in a rapidly diversifying and aging population. PMID:26893587

  9. Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: a study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri

    2011-10-01

    Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy. PMID:22010806

  10. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  11. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  12. Ageism, Sex, and Age: A Factorial Survey Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Uses the factorial survey approach to measure directly the perceived status of various ages, and of both males and females. Results indicate that there is an inverted U-curve of status across the life span, and that the perceived status of females is lower than that of males in the midlife period. (Author/CT)

  13. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  14. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  15. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  16. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human ear.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Binelli, Miriam; Tommasi, Davide G; Rosati, Riccardo; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-05-30

    The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left-right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 497 male and 346 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, paired ear width and length, the relevant ratios, ear areas and angles relative to the facial midline, as well as indices of left-right symmetry, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All ear dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.001). A significant effect of age was found (p<0.001), with larger values in older individuals. The ear width-to-length ratio and the sagittal angle of the auricle significantly decreased as a function of age (p<0.001) but without sex-related differences. On average, the three-dimensional position of ears was symmetric, with symmetry coefficients ranging between 92% and 96%. Asymmetry was found in the sagittal angle of the auricle (both sexes), in the ear width-to-length ratio and ear width (men only). Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a data base for the quantitative description of human ear morphology and position during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic applications (evaluations of traumas, craniofacial alterations, teratogenic-induced conditions, facial reconstruction, aging of living and dead persons, personal identification) may also benefit from age- and sex-based data banks. PMID:19356871

  17. Age- and Sex-Dependency of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy Measurements of Optic Nerve Vessel Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Naoko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nitta, Fumihiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Omodaka, Kazuko; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between various characteristics of a normal population and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) measurements of mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods A total of 189 eyes of 189 normal subjects (93 male, 96 female, mean age 45 ± 14 years old, age range: 20–72) without any history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes were enrolled. ONH microcirculation was measured with LSFG and overall MBR (MA), vessel-area MBR (MV), and tissue-area MBR (MT) were derived from these measurements. The statistical association of these measurements with characteristics such as sex, age, intraocular pressure (IOP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was then determined. Results There was a trend towards decreased IOP and MV and increased SBP with age (P = 0.002, P = 0.035, and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, IOP, MV and SBP were correlated with age (r = -0.23, P = 0.011; r = -0.24, P < 0.001; and r = 0.30, P < 0.001, respectively). Separate multiple regression analyses of independent contributing factors revealed that sex and IOP contributed to MA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), sex, IOP, and age contributed to MV (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.024, respectively), while only IOP contributed to MT (P = 0.003). Conclusion In a normal population, MBR was affected by IOP in both the large vessel and capillary areas of the ONH, but not by SBP. MV was also affected by age and sex, while MT was stable independent of age or sex. PMID:26872348

  18. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  19. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9-593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65-74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  20. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  1. Mutational Analysis in Pediatric Thyroid Cancer and Correlations with Age, Ethnicity, and Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Nikita, Maria Eleni; Jiang, Wen; Cheng, Shih-Min; Hantash, Feras M.; McPhaul, Michael J.; Newbury, Robert O.; Phillips, Susan A.; Reitz, Richard E.; Waldman, Frederic M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) incidence in pediatrics is rising, most being papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of different mutations in pediatric WDTC and correlate the genotype with the clinical phenotype. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study. Thyroid tissue blocks from 42 consecutive pediatric WDTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed at Quest Diagnostics for BRAFV600E, RAS mutations (N,K,H), and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements, using validated molecular methods. Thyroid carcinomas included PTC, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC). Results: Thirty-nine samples (29 females) were genotyped. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.7 years (range 7.9–18.4 years), and most were Hispanic (56.4%) or Caucasian (35.9%). The mean follow-up period was 2.9 years. Mutations were noted in 21/39 (53.8%), with both BRAFV600E (n = 9), and RET/PTC (n = 6) detected only in PTC. Mutations were detected in 2/5 FTC (PAX8/PPARγ and NRAS) and 3/6 FVPTC cases (PAX8/PPARγ). Of 28 PTC patients, 57.1% had mutations: 32.1% with BRAFV600E, 21.4% with RET/PTC, and 3.6% with NRAS. Of patients with BRAFV600E, 77.8% were Hispanic and 88.9% were >15 years, while all RET/PTC-positive patients were ≤15 years (p = 0.003). Tumor size, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis at diagnosis (or soon after 131I ablation) did not vary significantly based on the mutation. Conclusions: BRAFV600E was the most common mutation, especially in older and Hispanic adolescents. A larger, ethnically diverse pediatric cohort followed long term will enable the genotypic variability, clinical presentation, and response to therapy to be better assessed. PMID:26649796

  2. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. PMID:26219977

  3. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. PMID:24326246

  4. Is access to specialist assessment of chest pain equitable by age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status? An enhanced ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Hemingway, Harry; Walsh, Niamh; Eldridge, Sandra; Junghans, Cornelia; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ≥35 years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65 years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion

  5. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  6. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  7. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  8. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  9. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  10. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  11. The Association of Menopausal Age and NT-proBrain Natriuretic Peptide: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Menopausal age could affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and menopausal age with NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure (HF). Methods Our cross-sectional study included 2275 postmenopausal women, aged 45–85 years, without clinical CVD (2000–2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Results There were 561 women with early menopause. The median NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1–151.6) pg/ml for all participants with values of 83.4 (41.4–164.9) pg/ml and 78.0 (40.8–148.3) pg/ml for women with and without early menopause respectively. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause respectively. There were no significant interactions between menopausal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP while each year increase in menopausal age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP. Conclusion Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels while each year increase in menopausal age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:25290536

  12. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals. PMID:26582043

  13. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  14. Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C.A.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Malik, Rainer; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M.; Maguire, Jane M.; Koblar, Simon A.; Bevan, Steve; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Levi, Chris; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Evidence from epidemiological studies points to differences in factors predisposing to stroke by age and sex. Whether these arise because of different genetic influences remained untested. Here, we use data from 4 genome-wide association data sets to study the relationship between genetic influence on stroke with both age and sex. Methods— Using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods, we performed 4 analyses: (1) we calculated the genetic correlation between groups divided by age and (2) by sex, (3) we calculated the heritability of age-at-stroke-onset, and (4) we evaluated the evidence that heritability of stroke is greater in women than in men. Results— We found that genetic factors influence age at stroke onset (h2 [SE]=18.0 [6.8]; P=0.0038), with a trend toward a stronger influence in women (women: h2 [SE]=21.6 [3.5]; Men: h2 [SE]=13.9 [2.8]). Although a moderate proportion of genetic factors was shared between sexes (rG [SE]=0.68 [0.16]) and between younger and older cases (rG [SE]=0.70 [0.17]), there was evidence to suggest that there are genetic susceptibility factors that are specific to sex (P=0.037) and to younger or older groups (P=0.056), particularly for women (P=0.0068). Finally, we found a trend toward higher heritability of stroke in women although this was not significantly greater than in men (P=0.084). Conclusions— Our results indicate that there are genetic factors that are either unique to or have a different effect between younger and older age groups and between women and men. Performing large, well-powered genome-wide association study analyses in these groups is likely to uncover further associations. PMID:26443828

  15. The age-sex structure of the slave population in Harris County, Texas: 1850 and 1860.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1987-10-01

    The effect of the slave system on demography can be revealed by examining the age-sex structure of slave populations. The age-sex structure of slaves in Harris County, Texas is investigated using the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules. Median ages for black and mulatto slaves suggest that the population was young. Population pyramids exhibit a narrow base and top with a broad middle. The high proportion of slaves between 10 and 30 years of age and the increase in population size between 1850 and 1860 were mainly related to the importation of slaves and only partly due to natural increase. The data also show that black slaves were older on small plantations while mulattoes were older on larger farms. It is suggested that differential treatment in terms of purchase practices, assignment of tasks, food allocation, and/or differential susceptibility to infectious diseases may account for this pattern. PMID:3322029

  16. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions. PMID:27304509

  17. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  18. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  19. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  20. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  1. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  2. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  3. A study into regional, age, and sex differences in students' ratings of cartoon humor.

    PubMed

    Lowis, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Funniness ratings of cartoon humour by 366 university students showed no differences for age, sex, and region of origin, except for higher scores by men on work-related items. Ratings appear to be largely uninfluenced by factors other than how inherently amusing the items seem to be. PMID:12186227

  4. Looking, Smiling, Laughing, and Moving in Restaurants: Sex and Age Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert M.; Kirkevold, Barbara

    Body movements and facial expressions of males and females in a restaurant setting were examined, with the goal of providing differences in frequency as a function of age and sex. The subjects (N-197 males and N=131 females) were seated in three Seattle fast food restaurants and were selected on a semi-random basis and then observed for three…

  5. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  6. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  7. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  8. A Longitudinal Analysis of Sex Differences in Math and Spatial Skills in Primary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming…

  9. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  10. Relationships between age, body weight, physical fitness and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Semmens, J B; Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Masarei, J R

    1983-10-14

    The associations between sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity (SHBG), age, body mass index (BMI), and physical fitness have been studied in 34 men and 36 women. Multivariate analysis was used to look for independent associations with SHBG. The data indicate that when controlled for a number of other factors SHBG levels are related, in men but not in women, to age (positively, p less than 0.001) and BMI (negatively, p less than 0.001). PMID:6685004

  11. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances. PMID:26602222

  12. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  13. Sex, Race, and Age Disparities in the Improvement of Survival for Gastrointestinal Cancer over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Yang, Li-feng; Shen, Yun-zhu; Jia, Hui-xun; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    There have been notable improvements in survival over the past 2 decades for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, the degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. We analyzed data from 9 population-based cancer registries included in the SEER program of the National Cancer Institute (SEER 9) in 1990 to 2009 (n = 288,337). The degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex was longitudinally measured. From 1990 to 2009, improvements in survival were greater for younger age groups. For patients aged 20 to 49 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.83), 0.49 (95% CI, 0.37–0.64), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65–0.76), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.54–0.69), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42–0.76), for cancer of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. Compared with African Americans, whites experienced greater improvement in small intestinal and anal cancer survival. Female anal cancer and regional anal cancer patients experienced no improvement. Our data suggest that different improvement in survival in age, sex and race exists. PMID:27406065

  14. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship. PMID:16880222

  15. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  16. Muscularity as a function of species, sex and age in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the body skeletal muscle mass SMM (measured as a function of the ratio between the body creatine mass and the fat-free muscle creatine), and in muscularity (expressed as the ratio of SMM to fat-free body mass) were studied as functions of age, sex, and species in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. Six animals of each sex were examined in eight age cohorts ranging from 1 to 24 months. Both species and age factors affect SMM. Strong sexual dimorphism in the SMM changes with age was displayed by mouse, rat, and guinea pig, whereas the hamster and rabbit were statistically monomorphic. The mouse, rat, and hamster attain a maximal SMM at about 1 year of age, whereas in the guinea pig and rabbit the decrease in SMM starts after 2 years. The value of muscularity reached a peak at age of 2-3 months in all animals of both sexes, with a pronounced difference among the species. The mouse emerged as the most muscular, while the guinea pig the least muscular, of all species.

  17. Sex-specific influence of aging on exercising leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Pelberg, Justin A; Mishkin, Aaron D; Proctor, David N

    2008-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P < 0.01) to exercise compared with young women. Relative (percentage of maximal) work rate comparisons of all groups combined also revealed attenuated vasodilator responses in older women (P < 0.01 for age x sex x work rate interaction). These sex-specific age differences were not abolished by consideration of hemoglobin, quadriceps muscle, muscle recruitment, and mechanical influences on muscle perfusion. Collectively, these findings suggest that local factors contribute to the sex-specific effects of aging on exercising leg hemodynamics in healthy adults. PMID:18162481

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  19. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  20. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  1. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  2. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age. PMID:11081424

  3. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  4. Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. Methodology/Principal Finding We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. Conclusions/Significance These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km2 in

  5. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  6. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  7. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. PMID:26939790

  8. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  9. Neural control of the circulation: how sex and age differences interact in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked interindividual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2-mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast postmenopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These major findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  10. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  11. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  12. Suicide mortality trends by sex, age and method in Taiwan, 1971–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2008-01-01

    Background Method-specific suicide trends varied across countries, and studies of the trends in different countries can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in suicide trends by sex, age and method in the years 1971 to 2005 in Taiwan. Methods Mortality data files of suicide and undetermined deaths for the years 1971–2005 were obtained for analyses. Age-, sex- and method-specific suicide rates were calculated by four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–64 and 65 and above) and five suicide methods (solids/liquids poisoning, other gases poisoning, hanging, jumping, and others). Results Both sexes experienced downward trends from 1971 to 1993, and then an upward trend since 1993. People aged 65 years and above had the highest suicide rates throughout the study periods. However, males aged 25–64 years experienced the steepest increasing trends. As to suicide methods, an annual increase, since 1991, of people jumping from heights to commit suicide, and a marked increase, since 1998, of people completing suicide by poisoning with other gases (mainly charcoal-burning) were observed. Conclusion Suicide by means of charcoal-burning and jumping from heights has become a serious public health problem in Taiwan. Preventive measures to curb these increasing trends are urgently needed. PMID:18179723

  13. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  14. Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Petzold, Andreas; Koch, Philipp; Downie, Bryan R; Hartmann, Nils; Pietsch, Stefan; Baumgart, Mario; Chalopin, Domitille; Felder, Marius; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Arisi, Ivan; Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth S; Sharma, Virag; Kraus, Johann M; Schmid, Florian; Priebe, Steffen; Liehr, Thomas; Görlach, Matthias; Than, Manuel E; Hiller, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be bred in the laboratory. Its rapid growth, early sexual maturation, fast aging, and arrested embryonic development (diapause) make it an attractive model organism in biomedical research. Here, we report a draft sequence of its genome that allowed us to uncover an intra-species Y chromosome polymorphism representing-in real time-different stages of sex chromosome formation that display features of early mammalian XY evolution "in action." Our data suggest that gdf6Y, encoding a TGF-β family growth factor, is the master sex-determining gene in N. furzeri. Moreover, we observed genomic clustering of aging-related genes, identified genes under positive selection, and revealed significant similarities of gene expression profiles between diapause and aging, particularly for genes controlling cell cycle and translation. The annotated genome sequence is provided as an online resource (http://www.nothobranchius.info/NFINgb). PMID:26638077

  15. Oxytocin's effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Feifel, David; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin's central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin's effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala-mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala-mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest. PMID:27032063

  16. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID

  17. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  18. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Morphometric analysis of variation in the sternum with sex and age.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Nguyen, Callistus M; Lynch, Sarah K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-11-01

    Age and sex-related variations in sternum morphology may affect the thoracic injury tolerance. Male and female sternum size and shape variation was characterized for ages 0-100 from landmarks collected from 330 computed tomography scans. Homologous landmarks were analyzed using Procrustes superimposition to produce age and sex-specific functions of 3D-sternum morphology representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Significant changes in the combined size and shape variation and isolated shape variation of the sternum were found to occur with age in both sexes. Sternal size increased from birth through age 30 and retained a similar size for ages 30-100. The manubrium expanded laterally from birth through age 30, becoming wider in relation to the sternal body. In infancy, the manubrium was 1.1-1.2 times the width of the sternal body and this width ratio increased to 1.6-1.8 for adults. The manubrium transformed from a circular shape in infancy to an oval shape in early childhood. The distal sternal body became wider in relation to the proximal sternal body from birth through age 30 and retained this characteristic throughout adulthood. The most dramatic changes in sternum morphology occur in childhood and young adulthood when the sternum is undergoing ossification. The lesser degree of ossification in the pediatric sternum may be partly responsible for the prevalence of thoracic organ injuries as opposed to thoracic skeletal injuries in pediatrics. Sternum fractures make up a larger portion of thoracic injury patterns in adults with fully ossified sternums. The lack of substantial size or shape changes in the sternum from age 30-100 suggests that the increased incidence of sternal fracture seen in the elderly may be due to cortical thickness or bone mineral density changes in the sternum as opposed to morphological changes. PMID:24935890

  20. Mandibular ramus length as an indicator of chronological age and sex.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Soares, Mariana Quirino Silveira; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex estimation is crucial in forensic investigations, whether in legal situations that involve living people or to identify mortal remains. The aim of this study was to establish reference values in a Brazilian population to estimate age and sex by measuring the length of the mandibular ramus on lateral cephalometric radiographs, and to determine the probability that an individual being is 18 years or older, based on the results that were obtained. Two hundred and eighteen scanned lateral cephalograms of individuals between 6 and 20 years of age (101 males and 117 females) were measured with reference to mandibular ramus length (the distance between Condylion superior (Cs) and Gonion (Go)) using ImageJ 1.41 software (NIH, Bethesda, MA, USA). The results showed that sexual dimorphism was not observed until 16 years and, based on the ramus length measurements in this sample, it is possible to predict sex with an accuracy of only 54 %. There was a positive correlation between age and ramus length (r = 0.90; p < 0.001). From the linear regression analysis, one formula was derived; therefore, it was possible to calculate the individual's age, given his or her ramus length. The results showed that if an individual's ramus length is 7.0 cm or more, then there is an 81.25 % chance that the individual is 18 years old or older. In conclusion, the mandibular ramus length was not effective in discriminating sex. Mandibular length is strongly related to chronological age and can be used to predict whether an individual is 18 years or older with high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:25270589

  1. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  3. Sex, Aging, and Preexisting Cerebral Ischemic Disease in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Acker, Michael A.; Bilello, Michel; Melhem, Elias R.; Stambrook, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have a high frequency of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions, the presence of which appears to predict cognitive sequelae. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS) incur an exceptionally high risk for perioperative cerebral ischemia. The extreme risk in this subgroup may arise from the preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. We tested the hypotheses that increasing age, female sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS are predictive of the severity of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions. Methods A total of 95 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were imaged on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanners to obtain multimodal image sets which were used for the automatic segmentation of cerebral lesion volume. The dependence of lesion volume upon age, sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS were tested. Results The results demonstrate a strong correlation between aging, female sex, and white matter and ischemia-like lesion volume in patients with aortic stenosis. Conclusions Women and those of advanced age presenting for aortic valve replacement for AS may incur a particularly high risk for postoperative neurologic sequelae due to an exceptional preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:20868818

  4. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  5. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E; Beck, Stephan; Suchiman, H Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  6. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  7. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  8. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Langenickel, Thomas; Petruck, Jesika; Kode, Kiran; Rajman, Iris; Chandra, Priya; Zhou, Wei; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    LCZ696, a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, is in development for the treatment of heart failure. Administration of LCZ696 results in systemic exposure to sacubitril (inactive prodrug of LBQ657), LBQ657 (neprilysin inhibitor), and valsartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker). We investigated the potential effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) in an open-label, single oral dose (400 mg), parallel-group study in healthy subjects. Among 36 enrolled subjects, there were 19 male and 17 female subjects; 18 subjects were 18-45 years old (young), and 18 subjects were 65 years of age or older (elderly). Compared with young subjects, the AUCinf and T1/2 for LBQ657 were 42% and 30% greater, respectively, in elderly subjects. The Cmax for LBQ657 was similar between age groups. The AUCinf, Cmax, and T1/2 for valsartan were 30%, 24% greater, and 3.35 hours longer, respectively, in the elderly when compared with young subjects. All pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) were similar between male and female subjects, indicating no effect on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes based on sex. Considering the magnitude of change and its clinical significance, dose adjustment based on age or sex is not considered necessary. PMID:26073563

  9. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes. PMID:27511128

  10. The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15673223

  11. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: genotype-specific risks by age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Bickeböller, H; Campion, D; Brice, A; Amouyel, P; Hannequin, D; Didierjean, O; Penet, C; Martin, C; Pérez-Tur, J; Michon, A; Dubois, B; Ledoze, F; Thomas-Anterion, C; Pasquier, F; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Moreaud, O; Babron, M C; Meulien, D; Guez, D; Chartier-Harlin, M C; Frebourg, T; Agid, Y; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE epsilon3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [epsilon4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE epsilon2 allele (OR[epsilon2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the epsilon4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[epsilon4/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[epsilon3/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the epsilon4 allele versus the epsilon3 allele, OR(epsilon4), were not equal in all age classes: OR(epsilon4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In epsilon3/epsilon4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. PMID:9012418

  12. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  14. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292

  15. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E.C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p = .03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p = .006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  16. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to…

  17. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  18. Acceptability of PrEP Uptake Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C; Eddy, Jessica A; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  19. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  20. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  1. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  2. Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy. Influence of age, sex and dose.

    PubMed

    Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S

    1988-05-01

    Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio (L/D) has been studied in 536 outpatients distributed in groups according to age, sex and drug dosage. Samples were obtained prior to the first morning dose. Plasma levels that correspond to the steady-state phase were determined by homogeneous enzymatic immunoassay (EMITR). From the results it must be pointed out: 1) An increase of L/D as the age increases within each group; 2) A decrease of L/D as the dose of phenobarbital increases in the overall sample; 3) Sex does not affect L/D in any of the subgroups studied; 4) For a given dose higher blood levels are reached in children 7 to 15 years old in our sample than in other comparable studies in Spain. PMID:3398650

  3. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  4. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  5. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  6. Age and Sex Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphology Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Daniel; Ardekani, Babak; Ikuta, Toshikazu; John, Majnu; Peters, Bart; DeRosse, Pamela; Wellington, Robin; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest inter-hemispheric white matter tract in the human brain, and is characterized by pronounced differences in morphology among individuals. There are limited data, however, regarding typical development, sex differences, and the neuropsychological correlates of individual differences within CC subregions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exams were collected in a large cohort (N = 305) of healthy individuals (ages 8 to 68). We used a highly reliable program to automatically identify the mid-sagittal plane and obtain CC subregion measures according to approaches described by Witelson (1989) and Hampel (1998) and a measure of whole CC shape (i.e., circularity). CC measurement parameters, including area, perimeter, length, circularity and CC subregion area values were generally characterized by inverted U-shaped curves across the observed age range. Peak values for CC subregions were observed between ages 32 and 45, and descriptive linear correlations were consistent with sharper area changes in development. We also observed differing age-associated changes across the lifespan between males and females in the CC subregion corresponding to the genu (Witelson’s subregion 2), as well as CC circularity. Mediation analysis using path modeling indicated that genu area mediated the relationship between age and processing speed for females, and the relationship between age and visual learning and executive functioning for males. Taken together, our findings implicate sex differences in CC morphology across the lifespan that are localized to the genu, which appear to mediate neuropsychological functions. PMID:25833103

  7. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  8. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  9. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  10. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development but this has not been examined systematically using neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 females; 4–18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyse language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal, language related, areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the pre-teen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for pre-surgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  11. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  12. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  13. No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Gaulin, Steven J C; Dunbar, Matt D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6-82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities. PMID

  14. Effects of advanced maternal age and race/ethnicity on placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A

    2015-07-01

    To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25567078

  15. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P < .0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. Conclusions. Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047

  17. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking. PMID:26665936

  18. Methods of suicide by age: sex and race differences among the young and old.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J L; Santos, J F

    The elderly have the highest suicide rate in the United States. In partial explanation of this finding, a common statement in the suicide literature is that older persons tend to use more drastic and effective methods of suicide. However, little, if any, data have been presented in defense of this explanation. In order to investigate the validity of this contention, annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (whites, blacks, nonwhites excluding black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. For white males, blacks of both sexes, and nonwhites excluding black females, the findings confirmed the use of more violent methods by the elderly than by the young in terms of the proportion of suicides by firearms and/or hanging. Less support and, in fact, opposite results for method-related age differences were obtained for white females and nonwhites excluding black males. Another general finding was an increase in the use of firearms for most of the groups studied. The need for data for specific groups within the nonwhite category excluding blacks is apparent both from the available literature and from the present findings. Possible explanations and implications of the observed results are discussed. PMID:3830918

  19. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  20. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  1. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  2. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  3. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  4. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Mortality Associated With the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Eisenstein, Jana; Reid, Ann H.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. Methods. Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911–1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex. Results. The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9–10 years, a maximum at ages 24–26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56–59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females. Conclusions. The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859–1862, 1892–1894, and 1908–1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors. PMID:23230061

  6. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  7. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  8. Changes of sleep or waking habits by age and sex in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Man; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Seo, Yoo Jin; Kang, Min Jeong; Nagashima, Hidetoshi

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of age and sex on habitual sleep/wake rhythm and Morningness-Eveningness scores of 2,252 subjects (6-89 years) randomly selected in Shimonoseki, Japan. Subjects were divided into 21 age groups with a matching number of men and women in each age group. The most common sleep parameter patterns by age showed a v- or inverted v-pattern with a turning point in young adulthood or at the period of puberty. During the period between 6 yr. of age to puberty or young adulthood, the bedtimes on weekdays and weekends and the waking times on weekends were delayed, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to the evening type, and sleep length on weekdays decreased. After that period, across groups of increasing age, bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends became earlier, sleep length on weekdays and sleep latency increased, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to morning type, and the number of awakenings increased. The number of daytime naps increased in the 16-19 yr. group, decreased slightly after that age group, but increased again in older groups. The weekday bedtimes of women above 40 yr. of age was significantly later and their sleep lengths significantly shorter than those of men of the same age. Average sleep latency was longer for women than men. The number of awakenings was larger in women above 50 yr. of age than men of the same age group. The turning point of age, gained from the two linear regressions on data for subjects that have a minimum sum of squared error, was between 16 and 25 yr. of age. Average phase of sleep/wake rhythm shifted backward and sleep length decreased in groups from age 6 to puberty or young adulthood. After early adolescence, the average phase of the sleep/wake rhythm shifted forward, sleep latency became longer, and daytime napping increased. Number of awakenings increased rapidly for women's groups over 40 yr. of age and for men's groups after 50 yr. of age. Sex differences in our research are in apparent

  9. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  10. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  11. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  12. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  13. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  14. Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

    2012-01-20

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

  15. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  16. Influences of Sex and Age on the Hematological Profile of the Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira do; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Hilbig, Cleonice Cristina; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Azevedo, Ana Carolina Barni de; Dean, Andressa Fierli; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, sex and age influenced the hematological profiles of Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen. Females showed lower levels of hemoglobin, young fish increased lymphocyte counts, and older fish increased hematocrit values. These results indicate that, depending on age and sex, the fish have disparate hematological profiles. For this reason, it is important to consider the sex and age of an R. quelen when examining the impact of environmental and management factors on this species in terms of their hematological profiles. Received May 24, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485153

  17. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  18. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  19. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009–2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents’ health status of 3,542 children aged 4–12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  20. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics. PMID:25248543

  1. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    PubMed

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  2. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  4. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  5. Shear Wave Elastography of Passive Skeletal Muscle Stiffness: Influences of Sex and Age throughout Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Sarah F.; Cloud, Beth A.; Brandenburg, Joline E.; Giambini, Hugo; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous structural and compositional changes – related not only to age, but also activity level and sex – may affect skeletal muscle stiffness across the adult age-span. Measurement techniques available thus far have largely limited passive stiffness evaluations to those of entire joints and muscle-tendon units. Shear wave elastography is an increasingly popular ultrasound technique for evaluating the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle tissue. The purpose of this study was to quantify the passive stiffness, or shear modulus, of the biceps brachii throughout adulthood in flexed and extended elbow positions. We hypothesized that shear modulus would be higher in males relative to females, and with advanced age in both sexes. Methods Shear wave elastography quantified biceps brachii stiffness at 90° elbow flexion and full extension in a large sample of adults between 21–94 years old (n=133; 47 males). Findings Regression analysis found sex and age were significant parameters for older adults (>60 years) in full extension. As expected, shear modulus values increased with advancing age; however, shear modulus values for females tended to be higher than those for males. Interpretation This study begins to establish normative trends for skeletal muscle shear modulus throughout adulthood. Specifically, this work establishes for the first time that the higher passive joint torque often found in males relative to females likely relates to parameters other than muscle shear modulus. Indeed, perhaps increases in skeletal muscle passive stiffness, though potentially altering the length-tension curve, serve a protective role – maintaining the tendon-muscle-tendon length-tension curve within a functional range. PMID:25483294

  6. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  7. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    PubMed

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. PMID:23461314

  8. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences. PMID:27189591

  9. Sex differences in age-related changes on peripheral warm and cold innocuous thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Gerrett, Nicola; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Umino, Yasue; Kiuchi, Saeko; Amano, Tatsuro; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous thermal sensitivity to a warm and cold stimulus was compared amongst 12 older (OF, 65.2±1.0year) and 29 younger (YF, 21.6±0.2years) female participants, and 17 older (OM, 66.2±1.5years) and 13 younger (YM, 21.2±0.4years) male participants to examine the effects of ageing and sex. In a neutral condition (27.5°C, 50% RH) during rest, warm and cold thermal sensitivity was measured on eight body regions (forehead, chest, back, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot). Using the method of limits, a thermal stimulator was applied to the skin at an adapting temperature and either increased or decreased at a constant rate (0.3°C/s) until the participants detected the temperature with a push button. Thermal sensitivity declined with ageing to both a cold (older: 1468.6±744.7W/m(2), younger: 869.8±654.7W/m(2), p<0.001) and warm (older: 2127.0±1208.3W/m(2), younger: 1301.7±1055.2W/m(2), p<0.001) innocuous stimulus. YF and OF were more sensitive than YM and OM to both a warm and cold stimulus (p<0.05). There was no interaction between age and sex suggesting that whilst thermal sensitivity decreases with age the decrease is similar between the sexes (p>0.05). There was an interaction between temperatures, age and location and it seemed that cold thermal sensitivity was more homogenous for young and older participants however warm thermal sensitivity was more heterogeneous especially in the younger participants (p<0.05). Although the pattern was not similar between ages or sexes it was evident that the forehead was the most sensitive region to a warm and cold stimulus. Interestingly the decline in sensitivity observed with ageing occurred for all locations but was attenuated at the forehead in both males and females (p>0.05). PMID:27237043

  10. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed

  11. Sex and Age Aspects in Patients Suffering From Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Piegeler, Tobias; Thoeni, Nils; Kaserer, Alexander; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Mueller, Stefan M.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R.; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Several studies suggest a sex- and age-based bias in the treatment of these patients. This particular bias may have a significant impact on the patient's outcome. However, the reasons for these findings are still unclear and discussed controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze treatment and out-of-hospital survival rates for potential sex- and age-based differences in patients requiring out-of-hospital CPR provided by an emergency physician in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 3961 consecutive patients (2003–2009) were included in this retrospective analysis to determine the frequency of out-of-hospital CPR and prehospital survival rate, and to identify potential sex- and age-based differences regarding survival and treatment of the patients. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients required CPR during the study period. Seventeen patients had to be excluded because of incomplete or inconclusive documentation, resulting in 743 patients (511 males, 229 females) undergoing further statistical analysis. Female patients were significantly older, compared with male patients (68 ± 18 [mean ± SD] vs 64 ± 18 years, P = .012). Men were resuscitated slightly more often than women (86.4% vs 82.1%). Overall out-of-hospital mortality rate was found to be 81.2% (492/632 patients) with no differences between sexes (82.1% for males vs 79% for females, odds ratio 1.039, 95% confidence interval 0.961–1.123). No sex differences were detected in out-of-hospital treatment, as assessed by the different medications administered, initial prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, and prehospital suspected leading diagnosis. The data of our study demonstrate that there was no sex-based bias in treating patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting in our physician-led emergency ambulance service. PMID:27149475

  12. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  13. Variations of CT-Based Trunk Muscle Attenuation by Age, Sex, and Specific Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fat accumulation in muscle may contribute to age-related declines in muscle function and is indicated by reduced attenuation of x-rays by muscle tissue in computed tomography scans. Reduced trunk muscle attenuation is associated with poor physical function, low back pain, and increased hyperkyphosis in older adults. However, variations in trunk muscle attenuation with age, sex and between specific muscles have not been investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional examination of trunk muscle attenuation in computed tomography scans was performed in 60 younger (35–50 years) and 60 older (75–87 years) adults randomly selected from participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Multidetector Computed Tomography Study. Computed tomography attenuation of 11 trunk muscles was measured at vertebral levels T8 and L3, and the effects of age, sex, and specific muscle on computed tomography attenuation of trunk muscles were determined. Results. Muscle attenuation varied by specific muscle (p < .001), was lower in older adults (p < .001), and was generally lower in women than in men (p < .001), although not in all muscles. Age-related differences in muscle attenuation varied with specific muscle (p < .001), with the largest age differences occurring in the paraspinal and abdominal muscles. Conclusions. Trunk muscle attenuation is lower in older adults than in younger adults in both women and men, but such age-related differences vary widely between muscle groups. The reasons that some muscles exhibit larger age-related differences in fat content than others should be further explored to better understand age-related changes in functional capacity and postural stability. PMID:22904095

  14. Effect of ethnicity, gender and age on the amount and composition of residual skin surface components derived from sebum, sweat and epidermal lipids

    PubMed Central

    Shetage, Satyajit S; Traynor, Matthew J; Brown, Marc B; Raji, Mahad; Graham-Kalio, Diepiriye; Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose The superficial layer on the skin surface, known as the acid mantle, comprises a mixture of sebum, sweat, corneocyte debris and constituents of natural moisturizing factor. Thus, the phrase ‘residual skin surface components’ (RSSC) is an appropriate term for the mixture of substances recovered from the skin surface. There is no general agreement about the effects of ethnicity, gender and age on RSSC. The aim of this human volunteer study was to evaluate RSSC in relation to ethnicity, gender and age. A suitable acquisition medium for RSSC collection was identified and samples of RSSC were subsequently analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. Methods A total of 315 volunteers participated in the study from a range of self-declared ethnic backgrounds. Six acquisition media were compared to determine the most suitable media for RSSC collection. The effect of age, gender and ethnicity on RSSC collection was evaluated by gravimetric analysis while GC-MS was used to determine the composition of RSSC. Results Of the six candidate materials assessed, cigarette paper provided the most practical and reproducible sample acquisition medium. There was no significant difference in the amount of RSSC collected when based on gender and ethnicity and no significant correlation between RSSC recovery and age. Up to 49 compounds were detected from human RSSC when analysed by GC-MS. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that RSSC can be effectively collected using cigarette paper and analysed by GC-MS. Ethnicity, gender and age had no significant impact on the quantity of RSSC recovered from the skin surface. PMID:23865719

  15. Ethnicity and bullying involvement in a national UK youth sample.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Platt, Lucinda

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated ethnic differences in bullying involvement (as victim and bully) among a UK wide sample of adolescents, controlling for potential confounders, including age, gender, economic situation, family structure and parent-adolescent relationships. 4668 youths, aged 10 to 15, who participate in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were assessed for bullying involvement. Binary logistic regression models were used to estimate ethnic differences across bullying roles while controlling for potential confounders. Overall, ethnic minority youths were not more likely to be victims; African boys and girls were significantly less likely to be victimised than same sex White youths. Pakistani and Caribbean girls were significantly more likely to have bullied others compared to White girls. Further research is necessary to explore why Pakistani and Caribbean girls may be more often perpetrators of bullying than girls in other ethnic groups. PMID:23849658

  16. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  17. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  18. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  19. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  20. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  1. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  2. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  3. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  4. Apolipoprotein E and Sex Bias in Cerebrovascular Aging of Men and Mice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Shams, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles. Mouse transgenic models add further complexities to sex-ApoE ɛ4 allele interactions, with female excess of both CMBs and brain amyloid. We conclude that brain aging and AD pathogenesis cannot be understood in humans without addressing major gaps in the extent of sex differences in cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27546867

  5. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  6. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  7. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases nigrostriatal dopamine release in vitro: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Stephen J; Trksak, George H; Cohen, Ori S; Simeone, Benjamin P; Jackson, Denise

    2004-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure, age, sex, and estrous phase on the functional development of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Striatal tissue was obtained from prepubescent and adult rats of both sexes after bidaily exposure to saline (1 ml/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg/ml saline) from embryonic days 15-21. Tissue levels, basal release, and electrically evoked (1 or 8 Hz) overflow of endogenous DA and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), as well as their efflux in response to superfusion with the DA transport blocker, nomifensine (10 microM), were measured from superfused striatal slices. Generally, these measures were highest in tissue from males and adults. Tissue DA and DOPAC levels and the rate of DA turnover were unaffected by PCOC exposure. Slices from PCOC-exposed juvenile and adult male rats exhibited significantly reduced basal and electrically evoked DA release at both stimulation intensities, in conjunction with higher levels of presynaptic DA reuptake. Female rats were largely spared from the effects of PCOC exposure, and measures did not vary with estrous phase. These findings demonstrate that the effects of PCOC exposure on various parameters of nigrostriatal DA neuronal function are not uniform across age, sex, or phases of the estrous cycle. These novel alterations in nigrostriatal DA transmission are in need of independent replication, but they may have profound implications for behavioral activities regulated by these neurons and, thus, may provide a basis for sex-selective effects of PCOC in exposed humans. Possible mechanisms of deleterious effects of PCOC exposure in select groups are discussed. PMID:15170820

  8. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity. PMID:16295466

  9. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  10. Estimating the number of men who have sex with men by race/ethnicity at the county level in Texas.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Jesse; Poe, Jonathon; Robbins, Ann; Rowlinson, Emily

    2015-02-01

    This analysis presents a method for estimating the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) at the county and metropolitan area level in Texas. Surveillance data consistently demonstrate that MSM experience a high burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Numerous studies have shown that MSM are also vulnerable to many other health concerns such as suicide, substance abuse, domestic violence and assault, homelessness, and mental illness. However, compilation of rates of HIV, STIs, and other health issues is dependent on estimation of population denominators. In the absence of systematic, consistent, and direct assessment of sexual orientation and gender identity in national surveys, it is difficult to estimate the size of at-risk populations. Previous estimates at the national and state level have been calculated using varied methodologies. However, to date, statewide estimates at the county level have only been produced for the state of Florida. County-level and metropolitan area estimates of MSM population were produced using three modified models developed by Lieb et al. These models used data on population and same-sex households from the US Census, along with estimates of sexual behavior from the National Survey on Family Growth. These models produce an estimate of 599,683 MSM in Texas (6.4 % of the adult male population). Metropolitan areas with the highest percentage of MSM population include Dallas and Austin (10.3 and 9.8 %, respectively). County-level estimates of MSM population range from 1.0 to 12.9 %. These local estimates are critical to targeting vulnerable populations and effective allocation of resources for prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25347955

  11. [Mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic, by sex and age in 1950-1984].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1987-01-01

    Postwar mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic has run through 2 different stages with the turning point being 1960. Since about the beginning of the 1960s, the mortality level in the Czech Socialist Republic has quickly declined for both sexs and in each age category. The rate of decline has slowed with increasing age. Since the 1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline or has worsened; with men, this phenomenon spread even as low as 40 years old. Infant and child mortality, male mortality under 40 years of age, and female mortality under 50 years of age positively contributed to a longer life span, except between 1960 and 1970. The present mortality situation in the Czech Socialist Republic is the result of the unfavorable developments of the last 20 years, especially in the decade 1960-1970. The present age structure of mortality is characterized by higher infant mortality, higher male mortality above 40 years of age, and higher female mortality at 50-55 years of age. A certain improvement observed in the last few years is relative, as the mortality of the male population over 30 is the same today as it was 35 years ago and the mortality of the female population is the same as it was in the mid-1960s. PMID:12314972

  12. Negative and interactive effects of sex, aging, and alcohol abuse on gray matter morphometry.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Rachel E; Hagerty, Sarah L; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Claus, Eric D; Hutchison, Kent E; Weiland, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    Chronic alcohol use is associated with declines in gray matter (GM) volume, as is the normal aging process. Less apparent, however, is how the interaction between aging and heavy alcohol use affects changes in GM across the lifespan. There is some evidence that women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of alcohol use on GM than men. In the current study, we examined whether localized GM was related to measures of alcohol use disorder (e.g., AUDIT score) in a large sample (N = 436) of participants, ages 18-55 years, with a range of disease severity, using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). We also explored whether GM associations with alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity are moderated by sex and age. Results showed significant negative associations between AUD severity and GM volume throughout temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Women showed more negative effects of alcohol use than men for cortical thickness in left orbitofrontal cortex, but evidence for increased vulnerability based on sex was limited overall. Similarly, a specific age by alcohol use interaction was observed for volume of right insula, but other regional or global interactions were not statistically supported. However, significant negative associations between heavy alcohol use and GM volumes were observed as early as 18-25 years. These findings support that alcohol has deleterious effects on global and regional GM above and beyond age, and, of particular importance, that regional associations emerge in early adulthood. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2276-2292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26947584

  13. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism. PMID:26688295

  14. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  15. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  16. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  17. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  18. Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

    1993-01-01

    As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure

  19. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  20. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  1. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  2. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  3. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  4. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  5. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  6. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  7. Sex differences in children's response to parental divorce: 2. Samples, variables, ages, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, M J

    1989-01-01

    This second of a two-part review examines four possibilities for explaining the discrepancy across studies in findings of sex differences in children's responses to parental divorce: sample type, nature of outcome variables, age of the child, and sources of data. Recommendations are made for further research that could clarify the nature and origins of differences by child gender in reactions to parental divorce. Part 1, reviewing research methodology and post divorce family forms, was published by this Journal in July 1988. PMID:2648853

  8. Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

    1979-01-01

    The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

  9. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  10. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  11. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  12. A novel ecological methodology for constructing ethnic-majority life tables in the absence of individual ethnicity information

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Melanie; Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Deprivation-specific life tables have been in use for some time, but health outcomes are also known to vary by ethnicity over and above deprivation. The mortality experiences of ethnic groups are little studied in the UK, however, because ethnicity is not captured on death certificates. Methods Population data for all Output Areas (OAs) in England and Wales were stratified by age-group, sex and ethnic proportion, and matched to the deaths counts in that OA from 2000 to 2002. We modelled the relationship between mortality, age, deprivation and ethnic proportion. We predicted mortality rates for an area that contained the maximum proportion of each ethnic group reported in any area in England and Wales, using a generalised linear model with a Poisson distribution adjusted for deprivation. Results After adjustment, Asian and White life expectancies between 1 and 80 years were very similar. Black men and women had lower life expectancies: men by 4 years and women by around 1.5 years. The Asian population had the lowest mortality of all groups over age 45 in women and over 50 in men, whereas the Black population had the highest rates throughout, except in girls under 15. Conclusions We adopted a novel ecological method of constructing ethnic-majority life tables, adjusted for deprivation. There is still diversity within these three broad ethnic groups, but our data show important residual differences in mortality for Black men and women. These ethnic life tables can be used to inform public health planning and correctly account for background mortality in ethnic subgroups of the population. PMID:25563743

  13. Effect of Ethnicity on the Age of Onset of the Male Voice Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the age of onset of the voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students, as well as to describe characteristics of the changing male voice in fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students, using Cooksey's maturation stages. Participants included volunteers from two urban elementary…

  14. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  15. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  16. Comorbidity Analysis According to Sex and Age in Hypertension Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Ma, James; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Ligui; Cao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension, an important risk factor for the health of human being, is often accompanied by various comorbidities. However, the incidence patterns of those comorbidities have not been widely studied. Aim: Applying big-data techniques on a large collection of electronic medical records, we investigated sex-specific and age-specific detection rates of some important comorbidities of hypertension, and sketched their relationships to reveal the risk for hypertension patients. Methods: We collected a total of 6,371,963 hypertension-related medical records from 106 hospitals in 72 cities throughout China. Those records were reported to a National Center for Disease Control in China between 2011 and 2013. Based on the comprehensive and geographically distributed data set, we identified the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension, and disclosed the sex-specific and age-specific patterns of those comorbidities. A comorbidities network was constructed based on the frequency of co-occurrence relationships among those comorbidities. Results: The top four comorbidities of hypertension were coronary heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipemia, and arteriosclerosis, whose detection rates were 21.71% (21.49% for men vs 21.95% for women), 16.00% (16.24% vs 15.74%), 13.81% (13.86% vs 13.76%), and 12.66% (12.25% vs 13.08%), respectively. The age-specific detection rates of comorbidities showed five unique patterns and also indicated that nephropathy, uremia, and anemia were significant risks for patients under 39 years of age. On the other hand, coronary heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipemia, and cerebral infarction were more likely to occur in older patients. The comorbidity network that we constructed indicated that the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension had strong co-occurrence correlations. Conclusions: Hypertension patients can be aware of their risks of comorbidities based on our sex-specific results, age-specific patterns, and the comorbidity network

  17. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  18. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  19. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Similarly, Kv current density was 25% greater in ventricular myocytes from young adult males (P < 0.05). Germ-line Kcne4 deletion eliminated the sex-specific Kv current disparity by diminishing ventricular fast transient outward current (Ito,f) and slowly activating K(+) current (IK,slow1). Kcne4 deletion also reduced Kv currents in male mouse atrial myocytes, by >45% (P < 0.001). As we previously found for Kv4.2 (which generates mouse Ito,f), heterologously expressed KCNE4 functionally regulated Kv1.5 (the Kv α subunit that generates IKslow1 in mice). Of note, in postmenopausal female mice, ventricular repolarization was impaired by Kcne4 deletion, and ventricular Kcne4 expression increased to match that of males. Moreover, castration diminished male ventricular Kcne4 expression 2.8-fold, whereas 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implants in castrated mice increased Kcne4 expression >3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  20. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper-Goodman, T.; Hilts, C.; Billiard, S.M.; Kiparissis, Y.; Richard, I.D.K.; Hayward, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4ng OTA kg bw−1, except for 1–4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  1. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  2. Prediction of plantar soft tissue stiffness based on sex, age, bodyweight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-02-01

    15% of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients suffer high risk of ulceration and 85% of the amputation involving DM population is caused by non-healing ulcers. These findings elucidate the fact that foot ulcer can result in major amputation especially to the DM and elderly population. Therefore, early diagnosis of abnormally stiffened plantar soft tissue is needed to prevent the catastrophic tissue damage. In order to differentiate between normal and pathological tissues, a threshold reference value that defines healthy tissue is required. The objective of this study is to perform a multivariate analysis to estimate the healthy plantar tissue stiffness values based on the individuals physical attributes such as bodyweight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their age and sex. 100 healthy subjects were recruited. Indentation was performed on 2nd metatarsal head pad at 3 different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. The results showed the important influences of BW, height and BMI in determining the plantar tissue stiffness. On the other hand, age and sex only play minimal roles. The study can be further extended to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed predictive model by evaluating several other related parameters such as body fat content, footwear usage, frequency of sports participation, etc. PMID:26474035

  3. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Kuiper-Goodman, T; Hilts, C; Billiard, S M; Kiparissis, Y; Richard, I D K; Hayward, S

    2010-02-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4 ng OTA kg bw(-1), except for 1-4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  4. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts. PMID:24170671

  5. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  6. Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Horta, Marilyn; Lin, Tian; Feifel, David; Fischer, Håkan; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex. PMID:26441637

  7. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  9. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  10. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Nilsson, Sara K; Grossi, Anette B; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6, 16, 24 and 40–48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli. PMID:26310463

  11. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  12. A Sex-Based Examination of Violence and Aggression Perceptions among Adolescents: An Interactive Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the critical factors and themes that are identified as salient influencers of overt and relational aggression among youth. Sex differences and similarities associated with such adolescent perceptions are assessed. Forty-eight ethnically diverse youth between the ages of 14 and 16 years participated in sex-specific focus…

  13. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex sttraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction. Adult B. cockerelli r...

  14. Three-dimensional modeling of the various volumes of canines to determine age and sex: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tardivo, Delphine; Sastre, Julien; Ruquet, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Adalian, Pascal; Leonetti, Georges; Foti, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Canines are usually used in anthropological and forensic sciences for sex and age determination. The best methods to estimate age are based on secondary dentine apposition, evaluated from periapical X-rays. The aim of this study was to propose a new method of sex and age estimation using 3D models to obtain more precise predictions using tooth volumes. Fifty-eight dental CT scans of patients aged 14-74 with a well-balanced sex ratio composed the sample. One hundred and thirty-three healthy canines were modeled (Mimics 12.0). The sample was divided into a training sample and a validation sample. An age formula was determined using the "pulp volume/tooth volume" ratio. Sex prediction was adjusted with total volumes. Applying the equations to the validation sample, no significant difference was found between the real and predicted ages, and 100% of the sex predictions were correct. This preliminary study gives interesting results, and this method is worth being tested on a larger data sample. PMID:21361946

  15. Social class, ethnicity and other risk factors for small for gestational age and preterm delivery in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, P H; Zaadstra, B M; Reerink, J D; Herngreen, W P; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P

    1994-02-01

    Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and easy access to medical care for all its inhabitants. Other risk factors that were taken into account were smoking, drinking, occupation, age and height. Information was collected by interview in the first 3 weeks of life of the mothers of 2027 (response 97%) live-born singletons born in the period from April 1988 to October 1989 in the study area. After adjustment for possible confounding factors very low social class, compared with high social class, was significantly associated with reduced birthweight (-4.0%; 95% CI, -7.4% to -0.7%), but not with preterm delivery (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.67-6.48). The adjusted birthweight of Turkish infants (2.7%; 95% CI, -1.1% to 6.5%) and the adjusted birthweight of infants from Suriname or the Antilles (-1.6%; 95% CI, -5.5% to 2.1%) were not significantly different compared with infants of Dutch mothers. After adjustment, the frequency of preterm birth was lower in Turkish infants, but not significantly (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.04-1.10), whereas the frequency of preterm birth in infants from Suriname or the Antilles was significantly higher (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.04-6.08) compared with Dutch infants. Of the other factors the main risk factors were smoking (negatively related with birth-weight) and maternal age(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8194649

  16. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  17. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand Māori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. These participants and a further 1103 Caucasian controls were genotyped for the HLA-B27 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4349859 and rs116488202. All AS patients testing positive for HLA-B27 of New Zealand Māori ancestry underwent high resolution typing to determine sub-allele status. Results HLA-B27 prevalence was 9.2% in New Zealand Caucasian controls and 6.5% in Māori controls. No decline in HLA-B27 prevalence with age was detected in Caucasian controls (p = 0.92). Concordance between HLA-B27 and SNP genotypes was 98.7-99.3% in Caucasians and 76.9-86% in Māori. Of the 14 AS patients of Māori ancestry, 1 was negative for HLA-B27, 10 were positive for HLAB*2705, and 3 positive for HLAB*2704. All cases of genotype discordance were explained by the presence of HLAB*2704. Conclusions HLA-B27 prevalence in New Zealand Caucasians is consistent with that of Northern European populations and did not decline with increasing age. In Māori with AS who were HLA-B27 positive, 76.9% were positive for HLA-B*2705, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to AS in Māori is primarily due to admixture with Caucasians. PMID:24286455

  18. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  19. Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke for six ethnic groups in California, 1985 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Wild, S H; Laws, A; Fortmann, S P; Varady, A N; Byrne, C D

    1995-11-01

    Coronary heart disease and stroke death rates were compared for six ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, African-American, Chinese, Japanese, and Asian Indian) by sex and age (25 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 25 to 84 years old) using California census and 1985 to 1990 death data. African-American men and women in all age groups had the highest rates of death from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes (except for coronary heart disease in the oldest men). Hispanics, Chinese, and Japanese in all age-sex groups had comparatively low death rates for coronary heart disease and stroke, although stroke was proportionally an important cause of death for Chinese and Japanese groups. Coronary heart disease was an important cause of death for Asian Indians although death rates were generally not higher than those for other ethnic groups. Ethnic differences were most marked for women and younger age groups. PMID:8680605

  20. Age, sex and APOE ε4 effects on memory, brain structure and β-amyloid across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Machulda, Mary M.; Gregg, Brian E.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Typical cognitive aging may be defined as age associated changes in cognitive performance in individuals who remain free of dementia. Ideally the full adult age spectrum should be included to assess brain imaging findings associated with typical aging. Objective To compare age, sex and Apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) effects on memory, brain structure (adjusted hippocampal volume, HVa) and amyloid PET in cognitively normal individuals aged 30 to 95 years old. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross sectional observational study (Marc 2006 to October 2014) at an academic medical center. We studied 1246 cognitively normal subjects; 1209 participants aged 50–95 years old enrolled in a population-based study of cognitive aging and 37 self-selected volunteers aged 30–49. Main Outcomes and Measures Memory, HVa, and amyloid PET Results Overall, memory worsened from age 30 years through the 90s. HVa worsened gradually from 30 years to the mid-60s and more steeply beyond that age. The median amyloid PET was low until age 70 years and increased thereafter. Memory was worse in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 40 years. HVa was lower in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 60 years. There was no sex difference in amyloid PET at any age. Within each sex, memory performance and HVa were not different by APOE ε4 at any age. From age 70 years onward APOE ε4 carriers had significantly greater median amyloid PET load than noncarriers. However the ages at which 10% of the population were amyloid PET positive were 57 years for APOE ε4 carriers and 64 years for non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance Male sex is associated with worse memory and HVa among cognitively normal individuals while APOE ε4 is not. In contrast, APOE ε4 is associated with greater amyloid PET values (from age 70 years onward) while sex is not. Worsening memory and HVa occur at earlier ages than abnormal amyloid PET. Therefore

  1. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  2. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  3. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  4. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  5. Age Differences in Reaction Time and Attention in a National Telephone Sample of Adults: Education, Sex, and Task Complexity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tun, Patricia A.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an…

  6. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  7. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  8. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

  9. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  10. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  11. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  12. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  13. Age, Sex, and Telomere Dynamics in a Long-Lived Seabird with Male-Biased Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Young, Rebecca C.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Descamps, Sebastien; Orben, Rachael A.; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia), a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1) cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years) from one colony and 2) longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF), a lower window of TRF (TOE), and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ) or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to be the

  14. The Relationship of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children to Sex, Race, and Fluid-Crystallized Intelligence on the KAIT at Ages 11 to 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…

  15. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  16. Regional variation of intracortical porosity in the midshaft of the human femur: age and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C David L; Feik, Sophie A; Clement, John G

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated age and sex differences in patterns of porosity distribution in the midshaft of the human femur. Cross-sections were obtained from 168 individuals from a modern Australian population. The sample comprised 73 females and 95 males, aged between 20 and 97 years. Microradiographs were made of 100-µm sections and pore and bone areas were determined using image processing software. Initially the sample was divided by age: young (20–44 years), middle (45–64 years) and old (65+ years), but it was found that analysis on the basis of the ratio of medullary area to total subperiosteal area gave clearer results. The cortex was divided into three rings radially and into octants circumferentially and the porosity of each segment was calculated. Results showed that a pattern with raised porosity in the posterior and anterolateral regions, and with greater porosity in the inner parts of the cortex, becomes more pronounced with age. In males this pattern develops steadily; in females there are much greater differences between the middle and older groups than earlier in life. The patterns observed are consistent with progressive bone loss occurring along a neutral axis of the cortex where bending stress is lowest and the mechanical advantage of the bone is least. PMID:15730477

  17. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. Methods: using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50–89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. Results: after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. Conclusions: possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. PMID:26826237

  18. Ethnic differences in the association of SERPING1 with age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Ma, Li; Lai, Frank H. P.; Young, Alvin L.; Brelen, Marten E.; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene with neovascular AMD and PCV. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs, rs1005510 and rs11603020, of SERPING1 were genotyped in 708 unrelated Chinese individuals: 200 neovascular AMD, 233 PCV and 275 controls. A meta-analysis was also performed for all reported associations of SERPING1 SNPs with AMD and PCV. None of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with neovascular AMD or PCV (P > 0.05) in our study cohort. The meta-analyses showed that the most-studied SNP rs2511989 was not significantly associated with all forms of AMD, neovascular AMD, or PCV in East Asians (P = 0.98, 0.93 and 0.30, respectively) but was associated with AMD in Caucasians (P = 0.04 for all AMD and 0.004 for neovascular AMD). Therefore, the results of our study and meta-analysis suggest that SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of AMD or PCV in East Asians but is a genetic risk factor for AMD in Caucasians, providing evidence for an ethnic diversity in the genetic etiology of AMD. PMID:25800435

  19. Age and sex influence the balance between maximal cardiac output and peripheral vascular reserve.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Samuel J; Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Gonzales, Joaquin U; Beck, Kenneth C; Proctor, David N

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of age and sex on the relationship between central and peripheral vasodilatory capacity. Healthy men (19 younger, 12 older) and women (17 younger, 17 older) performed treadmill and knee extensor exercise to fatigue on separate days while maximal cardiac output (Q, acetylene uptake) and peak femoral blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) were measured, respectively. Maximal Q was reduced with age similarly in men (Y: 23.6 +/- 2.7 vs. O: 17.4 +/- 3.5 l/min; P < 0.05) and women (Y: 17.7 +/- 1.9 vs. O: 12.3 +/- 1.6 l/min; P < 0.05). Peak FBF was similar between younger (Y) and older (O) men (Y: 2.1 +/- 0.5 vs. O: 2.2 +/- 0.7 l/min) but was lower in older women compared with younger women (Y: 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. O: 1.4 +/- 0.4 l/min; P < 0.05). Maximal Q was positively correlated with peak FBF in men (Y: r = 0.55, O: r = 0.74; P < 0.05) but not in women (Y: r = 0.34, O: r = 0.10). Normalization of cardiac output to appendicular muscle mass and peak FBF to quadriceps mass reduced the correlation between these variables in younger men (r = 0.30), but the significant association remained in older men (r = 0.68; P < 0.05), with no change in women. These data suggest that 1) aerobic capacity is associated with peripheral vascular reserve in men but not women, and 2) aging is accompanied by a more pronounced sex difference in this relationship. PMID:19959767

  20. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    PubMed

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  1. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  2. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed Central

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  3. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  4. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  5. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  6. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: Investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sarah E.; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Lee, Phil H.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p = .048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p = .51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p = .005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p = .002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p = 1.96 × 10−8), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p = 1.52 × 10−7). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p = 8.24 × 10−7). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  7. Correlation of patient's mental attitude with age, sex, and educational level: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shweta; Kumar, Ajit; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine any relationship, if exists, between the patient's mental attitude with age, sex, or educational qualification. Methods: A total of 200 patients who attended the outpatient department during a span of 1 year, for the fabrication of new complete dentures, were chosen for the study. After completing a routine case history and examination, a questionnaire was filled by the clinician as answered by the patient. Participants were evaluated and categorized based on the questionnaire and clinical experience during treatment according to a predefined classification of determining mental attitudes. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with participant gender, age, and educational status. Results: The male to female ratio was 83:117, out of the 200 enrolled participants. The results from the questionnaire showed that females were found to be more exacting (P = 0.007) in nature, while males, on the other hand, revealed more indifferent attitude (P = 0.02); both differences being statistically significant. Of the three age group categories: Participants in the age group of 45–54 years revealed a significant inclination toward an exacting attitude when compared with other age groups (P < 0.001). In regards to educational status, an illiterate or minimally educated group significantly outnumbered the college graduates in the indifferent attitude group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be said that the mental attitudes of patients could vary according to gender, age, and educational status, which could affect patient cooperation and satisfaction with oral rehabilitation, eventually manipulating the overall success of the treatment rendered. PMID:27011735

  8. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  9. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  10. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  11. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  12. Cell Death Atlas of the Postnatal Mouse Ventral Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Effects of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Todd H.; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V.; Murray, Elaine K.; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. PMID:23296992

  13. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of