Science.gov

Sample records for age sex family

  1. Paternal age effect on age of onset in bipolar I disorder is mediated by sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Mihailescu, Radu; Prelipceanu, Dan; Sima, Dorina; Codreanu, Marina; Grimberg, Mihaela; Elston, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated for the first time in the psychiatric literature the effect of parental age on age-of-onset (AO) in bipolar I disorder (BPI) in relation to proband sex and family history (FH) for major psychoses in a sample of 564 BPI probands. All probands, 72.68% of their first-degree and 12.13% of their second-degree relatives were directly interviewed. The FH-method was used for all unavailable relatives. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV(TR) . The impact of parental age on proband early/late AO was evaluated through logistic regression with the cut-off for early AO determined through commingling analysis. We found evidence for a significant influence of increasing paternal age, and especially age ≥ 35 years, on AO of BPI disorder in the total sample (OR = 0.54, CI: 0.35-0.80), in the female subsample (OR = 0.44, CI: 0.25-0.78), in the sporadic subsample (OR = 0.64, CI: 0.38-0.95), and in the subsample with FH of recurrent unipolar major depression (Mdd-RUP) (OR = 0.55, CI: 0.34-0.87). No significant effect of paternal age on disease AO was found in patients with FH of bipolar (BP), schizoaffective disorders (SA), or schizophrenia (SCZ), nor in males. Mean age was significantly higher in fathers of sporadic cases and of cases with FH of Mdd-RUP than in fathers of cases with FH of BP/SA/SCZ (P = 0.011). Maternal age had no significant effect either in the total sample or in subsamples defined by proband sex or FH. In conclusion, in our sample increasing paternal age lowered the onset of BPI selectively, the effect being related to the female sex and FH-type.

  2. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  3. Age and sex differences for anxiety in relation to family size, birth order, and religiosity among Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2002-06-01

    Differences in rated anxiety among 2,453 boys (n= 1,229) and girls (n = 1,224), Kuwaiti secondary school students, were reported for five age groups from 14 to 18 years. For girls at all ages but 14 years, mean rated anxiety was significantly higher than the means for the boys. Mean anxiety scores increased across age groups from 14 to 18 years. Not all comparisons between age groups with the same sex, however, were significant. Analysis showed nonsignificant correlations for anxiety with both family size and number of siblings, but significant and positive correlations for anxiety with birth order were found for boys (r=.10, p<.01) and girls (r=.06, p<.05). The predictive and practical values of these very small correlations are negligible, being significant merely because N is so large. Pearson correlations between anxiety and self-rating of religiosity were -.22 and -.22 (p<.01) for boys and girls, respectively. This result was interpreted in the light of high intrinsic religious orientation among Kuwaitis. In the Islam proper, multiple practices are said to relieve anxiety.

  4. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  5. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  6. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  7. Familial risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma by sex, relationship, age at diagnosis and histology: a joint study from five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Fallah, M; Kharazmi, E; Pukkala, E; Tretli, S; Olsen, J H; Tryggvadottir, L; Sundquist, K; Hemminki, K

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to estimate stratified absolute (cumulative) and relative (standardized incidence ratios; SIRs) risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in relatives of NHL patients. A cohort of 169 830 first-degree relatives of 45 406 NHL patients who were diagnosed between 1955 and 2010 in five European countries was followed for cancer incidence. The lifetime (0-79 year) cumulative risk of NHL in siblings of a patient with NHL was 1.6%, which represents a 1.6-fold increased risk (SIR=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-1.9) over the general population risk. NHL risk among parent-offspring pairs was increased up to 1.4-fold (95% CI=1.3-1.5; lifetime risk 1.4%). The lifetime risk was higher when NHL was diagnosed in a sister (2.5% in her brothers and 1.9% in her sisters) or a father (1.7% in his son). When there were ⩾2 NHL patients diagnosed in a family, the lifetime NHL risk for relatives was 2.1%. Depending on sex and age at diagnosis, twins had a 3.1-12.9% lifetime risk of NHL. Family history of most of the histological subtypes of NHL increased the risk of concordant and some discordant subtypes. Familial risk did not significantly change by age at diagnosis of NHL in relatives. Familial risk of NHL was not limited to early onset cases.

  8. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  9. Epidemiology and Heritability of Major Depressive Disorder, Stratified by Age of Onset, Sex, and Illness Course in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS)

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Pippa; McKechanie, Andrew G.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Smith, Blair H.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Matthews, Keith; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Haley, Chris S.; Deary, Ian J.; Porteous, David J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a large (n = 20,198), family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%). Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99); between earlier (≤ age 40) and later (> age 40) onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98); and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98). We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15), and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However, we found

  10. Sex hormones and brain aging.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Sergio; Melcangi, Roberto C; Doncarlos, Lydia L; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Azcoitia, Iñigo

    2004-01-01

    Sex steroids exert pleiotropic effects in the nervous system, preserving neural function and promoting neuronal survival. Therefore, the age-related decrease in sex steroids may have a negative impact on neural function. Progesterone, testosterone and estradiol prevent neuronal loss in the central nervous system in different experimental animal models of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, progesterone and its reduced derivatives dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone reduce aging-associated morphological abnormalities of myelin and aging-associated myelin fiber loss in rat peripheral nerves. However, the results from hormone replacement studies in humans are thus far inconclusive. A possible alternative to hormonal replacement therapy is to increase local steroidogenesis by neural tissues, which express enzymes for steroid synthesis and metabolism. Proteins involved in the intramitochondrial trafficking of cholesterol, the first step in steroidogenesis, such as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, are up-regulated in the nervous system after injury. Furthermore, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression is increased in the brain of 24-month-old rats compared with young adult rats. This suggests that brain steroidogenesis may be modified in adaptation to neurodegenerative conditions and to the brain aging process. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that local formation of estradiol in the brain, by the enzyme aromatase, is neuroprotective. Therefore, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and aromatase are attractive pharmacological targets to promote neuroprotection in the aged brain. PMID:15582278

  11. Sex education and family planning messages in Greek school books.

    PubMed

    Frisiras, S; Lagiou, A; Sourtzi, P; Vidalaki, M

    1991-05-01

    The Greek Family Planning Association (GFPA) completed in march 1990 a 3-year effort to evaluate whether sex education was an integral part of the school curricula. It was reported by a representative of the Pedagogical Institute in the Ministry of Education and Religion that important efforts have been made. The findings were presented at the 2nd Sex Education and Health seminar in March, 1990. Greek primary schools have 1 teacher for all lessons; but specialists in various fields of the secondary school curricula. Primary school books have various references and pictures on human reproduction. Equality of the sexes socially and culturally is represented, as well as good health messages on nutrition and hygiene. Noticeably absent, however, is any reference to human sexuality, nude human body or sex organ pictures, or other non-traditional family models. Family planning and contraception are also missing; teacher training or special courses are needed. Secondary school books have clear but limited messages. For example, there is a whole page on the philosophy and aims of family planning, but parenthood is only presented in the context of traditional marriage without contraception. It is recommended that legislative support be engaged to insure that sex education programs are systematic, age-specific, and a continuous activity from the primary level. Another important role in the implementation and curriculum development of sex education is one played by teachers and health professionals, those in touch with young people. GFPA needs to compile basic guidelines for those teaching sex education. PMID:12343171

  12. Parent-Teen Communication about Sex in Urban Thai Families

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Roseti, Michael J.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Atwood, Katharine; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13 – 14 were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that sex of the child (girls), parental religiosity and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex- related issues among Thai parents. PMID:22206411

  13. Sex determination: lessons from families and embryos.

    PubMed

    Ostrer, H

    2001-04-01

    Genetic studies in familial cases of sex reversal and in human embryos have contributed to the understanding of human sex determination and its disorders. For some heritable disorders of sex reversal, the gonadal phenotype was frequently overlooked until sex reversal was discovered fortuitously by chromosome analysis, often resulting in preventable complications. Within families, the phenotypes are variable and, in some instances, these can be explained by known genetic mechanisms. When a novel molecular marker is shared by family members affected with sex reversal, the level of confidence is higher that this marker may play a role in the development of the phenotype. The identification of pedigrees with sufficient power to generate significant linkage of disorder (lod) scores from genomewide screens can now lead to the identification of novel sex-determining genes. Studies of the gonads of 46,XY human embryos have shown that SOX9 expression follows a pattern similar to that of SRY and, in both instances, stands in contrast to the expression observed in the mouse. Differences between human and mouse embryonic gonads have also been observed for the temporal expression of DAX1, suggesting that the mechanisms of action of SRY, SOX9, and DAX1 may vary between these and other species. PMID:11298673

  14. Parent-teen communication about sex in urban Thai families.

    PubMed

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Byrnes, Hilary F; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents.

  15. Attitudes toward sex in the aged.

    PubMed

    LaTorre, R A; Kear, K

    1977-05-01

    Eighty university students and 40 staff members of a nursing home for the aged rated their reactions to three stories: a neutral (decision-making) story, a coital story, and a masturbatory story. For each story, the age and gender of the main character were varied. Results indicated an absence of negative attitudes toward sex in the aged. However, sex in the aged was less credible than sex in young people. Nursing home staff members had more negative attitudes toward sexual stories than did the students. Gender of rater had little effect. Coitus was rated more favorably for the male character than for the female character, and the reverse was true for masturbation.

  16. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  17. Sex education for adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, P P; Rosenberg, L M

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a unique, 2-day experiential program in sex education for adolescents and their families. The program is adapted from a similar teaching program for medical students and is a highly focused, intense emotional experience wherein participants are presented, via a multimedia approach, with a planned sequence of explicit sexual material on all areas of human sexuality. During the program, six small group sessions with family members in separate groups enable participants to share impressions and examine anxieties aroused by the presentations. The entire process is monitored by evaluative instruments and questionnaires. Results of the data support the hypothesis that communication is possible between generations, and assists rather than inhibits the development of an adult identity.

  18. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  19. Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescent Sex-Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCandless, N. Jane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reexamined relationship between sex-role differentiation and family socioeconomic status. Analyzed attitudinal and behavior data of high school seniors (N=5600) to determine validity of hypothesis that sex-role differentiation is more pronounced in lower socioeconomic status groups. Found sex-role differentiation greater among higher socioeconomic…

  20. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  1. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  2. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  3. Age difference asymmetry and a two-sex perspective.

    PubMed

    Ni Bhrolchain, M

    1992-01-01

    -83, the age differences in women's 1st marriages increased and men's decreases; and 4) the low of 1.6 years' age difference for bachelors was the same in 1987 and 1901-5. A summary in table form is provided of the studies conducted which show variation over time in the average age difference between spouses. The implications of age differences are that calculations of the probability of widowhood will be affected as well as simulations of family and household processes. It is concluded that accurate demographic accounting requires a 2-sex perspective. Retrospective surveys should collect marital histories of men and women, particularly due to the high rates of divorce and remarriage.

  4. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  5. Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios. PMID:27556401

  6. Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios. PMID:27556401

  7. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1977-03-01

    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  8. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1977-03-01

    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  9. [Relations hip between placental weight and age, family characteristics, parity and activity of the mother as well as the weight or maturity and sex of the newborn infant]?1?H.

    PubMed

    Dörste, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the correlation of the placental weights of 500 unselected live-born babies delivered after a gestation period of 33 weeks at the minimum and 42 weeks at the maximum, respectively, with age, family status parity, and mother's occupation, as well as with the weight, maturity, and sex of the neonates yielded the following results: 1. Between primiparae, secundiparae, and multiparae, working and housewife mothers, workers, farmerettes, women doing other jobs, and academically trained women, eutrophic mature and hypertrophic mature neonates, and newly born male and female babies there was observed a roughly similar frequency of the generally accepted "normal weight of placenta" of 400 g to 600 g and no significance of minor differences in frequency, respectively. 2. The high incidence of mothers aged 20 and less in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to 21- to 30-year-old and 31- to 35-year-old mothers was not found to be significant. 3. The high incidence of unmarried mothers in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to married mothers is not significant, the higher incidence of premature labor in unmarried women being due possibly, not to the weight of placenta, but rather primiparity, age under 20, and social class. 4. The higher frequency in the placental weight group up to and including 400 g of married compared to unmarried mothers, primiparae compared to secundiparae, primiparae and secundiparae compared to multiparae, working mothers compared to housewife mothers, and workers and farmerettes compared to both women doing other types of jobs and academically trained women was not found to be significant. PMID:970005

  10. [Relations hip between placental weight and age, family characteristics, parity and activity of the mother as well as the weight or maturity and sex of the newborn infant]?1?H.

    PubMed

    Dörste, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the correlation of the placental weights of 500 unselected live-born babies delivered after a gestation period of 33 weeks at the minimum and 42 weeks at the maximum, respectively, with age, family status parity, and mother's occupation, as well as with the weight, maturity, and sex of the neonates yielded the following results: 1. Between primiparae, secundiparae, and multiparae, working and housewife mothers, workers, farmerettes, women doing other jobs, and academically trained women, eutrophic mature and hypertrophic mature neonates, and newly born male and female babies there was observed a roughly similar frequency of the generally accepted "normal weight of placenta" of 400 g to 600 g and no significance of minor differences in frequency, respectively. 2. The high incidence of mothers aged 20 and less in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to 21- to 30-year-old and 31- to 35-year-old mothers was not found to be significant. 3. The high incidence of unmarried mothers in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to married mothers is not significant, the higher incidence of premature labor in unmarried women being due possibly, not to the weight of placenta, but rather primiparity, age under 20, and social class. 4. The higher frequency in the placental weight group up to and including 400 g of married compared to unmarried mothers, primiparae compared to secundiparae, primiparae and secundiparae compared to multiparae, working mothers compared to housewife mothers, and workers and farmerettes compared to both women doing other types of jobs and academically trained women was not found to be significant.

  11. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-02-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170

  12. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-02-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects.

  13. Theme: The Family in an Aging World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…

  14. Sex, Preference, and Family - Essays on Law and Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlund, David M.; Nussbaum, Marth C.

    1998-06-01

    The public furor over issues of same sex marriages, gay rights, pornography, and single-parent families has erupted with a passion not seen since the 1960s. This book gathers seventeen eminent philosophers and legal scholars who offer commentary on sexuality (including sexual behavior, sexual orientation, and the role of pornography in shaping sexuality), on the family (including both same-sex and single-parent families), and on the proper role of law in these areas. The essayists are all fiercely independent thinkers and offer the reader a range of bold and thought-provoking proposals. Susan Moller Okin argues, for instance, that gender ought to be done away with--that differences in biological sex ought to have "no more social relevance than one's eye color or the length of one's toes"--and she urges that we look to same-sex couples as a model for households and families in a gender-free society. And Cass Sunstein suggests that the Supreme Court case Loving vs. Virginia (which overthrew the ban on interracial marriages in Virginia) might be a precedent for overturning laws that bar same-sex marriage: just as Loving overturned miscegenation laws because they were at the service of white supremacy, Sunstein shows, the laws against same-sex marriages and homosexuality are at the service of male supremacy, and might also be overturned. Of vital importance to anyone interested in sexuality, homosexuality, gender, feminism, and the family. Sex, Preference, and the Family both clarifies the current debate and points the way toward a less divisive future.

  15. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  16. Parental Family Experiences, the Timing of First Sex, and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    By investigating the intergenerational consequences of multiple aspects of family experiences across the life course this paper advances what we know about the forces shaping children's initiation of sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Our aim is to advance the scientific understanding of early sexual experiences by explicitly considering contraceptive use and by differentiating between the consequences of parental family experiences during childhood and those during adolescence and young adulthood. Thanks to unique, highly detailed data measuring parental family experiences throughout the life course and sexual dynamics early in life it is possible to provide detailed empirical estimates of the relationship between parental family experiences and contraceptive use at first sex—a relationship about which we know relatively little. Findings reveal (1) significant simultaneous consequences of many different dimensions of parental family experiences for the timing of first sex and the likelihood of using contraception at first sex, but the specific dimensions of family important for the specific behavior vary across racial groups; and (2) that parental family experiences influence the timing of sex and contraceptive use differently. PMID:21079724

  17. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  18. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  19. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries Differs between the Sexes: A Family-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience has been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although may be partly explained by the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family-based study (N=2,663; 740 families; ages 1–93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

  20. Sex Offenders in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L

    2016-09-01

    With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape. PMID:27644871

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  2. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  3. Sex through the ages in China.

    PubMed

    Gross, A

    1981-11-01

    This brief article summarizes some of the Chinese sexual customs as revealed by Van Gulik, Needham, Levy, the author, and others. Chinese sexology is related to medicine, philosophy, and cosmology, all of which form a unified view of the universe. Cosmologically, the Chinese view human life as between the sun ("Ying"/man) and the earth ("Yin"/women). Energy particles from the sun continually enter the fingers, pass through arms, head, and body, and exit via the toes, while energy from the earth enter through the toes and exits through the fingers. Illness occurs if there is an imbalance in this system; if either flow stops death ensues. Chinese medicine corrects the energy flow of the sun and earth by means of needles, heat, gymnastics, massage, and sexual practices. Sexual practices, affect this energy exchange by special techniques for relieving physical complaints and ultra-orgasmic practices, sometimes termed "coitus reservatus." Chinese reason that if either man or woman achieve orgasm, then considerable energy can be produced over a longer duration, perhaps increasing one's health and longevity. These beliefs flourished from the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.-220 A.D.) until the close of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.). Practices during this period were to encourage orgasms for men and women with age, health, seasonal factors, and the need for heirs as variables in the practices. For example, in a Sui Dynasty (589-608 A.D.) sex manual, once a day is right for a healthy male of 30, while once every 5-10 days is proper for a 50 year old man. However, these techniques took time to learn and even "perversions" developed. Excesses encouraged the belief that sexual expression should be limited. The Confucionists during the Ching Dynasty (1644-1912) saw ultra-orgasmic exercises as a threat to government and encouraged its end. Ultra-orgasmic techniques may be used today at the village level and are inseparable from the Chinese language and literature. Male homosexuality

  4. Sex through the ages in China.

    PubMed

    Gross, A

    1981-11-01

    This brief article summarizes some of the Chinese sexual customs as revealed by Van Gulik, Needham, Levy, the author, and others. Chinese sexology is related to medicine, philosophy, and cosmology, all of which form a unified view of the universe. Cosmologically, the Chinese view human life as between the sun ("Ying"/man) and the earth ("Yin"/women). Energy particles from the sun continually enter the fingers, pass through arms, head, and body, and exit via the toes, while energy from the earth enter through the toes and exits through the fingers. Illness occurs if there is an imbalance in this system; if either flow stops death ensues. Chinese medicine corrects the energy flow of the sun and earth by means of needles, heat, gymnastics, massage, and sexual practices. Sexual practices, affect this energy exchange by special techniques for relieving physical complaints and ultra-orgasmic practices, sometimes termed "coitus reservatus." Chinese reason that if either man or woman achieve orgasm, then considerable energy can be produced over a longer duration, perhaps increasing one's health and longevity. These beliefs flourished from the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.-220 A.D.) until the close of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.). Practices during this period were to encourage orgasms for men and women with age, health, seasonal factors, and the need for heirs as variables in the practices. For example, in a Sui Dynasty (589-608 A.D.) sex manual, once a day is right for a healthy male of 30, while once every 5-10 days is proper for a 50 year old man. However, these techniques took time to learn and even "perversions" developed. Excesses encouraged the belief that sexual expression should be limited. The Confucionists during the Ching Dynasty (1644-1912) saw ultra-orgasmic exercises as a threat to government and encouraged its end. Ultra-orgasmic techniques may be used today at the village level and are inseparable from the Chinese language and literature. Male homosexuality

  5. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  6. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  7. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  8. Family size, sex composition of children and contraceptive use: a case study of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Suchindran, C M; Ramakumar, R; Sathi Devi, K

    1993-01-01

    With the sudden decline of fertility it was particularly interesting to examine the situation in Kerala, regarding parental sex preference in formulating family planning policies for the rest of India with high fertility and son preference. The 1980 Kerala Fertility Survey included nearly 3000 households with about 2700 ever married women in reproductive age. Maternity history and fertility regulation data were collected. Data from 2500 currently married women were used, cross-classified by the number of male and female living children and contraceptive use status. A multiplicative model was used to study various interaction effects and to construct standardized rates of contraceptive use. Measures adjusted for both male and female composition and differential use of contraceptives among male-female combinations were obtained by the model to avoid arbitrariness in choosing rates and to preclude objections raised in previous research on Arnold's index. The model was generalized to facilitate simultaneous effects of the number of male and female children and family size on contraceptive use. Initial analysis showed that the effect of sex preference on contraceptive acceptance was rather negligible. However, there was a significant male-female interaction effect on contraceptive use. Contraception was high when the family size was large, with children of the same sex. With the effect of family size removed, the contraceptive use rate seemed to be in the inverse direction of the number of male or female children. This was possibly the result of two factors: 1) high contraception rate with large families of the same sex, and 2) low use of contraception among large families with a high number of children of both sexes. The Kerala situation partly supports McClelland's theory that couples already having proportionally more daughters may terminate fertility earlier. In Kerala such termination also occurs when couples have proportionally more sons, and family size also

  9. Aging family caregivers: policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tamar; Caldwell, Joe; Factor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This review examines later life family support for adults with developmental disabilities from a life course perspective that takes into account social trends and changes in service patterns and in attitudes of families. Key issues addressed include: (1) trends affecting family caregiving, (2) health and social outcomes of life-long caregiving, (3) support needs of families, (4) family support policies and practices, and (5) recommendations for a research and policy agenda. Research examining outcomes of life-long caregiving has shown that most families adapt well to having a family member with disabilities. However, some families are at risk for poorer physical and mental health outcomes. These include cultural minorities and families of adults with behavioral challenges. Caregiving does seem to have a negative impact on maternal employment and family income as mothers often give up or cut back on employment to care for a child with developmental disabilities, who is more likely to continue living in the family home throughout adulthood than other adult children. Federal and state initiatives are addressing issues of family support through both the developmental disabilities and aging service systems.

  10. Preimplantation sex selection for family balancing in India.

    PubMed

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Modi, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience with the use of embryo biopsy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) in order to sex embryos for the purpose of family balancing in a private IVF clinic in India from April 1999-April 2001. Embryos were biopsied and analysed on day 3, cultured in sequential media, and then transferred on day 4 or day 5 after morphological selection of the best embryos. From a total of 42 cycles started, we achieved 14 clinical pregnancies and have had nine live births so far with five ongoing pregnancies. This is the first report of the use of preimplantation sex selection for family balancing in India, where couples place a premium on having baby boys, and the social and ethical aspects of the use of this technology in this setting are discussed.

  11. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  12. The Schulhof Family: Solving the Age Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Molotov, Igor E.; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-01

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  13. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  14. Sex, Education, Age, and Cautiousness: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bonnie McLean; Carscaddon, David Mitchell; Lambert, Steven Dennis

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of educated men and women showed that cautiousness, as measured by perceived problem-solving ability, does not increase with age. Sex differences were nonsignificant. The results are discussed in terms of R. Schultz and J. Heckhausen's Life Span Model of Successful Aging. (Contains 28 references and 1 table.) (Author)

  15. Age, Sex, and Cultural Differences in the Meaning of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salili, Farideh

    This study explored variations in the meaning and psychological dimensions of achievement among people of different ages, sexes, and cultures. Subjects were 504 male and female British and Chinese students aged 13-55 in Hong Kong. Repertory grid technique was used to elicit success situations and related constructs. A group grid was then…

  16. Interactions between Age, Sex, and Hormones in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fudong; McCullough, Louise D.

    2012-01-01

    Age, sex, and gonadal hormones have profound effects on ischemic stroke outcomes, although how these factors impact basic stroke pathophysiology remains unclear. There is a plethora of inconsistent data reported throughout the literature, primarily due to differences in the species examined, the timing and methods used to evaluate injury, the models used, and confusion regarding differences in stroke incidence as seen in clinical populations versus effects on acute neuroprotection or neurorepair in experimental stroke models. Sex and gonadal hormone exposure have considerable independent impact on stroke outcome, but these factors also interact with each other, and the contribution of each differs throughout the lifespan. The contribution of sex and hormones to experimental stroke will be the focus of this review. Recent advances and our current understanding of age, sex, and hormone interactions in ischemic stroke with a focus on inflammation will be discussed. PMID:23068990

  17. The sociocultural context of family size preference, ideal sex composition, and induced abortion in India: findings from India's National Family Health surveys.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the effect of family size preference and sex composition of living children as determinants of induced abortion among women in India by analyzing 90,303 ever-married women aged 15-49, included in India's second National Family Health Survey, conducted in 1998-99. Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between induced abortion and possible determinants. The results indicated that a woman's desire to limit family size with preferred sex composition of children, coupled with her autonomy and the sociocultural context, largely determines her experience of induced abortion in India.

  18. Sex hormones in the aging female.

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J

    1987-12-01

    Aging of the human ovary results in a gradual diminution in ovarian steroid production, followed by an abrupt and almost complete cessation of both estrogen and progesterone production at the menopause. Although carefully controlled quantitative studies have not been published, it appears that the human reproductive axis still retains its ability to respond to steroid action. However, it still remains to be determined if alterations in cycle length and regularity preceding the menopause are due to changes in ovarian function or to subtle changes in the hypothalamic pituitary axis. More experimental evidence is available to describe the etiology of age-related reproductive dysfunction in laboratory rodents. From these studies, it appears that hypothalamic dysfunction is the principal cause for cessation of reproductive cycles. Recent evidence suggests that aging of the hypothalamus is due to cumulative effects of estrogen exposure over the course of the reproductive life span.

  19. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  20. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  1. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family

  2. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  3. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  4. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  5. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  6. Starting family life & sex education programs: a health agency's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wagman, E; Bignell, S

    1981-04-01

    Focus is on the ways school districts can develop sex education programs with minimal funds, utilizing existing teachers and building on existing support among students, parents, faculty and administrators. In 1978, Planned Parenthood, funded by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, implemented the Family Life Education Program Development Project. This was a statewide research and demonstration project that worked with 13 diverse California school districts to develop programs. Within each district, an administrator and a designated district trainer were initially trained. After community and administrative involvement and support were ensured, teacher training was conducted, and programs were successfully implemented in 12 of 13 selected districts. Preliminary evaluation findings based on observation and interviews with participating district staff identified 4 key factors critical to program success: 1) community involvement and support; 2) administrative involvement and support; 3) effective and acceptable curriculum; and 4) teacher training with impact. These factors are reviewed in detail, and suggestions are presented related to each. In most communities there is existing support for family life and sex education. What is needed is to involve the community in the creation of the local program, for this ensures support. Mechanisms to ensure involvement include advisory and specialized committees, broad community input, and community orientation workshop, school boards, and parent preview sessions. Unless the school administration is solidly behind a program, its chances for successful and continued implementation will remain low. PMID:6908934

  7. Age and sex based genetic locus heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, A.; Petronis, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Two genome scans for susceptibility loci for type 1 diabetes using large collections of families have recently been reported. Apart from strong linkage in both studies of the HLA region on chromosome 6p, clear consistent evidence for linkage was not observed at any other loci. One possible explanation for this is a high degree of locus heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes, and we hypothesised that the sex of affected offspring, age of diagnosis, and parental origin of shared alleles may be the bases of heterogeneity at some loci.
METHODS—Using data from a genome wide linkage study of 356 affected sib pairs with type 1 diabetes, we performed linkage analyses using parental origin of shared alleles in subgroups based on (1) sex of affected sibs and (2) age of diagnosis.
RESULTS—Among the results obtained, we observed that evidence for linkage to IDDM4 on chromosome 11q13 occurred predominantly from opposite sex, rather than same sex sib pairs. At a locus on chromosome 4q, evidence for linkage was observed in sibs where one was diagnosed above the age of 10 years and the other diagnosed below 10 years of age.
CONCLUSIONS—We show that heterogeneity tests based on age of diagnosis, sex of affected subject, and parental origin of shared alleles may be helpful in reducing locus heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes. If repeated in other samples, these findings may assist in the mapping of susceptibility loci for type 1 diabetes. Similar analyses can be recommended in other complex diseases.


Keywords: type 1 diabetes; age of diagnosis; sex; parental origin of alleles PMID:10699054

  8. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  9. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution.

  10. Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Petzold, Andreas; Koch, Philipp; Downie, Bryan R; Hartmann, Nils; Pietsch, Stefan; Baumgart, Mario; Chalopin, Domitille; Felder, Marius; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Arisi, Ivan; Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth S; Sharma, Virag; Kraus, Johann M; Schmid, Florian; Priebe, Steffen; Liehr, Thomas; Görlach, Matthias; Than, Manuel E; Hiller, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be bred in the laboratory. Its rapid growth, early sexual maturation, fast aging, and arrested embryonic development (diapause) make it an attractive model organism in biomedical research. Here, we report a draft sequence of its genome that allowed us to uncover an intra-species Y chromosome polymorphism representing-in real time-different stages of sex chromosome formation that display features of early mammalian XY evolution "in action." Our data suggest that gdf6Y, encoding a TGF-β family growth factor, is the master sex-determining gene in N. furzeri. Moreover, we observed genomic clustering of aging-related genes, identified genes under positive selection, and revealed significant similarities of gene expression profiles between diapause and aging, particularly for genes controlling cell cycle and translation. The annotated genome sequence is provided as an online resource (http://www.nothobranchius.info/NFINgb).

  11. Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Petzold, Andreas; Koch, Philipp; Downie, Bryan R; Hartmann, Nils; Pietsch, Stefan; Baumgart, Mario; Chalopin, Domitille; Felder, Marius; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Arisi, Ivan; Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth S; Sharma, Virag; Kraus, Johann M; Schmid, Florian; Priebe, Steffen; Liehr, Thomas; Görlach, Matthias; Than, Manuel E; Hiller, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be bred in the laboratory. Its rapid growth, early sexual maturation, fast aging, and arrested embryonic development (diapause) make it an attractive model organism in biomedical research. Here, we report a draft sequence of its genome that allowed us to uncover an intra-species Y chromosome polymorphism representing-in real time-different stages of sex chromosome formation that display features of early mammalian XY evolution "in action." Our data suggest that gdf6Y, encoding a TGF-β family growth factor, is the master sex-determining gene in N. furzeri. Moreover, we observed genomic clustering of aging-related genes, identified genes under positive selection, and revealed significant similarities of gene expression profiles between diapause and aging, particularly for genes controlling cell cycle and translation. The annotated genome sequence is provided as an online resource (http://www.nothobranchius.info/NFINgb). PMID:26638077

  12. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  13. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  14. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  15. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  16. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    SciTech Connect

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with (3H)prazosin, (3H)yohimbine, (3H)dihydroalprenolol and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype.

  17. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  18. Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education with Family Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…

  19. Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of the risks of self-harm and suicide and in particular the importance of family in mental health outcomes for same-sex attracted young people. Mental health workers can assist families gain confidence in dealing with the news that a young person is same-sex attracted. Implications for practitioners and a model for affirmative…

  20. Sex- and age-related differences in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Ruth; Fischer, Natalie

    2005-08-01

    This study examined sex differences and age-related changes in mathematics based on Eccles's 1985 expectancy-value model of "achievement-related choices" and Dweck's 1986 motivation-process model. We have assessed motivational variables and performance in mathematics for youth in Grades 5, 7, and 9 in a German comprehensive secondary school. Significant sex differences in Grades 7 and 9 were observed even when school marks were controlled for. Furthermore, the results indicated differences between Grade 7 and Grade 9 on most of the motivational variables. Older students show a less favorable motivational pattern. Our results give evidence of the importance of motivational encouragement in mathematics classes, especially for girls and low achieving learners. PMID:16279324

  1. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  3. Sex differential for suicide among Austrian age cohorts.

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E; Piribauer, F; Sonneck, G

    1996-04-01

    The suicide mortality data in Austria were studied over a period of four decades of continuous reporting. The data were studied for age, period and cohort effects. For the period 1951 to 1990 suicides among eight birth cohorts, born between 1932 and 1975, show a marked sex differential in time trends. Up to 1985, the rates increase in a constant manner for males in all age groups, in contrast to females. Results obtained using the Poisson regression models demonstrate a 35% (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.35%; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45) increased risk for male cohorts born later compared with those born earlier. The risk for later-born females was not increased (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). Explanations such as improved living conditions for Austrian women remain tentative, however, as age, period and cohort effects cannot be separated as independent variables in the suicide mortality data available in Austria. PMID:8712021

  4. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  5. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  6. Sensitivity to cocaine conditioned reward depends on sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Elena; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Human and animal laboratory studies show that females and males respond differently to drugs and that drug administration during adolescence leads to different behavioral effects than during adulthood. Adult female rats are more sensitive to the behavioral effects of cocaine than adult males, but it is not known if the same effect of sex exists during adolescence. In the present study, sensitivity to the conditioned reward of cocaine was evaluated using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm where adolescent (PND 34) and adult (PND 66) male and female rats were trained and tested for the development of CPP to multiple doses of cocaine. Female rats developed CPP at lower doses than males, regardless of age. In addition, adolescent male and female rats established a CPP at lower doses of cocaine than adult male and female rats, respectively. Thus, both age and sex altered cocaine conditioned reward with the order of sensitivity being adolescent females > adult females > adolescent males > adult males. These data show that adolescents are more sensitive to the conditioned rewarding properties of cocaine than adults and that females respond to lower doses of cocaine compared to males regardless of age. PMID:19032962

  7. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009–2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents’ health status of 3,542 children aged 4–12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  8. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  9. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  10. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    PubMed

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  11. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French - the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys' performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls' performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children's mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  13. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys. PMID:26696938

  14. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction

    PubMed Central

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2011-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

  15. Family Day Care and the School-Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Michelle Seligson

    This paper provides portions of a workshop discussion at the Wheelock Conference on School-Age Child Care concerning the role of family day care for school-age children. The workshop participants included family day care providers affiliated with the day care system in the Greater Boston area, administrators of a family day care system which also…

  16. When Families Present with Concerns about an Adolescent's Experience of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)

  17. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  18. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  19. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    PubMed

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  20. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    PubMed

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  1. Flight of the Stork: What Children Think (and When) about Sex and Family Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Anne C.

    This book provides parents with some insight on how children come to understand sex and reproduction. Chapter 1 discusses some of the ways children think differently from adults and chapter 2 offers suggestions for talking with children about sex and birth and forming families. In chapters 3-8, children's explanations of the origins of babies are…

  2. The Content and Process of Mother-Adolescent Communication about Sex in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Goldberg, Vincent; Casillas, Eileen; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that Latino parents discuss sexual topics with their children less often than do parents from other ethnic groups; however, communication about sex in Latino families is not well understood. The present study explored the content and process of mother-adolescent communication about sex to better understand how to facilitate…

  3. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  4. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  5. Nutrition, sex, gestational age, and hair growth in babies.

    PubMed

    Berger, H M; King, J; Doughty, S; Wharton, B A

    1978-04-01

    Hair growth measurements are a sensitive indicator of nutrition and we have assessed their value in the perinatal period. The proportion of growing roots and their diameter were studied at birth in 114 babies and repeated 3 weeks later in 29 low birthweight babies. Intrauterine malnutrition resulted in thinner roots but the changes after birth were not related to nutrition and these measurements will not be useful in feeding studies in this period. At birth, gestational age and sex affected the hair root, and it may be important to recognise these differences if the hair root is used in biochemical screening tests. We have used a new simple technique for measuring the root diameter using an image-splitting eye-piece.

  6. Age, sex and personality in early cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Muro I Rodríguez, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies analysing personality and cannabis use in adult samples suggest that cannabis users show significant higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking and schizotypy. However, there are few studies exploring this relationship in adolescence using psychobiological models of personality. Given the relevance of identifying individual differences that lead adolescents to early cannabis use to prevent future health problems, the present study aimed to explore the relationship between age, sex, personality and early cannabis use using a psychobiological model of personality in a sample of 415 students (51.8% boys) from 12 to 18 years. Chi(2) tests showed significant higher prevalence of cannabis use in boys and in the group aged 15-18 years. Multiple analysis of variance showed significant higher scores in psychoticism, sensation seeking and in all its subscales in cannabis users group, while an interaction with age was found for extraversion and neuroticism: cannabis users scored higher than non-users in the youngest group (12-14 years) but lower in the oldest group in both dimensions. Finally, regression analysis showed that narrower traits of sensation seeking (experience seeking and disinhibition) were the most associated to early cannabis use. Results are discussed in terms of early cannabis users' personality profiles and in terms of the self-medication theory.

  7. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  8. A demographic and social profile of age- and sex-matched vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, J H; Greninger, S A; Young, R K

    1986-07-01

    A demographic and social profile was compiled for 150 vegetarians and 150 nonvegetarians who were matched for age and sex. A 328-item questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions was administered. Information collected included personal and demographic data, personal habits, social activities, and possible influences of vegetarianism. No differences were observed in the cultural, ethnic, or familial background of the groups. Vegetarians were less influenced by parents and traditional religions, were slightly less well educated, and were employed in less-skilled occupations. However, vegetarians socialized more than nonvegetarians, as evidenced by their greater frequency of entertaining, going out with friends, and joining organizations. The commitment to vegetarianism was strong and appeared to be reinforced by an extensive network of family and friends who were also vegetarians. This strong support network was particularly evident for those who practiced the more restrictive forms of vegetarianism, the only major difference observed within the types of vegetarians studied.

  9. Perceived control and communication about sex: a study of South African families.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Bradley; Salama, Christina; Grim, Elizabeth C; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-youth communication about sex protects youth against HIV/AIDS, and caregivers who believe that sex knowledge is important are more likely to talk to their youth about sex. However, caregivers who experience barriers to communication about sex may not talk to their youth about sex even if the caregiver believes that sex education is important. The Theory of Planned Behaviour predicts that an actor has perceived control is necessary for behavioural change. This study therefore hypothesised that caregivers' perceived control moderates the relationship between caregiver attitudes about youth sex knowledge and caregiver-youth communication about sex. Results from a sample of 99 female South African caregivers of adolescent (10-14 year old) youth supported our hypothesis, indicating that caregiver attitudes about providing youth with sex knowledge positively predict communication about sex only when caregivers have perceived control. This finding illustrates the importance of perceived control in predicting caregiver-youth communication, and therefore has implications for family-based interventions aimed at improving caregiver-youth communication about sex. PMID:25174513

  10. Perceived control and communication about sex: a study of South African families.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Bradley; Salama, Christina; Grim, Elizabeth C; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-youth communication about sex protects youth against HIV/AIDS, and caregivers who believe that sex knowledge is important are more likely to talk to their youth about sex. However, caregivers who experience barriers to communication about sex may not talk to their youth about sex even if the caregiver believes that sex education is important. The Theory of Planned Behaviour predicts that an actor has perceived control is necessary for behavioural change. This study therefore hypothesised that caregivers' perceived control moderates the relationship between caregiver attitudes about youth sex knowledge and caregiver-youth communication about sex. Results from a sample of 99 female South African caregivers of adolescent (10-14 year old) youth supported our hypothesis, indicating that caregiver attitudes about providing youth with sex knowledge positively predict communication about sex only when caregivers have perceived control. This finding illustrates the importance of perceived control in predicting caregiver-youth communication, and therefore has implications for family-based interventions aimed at improving caregiver-youth communication about sex.

  11. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  12. Work-Family Interface for Same-Sex, Dual-Earner Couples: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    The author highlights information for career counselors to consider when addressing work-family interface with individuals who are members of same-sex, dual-earner couples or families. D. E. Super's (1990) life-span, life-space theory is the framework used to organize the literature review and discussion of current trends. Issues related to the…

  13. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, R P; Vielhaber, E; Bottema, C D; Schaid, D J; Cohen, M P; Sexauer, C L; Sommer, S S

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, we report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by us, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, transitions at the dinucleotide CpG show the largest male predominance (11-fold). In contrast to single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. PMID:8434583

  14. Successful sex pre-selection using natural family planning.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Léonie

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gender can be preselected by timing coitus in relation to ovulation, the marker of ovulation being the Peak symptom according to the Billings Method. A blind prospective study of 99 couples wishing to preselect the sex of their child was conducted in Nigeria, using the Post-Peak approach of Billings Method for males and Pre-Peak for females. Research co-ordinators examined the 'post-conception' form within four months of conception. This form recorded the timing of coitus prior to conception, and from this, the sex of child was predicted. 94 of the couples had a child of pre-selected sex showing a method success of 94.9%. 78 of 81 predicting a male were successful (96.3%) and 16 of the 18 predicting a female (88.9%). There was one user-failure, a couple who wanted a girl, timed coitus as for a boy, which they had. The study indicates that where comprehensive instruction is provided, the sex of a child can be preselected with a high degree of confidence by timing coitus, using the Post-Peak approach of Billings Method for males and Pre-Peak for females.

  15. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  16. Sex Roles, Family and Society: The Seventies and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanzoni, John; Fox, Greer Litton

    1980-01-01

    The decade literature is divided into studies of children and preteens, adolescents and young adults, and marrieds. A model of gender-based decision making, applicable at both macro and micro levels, is offered as one way to specify relations between the sexes. Suggestions are made for the next decade's studies. (Author)

  17. Family Relationships and Parent-Child Discussion about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Research has shown that parents may influence the sexual attitudes and behaviors of their late adolescent children. Family sexual communication and the quality of general family communication are two variables that seem to be related to aspects of adolescent sexuality. To examine this issue, college students (N=95) and their parents were…

  18. Does Family Matter to HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    PubMed Central

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Craft, Shonda M.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies have indicated that friends or families of choice provide more support to HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) than members of the family of origin. The creation of families of choice by MSM has been viewed as a means of creating a support system in the absence of traditional family. The purpose of this study is to explore if HIV-positive MSM believe family of origin are important. Data was drawn from a qualitative study of HIV disclosure to family. Responses to the question “How important is family to you?” are explored. Results suggest that for many HIV-positive MSM relationships with family of origin are very important. While not definitive, data to be presented are provocative and challenge notions of the significance of family of origin to marginalized populations. PMID:21745231

  19. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  20. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  1. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  2. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  3. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  4. Risk for Coerced Sex Among Female Youth in Ghana: Roles of Family Context, School Enrollment And Relationship Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Reed, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. A series of logistic regression models examined the influences of household composition and wealth, four family process variables (behavioral control, relationship quality, financial support, conflict), school enrollment and relationship experience on females' risk of experiencing coerced sex. Results Eighteen percent of respondents reported having experienced coerced sex prior to Wave 1, and 13% experienced it between Waves 1 and 2. In both cross-sectional and prospective models, the variable with the strongest association with having experienced coerced sex was having ever had a boyfriend (fully adjusted odds ratios, 4.5 and 2.6, respectively). In cross-sectional analyses, parental behavioral control was negatively associated with risk for coerced sex, while parental conflict was positively associated; these associations were not significant in the prospective analyses. Having a boyfriend appears to be the primary predictor of coerced sex among young females, beyond any influence of family, school or other household variables. Conclusions More research is needed to understand the context of females' relationships with boyfriends in an effort to reduce the risk of sexual coercion and to promote the prevention of sexual violence perpetrated by males within these relationships. PMID:25565346

  5. Liminality and low-income aging families by choice: meanings of family and support.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078

  6. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  7. Geographic mobility of scientists: sex differences and family constraints.

    PubMed

    Shauman, K A; Xie, Y

    1996-11-01

    Women scientists are much more likely than men scientists to be in two-career marriages. This study examines the argument that the higher prevalence of two-career marriages among women scientists presents a significant impediment to their geographic mobility. Three hypotheses are developed and tested. First, scientists in two-career families are less likely to migrate than scientists in one-career families. Second, the effect of two-career marriages on the probability of migration differs with gender; women are affected more negatively. Third, the effect of children on the probability of migration differs with gender; women are affected more negatively. The empirical work uses a data set of doctoral scientists extracted from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample from the 1990 census. The first two hypotheses are not confirmed by the empirical results, but we find evidence supporting the third. Family constraints on women scientists' careers generally appear to be weak, but become acute when they have children.

  8. Ideal ages for family formation among immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.

  9. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  10. School and Family Origins of Delinquency: Comparisons by Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, Margaret E.; And Others

    This paper concerns early social adaptational and family antecedents of teenage delinquent behavior in a population of black first graders who were reassessed 10 years after the initial study. Subjects were 705 teenagers who had participated in the 1966-67 Woodlawn study and whose mothers had given permission for reassessment. At the time of the…

  11. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlinski, Judy R.

    2007-01-01

    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  12. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  13. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  14. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  15. What does it mean when age is related to recidivism among sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T

    2014-04-01

    Age is a robust predictor of recidivism and an item on actuarial tools commonly used to predict sexual violent recidivism among sex offenders. However, little is known about whether or how much offenders' risk diminishes as a result of aging. In the first of two studies, we examined the sexual and violent recidivism of 533 sex offenders who were over age 50 on release. Age at index offense was at least as good at predicting both outcomes as was age at release, and age at index offense provided at least as much incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism to scores on a brief static actuarial tool. Neither age added incrementally to static score in the prediction of sexual recidivism. The second study examined how well age at first offense, age at index offense, and age at release predicted violent recidivism among 527 sex offenders aged 13 to 79 at release. Age at first offense predicted best. When age was removed from score on the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, all ages added incrementally but age at release least to SORAG score. When participants were divided into quartiles based on age at index offense, there was no evidence from any quartile that age at release predicted violent recidivism better than age at first offense. The authors concluded that age at release is a poor index of within-subject changes in risk of sexual or violent recidivism. No adjustment to a sex offender's score on a comprehensive actuarial tool that includes age at first or index offense should be made simply because the offender is older.

  16. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  17. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a

  18. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  19. Sex Differences and Within-Family Associations in the Broad Autism Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a strong sex bias in the presentation of autism, it is unknown whether this bias is also present in subclinical manifestations of autism among relatives, or the broad autism phenotype. This study examined this question and investigated patterns of co-occurrence of broad autism phenotype traits within families of individuals with…

  20. 'They have embraced a different behaviour': transactional sex and family dynamics in eastern Congo's conflict.

    PubMed

    Maclin, Beth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009-2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women's relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

  1. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  2. Midlife Education, Career, and Family Outcomes of Women Educated at Two Single-Sex Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa

    2002-01-01

    Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…

  3. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  4. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  5. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  6. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods. PMID:23244690

  7. Reducing the noise in behavioral assays: sex and age in adult zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J; Cousin, Margot A; Pierret, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods.

  8. Tomorrow's Family Reforms: Marriage Course, Marriage Test, Incorporated Families, and Sex Selection Mandate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shostak, Arthur B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses specific new laws and programs to strengthen family life suggested in the (N=34) detailed reforms proposed and endorsed by the 1980 White House Conference on Families. Explores four reform possibilities including high school marriage preparation classes, a mandated marriage readiness test, family incorporation, and support for prenatal…

  9. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  10. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  11. Sex ratio at reproductive age: changes over the last century in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Ulizzi, L; Astolfi, P; Zonta, L A

    2001-02-01

    The radical improvement in living conditions experienced in Italy during the last century caused a reduction in male extra-mortality during the prereproductive years. As a consequence, a progressive increase in the sex ratio at the beginning of the reproductive age (15-19 years) occurred, so that in recent times the sex ratio in the young adult population has approached the almost constant value of 1.06 observed at birth. We calculated that the sex composition would be the same in newborns and in young adults in about one generation: obviously, we have to assume that the sex differentials in mortality and migration are constant over time. The 1:1 equilibrium between sexes, which maximizes reproductive success, occurred in the 15-19 age group at the beginning of the century and shifted to the 30-35 age group in the 1990s. We compared the 1993-1995 sex ratios in different age groups in European Union countries and observed that in Italy as well as in other Mediterranean countries the numerical equality between sexes is reached at 30-35 years of age, while in north-central Europe it is reached later, approximately at the end of reproductive life.

  12. Sex Differences in Perceived Stress and Early Recovery in Young and Middle-Aged Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A.; Lichtman, Judith H; D’Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M.; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P.; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to such difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3,572 AMI patients (2,397 women and 1,175 men) 18–55 years of age. The average score of 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (p<0.001). Higher stress in women was largely explained by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intra-family conflict, care-giving demand, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1-month post-AMI, with mean differences in improvement score ranging from −0.04 for Euro-Qol utility index to −3.96 for angina-related quality of life (p<0.05 for all). Further adjustment for baseline stress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to −0.03 to −3.63, which however remained statistically significant (p<0.05 for all). High stress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Conclusions Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after AMI. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women’s worse recovery. PMID:25679303

  13. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  14. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  15. [Antibodies to endogenous bioregulators and their association with age and sex in chronic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Myagkova, M A; Petrochenko, S N; Morozova, V S; Moseikin, I A; Shypitsin, V V; Polyvyanaya, O Yu

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied changes in the levels of antibodies to endogenous bioregulators (Ab) to Β-endorphin, orphanin, serotonin, dopamine and angiotensin in 36 healthy people and 109 patients with dorsopathy with chronic pain syndrome. The association of these immunological indicators with age and sex was found. It has been concluded that the levels of Ab to endogenous bioregulators may be considered as a marker of algic system pathology that does not depend on age and is sex-related.

  16. [Antibodies to endogenous bioregulators and their association with age and sex in chronic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Myagkova, M A; Petrochenko, S N; Morozova, V S; Moseikin, I A; Shypitsin, V V; Polyvyanaya, O Yu

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied changes in the levels of antibodies to endogenous bioregulators (Ab) to Β-endorphin, orphanin, serotonin, dopamine and angiotensin in 36 healthy people and 109 patients with dorsopathy with chronic pain syndrome. The association of these immunological indicators with age and sex was found. It has been concluded that the levels of Ab to endogenous bioregulators may be considered as a marker of algic system pathology that does not depend on age and is sex-related. PMID:23739439

  17. Exploring the role of computers in sex and relationship education within British families.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify the impact that computers can have in relation to sex and relationship education, as well as to provide a communication model that can be used within British families. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the factors that influence communication of sexual matters within British families. Twenty families from the northeast of England were recruited through purposive sampling. First, semistructured interviews were conducted to identify how sexual matters were discussed within families. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The second part of the research involved identifying the impact of using a computer program on knowledge and confidence within families to enhance communication about sexual matters. Although the majority of parents and their children were found to discuss sexual matters, the computer program was found to increase knowledge and confidence, which led to greater communication within families. The results highlighted the beneficial role that computer programs can have when educating and increasing communication within families. Future research needs to focus on improving access to information relating to sex and relationship education for parents so they can educate and talk openly about sexual matters with their children. A resource that does exactly this is www.safecoolsex.com.

  18. Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.

    PubMed

    Allsop, D J; West, S A

    2003-09-01

    A general problem in evolutionary biology is that quantitative tests of theory usually require a detailed knowledge of the underlying trade-offs, which can be very hard to measure. Consequently, tests of theory are often constrained to be qualitative and not quantitative. A solution to this problem can arise when life histories are viewed in a dimensionless way. Recently, dimensionless theory has been developed to predict the size and age at which individuals should change sex. This theory predicts that the size at sex change/maximum size (L50/L(max)), and the age at sex change/age at first breeding (tau/alpha) should both be invariant. We found support for these two predictions across 52 species of fish. Fish change sex when they are 80% of their maximum body size, and 2.5 times their age at maturity. This invariant result holds despite a 60 and 25 fold difference across species in maximum size and age at sex change. These results suggest that, despite ignoring many biological complexities, relatively simple evolutionary theory is able to explain quantitatively at what point sex change occurs across fish species. Furthermore, our results suggest some very broad generalities in how male fitness varies with size and age across fish species with different mating systems.

  19. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed.

  20. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  1. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex on Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent–adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  2. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  3. Sex and age differences in mercury distribution and excretion in methylmercury-administered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, K.; Yasutake, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sex differences in mercury distribution and excretion after single administration of methylmercury chloride (MMC, 5 mg/kg were studied in mice. A sex difference in urinary mercury excretion was found in sexually mature mice (age of 7 wk) of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA strains. Males showed higher mercury levels in urine than females, though no significant difference was found in fecal mercury levels 24 h post exposure to MMC. The higher urinary excretion rates in males accounted for significant lowering of mercury levels in the brain, liver, and blood, but not in the kidney, which showed higher values. At 5 min, however, the sex difference was found only in the kidney, showing higher levels in males. Changes in mercury distribution with time were studied in C57BL/6N mice. The brain mercury increased in both sexes up to 3 d, and decreased only in males on d 5. Liver and blood mercury decreased with time in both sexes, and these were constantly higher in females than in males. Renal mercury in males decreased to similar levels to females on d 3. The sex differences at various ages were studied with C57BL/6N mice 24 h after dosing. Two-week-old mice did not show significant sex differences in the mercury distribution and excretion, and their urinary mercury levels were much lower as compared to the older mice. Urinary mercury excretion in both sexes increased at 4 wk of age and then decreased at 45 wk of age. At 4, 7, 10, and 45 wk of age, males showed higher urinary mercury levels than females. From these findings, it has been suggested that urinary mercury excretion may be related to sex hormones, especially androgens.

  4. Differential effects of aging and sex on stroke induced inflammation across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Scranton, Victoria; Hammond, Matthew D; Sansing, Lauren H; McCullough, Louise D

    2013-11-01

    Aging and biological sex are critical determinants of stroke outcome. Post-ischemic inflammatory response strongly contributes to the extent of ischemic brain injury, but how this response changes with age and sex is unknown. We subjected young (5-6 months), middle aged (14-15 months) and aged (20-22 months), C57BL/6 male and female mice to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and found that a significant age by sex interaction influenced histological stroke outcomes. Acute functional outcomes were worse with aging. Neutrophils, inflammatory macrophages, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and microglia significantly increased in the brain post MCAO. Cycling females had higher Gr1(-) non-inflammatory macrophages and lower T cells in the brain after stroke and these correlated with serum estradiol levels. Estrogen loss in acyclic aged female mice exacerbated stroke induced splenic contraction. Advanced age increased T cells, DCs and microglia at the site of injury, which may be responsible for the exacerbated behavioral deficits in the aged. We conclude that aging and sex have differential effects on the post stroke inflammatory milieu. Putative immunomodulatory therapies need to account for this heterogeneity.

  5. Differential effects of aging and sex on stroke induced inflammation across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Scranton, Victoria; Hammond, Matthew D.; Sansing, Lauren H.; McCullough, Louise D.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and biological sex are critical determinants of stroke outcome. Post-ischemic inflammatory response strongly contributes to the extent of ischemic brain injury, but how this response changes with age and sex is unknown. We subjected young (5–6 months), middle aged (14–15 months) and aged (20–22 months), C57BL/6 male and female mice to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and found that a significant age by sex interaction influenced histological stroke outcomes. Acute functional outcomes were worse with aging. Neutrophils, inflammatory macrophages, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and microglia significantly increased in the brain post MCAO. Cycling females had higher Gr1− non-inflammatory macrophages and lower T cells in the brain after stroke and these correlated with serum estradiol levels. Estrogen loss in acyclic aged female mice exacerbated stroke induced splenic contraction. Advanced age increased T cells, DCs and microglia at the site of injury, which may be responsible for the exacerbated behavioral deficits in the aged. We conclude that aging and sex have differential effects on the post stroke inflammatory milieu. Putative immunomodulatory therapies need to account for this heterogeneity. PMID:23994069

  6. The effect of non-family experiences on age of marriage in a setting of rapid social change.

    PubMed

    Yabiku, Scott T

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the changing effects of non-family activities on the age of transition to first marriage in four cohorts of individuals across 45 years in the Chitwan Valley, Nepal. The results indicate that school enrolment had a negative effect on both men's and women's marriage rates, while total years of schooling had a positive effect on men's marriage rates. Non-family employment experiences increased marriage rates for men only. Analysing the effects of schooling and employment over time suggests that school enrolment became a growing deterrent to marriage for both sexes, and that non-family employment became an increasingly desirable attribute in men. The results are consistent with changing views about sex roles and schooling over time in the region, as the roles of student and spouse became more distinct. The results also suggest an increasing integration of husbands in the non-family labour market.

  7. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Calvo, Rosa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Moya, Jaime; Lázaro, Luisa; Rosa, Mireia; Bargalló, Nuria; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7-18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and 'age × sex' interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7-12 and 13-18 years). As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  8. A never-ending story: school family life / sex education in European countries.

    PubMed

    Deven, F

    1991-05-01

    A comparative perspective in the early 1970's on family life and sex education (FL/SE) contributed by M. Kozakiewicz highlights IPPF Europe Region. In 1985, the Europe Regional Council explored the politics of FL/SE in European counties, Sex Education Group I Project, with the end result that moral as well as factual input was being introduced in school based sex education. Analysis of legal decisions, curricula, and research literature, which was conducted, evolved into documenting the process of the sex education provision along with the rationale behind sex education's non-existence in school curricula. Group 2 later involved 9 additional countries, but there were budget constraints. These later reports also took into account political-ideological change, and the effects of HIV/AIDs on encouraging sex education as health education. Notable reports include Cyprus' FPA's effective focus and relentless influence on the Minister of Education, and Portugal's FPA's similar success. France's MFPF human rights and feminist perspective is actively operating in the surveillance of new laws and regulations, but is unable to provide the means to sufficiently support sex education throughout the country. Czechoslovakia's political changes are still ongoing and Poland has been strongly influenced in its anti-abortion law in 1990 by the Roman Catholic Church. German unification mandates new laws of unknown fate. Luxembourg has expanded a limited medical and psychosexual counseling approach to include broader sex education activities. The IPPF successfully promoted awareness of FL/SE in schools, and FPAs have developed various strategies to influence top ministerial or administrative people. The never ending story is one of continued vigilance and adaptation to changing political dimensions. PMID:12343173

  9. Does Sex Moderate the Clinical Correlates of Pediatric Bipolar-I Disorder? Results from a Large Controlled Family-Genetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Janet; Biederman, Joseph; Martelon, MaryKate; Hernandez, Mariely; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Since little is known as to whether sex differences affect the clinical presentation of pediatric BP-I disorder, it is an area of high clinical, scientific and public health relevance. Methods Subjects are 239 BP-I probands (65 female probands, 174 male probands) and their 726 first-degree relatives, and 136 non-bipolar, non-ADHD control probands (37 female probands, 99 male probands) and their 411 first-degree relatives matched for age and sex. We modeled the psychiatric and cognitive outcomes as a function of BP-I status, sex, and the BP-I status-gender interaction. Results BP-I disorder was equally familial in both sexes. With the exception of duration of mania (shorter in females) and number of depressive episodes (more in females), there were no other meaningful differences between the sexes in clinical correlates of BP-I disorder. With the exception of a significant sex effect for panic disorder and a trend for substance use disorders (p=0.05) with female probands being at a higher risk than male probands, patterns of comorbidity were similar between the sexes. Despite the similarities, boys with BP-I disorder received more intensive and costly academic services than girls with the same disorder. Limitations Since we studied children referred to a family study of bipolar disorder, our findings may not generalize to clinic settings. Conclusions We found more similarities than differences between the sexes in the personal and familial correlates of BP-I disorder. Clinicians should consider bipolar disorder in the differential diagnosis of both boys and girls afflicted with symptoms suggestive of this disorder. PMID:23485112

  10. Sex Differences in Intimate Friendships of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Edward A.; Bultena, Gordon L.

    1976-01-01

    A statewide sample of 234 individuals, 70 years of age or older, was employed to assess the nature and prominence of intimate friendships in the social world of aged men and women. There was little sexual differentiation in the characteristics of intimate friendships in late life. (Author)

  11. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  12. Hearing Levels of Children by Age and Sex: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Huber, Paul

    This report contains estimates of hearing levels for children 6 to 11 years of age in the United States as determined in the second cycle of the Health Examination Survey, conducted during 1963-1965. A probability sample (N=7,119) was selected to represent the 24 million children 6 to 11 years of age in the noninstitutional population. Hearing…

  13. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  14. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Denda, M; Koyama, J; Hori, J; Horii, I; Takahashi, M; Hara, M; Tagami, H

    1993-01-01

    We measured six stratum corneum sphingolipid species (ceramides 1-6) in 26 males and 27 females, and found a significant change in their percentage composition only among female subjects of different age groups. There was a significant increase in ceramide 1 and 2 with a corresponding decrease in ceramide 3 and 6 from prepubertal age to adulthood. Thereafter the ratio of ceramide 2 to total sphingolipids decreased with age in contrast to ceramide 3 which showed an increase. Such a pattern of change in the aging population is different from that observed in scaly skin experimentally induced by tape stripping. The present results suggest a significant influence of female hormones on the composition of stratum corneum sphingolipids. Moreover, the different patterns of change in sphingolipid composition of stratum corneum lipids between scales from inflammatory skin and those from aged skin also suggest that epidermal biosynthesis of sphingolipids is influenced by epidermal proliferative activity. PMID:8304781

  15. Family Network, Workplace Network, and Their Influence on Condom Use: A Qualitative Study Among Older Female Sex Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chun; Guida, Jennifer; Morisky, Donald E; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the components of social networks and their influence on condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. In-depth interviews with 63 older FSWs and 6 focus group interviews with pimps and owners of roadside salons and hotels were conducted in 3 Chinese cities. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years old (SD = 6.9 years) and the mean age of starting sex work was 38.6 years old (SD = 6.6 years). Two types of networks that influenced condom use were identified: family networks (relationship with children and husbands) and workplace networks (relationship with peers, clients, pimps, and owners). Relationships between older FSWs and their children negatively influenced condom use. Low levels of network support and norms regarding condom use were observed in the relationship between older FSWs and their clients, whereas positive social support and norms were prevalent among older FSWs who had frequent contact with peers. Norms for condom use existed among pimps and owners but were counterbalanced by monetary gains. Future human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions for older FSWs should take the different features of social network components into consideration. PMID:25411685

  16. Family Network, Workplace Network, and Their Influence on Condom Use: A Qualitative Study Among Older Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun; Guida, Jennifer; Morisky, Donald E.; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the components of social networks and their influence on condom use among older female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. In-depth interviews with 63 older FSWs and 6 focus groups interviews with pimps and owners of roadside salons and hotels were conducted in three Chinese cities. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years old (SD = 6.9 years) and the mean age of starting sex work was 38.6 years old (SD = 6.6 years). Two types of networks that influenced condom use were identified: family networks (relationship with children and husbands) and workplace networks (relationship with peers, clients, pimps and owners). Relationships between older FSWs and their children negatively influenced condom use. Low levels of network support and norms regarding condom use were observed in the relationship between older FSWs and their clients, whereas positive social support and norms were prevalent among older FSWs who had frequent contact with peers. Norms for condom use existed among pimps and owners, but were counterbalanced by monetary gains. Future HIV interventions for older FSWs should take the different features of social network components into consideration. PMID:25411685

  17. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  18. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

  19. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  20. Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nicola D; Dengel, Donald R; Stratton, Gareth; Kelly, Aaron S; Steinberger, Julia; Zavala, Hanan; Marlatt, Kara; Perry, Daniel; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males [2.96 mm (95% CI: 2.92-3.00) vs. 3.24 mm (3.19-3.28), P < 0.001] and increased with age across the cohort (P < 0.001). Diameter increased between ages 6 and 17 yr in males [from 2.81 mm (2.63, 3.00) to 3.91 mm (3.68, 4.14)] but plateaued at age 12 yr in females. Males had a lower FMD [7.62% (7.33-7.91) vs. 8.31% (7.95-8.66), P = 0.024], specifically at ages 17 and 18 yr. There was a significant effect of age on FMD (P = 0.023), with a reduction in FMD apparent postpuberty in males. In conclusion, the brachial artery increases structurally with age in both sexes; however, there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age; however, these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence.

  1. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age. PMID:26597735

  2. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  3. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  4. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  5. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  6. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  7. Parent-Child Interaction and Adolescents' Future Orientation: The Effects of Age and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    A number of studies have shown that parent-child interaction influences the manner in which adolescents see their future. In an investigation designed to determine whether this influence varies according to the child's age and sex, 57 Finnish adolescents were interviewed at ages 11 and 15 about their hopes for the future. The internality,…

  8. Sex differences in neurochemical markers that correlate with behavior in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Frick, K M; Burlingame, L A; Delaney, S S; Berger-Sweeney, J

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in neurochemical markers that correlate with behavior in aging mice NEUROBIOL AGING. We examined whether the enzymatic activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were altered similarly with age in male and female mice, and whether these changes were correlated with age-related alterations in memory and anxiety. ChAT and GAD activities were measured in neocortex, hippocampus, and striatum of behaviorally characterized male and female C57BL/6 mice (5, 17, and 25 months). Generally, ChAT activity was increased, and GAD activity decreased, with age. However, disparate changes were revealed between the sexes; activities of both enzymes were decreased in 17-month males, whereas alterations in females were not observed until 25-months. Furthermore, enzyme-behavior correlations differed between the sexes; in males, ChAT activity was related to one behavioral task, whereas in females, activities of both enzymes were correlated with multiple tasks. Significant enzyme-behavior correlations were most evident at 17 months of age, likely the result of behavioral and enzymatic sex differences at this age. These data represent the first comprehensive report illustrating differential alterations of ChAT and GAD activities in aging male and female mice.

  9. Influence of age, sex, hearing loss, and balance on development of running by deaf children.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A

    1991-10-01

    130 deaf boys and girls, ages 3 to 14 years, were tested on development of mature running form. The mature form in this skill was associated with chronological age and performance of static and dynamic balance. Sex and hearing loss do not appear to affect development of running.

  10. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  11. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  12. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  13. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation. PMID:27484643

  14. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.

  15. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  16. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  17. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  18. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  19. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  20. Implications for dynamic visual acuity with changes in aged and sex.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, H; Miyao, M

    1994-04-01

    Using a Landolt ring with a gap of 40' of arc which moved at a decreasing velocity until the gap was discriminated, we measured the dynamic visual acuity of 826 subjects, males and females ages 5 to 92 years, and found rapid development between the ages of 5 and 15 years. This experiment showed that dynamic discrimination peaked at age 15 and then declined at a constant rate from age 20 on. The discrimination of male subjects was superior to that of female subjects at most ages, but a significant sex difference was observed only at age 5. We speculate that males may have better discrimination than females but variability is substantial.

  1. Varying contributions of growth and ageing to racial and sex differences in femoral neck structure and strength in old age.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Duan, Yunbo; Beck, Thomas J; Seeman, Ego

    2005-06-01

    The structural basis of racial and sex differences in femoral neck (FN) fragility in old age was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 829 healthy Chinese and 1181 healthy Caucasian subjects aged 18 to 93 years in Melbourne, Australia. We measured FN bone mineral density (BMD), periosteal diameter, and estimated endocortical diameter, cortical thickness, volumetric BMD (vBMD), section modulus, and buckling ratio using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Racial and sex differences in structural and strength indices were adjusted for age, bone length and body weight and were expressed in standard deviation (SD) unit. In young adulthood, Chinese women had a 0.85 SD narrower FN, a 0.47 SD thinner cortex and a 0.79 SD shorter FN axis length (FNAL) than Caucasian women. Across age, Chinese and Caucasian women had similar increments in endocortical and periosteal diameters and similar decrements in cortical thickness and vBMD (both approximately 20%). In young adult males, FN periosteal diameter did not differ by race, but cortical thickness was 0.35 SD lower in Chinese than Caucasians. Across age, increments in periosteal and endocortical diameters were less in Chinese than Caucasian men so cortical thickness and vBMD diminished less in Chinese than in Caucasian men. In both races, young adult women had narrower FN than men. As Chinese women had a greater increment in periosteal diameter than Chinese men across age, the sex difference in FN periosteal diameter established in young adulthood diminished in old age. As Caucasian men had a greater increment in periosteal diameter than Caucasian women, the sex difference in FN periosteal diameter established in young adulthood increased with age. In old age, for both sexes, Chinese had a higher fracture risk in bending than Caucasians, but a lower fracture risk by buckling. For both races, women had a higher fracture risk in bending than men. Racial and sexual dimorphism in the absolute and relative behavior of the periosteal and

  2. Influence of family dynamics on burden among family caregivers in aging Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988

  3. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  4. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats (Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  5. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians.

  6. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  7. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  8. Influence of sex and age on morphological organ damage after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Mees, Soeren Torge; Gwinner, Maike; Marx, Kerstin; Faendrich, Fred; Schroeder, Joerg; Haier, Joerg; Kahlke, Volker

    2008-06-01

    Immune function after hemorrhagic shock (shock) and subsequent sepsis is proofed to be sex- and age-related, showing an enhanced immune function and better survival of young females and a deteriorating immune response in advanced age. However, it remains unclear if the observed sex- and age-related effects observed on the immune function mirror the histomorphological changes of the affected organs. To scrutinize a possible association, male and female CBA/J mice (young, 2-3 months; aged 18-19 months) were subjected to shock (35 + 5 mmHg for 90 min and fluid resuscitation) or sham operation. At 48 h after shock, histological specimen at definite sites were harvested (lung, small bowel, liver, and kidney) and immediately stored in 10% formalin. After paraffin embedding, hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemical stains (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1], cluster of differentiation 44 [CD44], signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 [STAT-3]) were performed. In both sexes, aged animals developed significantly increased (P < 0.05) tissue damage in all analyzed organs compared with young mice. Sex differences were noticed in the lungs of young mice, showing a significantly (P < 0.05) lower organ damage score in female animals. Sex-related differences were found for VCAM-1 and cluster of differentiation 44 expression, whereas age-related changes were observed for STAT-3. These results demonstrate that the severity of tissue damage caused by hemorrhagic shock is influenced by sex- and age-related effects. Variances in the VCAM-1 and STAT-3 expression suggest that improved immune function in female and young subjects may be responsible for less shock-induced tissue damage.

  9. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  10. Moral Judgment as a Function of Age, Sex, and Stimulus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sue J. M.; Giebink, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Provides data in support of Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Shows comparable moral judgments for boys and girls at ages 11 and 17, but higher moral reasoning in 14-year-old girls than in their male peers. (Author/RL)

  11. Sex Inequality, Aging, and Innovation in Preferential Mate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1978-01-01

    Shows that older women are likely to seek mates through the less conventional modes of mate selection and that regardless of the mode of selection, women are consistently disadvantaged. This inequality is attributed to persistence of age preferences in favor of men. (Author)

  12. The impact of family status on gender identity and on sex-typing of household tasks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat

    2005-06-01

    The author examined differences in sex-typing of household tasks (adult gender roles and children's chores) and differences in gender identity among adult Israelis. The author compared 2 groups of participants: single people without children (single-family participants; n = 62) and married people with children (full-family participants; n = 62). Regarding sex-typing of household tasks and direct assessments of masculine and feminine identity, there were no differences between single-family participants and full-family participants. However, family status affected self-assessments of gender identity that were based on cultural definitions of masculine and feminine attributes. Furthermore, correlations between direct assessments of gender identity and sex-typing of household tasks differed according to family status.

  13. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  14. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  15. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  16. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  17. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Louise D; Mirza, Mehwish A; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-07-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  18. Deception detection, transmission, and modality in age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Charlotte D.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e., unrehearsed) pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved 51 older adult and 44 college student “senders” who lied “authentically” in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, 77 older adult and 84 college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception. PMID:24982645

  19. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females. PMID:23033755

  20. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females.

  1. Deception detection, transmission, and modality in age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Charlotte D; Ceci, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e., unrehearsed) pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved 51 older adult and 44 college student "senders" who lied "authentically" in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, 77 older adult and 84 college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception. PMID:24982645

  2. [The representations of menopause: social products of age and sex].

    PubMed

    Delanoë, D

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this survey is to identify the representations of the menopause in general population and to identify socioculturals determinants of attitudes toward hormone replacement therapy (HRT). For this qualitative study 60 through interviews were performed with women aged between 40 and 65. Four representations were found: negative, ambivalent, neutral and positive. The negative pole, which is dominant, corresponds to the assignation of women to domestic and reproduction functions. The positive pole corresponds to access of women to some social autonomy. Thus, representations of the menopause form a major element of the symbolic domination on middle aged women. Medicalisation and cosmetic practices are the most strongly correlated variables with taking HRT. Three dimensions appear in the social uses of HRT: medical, cosmetic and symbolic, which intervene in various ways according different representations. PMID:9471289

  3. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  4. What Contributes to the (Im)Balanced Division of Family Work Between the Sexes?

    PubMed Central

    Lothaller, Harald; Mikula, Gerold; Schoebi, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a comprehensive set of variables that have been proposed as explaining the imbalance of the division of family work between the sexes. The analyses use survey data of 735 dual-earner couples from Austria, the Netherlands, and Portugal. The results support theoretical explanations referring to time availability, gender ideology, relative resources, and the importance of characteristics of the family system. No support was obtained for the doing-gender perspective. Additional findings suggest that increased consideration of psychological concepts adds to the understanding of why women do more family work than men. The analyses revealed similarities, but also differences between the factors that contribute to the division of household labor and childcare. PMID:22318972

  5. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human ear.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Binelli, Miriam; Tommasi, Davide G; Rosati, Riccardo; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-05-30

    The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left-right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 497 male and 346 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, paired ear width and length, the relevant ratios, ear areas and angles relative to the facial midline, as well as indices of left-right symmetry, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All ear dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.001). A significant effect of age was found (p<0.001), with larger values in older individuals. The ear width-to-length ratio and the sagittal angle of the auricle significantly decreased as a function of age (p<0.001) but without sex-related differences. On average, the three-dimensional position of ears was symmetric, with symmetry coefficients ranging between 92% and 96%. Asymmetry was found in the sagittal angle of the auricle (both sexes), in the ear width-to-length ratio and ear width (men only). Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a data base for the quantitative description of human ear morphology and position during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic applications (evaluations of traumas, craniofacial alterations, teratogenic-induced conditions, facial reconstruction, aging of living and dead persons, personal identification) may also benefit from age- and sex-based data banks.

  6. Planeando Tu Vida: sex and family life education: fundamentals of development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Givaudan, M; Givaudan, S

    1993-01-01

    Misinformation about sexuality, reproduction, and contraception is widespread among Mexican adolescents and existing sex education programs have been limited in both scope and availability. To address this situation, the Instituto Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion (IMIFAP) designed a comprehensive sex education program based on data gathered in a 1986 diagnostic survey of 865 adolescents 12-19 years of age and interviews with 365 pregnant adolescents. As part of this preliminary research, one group of teens was exposed to a traditional sex education course while another participated in a program that used participatory learning techniques and emphasized communication skills, assertiveness training, value clarification, peer support, and decision making processes. The latter, more effective approach served as the basis for design of a course, Planeando Tu Vida. Operational evaluations of this course conducted at completion and four and eight months later indicated significant increases in knowledge about contraception, but no effect on age at first intercourse. On the other hand, adolescent males who took the course before onset of sexual activity were significantly more likely to use contraceptives at first intercourse than those in traditional courses. This finding underscores the importance of early initiation of sex education programs. To date, the curriculum has been used in over 100 public and private schools, reaching more than 30,000 adolescents. IMIFAP has since developed more than 70 additional health education course guides aimed at children from preschool through high school, all of which emphasize a participatory approach to learning.

  7. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  8. Quantitative sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in children aged 11 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Renata; Katić, Ratko; Cular, Drazen

    2013-05-01

    Sex is one of major factors of individual variability. In kinesiology, we explore and record changes brought on by growth and development, so we will use a sample of 1020 subjects, at the age of powerful changes caused by sexual maturation, to investigate differences in morphological characteristics of children and to determine the significance of differences based on sex. The aim of this transversal research was to determine the sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in 5th and 8th grade students of elementary school as well as structural differences between the sexes. Differential sex differences in the structure of morphological parameters surely exist, and in their basis lies in a different temporal, or periodical onset of development phases, while multivariate analysis of variance for each age removes any doubt about these differences being more than obvious. Differences in the structure of discriminant function in children aged 11 are conditioned primarily by diverse structuring of transverse dimensions, in a way that boys are distinctly superior in knee diameter, and girls in bicristal diameter. As early as the age of 11, it can clearly be recognized that pre-puberty had already progressed in girls, which is then followed by puberty. At the age of 12 girls are already experiencing a puberty spurt, which is manifested in further development of bicristal diameter and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton, particularly of lower extremities. Thirteen year old boys are on the verge of a puberty spurt, which is manifested through the development of longitudinal dimensionality, and to a lesser extent, of transverse dimensionality of the skeleton. Secondary discriminant distinctiveness can be observed continuously across all variables assessing the dimension of deposition of fat reserves, and also, absolute values of measures of subcutaneous fat tissue are more prominent in female students. It is indicative that subcutaneous fat deposits are

  9. Effect of sex and age interactions on functional outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Experimental and clinical studies showed that sex and age play an important role in deciding the outcome after stroke. At younger ages, males were shown to have a higher risk for stroke than females. However, this trend reverses in older ages particularly when females reach menopause. Many preclinical studies indicate that steroid hormones modulate the age-dependent differential stroke outcome. In addition, patterns of cell death pathways activated following cerebral ischemia are distinct between males and females, but independent of steroid hormones. Recent studies also indicate that microRNAs play important roles in mediating sex-specific stroke outcome by regulating stroke-related genes. This review discusses the contribution of sex and age to outcome after stroke with particular emphasis on the experimental studies that examined the effects of steroid hormones, differential cell death pathways, and involvement of sex-specific microRNAs following cerebral ischemia. Current understanding of the role of thrombolytic agents in stroke therapy is also discussed.

  10. What can asexual lineage age tell us about the maintenance of sex?

    PubMed

    Neiman, Maurine; Meirmans, Stephanie; Meirmans, Patrick G

    2009-06-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and extremely common relative to asexuality, indicating that it must confer profound benefits. This in turn points to major disadvantages of asexual reproduction, which is usually given as an explanation for why almost all asexual lineages are apparently quite short-lived. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that some asexual lineages are actually quite old. Insight into why sex is so common may come from understanding why asexual lineages persist in some places or taxa but not others. Here, we review the distribution of asexual lineage ages estimated from a diverse array of taxa, and we discuss our results in light of the main mutational and environmental hypotheses for sex. Along with strengthening the case for wide variation in asexual lineage age and the existence of many old asexual taxa, we also found that the distribution of asexual lineage age estimates follows a surprisingly regular distribution, to the extent that asexual taxa viewed as "scandalously" ancient merely fall on the high end of this distribution. We interpret this result to mean that similar mechanisms may determine asexual lineage age across eukaryotic taxa. We also derive some qualitative predictions for asexual lineage age under different theories for sex and discuss empirical evidence for these predictions. Ultimately, we were limited in the extent to which we could use these data to make inferences about the maintenance of sex by the absence of both clear theoretical expectations and estimates of key parameters.

  11. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong.

  12. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. PMID:24326246

  13. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  14. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals. PMID:26582043

  15. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals.

  16. Sex differences in the longitudinal relations among family risk factors and childhood externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A G; Monahan, Kathryn C; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-03-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., negativity and low warmth), and child externalizing symptoms at 24 months and first grade in a community-based sample of 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal depression and negative parental behaviors were associated with concurrent externalizing behaviors, though maternal depression may be differentially linked to boys' and girls' externalizing problems. The relation between depression and boys' externalizing symptoms was more pronounced at 24 months, and over time, the relation between maternal depression and boys' externalizing symptoms decreased in magnitude, whereas this relation increased among girls. PMID:19271833

  17. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  18. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  19. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  20. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  1. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  2. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  3. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  4. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  5. [Methodological note on subnational population projections by age and sex (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itoh, T

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this paper were to discuss the methods and assumptions on subnational population projections by age and sex, and to present 2 models on population projection for 47 Prefectures in Japan by age and sex up to 2000. Data are obtained from the results of the 1970 and 1975 population censuses of Japan for population by age and sex, and interprefectural migration streams by age and sex based on the 1970 population census. The 2 models are a sort of cohort-component method: 1 is the (NMR) net-migration model and the other is the (MTX) migration matrix model. The essential difference between the 2 is the separate consideration of out- and inmigration models. The formulas for estimating numbers of net migration in the NMR model are (4) and (5) in the text, where P is the number of the population, S is the life table survival ratios, and m is the rate of net migration. The formulas for estimating numbers of outmigration, migration streams from region i to region j, and inmigration, in the MTX model are (17)-(21), where E is the numbers of outmigration, e is the rate of outmigration, m (i,j) is the proportion of the number of migrants from i to j to total numbers of outmigrants from region i, and I is the numbers of inmigration for each region. Under constant conditions, for all rates, the projected population for 47 prefectures by age and sex up to 2000 using models NMR and MTX was obtained. The projected number of population in 2000 are shown in figures on pages 66 and 67. As the results of these projections, the increase in aged population between 1975-200 in the metropolitan areas, especially Tokyo (1), are greater than that in other areas, since the concentration of the young in the 3 metropolitan areas has rapidly dropped since 1950. (Author's modified)

  6. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  7. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  8. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  9. Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Váhala, J; Kase, F

    1993-09-01

    1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species.

  10. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions. PMID:27304509

  11. Age and sex-dependent decreases in ChAT in basal forebrain nuclei.

    PubMed

    Luine, V N; Renner, K J; Heady, S; Jones, K J

    1986-01-01

    Microdissection techniques were utilized to measure the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) (enzyme responsible for synthesis of acetylcholine) in individual basal forebrain nuclei of aged (24 month) and young (4 month) male and female rats. Small but consistent decreases in the activity of ChAT in aged rats were found, and the location of the changes was dependent on the sex of the rat. Aged female rats showed approximately 30% lower ChAT and 40% lower acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the ventral globus pallidus (vGP). Aged males did not show decreased ChAT in the vGP but activity in the medial aspect of the horizontal diagonal band nucleus was 50% lower than in the young males. ChAT activity in four other closely aligned basal forebrain nuclei was not different between the young and aged rats. Analysis of cell number, density and area in the vGP by AChE histochemistry showed no significant differences between aged and young females. In addition, age and sex-dependent changes were measured in pituitary glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The relationship of the changes to age-dependent decrements in memory, the possible influence of gonadal hormones on aging, and the mechanisms responsible for age-related declines in ChAT activity are discussed.

  12. Training Habits and Injury Experience in Distance Runners: Age- and Sex-Related Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    An 80-item questionnaire was used to study variations by age and sex in the training habits and injury experience of 688 adult distance runners. The results are analyzed according to these variables. Methodology is discussed. This is part of a longitudinal study of 1,700 runners. (Author/JL)

  13. Axis II comorbidity in borderline personality disorder is influenced by sex, age, and clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Judith; Pascual, Juan C; Ferrer, Marc; Soler, Joaquim; Rufat, M Jesús; Andión, Oscar; Tiana, Thais; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Casas, Miquel; Pérez, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a high clinical heterogeneity and frequent co-occurrence with other personality disorders (PDs). Although several studies have been performed to assess axis II comorbidity in BPD, more research is needed to clarify associated factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-occurrent axis II disorders in a large sample of patients with BPD and to investigate the influence of sex, age, and severity on this comorbidity. Data were collected from 484 patients with BPD through 2 semistructured interviews. We analyzed the frequency of axis II comorbidity and assessed differences regarding sex, age, and severity of BPD. About 74% of patients with BPD had at least 1 co-occurrent axis II disorder. The most common were paranoid, passive-aggressive, avoidant, and dependent PDs. Significant sex differences were found. Women presented more comorbidity with dependent PD, whereas men showed higher rates of comorbidity with antisocial PD. We also observed a significant positive correlation between age and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders in women with BPD. Another finding was the positive correlation between BPD severity and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders. These findings suggest that comorbidity with other axis II disorders and sex, age, and severity should be taken into account when developing treatment strategies and determining the prognosis of BPD.

  14. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  15. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  16. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  17. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  18. Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

  19. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  20. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  1. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Collet, M.; Goenaga, J.; Arnqvist, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes, which should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SEX, AGE, AND ABILITY ON WISC PROFILES OF BLIND CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TILLMAN, M.H.

    USING A CROSS-SECTIONAL SAMPLING PLAN, THE STABILITY OF WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC) PROFILES, MEAN SCALE SCORES ON THE FOLLOWING SUBTESTS--INFORMATION, COMPREHENSION, ARITHMETIC, SIMILARITIES, VOCABULARY, AND DIGIT SPAN WAS EXAMINED AS A FUNCTION OF SEX, AGE, AND ABILITY LEVEL. FROM 167 WISC FORMS (OF BLIND BOYS AND GIRLS AGED…

  3. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  4. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  5. Who are you expecting? Biases in face perception reveal prior expectations for sex and age.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tamara Lea; Otsuka, Yumiko; Clifford, Colin Walter Giles

    2016-01-01

    A person's appearance contains a wealth of information, including indicators of their sex and age. Because first impressions can set the tone of subsequent relationships, it is crucial we form an accurate initial impression. Yet prior expectation can bias our decisions: Studies have reported biases to respond "male" when asked to report a person's sex from an image of their face and to place their age closer to their own. Perceptual expectation effects and cognitive response biases may both contribute to these inaccuracies. The current research used a Bayesian modeling approach to establish the perceptual biases involved when estimating the sex and age of an individual from their face. We demonstrate a perceptual bias for male and older faces evident under conditions of uncertainty. This suggests the well-established male bias is perceptual in origin and may be impervious to cognitive control. In comparison, the own age anchor effect is not operationalized at the perceptual level: The perceptual expectation is for a face of advanced age. Thus, distinct biases in the estimation of age operate at the perceptual and cognitive levels. PMID:26842858

  6. Muscularity as a function of species, sex and age in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the body skeletal muscle mass SMM (measured as a function of the ratio between the body creatine mass and the fat-free muscle creatine), and in muscularity (expressed as the ratio of SMM to fat-free body mass) were studied as functions of age, sex, and species in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. Six animals of each sex were examined in eight age cohorts ranging from 1 to 24 months. Both species and age factors affect SMM. Strong sexual dimorphism in the SMM changes with age was displayed by mouse, rat, and guinea pig, whereas the hamster and rabbit were statistically monomorphic. The mouse, rat, and hamster attain a maximal SMM at about 1 year of age, whereas in the guinea pig and rabbit the decrease in SMM starts after 2 years. The value of muscularity reached a peak at age of 2-3 months in all animals of both sexes, with a pronounced difference among the species. The mouse emerged as the most muscular, while the guinea pig the least muscular, of all species.

  7. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  8. Family, caring and ageing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.

  9. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age.

  10. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  11. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  12. Do age and sex impact on the absolute cell numbers of human brain regions?

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Pinto, Ana V; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos H; Oliveira, Lays M; Parente-Bruno, Danielle R; Santos, Raquel M; Coutinho, Renan A; Alho, Ana T L; Leite, Renata E P; Suemoto, Claudia K; Grinberg, Lea T; Pasqualucci, Carlos A; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Lent, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    What is the influence of sex and age on the quantitative cell composition of the human brain? By using the isotropic fractionator to estimate absolute cell numbers in selected brain regions, we looked for sex- and age-related differences in 32 medial temporal lobes (comprised basically by the hippocampal formation, amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus), sixteen male (29-92 years) and sixteen female (25-82); and 31 cerebella, seventeen male (29-92 years) and fourteen female (25-82). These regions were dissected from the brain, fixed and homogenized, and then labeled with a DNA-marker (to count all nuclei) and with a neuron-specific nuclear marker (to estimate neuron number). Total number of cells in the medial temporal lobe was found to be 1.91 billion in men, and 1.47 billion in women, a difference of 23 %. This region showed 34 % more neurons in men than in women: 525.1 million against 347.4 million. In contrast, no sex differences were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the influence of age, a quadratic correlation was found between neuronal numbers and age in the female medial temporal lobe, suggesting an early increase followed by slight decline after age 50. The cerebellum showed numerical stability along aging for both neurons and non-neuronal cells. In sum, results indicate a sex-related regional difference in total and neuronal cell numbers in the medial temporal lobe, but not in the cerebellum. On the other hand, aging was found to impact on cell numbers in the medial temporal lobe, while the cerebellum proved resilient to neuronal losses in the course of life.

  13. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  14. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

  15. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  16. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  17. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  18. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  19. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families

    PubMed Central

    Prickett, Kate C.; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003–2013 American Time Use Survey (n = 44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg’s Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families. PMID:25911578

  20. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families. PMID:25911578

  1. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  2. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  3. Suicide mortality trends by sex, age and method in Taiwan, 1971–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2008-01-01

    Background Method-specific suicide trends varied across countries, and studies of the trends in different countries can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in suicide trends by sex, age and method in the years 1971 to 2005 in Taiwan. Methods Mortality data files of suicide and undetermined deaths for the years 1971–2005 were obtained for analyses. Age-, sex- and method-specific suicide rates were calculated by four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–64 and 65 and above) and five suicide methods (solids/liquids poisoning, other gases poisoning, hanging, jumping, and others). Results Both sexes experienced downward trends from 1971 to 1993, and then an upward trend since 1993. People aged 65 years and above had the highest suicide rates throughout the study periods. However, males aged 25–64 years experienced the steepest increasing trends. As to suicide methods, an annual increase, since 1991, of people jumping from heights to commit suicide, and a marked increase, since 1998, of people completing suicide by poisoning with other gases (mainly charcoal-burning) were observed. Conclusion Suicide by means of charcoal-burning and jumping from heights has become a serious public health problem in Taiwan. Preventive measures to curb these increasing trends are urgently needed. PMID:18179723

  4. Utilisation of acute hospitals by age and sex in Australia, 1985.

    PubMed

    Mathers, C D; Moore, G

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the utilisation rates of acute care (short-stay) hospitals, by age and sex, for the Australian population. Separation and bed-day rates per 1000 persons for public, Repatriation and private hospitals in 1985 have been estimated by age group, for each sex, in each State and Territory in Australia. The Australian Base Grant, negotiated between the Commonwealth, States and Territories in the new Medicare Agreements, distributes funds for the care and treatment of Medicare patients in public hospitals. The national bed-day utilisation rates reported in this article, have been used as the basis for population weights to allocate these funds. This paper presents the data and methods used to derive these weights, and examines the differences between them and the actual State and Territory utilisation patterns in 1985. The impact of population ageing on the overall utilisation rates for acute hospitals in Australia is examined.

  5. Ozone-induced inhibition of theophylline elimination in rabbits: effect of age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The effect of age and sex on the elimination of theophylline in New Zealand White rabbits was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone (OT) for 3.75 hr/day over 5 consecutive days. Animals were given air alone 5 to 7 days before and after the 5 days of OT exposure. The elimination half-life of theophylline was significantly prolonged on Days 1 and 5 of OT exposure in the rabbits greater than 2 years old, with no effect being seen in those 3 to 4 months old. No OT-induced change was seen in the apparent volume of distribution to account for the observed change in theophylline elimination half-life. The female rabbit in particular demonstrated this age-related effect; while in the male, variability prevented the observed difference from reaching significance. The results indicated inhibition of theophylline elimination by O3 in the rabbit depends on age and sex.

  6. Marriage Opportunities and Family Formation: Further Implications of Imbalanced Sex Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.; Lloyd, Kim M.

    1992-01-01

    Used vital statistics data and census data to examine impact of women's marriage opportunities on family formation and dissolution. Linked measures of quantity/quality of potential spouses specific for woman's age, race, education, and area of residence to marriage, divorce, and nonmarital fertility rates. Greater marriage opportunities appear to…

  7. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in sex selection for family balancing in India.

    PubMed

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Modi, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in sexing embryos for family balancing in a private IVF clinic in India from April 1999 to April 2001. Embryos were biopsied and analysed on day 3, cultured in sequential media and then transferred on day 4 or day 5 after morphological selection of the best embryos. From a total of 42 cycles started, 14 clinical pregnancies and nine live births have been achieved so far, with five ongoing pregnancies. The benefits of delayed transfer 24-48 h after the embryo biopsy are that PGD centres could use the extra time available to confirm the diagnosis or introduce additional diagnostic tests for the same embryo. The selection of blastocysts for transfer should also permit the transfer of fewer embryos, thus reducing the risk of multiple gestations and increasing the pregnancy rate as a consequence of the expected higher implantation rate. This is the first report of the use of PGD in sex selection for family balancing in India, where couples place a premium on having baby boys, and the social and ethical aspects of the use of this technology in this setting are briefly discussed.

  8. The relationship of self-esteem, maternal employment, and work-family plans to sex role orientations of late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keith, P M

    1988-01-01

    Self-esteem, maternal employment, and work-family plans are examined in relation to sex role orientations of late adolescents. Data are analyzed from questionnaires administered to 387 males and females. It was found that future work-family plans were closely tied to sex role orientations of adolescents of both sexes. However, self-esteem, evaluation of the relative difficulty of male-female sex roles, and projected childlessness were salient to sex role attitudes of females but not of males. Positive evaluations of self were related to non-traditional sex role orientations among females. Maternal employment differentially affected male and female children. Sons of women in high-status occupations were reluctant to get involved in a two-career family with children. Mothers' occupational status had little influence on the plans or sex role attitudes of daughters. The results indicate that future research should investigate whether maternal employment in high-status occupations, while providing a wider range of acceptable models for girls, may serve as a negative model for boys. PMID:3232579

  9. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  10. First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Lühmann, L M; Knorr, C; Hörstgen-Schwark, G; Wessels, S

    2012-01-01

    This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were genotyped for 21 microsatellites on the 3 LGs. No population-wide QTL (quantitative trait loci) or marker trait associations could be detected. However, family-specific QTL were found on LG 1 flanked by UNH995 and UNH104, on LG 3 at the position of GM213, and on LG 23 next to GM283. Moreover, family-specific single marker associations for UNH995 and UNH104 on LG 1, GM213 on LG 3, as well as for UNH898 and GM283 on LG 23 were detected. Yet, marker trait associations could not explain the temperature-dependent sex of all fish in the respective families. The molecular cue for the temperature-dependent sex in Nile tilapia might partially coincide with allelic variants at major and minor genetic sex determining factors. Moreover, additional QTL contributing to variable liabilities towards temperature might persist on other LGs. PMID:22797471

  11. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  12. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  13. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills

  15. Age affects over-marking of opposite-sex scent marks in meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus

    PubMed Central

    Ferkin, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Models of age-related effects on behavior predict that among short-lived species younger adults are more attractive and attracted to opposite-sex conspecifics than are older adults, whereas the converse is predicted for long-lived species. Although most studies of age-related effects on behavior support these predictions, they are not supported by many studies of scent marking, a behavior used in mate attraction. Over-marking, a form of scent marking, is a tactic used by many terrestrial mammals to convey information about themselves to opposite-sex conspecifics. The present study tested the hypothesis that the age of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus; a microtine rodent, affects their over- and scent marking behaviors when they encounter the marks of opposite-sex conspecifics. Sex differences existed in the over-marking behavior of adult voles among the three different age groups that were tested. Male voles that were 5-7 mo-old and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a higher proportion of the marks of females than did 2-3 mo-old male voles. Female voles that were 2-3 mo-old, 5-7 mo-old, and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a similar number of marks deposited by male voles. Overall, the data were not consistent with models predicting the behavior of short-lived animals such as rodents when they encounter the opposite sex. The differences in over-marking displayed by older and younger adult male voles may be associated with life history tradeoffs, the likelihood that they will encounter sexually receptive females, and being selected as mates. PMID:20607141

  16. Impact of Age and Sex on QT Prolongation in Patients Receiving Psychotropics

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess older age and female sex, 2 of the major risk factors for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in patients prescribed psychotropics, within the context of electrocardiographic evidence of time between start of Q wave and end of T wave (QT) interval prolongation, which is an indicator of an increased risk for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Method: The literature on the relation between age, sex, and QT interval with respect to psychotropic drugs was reviewed. Results: The QT interval must be corrected (QTc) for heart rate. Because slower heart rates prolong and faster heart rates shorten the QT interval, people with faster heart rates may have a prolonged QT interval that is not apparent until the correction is performed. QTc values for apparently healthy post-pubertal people are less than 450 ms for males and less than 470 ms for females. The longer QT intervals in women may account for their increased risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias on psychotropics. QTc increases with increasing age. Assessment of QTc in older people is especially important to identify people with a longer QTc who are more likely to attain a serious QT level with drugs that prolong QTc. The age-related increase in QTc is more evident in men than women, suggesting that male sex does not afford protection against potentially fatal arrhythmias at older age. Conclusion: The association of increasing age and female sex with greater QT intervals indicates the need to have an increased awareness of the QTc prior to use of these psychotropics and to evaluate the QTc after initiation of therapy. PMID:26174524

  17. Impacts of experimentally increased foraging effort on the family: offspring sex matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Hamer, K.C.; Hall, M.E.; Welcker, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2009-01-01

    We examined how short-term impacts of experimentally increased foraging effort by one parent reverberate around the family in a monomorphic seabird (little auk, Alle alle), and whether these effects depend on offspring sex. In many species, more effort is required to rear sons successfully than daughters. However, undernourishment may have stronger adverse consequences for male offspring, which could result in a lower fitness benefit of additional parental effort when rearing a son. We tested two alternative hypotheses concerning the responses of partners to handicapping parents via feather clipping: partners rearing a son are (1) more willing or able to compensate for the reduced contribution of their mate, or (2) less willing or able to compensate, compared to those rearing a daughter. Hypothesis 1 predicts that sons will be no more adversely affected than daughters, and the impact on parents will be greater when rearing a son. Hypothesis 2 predicts that sons will be more adversely affected than daughters, and parents raising a son less affected. Although experimental chicks of both sexes fledged in poorer condition than controls, sons attained higher mass and more rapid growth than daughters in both groups. Clipped parents lost a similar proportion of their initial mass regardless of chick sex, whereas partners of clipped birds lost more mass when rearing a son. These results support hypothesis 1: impacts of increased foraging effort by one parent were felt by offspring, regardless of their sex, and by the partners of manipulated birds, particularly when the offspring was male. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  18. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shadravan, Farideh

    2013-01-01

    Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV), known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed sex bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (International Standard Cytogenomic Array Consortium) the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory

  19. The sex distribution of suicides by age in nations of the world.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-03-01

    The ratio of the male suicide rate to the female suicide rate for each age group in 31 nations of the world was found to be associated with the wealth of the nations. The male/female suicide rate ratio was lower in wealthier nations for older adults and higher in wealthier nations for youths. The male/female suicide rate ratio was associated over the nations among the younger age groups and also among the older age groups. These results suggest that the sex ratio may be differently determined in youths and in older adults.

  20. Age, Sex, and Contact with Elderly Adults as Predictors of Knowledge about Psychological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested Australian undergraduates' (N=179) knowledge of mental health in old age. Results showed women scored higher than men and scores rose with age and with contact when age was partialed out. Australian students averaged two more items correct than did the American students for whom the test was developed. (Author)

  1. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  2. Medieval trabecular bone architecture: the influence of age, sex, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S C; Dumitriu, M; Tomlinson, G A; Grynpas, M D

    2004-05-01

    Osteoporosis has become a growing health concern in developed countries and an extensive area of research in skeletal biology. Despite numerous paleopathological studies of bone mass, few studies have measured bone quality in past populations. In order to examine age- and sex-related changes in one aspect of bone quality in the past, a study was made of trabecular bone architecture in a British medieval skeletal sample. X-ray images of 5-mm-thick coronal lumbar vertebral bone sections were taken from a total of 54 adult individuals divided into three age categories (18-29, 30-49, and 50+ years), and examined using image analysis to evaluate parameters related to trabecular bone structure and connectivity. Significant age-related changes in trabecular bone structure (trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and anisotropic ratio (Tb.An)) were observed to occur primarily by middle age with significant differences between the youngest and two older age groups. Neither sex showed continuing change in trabecular structure between the middle and old age groups. Age-related changes in bone connectivity (number of nodes (N.Nd) and node-to-node strut length (Nd.Nd)) similarly indicated a change in bone connectivity only between the youngest and two older age groups. However, females showed no statistical differences among the age groups in bone connectivity. These patterns of trabecular bone loss and fragility contrast with those generally found in modern populations that typically report continuing loss of bone structure and connectivity between middle and old age, and suggest greater loss in females. The patterns of bone loss in the archaeological samples must be interpreted cautiously. We speculate that while nutritional factors may have initiated some bone loss in both sexes, physical activity could have conserved bone architecture in old age in both sexes, and reproductive factors such as high parity and extended periods

  3. Sex, age and hunger regulate behavioral prioritization through dynamic modulation of chemoreceptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Deborah A.; Miller, Renee M.; Lee, KyungHwa; Neal, Scott; Fagan, Kelli A.; Sengupta, Piali; Portman, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adaptive behavioral prioritization requires flexible outputs from fixed neural circuits. In C. elegans, the prioritization of feeding vs. mate-searching depends on biological sex (males will abandon food to search for mates, while hermaphrodites will not) as well as developmental stage and feeding status. Previously, we found that males are less attracted than hermaphrodites to the food-associated odorant diacetyl, suggesting that sensory modulation may contribute to behavioral prioritization. Results We find that somatic sex acts cell-autonomously to reconfigure the olfactory circuit by regulating a key chemoreceptor, odr-10, in the AWA neurons. Moreover, we find that odr-10 has a significant role in food detection, the regulation of which contributes to sex differences in behavioral prioritization. Overexpression of odr-10 increases male food attraction and decreases off-food exploration; conversely, odr-10 loss impairs food taxis in both sexes. In larvae, both sexes prioritize feeding over exploration; correspondingly, the sexes have equal odr-10 expression and food attraction. Food deprivation, which transiently favors feeding over exploration in adult males, increases male food attraction by activating odr-10 expression. Furthermore, the weak expression of odr-10 in well-fed adult males has important adaptive value, allowing males to efficiently locate mates in a patchy food environment. Conclusions We find that modulated expression of a single chemoreceptor plays a key role in naturally occurring variation in the prioritization of feeding and exploration. The convergence of three independent regulatory inputs—somatic sex, age, and feeding status—on chemoreceptor expression highlights sensory function as a key source of plasticity in neural circuits. PMID:25438941

  4. Age trends in remodeling of the femoral midshaft differ between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Feik, S A; Thomas, C D; Clement, J G

    1996-07-01

    Cross-sectional area properties of the femoral midshaft from 203 individuals of known height and weight. 1-97 years of age, from a modern Australian population were quantified using automatic video image analysis. The aim of this study, taking height and weight into account, was to determine whether (a) age trends in remodeling differ between the sexes, (b) men are better able to compensate for bone loss with age, and (c) this protective mechanism is carried through into old age. Our findings indicated that during adulthood there are distinct gender differences in femoral remodeling. From around the third to the seventh decade, men showed a fairly uniform increase in subperiosteal area, polar moment of inertia, and medullary area. Women displayed two distinct phases during this period: relative stability until around the menopause and then a marked increase in all of the above variables. In old age, gender differences diminished, both sexes showing reduced periosteal apposition and increased endosteal resorption. The resultant decline in cortical area of approximately 4% in men and 15% in women from the third to the eighth decade was significant only in women. For a given height, men had larger, stiffer femoral shafts with a greater cortical width and area and maintained this advantage into old age. Diaphyseal bone was not immune from age-related changes affecting other skeletal sites: however, due to compensatory remodeling, which was particularly evident in men, this was not reflected in increased fracture rates.

  5. Virtual navigation in humans: the impact of age, sex, and hormones on place learning.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Ira; Hamilton, Derek A; Yeo, Ronald A; Brooks, William M; Sutherland, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Certain cognitive processes, including spatial ability, decline with normal aging. Spatial ability is also a cognitive domain with robust sex differences typically favoring males. However, tests of spatial ability do not seem to measure a homogeneous class of processes. For many, mentally matching rotated three-dimensional images is the gold standard for measuring spatial cognition in humans, while the Morris water task (MWT) is a preferred method in the domain of nonhuman animal research. The MWT is sensitive to hippocampal damage, a structure critical for normal learning and memory and often implicated in age-related cognitive decline. A computerized (virtual) version of the MWT (VMWT) appears to require and engage human hippocampal circuitry, and has proven useful in studying sex differences and testing spatial learning theories. In Experiment 1, we tested participants (20-90 years of age) in the VMWT and compared their performance to that on the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. We report an age-related deficit in performance on both tasks. In Experiment 2, we tested young (age 20-39) and elderly (age >60) participants in the VMWT and correlated their performance to the circulating levels of testosterone and cortisol. Our findings indicate that the persistence of male spatial advantage may be related to circulating testosterone, but not cortisol levels, and independent of generalized age-related cognitive decline.

  6. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  7. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  8. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2016-04-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  9. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E.C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p = .03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p = .006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  11. Sex Differences in the Biology and Pathology of the Aging Heart.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kaitlyn M; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge that advanced age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has stimulated interest in cardiac aging. Understanding how the heart remodels with age can help us appreciate why older individuals are more likely to acquire heart disease. Growing evidence in both humans and animals shows that the heart exhibits distinct structural and functional changes as a consequence of age. These changes occur even in the absence of overt cardiovascular disease and are often maladaptive. For example, atrial hypertrophy and fibrosis may increase susceptibility to atrial fibrillation in older adults. Age-dependent increases in left ventricular fibrosis, stiffness, and wall thickness promote diastolic dysfunction, predisposing to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The influence of age on the heart is evident at rest but is even more prominent during exercise. There is also evidence for sex-specific variation in age-associated remodelling. For instance, there is some evidence that the number of ventricular myocytes declines with age through apoptosis in men but not in women. This helps explain why older men are more likely than women to experience heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Emerging evidence from preclinical studies suggests that frailty rather than chronological age promotes adverse cardiac remodelling. Mechanisms implicated in cardiac aging include impaired calcium handling, excessive activation of the ß-adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Further research into cardiac aging in both sexes is needed, because it may be possible to modify disease treatment if the substrate upon which the disease first develops is better understood. PMID:27395082

  12. Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11-17 Years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11-13 and 15-17 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. SUBJECTS: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11-13 or 15-17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. MEASUREMENTS: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60 degrees /s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. RESULTS: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15-17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15-17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15-17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11-13 and 15-17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11-13 and 15-17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength.

  13. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  14. Age and sex differences in blood lactate response to sprint running in elite master athletes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko T; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti

    2005-12-01

    The effect of age and sex on anaerobic glycolytic capacity in master athletes is currently unclear. To study this issue, we determined blood lactate concentrations after competitive sprint running in male and female master athletes of different age. Eighty-one men (40-88 yrs) and 75 women (35-87 yrs) participating in the sprint events (100-m, 200-m, 400-m) in the European Veterans Athletics Championships were studied. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip and analysed for peak lactate concentration ([La]bpeak). The [La]bpeak following 100-m to 400-m races showed a curvilinear decline (p < 0.001-0.05) with age in both men and women. However, the age related differences in the [La]b peak were not significant before 70 years of age. No significant sex related differences were found in [La]b peak for any sprint event. The [La]b peak correlated significantly (p < 0.001-0.05) with running times in all sprint distances except for the age-controlled correlation in men for the 100-m and 200-m. In conclusion, the present study showed age but not sex differences in blood lactate response to competitive sprint running in master athletes. Although the [La]b peak level of the athletes was considerably higher than that reported for untrained men and women, these cross-sectional findings suggest that anaerobic energy production from glycolysis declines in later years and may be a factor in the deterioration in sprint performance.

  15. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Prows, Daniel R; Gibbons, William J; Smith, Jessica J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35-45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6-12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that 'age at exposure' inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3-4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  16. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  17. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  18. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  19. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

  20. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  1. Primary care presentations at emergency departments: rates and reasons by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Siminski, Peter; Bezzina, Andrew J; Lago, Luise P; Eagar, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    Primary care presentations at emergency departments (EDs) have been the subject of much attention in recent years. This paper is a demographic analysis using administrative data from the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) for 2005 of such presentations in New South Wales EDs and of self-reported reasons for presentation. Age and sex differences in the reasons given by patients for such presentations are analysed using data from a survey of patients conducted in a subset of EDs in 2004. The rate of "potential primary care" presentations varies greatly with age and to a lesser extent with sex. Almost half (47%) of these presentations are made by people under 25 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years account for 14% of the total. The pattern is distinctly different to the corresponding rate of ED presentations that do not fit the "potential primary care" definition. Reasons given for "potential primary care" presentations are consistent across all age groups, reflecting self-assessed urgency, access to diagnostics and self-assessed complexity. Older "primary care" patients are particularly unlikely to give reasons associated with GP affordability or availability for their presentations. Young adults' responses are consistent with the overall population, and children under the age of five seem most susceptible to availability issues.

  2. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smojver-Ažić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Aim To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. Method A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents’ conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Results Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls’ assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys’, including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father’s and mother’s warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs 7.3% in girls). Conclusion Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for

  3. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Stevenson, Philip C; Belmain, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  4. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development.

  5. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  6. No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Gaulin, Steven J C; Dunbar, Matt D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6-82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities. PMID

  7. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  8. The Impact of Sex and Age on Serum Prohepcidin Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasiniewska, Joanna; Dymek, Grazyna; Gruszka, Marzenna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the last 8 years, it has become evident that hepcidin has a diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Therefore, it is a great need to establish the reference interval for hepcidin and its precursor. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age and sex on serum prohepcidin concentration in healthy adults. Material and methods: 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled during the 18 months of the study - 56 males and 44 females, mean age 34.8±10.1 yrs. Serum prohepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferring receptor (sTfR) and plasma erythropoietin were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined on ARCHITECT ci8200 (Abbott Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Serum prohepcidin concentrations ranged from 74.9 ng/ml to 300.4 ng/ml in healthy adults of both sexes. However, prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in males (median value 145.7 ng/ml) than in females (median 127.3 ng/ml) (p=0.0016). Serum prohepcidin was not associated with age in the group of healthy adults. Conclusions Serum prohepcidin concentrations were found to be related to sex. Significantly lower prohepcidin levels were observed in females compared with males.

  9. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  10. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  11. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  12. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  13. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  14. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  15. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  16. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  17. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  18. Normal Thymus in Adults: Appearance on CT and Associations with Age, Sex, BMI and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Murakami, Takamichi; Washko, George R.; O'Connor, George T.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CT appearance and size of the thymus in associations with characteristics of participants. Materials and Methods 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51% female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size, and morphology. These were correlated with participants’ age, sex, BMI, and smoking history. Results Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74%) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18%) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7%) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2), and 36 (1%) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 (P<0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P<0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P<0.001) with higher pack-years (P=0.04). Conclusions Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores than men, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. PMID:25925358

  19. Influence of age and sex on lumbar vertebral morphometry determined using sagittal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, Ozdemir; Barut, Cagatay; Is, Merih; Eryoruk, Nesrin; Safak, Alp Alper

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated age-related changes in the morphometric features of lumbar vertebrae in both sexes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Midsagittal MRI scans of 366 individuals (156 males, 210 females; 25-82 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The anterior height (H(a)), central height (H(c)), posterior height (H(p)), and anteroposterior diameter (D) of the body of each lumbar vertebra were measured. These measurements were used to calculate three indices, namely, the anterior wedge index (H(a)/H(p)), the biconcavity index (H(c)/H(p)), and the compression index (H(p)/D). The values of each of the three indices for the upper lumbar vertebrae of females were higher than those of the same vertebrae in males. The values of the compression index for all lumbar vertebrae decreased with age in females, whereas in males the compression index of the L1-L4 vertebrae decreased with age. No significant changes were observed in the value of the anterior wedge index in either sex. The biconcavity indices of the L1 and L5 vertebrae decreased with age in males. These results may be useful for evaluating age-related morphological changes that occur in the lumbar vertebrae.

  20. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  1. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  2. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  3. Effects of age and sex on the water maze performance and hippocampal cholinergic fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, N V; Andrade, J P; Dulce Madeira, M; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1999-07-16

    We have examined if age-related deterioration of spatial memory and cholinergic innervation of the dentate gyrus is gender-specific. Aging progressively affected the performance of male and female rats in place discrimination version of the water maze task. On repeated acquisition task, only old males, but not old females, were significantly impaired relative to young and adult animals of both sexes. In parallel, we found that the age-associated reduction of the density of cholinergic fibers in the dentate gyrus was significantly more profound in old males than in age-matched females. These results suggest that, although male and female rats have an identical pattern of reference memory decline, impairment of the working memory and deterioration of the hippocampal cholinergic system are slower to develop in females than in males.

  4. Workplace, age, and sex as mediators of olfactory function: data from the National Geographic Smell Survey.

    PubMed

    Corwin, J; Loury, M; Gilbert, A N

    1995-07-01

    Certain medications and environmental agents are known to adversely affect chemosensation. We report data from 712,000 respondents aged 20 to 79 to the National Geographic Smell Survey that suggest that exposure to the factory workplace adversely affects the sense of smell, and that these effects interact with age. Men and women with histories of factory work reported poorer senses of smell relative to other workers. They also demonstrated objective evidence of greater impairment in odor detection. These effects were greater for men. Factory workers of all ages more frequently reported olfactory loss secondary to chemical exposure and head injury than did workers in other environments. The highest relative risk of olfactory problems secondary to head injury was in the oldest women factory workers. Thus, olfaction may behave as other senses do: Age, sex, and exposure to noxious events or agents interact to produce sensory deficits. PMID:7606529

  5. Phenotype, Sex of Rearing, Gender Re-Assignment, and Response to Medical Treatment in Extended Family Members with a Novel Mutation in the SRD5A2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Asma; Al Suwaidi, Hana; Ibukunoluwa, Fakunle; Attia, Salima

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of steroid 5-alpha reductase-2 (5ARD2) is an inborn error of metabolism causing a disorder of sexual differentiation. It is caused by a mutation in the SRD5A2 gene in which various mutation types have been reported. Affected individuals have a broad spectrum of presentation ranging from normal female-appearing genitalia, cliteromegaly, microphallus, hypospadias, to completely male-appearing genitalia. We report an extended Emirati family with 11 affected members. The family displayed various phenotypes on presentation leading to different sex of rearing. Some family members were reassigned gender at various stages of life. The index case was born with severe undervirilization with bilaterally palpable gonads and was raised as male from birth. He had a 46,XY karyotype and a high testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio. Genetic investigation revealed a novel homozygous deletion of exon 2 of the SRD5A2 gene. Both parents were found to be carriers for the gene deletion. The patient had masculinizing surgery and a course of topical dihydrotestosterone. No beneficial effect of the hormone application was noted over 3 months and the treatment was discontinued. The findings on this kindred indicate that deletion of exon 2 in the SRD5A2 gene causes various degrees of genital ambiguity leading to different sex of rearing in affected family members. Gender reassignment may be done at various ages even in conservative communities like the Gulf region.

  6. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income.

  7. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  8. Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Hernandez, Alexander D; Huffman, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Parasites are characteristically aggregated within hosts, but identifying the mechanisms underlying such aggregation can be difficult in wildlife populations. We examined the influence of host age and sex over an annual cycle on the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of nematode parasites infecting wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Five species of nematode were recorded from 434 fecal samples collected from an age-structured group of 50 individually recognizable macaques. All parasites exhibited aggregated EPG distributions. The age-infection profiles of all three directly transmitted species (Oesophagostomum aculeatum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris trichiura) exhibited convex curves, but concavity better characterized the age-infection curves of the two trophically transmitted species (Streptopharagus pigmentatus and Gongylonema pulchrum). There was a male bias in EPG and prevalence of infection with directly transmitted species, except in the prevalence of O. aculeatum, and no sex bias in the other parasites. Infection with O. aculeatum showed a female bias in prevalence among young adults, and additional interactions with sex and seasonality show higher EPG values in males during the mating season (fall) but in females during the birth season (spring). These patterns suggest that an immunosuppressive role by reproductive hormones may be regulating direct, but not indirect, life-cycle parasites. Exposure at an early age may trigger an immune response that affects all nematodes, but trophically transmitted species appear to accumulate thereafter. Although it is difficult to discern clear mechanistic explanations for parasite distributions in wildlife populations, it is critical to begin examining these patterns in host species that are increasingly endangered by anthropogenic threats.

  9. Variations of Thickness of Splenic Capsule of Different Age and Sex in Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Shumi, M S; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Sultana, R

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms. These diverse entities can all cause rapid splenic enlargement, producing a thin, tense splenic capsule that is susceptible to rupture. Understanding of splenic capsular structure may help explain mechanical properties of the normal and diseased spleen. Histological changes are evident in advancing age along with functional capability of the human spleen. This cross sectional descriptive study was done to measure the thickness of splenic capsule to establish the difference between sexes of different age groups in Bangladeshi cadaver. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from June 2013 to July 2014. A total 30 human spleen were collected by purposive sampling technique from October 2013 to April 2014, among them 14 were male and 16 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. For convenience of differentiating the thickness of splenic capsule in relation to age and sex, the collected specimens were divided into three groups like Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) & Group C (41 to 60 years). Each group was again divided into male & female groups. In this study 10 slides from each age group were chosen for measuring the thickness of splenic capsule and examined under low power objective. In present

  10. Sex differences in age-related changes on peripheral warm and cold innocuous thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Gerrett, Nicola; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Umino, Yasue; Kiuchi, Saeko; Amano, Tatsuro; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous thermal sensitivity to a warm and cold stimulus was compared amongst 12 older (OF, 65.2±1.0year) and 29 younger (YF, 21.6±0.2years) female participants, and 17 older (OM, 66.2±1.5years) and 13 younger (YM, 21.2±0.4years) male participants to examine the effects of ageing and sex. In a neutral condition (27.5°C, 50% RH) during rest, warm and cold thermal sensitivity was measured on eight body regions (forehead, chest, back, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot). Using the method of limits, a thermal stimulator was applied to the skin at an adapting temperature and either increased or decreased at a constant rate (0.3°C/s) until the participants detected the temperature with a push button. Thermal sensitivity declined with ageing to both a cold (older: 1468.6±744.7W/m(2), younger: 869.8±654.7W/m(2), p<0.001) and warm (older: 2127.0±1208.3W/m(2), younger: 1301.7±1055.2W/m(2), p<0.001) innocuous stimulus. YF and OF were more sensitive than YM and OM to both a warm and cold stimulus (p<0.05). There was no interaction between age and sex suggesting that whilst thermal sensitivity decreases with age the decrease is similar between the sexes (p>0.05). There was an interaction between temperatures, age and location and it seemed that cold thermal sensitivity was more homogenous for young and older participants however warm thermal sensitivity was more heterogeneous especially in the younger participants (p<0.05). Although the pattern was not similar between ages or sexes it was evident that the forehead was the most sensitive region to a warm and cold stimulus. Interestingly the decline in sensitivity observed with ageing occurred for all locations but was attenuated at the forehead in both males and females (p>0.05).

  11. Variations of Thickness of Splenic Capsule of Different Age and Sex in Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Shumi, M S; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Sultana, R

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms. These diverse entities can all cause rapid splenic enlargement, producing a thin, tense splenic capsule that is susceptible to rupture. Understanding of splenic capsular structure may help explain mechanical properties of the normal and diseased spleen. Histological changes are evident in advancing age along with functional capability of the human spleen. This cross sectional descriptive study was done to measure the thickness of splenic capsule to establish the difference between sexes of different age groups in Bangladeshi cadaver. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from June 2013 to July 2014. A total 30 human spleen were collected by purposive sampling technique from October 2013 to April 2014, among them 14 were male and 16 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. For convenience of differentiating the thickness of splenic capsule in relation to age and sex, the collected specimens were divided into three groups like Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) & Group C (41 to 60 years). Each group was again divided into male & female groups. In this study 10 slides from each age group were chosen for measuring the thickness of splenic capsule and examined under low power objective. In present

  12. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences. PMID:27189591

  13. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed

  14. Answering Young Children's Questions about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gladys

    Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…

  15. Sex and Age Aspects in Patients Suffering From Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Piegeler, Tobias; Thoeni, Nils; Kaserer, Alexander; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Mueller, Stefan M.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R.; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Several studies suggest a sex- and age-based bias in the treatment of these patients. This particular bias may have a significant impact on the patient's outcome. However, the reasons for these findings are still unclear and discussed controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze treatment and out-of-hospital survival rates for potential sex- and age-based differences in patients requiring out-of-hospital CPR provided by an emergency physician in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 3961 consecutive patients (2003–2009) were included in this retrospective analysis to determine the frequency of out-of-hospital CPR and prehospital survival rate, and to identify potential sex- and age-based differences regarding survival and treatment of the patients. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients required CPR during the study period. Seventeen patients had to be excluded because of incomplete or inconclusive documentation, resulting in 743 patients (511 males, 229 females) undergoing further statistical analysis. Female patients were significantly older, compared with male patients (68 ± 18 [mean ± SD] vs 64 ± 18 years, P = .012). Men were resuscitated slightly more often than women (86.4% vs 82.1%). Overall out-of-hospital mortality rate was found to be 81.2% (492/632 patients) with no differences between sexes (82.1% for males vs 79% for females, odds ratio 1.039, 95% confidence interval 0.961–1.123). No sex differences were detected in out-of-hospital treatment, as assessed by the different medications administered, initial prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, and prehospital suspected leading diagnosis. The data of our study demonstrate that there was no sex-based bias in treating patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting in our physician-led emergency ambulance service. PMID:27149475

  16. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  17. Regional specificity of sex effects on subcortical volumes across the lifespan in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; van Tol, Marie-José; Li, Meng; Miao, Wen; Jiao, Yonghong; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; He, Huiguang; Walter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When conceptualizing age-specific onsets and sex-specific characteristics of neuropsychiatric diseases in a neurobiological context, it may be crucially important to consider differential trajectories of aging. Here, we investigated effects of age, sex, and their interactions on absolute and relative volumes of subcortical structures with known involvement in psychiatric disorders, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Structural MRI data of 76 healthy subjects (38 males, 19-70 years) from the ICBM database were analyzed. Age-related absolute atrophy was generally found in the basal ganglia and thalamus, while in the hippocampus decline was only observed in males, and was generally absent in the amygdala. Disproportionate degeneration in the basal ganglia and thalamus, exceeding cortical decline was specific for females. When allowing higher-order models, a quadratic model could better describe the negative relation of absolute volume and age in the basal ganglia in males, and generally in the hippocampus and amygdala. We could show that negative age-relations are highly specific for certain subcortical structures in either gender. Importantly these findings also emphasize the significant impact of analytical strategies when deciding for correction of subcortical volumes to the whole-brain decline. Specifically, in the basal ganglia disproportionate shrinkage in females was suggested by the relative analysis while absolute volume analysis rather stressed an accelerating decline in older males. Given strong involvement of the basal ganglia in both cognitive aging and emotional regulation, our findings may be crucial for studies investigating the onset and prevalence of dementia and depressive symptoms in male and female aging.

  18. Sex differences in distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a function of age in CBA mice.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Cannon, Trinitia; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss--presbycusis--is the number one communication problem of the aged. A major contributor to presbycusis is the progressive degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are effective in vivo, physiological measures of hearing, assessing the health and functioning of the OHCs in mammals. We and others have previously demonstrated that DPOAE amplitudes decline with age in humans and mice. The present study's objective was to measure age-related declines in the OHCs in CBA mice (slow, progressive age-related hearing loss) by comparing DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) generated from females and males. Young adult (2.1-2.9 months) and middle-aged CBA (14.0-16.4 months) mice were tested, as well as old CBAs (24.3-29.0 months). DPOAE-grams were obtained with L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, f1/f2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6 to 44.8 kHz (geometric mean frequency). ABRs ranged from 3 to 48 kHz. Analyses revealed that DPOAE levels decreased with age for middle-aged and old male CBAs, but for female CBAs, declines did not occur until old age - after menopause. In contrast, ABR amplitudes for female and male young adult and middle-aged CBAs were the same. Female ABR thresholds were lower than males for old CBAs. In conclusion, we discovered that pre-menopausal CBA female mice have healthier OHCs relative to middle-aged males, but much of this relative advantage is lost post-menopause. Understanding sex differences in age-related sensory disorders will be quite helpful for the goals of preventing, slowing or curing sensory problems in old age for both women and men.

  19. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  20. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables. PMID:24486976

  1. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  2. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized.

  3. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services, a... are programs serving children of migrant families and Early Head Start programs. (b)(1) At least...

  4. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  5. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  6. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  7. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  8. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  9. Influence of training, sex, age and body mass on the energy cost of running.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, M; Pastene, J; Germain, M; Lacour, J R

    1993-01-01

    To highlight the influences of age, sex, body mass (mb) and running training on the energy cost of running (Cr) young basketball players [38 boys (BB) and 14 girls (BG), aged 14.2 (SD 0.3) and 12.2 (SD 1.9) years, respectively] were selected to be compared to middle-distance runners [27 men (MR) and 14 women (FR) aged 23.7 (SD 3.4) and 23.9 (SD 4.1) years, respectively]. The Cr was measured during a maximal treadmill test. In each group Cr and body mass (mb) and body height were negatively and significantly correlated. A stepwise regression showed that among both the body dimensions measured, mb was the most important factor in determining the variations of Cr. For the whole group (n = 93) the correlation coefficient was 0.72 (P < 0.0001). For a given mb, there was no significant difference between the Cr of BG, BB and MR: this result would support the hypothesis that the differences in Cr currently attributed to age, running training or sex differences are mainly related to mb. On the other hand, for a given mb, FR showed a significantly lower Cr than the basketball players (P < 0.01 for BG and BB) and than MR (P < 0.05), thus suggesting that women decrease their Cr as a response to running training more efficiently than do men.

  10. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  11. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  12. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  13. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N=24) and male (N=12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14-47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females' estrous state-a potential influence on cognitive reasoning-by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings.

  14. Age, task complexity, and sex as potential moderators of attentional focus effects.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kevin; Smith, Peter J K

    2013-08-01

    The study tested whether age, sex, or task complexity moderate the effect of attentional focus on motor learning. Children (24 boys, 24 girls) and adults (24 men, 24 women) were assigned to an internal or external attentional focus, and were timed while riding either a Double Pedalo with handles (simple task) or without handles (complex task) over a distance of 7 meters. A Double Pedalo is a four-wheeled device that involves standing on two connected platforms, and alternately pushing them forward to make it move. Participants completed 20 acquisition trials, followed by a 24-hour retention test. For the simpler task, no time differences due to attentional focus emerged. With the complex task, an external focus resulted in faster times in retention than an internal focus, but only for males. These findings suggest that attentional focus affects children and adults similarly, but task complexity and sex moderate these effects.

  15. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  16. Influence of age, temperature, sex, height and diazepam on vibration perception.

    PubMed

    Meh, D; Denislic, M

    1995-12-01

    Vibration perception was quantitatively examined in 92 healthy volunteers (46 females, 36 males, aged 10-71 years). Vibration perception thresholds, vibration disappearance thresholds and vibration thresholds were assessed at the second metacarpal bone, styloid process of ulna, lateral epicondyle of humerus, first phalanx of the big toe, first metatarsal bone, medial malleolus and proximal part of the tibia bilaterally. Vibration sensitivity was found to be age-dependent. Under the age of 60, the correlation was linear. Vibration thresholds depended on body site but they were not related to sex or body side. Temperature and diazepam affect the perception of vibration considerably. Small interindividual variability was found in measurements repeated in 3 consecutive days, after 4 weeks and after a year.

  17. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity. PMID:16295466

  18. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across

  19. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism.

  20. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  1. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  2. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation.

  3. Age- and sex-dependent contact call usage in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, Alban; Guilloux, Manon; Rizaldi; Barbu, Stéphanie; Lacroix, Agnès; Koda, Hiroki

    2013-07-01

    The question of the flexibility of nonhuman primate vocal communication remains open today, especially due to early evidence of innately guided vocal production. However, socially determined flexibility can be found when the debate is moved from vocal structure to vocal usage. While increasing evidence shows that the audience quality influences the vocal behaviour of nonhuman primates, the impact of the caller's characteristics has been far less studied. Here, we tested the influence of an individual's sex and age on the usage style of contact calls. We recorded contact calls of male and female Japanese macaques and compared the vocal usage styles of approximately 1-year-old juveniles with those of adults at various ages. We found, first, important differences in call usage style between juveniles and adults, the latter forming temporally ruled vocal exchanges respecting an interindividual turntaking principle. Moreover, sex differences were substantial in adults but nonexistent in juveniles. Finally, age continued to influence female vocal behaviour during adulthood, whereas dominance rank explained differences between adult males. Two nonexclusive mechanisms can explain this phenomenon, that is, a socially guided development of the appropriate form of calling versus an emotional maturation to control call emission, opening new lines of research on nonhuman primate vocal development of appropriate usages.

  4. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of <3 kg. In general, the meat from foals of the study at hand showed very lean meat (<0.3% in IMF) with a high protein content (>20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat.

  5. Cerebral cortex: an MRI-based study of volume and variance with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Carne, Ross P; Vogrin, Simon; Litewka, Lucas; Cook, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine quantitative differences in lobar cerebral cortical volumes in a healthy adult population. Quantitative volumetric MRI of whole brain, cerebral and cerebellar volumes was performed in a cross-sectional analysis of 97 normal volunteers, with segmented frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical volumes measured in a subgroup of 60 subjects, 30 male and 30 female, matched for age and sex. The right cerebral hemisphere was larger than the left across the study group with a small (<1%) but significant difference in symmetry (P<0.001). No difference was found between volumes of right and left cerebellar hemispheres. Rightward cerebral cortical asymmetry (right larger than left) was found to be significant across all lobes except parietal. Males had greater cerebral, cerebellar and cerebral cortical lobar volumes than females. Larger male cerebral cortical volumes were seen in all lobes except for left parietal. Females had greater left parietal to left cerebral hemisphere and smaller left temporal to left cerebral hemisphere ratios. There was a mild reduction in cerebral volumes with age, more marked in males. This study confirms and augments past work indicating underlying structural asymmetries in the human brain, and provides further evidence that brain structures in humans are differentially sensitive to the effects of both age and sex.

  6. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  7. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-12-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  8. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  9. Age- and sex-associated differences in isokinetic knee muscle endurance between young children and adults.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Deighan, Martine A; Ratel, Sebastien; Armstrong, Neil

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age- and sex-associated differences of repeated isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Fifty one participants, 30 young children (16 boys and 14 girls; aged 11 and 12 years) and 21 adults (9 males and 12 females; aged 18-35 years), agreed to participate in the study. Isokinetic concentric peak knee extension (PET) and flexion (PFT) torque were measured using a calibrated Biodex System 3. Participants performed 4 concentric extension-flexion cycles with maximum effort; after a 2 min rest, 50 continuous concentric cycles were performed at 1.56 rad.s-1. Total work of the extensors (WKEX) and flexors (WKFL) for the complete 50 repetitions was recorded. Average peak torque and average work for the first and last 3 repetitions were calculated to represent the percentage decline in torque and work. There were no significant differences between groups in the peak torque generated during the pretrial and endurance task, suggesting that participants gave a maximal effort at the start of the endurance task. There was a significant interaction effect in the total work done for both extensors and flexors, with adult males producing the greatest amount of work (6622 and 3444 J, respectively). When total work was divided by body mass, there were no significant sex effects, only main effects for group. The percentage decline for PET (40% vs. 60%), PFT (50% vs. 65%), WKET (43% vs. 61%), and WKFL (60% vs. 69%) demonstrated significant main effects for group, with greater fatigue in adults. We found no significant sex effect for fatigue. This study concludes that females do not resist fatigue from repeated isokinetic muscle actions to a greater extent than males, and that the greater fatigue in adults than in children is probably a product of greater initial torque production and work performed. PMID:19767809

  10. Blue judogi may bias competitive performance when seeding system is not used: sex, age, and level of competition effects.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Miarka, Bianca; Rosa, João P P; Lima, Giscard H O; Takito, Monica Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated whether the judogi colour (blue or white) could influence a combat outcome (victory or defeat) in 1,233 judo official combats. Sex, age group, and level of competition were also considered in the analysis. Binomial probability tests showed a higher probability of an athlete's winning a combat wearing blue judogi for both sexes, levels of competition (regional and state), and for the athletes of the junior and senior categories. Thus, blue judogi may bias competitive outcome for both sexes in regional and state level competitions and for athletes above junior age. PMID:25650512

  11. [A pilot study on adolescents of both sexes. Correlation between phenotype, athletic performances and family history to type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pomara, F; Grosso, F; Basile, D; Polizzi, V; Marcianò, C; Adamo, V; De Vita, A; Petrucci, M

    2010-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on the physical phenotype of 47 health adolescents. In both sexes groups with positive family history (FH+) had the highest values of stature and body weight (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), waist circumference (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), and wrist circumference (P=0.05 for males, not significant for females). Considering athletic performance, FH+ males showed a significant higher performance in power exercises than FH- males; no significant differences were found between FH+ and FH- female groups. The study confirms that family history of type 2 diabetes can induce in both sexes precocious phenotype and athletic performances linked-related variations; larger studies are necessary to confirm these data and to verify preventive interventions promoting significant life-style changes. PMID:20940677

  12. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at Hispanic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anthony

    Ownership rates of advanced communication technologies among Hispanic families are lower than the national average. Going beyond socioeconomic (i.e., family income, educational attainment, and occupation) indicators as key predictors of the so-called technology gap, this paper relies on qualitative analysis of Hispanic families' attitudes and…

  13. The dissimilar costs of love and war: age-specific mortality as a function of the operational sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Adler, M I; Bonduriansky, R

    2011-06-01

    Lifespan and ageing are strongly affected by many environmental factors, but the effects of social environment on these life-history traits are not well understood. We examined effects of social interaction on age-specific mortality rate in the sexually dimorphic neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. We found that although interaction with other individuals reduced longevity of both sexes, the costs associated with variation in operational sex ratio were sex specific: males' early-life mortality rate increased, and lifespan decreased, with increasing male bias in the sex ratio, whereas surprisingly, the presence of males had no effect on early-life mortality or lifespan of females. Intriguingly, early-life (immediate) mortality costs did not covary with late-life (latent) costs. Rather, both sexes aged most rapidly in a social environment dominated by the opposite sex. Our findings suggest that distinct reproductive activities, such as mating and fighting, impose different age-specific patterns of mortality, and that such costs are strongly sex specific.

  14. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified.

  15. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  16. Humeral development from neonatal period to skeletal maturity--application in age and sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ♂ and 91 ♀) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples.

  17. Arsenic Exposure and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to age and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic exposure and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of exposure. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life exposure to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic exposure on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human exposure, should be a research priority.

  18. Age and sex influence marmot antipredator behavior during periods of heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Lea, Amanda J; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2011-08-01

    Animals adjust their antipredator behavior according to environmental variation in risk, and to account for their ability to respond to threats. Intrinsic factors that influence an animal's ability to respond to predators (e.g., age, body condition) should explain variation in antipredator behavior. For example, a juvenile might allocate more time to vigilance than an adult because mortality as a result of predation is often high for this age class; however, the relationship between age/vulnerability and antipredator behavior is not always clear or as predicted. We explored the influence of intrinsic factors on yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) antipredator behavior using data pooled from 4 years of experiments. We hypothesized that inherently vulnerable animals (e.g., young, males, and individuals in poor condition) would exhibit more antipredator behavior prior to and immediately following conspecific alarm calls. As expected, males and yearlings suppressed foraging more than females and adults following alarm call playbacks. In contrast to predictions, animals in better condition respond more than animals in below average condition. Interestingly, these intrinsic properties did not influence baseline time budgets; animals of all ages, sexes, and condition levels devoted comparable amounts of time to foraging prior to alarm calls. Our results support the hypothesis that inherent differences in vulnerability influence antipredator behavior; furthermore, it appears that a crucial, but poorly acknowledged, interaction exists between risk and state-dependence. Elevated risk may be required to reveal the workings of state-dependent behavior, and studies of antipredator behavior in a single context may draw incomplete conclusions about age- or sex-specific strategies.

  19. Updating UK estimates of age, sex and period specific cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption per adult

    PubMed Central

    Forey, B.; Lee, P.; Fry, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In 1993 we presented age and sex specific estimates of cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption (CCTCC) per adult for five year periods to 1986-90. These were derived from annual surveys conducted for the Tobacco Manufacturers' Association (TMA) since 1946, extrapolated back to 1891 for men and to 1921 for women and corrected for the decline in average (machine smoked) tar levels. We now provide estimates for 1991-5.
METHODS—TMA surveys having ceased, 1991-5 estimates of manufactured cigarette consumption per adult (MCA) were derived from the General Household Survey (GHS) and corrected for the continuing decline in tar. These estimates were divided by 0.75 (men) and 0.80 (women), based on a comparison of GHS and TMA data for 1971-90, to allow accumulation with the TMA derived estimates prior to 1991.
RESULTS—For both sexes the GHS/TMA ratio of MCA varied little by age or five year period, justifying the use of the correction factors when adjusting GHS estimates for 1991-95. TMA estimates were higher than GHS estimates as only TMA sales-corrected their data for understatement of smoking and the surveys differed in questions on handrolled cigarette smoking. The 1991-95 data confirm the continuing decline in CCTCC at all ages in men. Women show a less steep decline for ages 30-64 and an increase for ages 65-84.
CONCLUSION—The GHS data can validly be used to update the CCTCC estimates. Some reservations about the use of CCTCC are discussed.

 PMID:10193376

  20. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  1. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  2. Familial 46,XY sex reversal without campomelic dysplasia caused by a deletion upstream of the SOX9 gene

    PubMed Central

    Layman, Lawrence C.; Ullmann, Reinhard; Shen, Yiping; Ha, Kyungsoo; Rehman, Khurram; Looney, Stephen; McDonough, Paul G.; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Carr, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Background 46,XY sex reversal is a rare disorder and familial cases are even more rare. The purpose of the present study was to determine the molecular basis for a family with three affected siblings who had 46,XY sex reversal. Methods DNA was extracted from three females with 46,XY sex reversal, two normal sisters, and both unaffected parents. All protein coding exons of the SRY and NR5A1 genes were subjected to PCR-based DNA sequencing. In addition, array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on DNA from all seven family members. A deletion was confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression of SOX9 gene was quantified using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results A 349kb heterozygous deletion located 353kb upstream of the SOX9 gene on the long arm of chromosome 17 was discovered in the father and three affected siblings, but not in the mother. The expression of SOX9 was significantly decreased in the affected siblings. Two of three affected sisters had gonadoblastomas. Conclusion This is the first report of 46,XY sex reversal in three siblings who have a paternally inherited deletion upstream of SOX9 associated with reduced SOX9 mRNA expression. PMID:24907458

  3. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  4. Community Factors Shaping Early Age at First Sex among Adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents’ sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents’ sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions. PMID:25076654

  5. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  6. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen’s ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true ‘mass participation’ ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the ‘Marathon des Sables’; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ and ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require

  7. Patellar dislocation in the United States: role of sex, age, race, and athletic participation.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian R; Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D

    2012-03-01

    Patellar instability has been extensively studied in selected, high-risk cohorts, but the epidemiology in the general population remains unclear. A longitudinal, prospective epidemiological database was used to determine the incidence and demographic risk factors for patellar dislocations presenting to emergency departments of the United States. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried for all patellar dislocations presenting to emergency departments between 2003 and 2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then calculated with respect to sex, age, and race. The hypothesis was that patellar dislocation is influenced by sex, age, race, and athletic participation. An estimated 40,544 patellar dislocations occurred among an at-risk population of 1,774,210,081 person-years for an incidence rate of 2.29 per 100,000 person-years in the United States. When compared with males, females showed no significant overall or age-stratified differences in the rates of patellar dislocation (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71, 1.00; p = 0.08; p > 0.05). Peak incidence of patellar dislocation occurred between 15 and 19 years of age (11.19/100,000 person-years). When compared with Hispanic race, black and white race were associated with significantly higher rates of patellar dislocation (IRR 4.30 [95% CI 1.63, 6.97; p = 0.02], IRR 4.02 [95% CI 1.06, 6.98; p = 0.03], respectively). Nearly half (51.9%) of all patellar dislocation occurred during athletic activity, with basketball (18.2%), soccer (6.9%), and football (6.3%) associated with the highest percentage of patellar dislocation during athletics. Age between 15 and 19 years is associated with higher rates of patellar dislocation. Sex is not a significant risk factor for patellar dislocation. Black and white race are a significant risk factor for patellar dislocation when compared with Hispanic race. Half of all patellar dislocation occurs during athletic activity. This study was conducted on the Level of evidence II.

  8. Influence of nutritional status, age and sex on infant hair zinc concentration.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M A; Leão, E; Penna, F J

    1989-01-01

    1. Zinc concentration was measured in hair samples from 57 infants (27 boys and 30 girls) aged 7 to 24 months. Twenty-eight infants were considered eutrophic and 29 presented chronic and severe malnutrition. 2. Hair segments less than 3-cm long were cut close to the scalp in the occipital area and washed in deionized water and acetone. Zinc levels were measured by neutron-activation. 3. Hair zinc concentration decreased with age in both eutrophic and malnourished infants from 160 micrograms/g at 7 months to 90 micrograms/g at 24 months. 4. No statistically significant difference in hair zinc concentration was detected between eutrophic and malnourished infants (148 +/- 60 vs 128 +/- 57 micrograms/g hair, mean +/- SD) or between sexes.

  9. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  10. Relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among adolescents in the classroom: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.

  11. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Similarly, Kv current density was 25% greater in ventricular myocytes from young adult males (P < 0.05). Germ-line Kcne4 deletion eliminated the sex-specific Kv current disparity by diminishing ventricular fast transient outward current (Ito,f) and slowly activating K(+) current (IK,slow1). Kcne4 deletion also reduced Kv currents in male mouse atrial myocytes, by >45% (P < 0.001). As we previously found for Kv4.2 (which generates mouse Ito,f), heterologously expressed KCNE4 functionally regulated Kv1.5 (the Kv α subunit that generates IKslow1 in mice). Of note, in postmenopausal female mice, ventricular repolarization was impaired by Kcne4 deletion, and ventricular Kcne4 expression increased to match that of males. Moreover, castration diminished male ventricular Kcne4 expression 2.8-fold, whereas 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implants in castrated mice increased Kcne4 expression >3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  12. Skeletal Involution by Age-associated Oxidative Stress and Its Acceleration by Loss of Sex Steroids*

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Martin-Millan, Marta; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Stewart, Scott A.; Roberson, Paula K.; Kousteni, Stavroula; O’Brien, Charles A.; Bellido, Teresita; Parfitt, A. Michael; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2011-01-01

    Both aging and loss of sex steroids have adverse effects on skeletal homeostasis, but whether and how they may influence each others negative impact on bone remains unknown. We report herein that both female and male C57BL/6 mice progressively lost strength (as determined by load-to-failure measurements) and bone mineral density in the spine and femur between the ages of 4 and 31 months. These changes were temporally associated with decreased rate of remodeling as evidenced by decreased osteoblast and osteoclast numbers and decreased bone formation rate; as well as increased osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased glutathione reductase activity and a corresponding increase in the phosphorylation of p53 and p66shc, two key components of a signaling cascade that are activated by reactive oxygen species and influences apoptosis and lifespan. Exactly the same changes in oxidative stress were acutely reproduced by gonadectomy in 5-month-old females or males and reversed by estrogens or androgens in vivo as well as in vitro.We conclude that the oxidative stress that underlies physiologic organismal aging in mice may be a pivotal pathogenetic mechanism of the age-related bone loss and strength. Loss of estrogens or androgens accelerates the effects of aging on bone by decreasing defense against oxidative stress. PMID:17623659

  13. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures. PMID:27672514

  14. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  15. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position.

  16. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Wang, Qian; Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Liu, Dahai; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures. PMID:27672514

  17. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  18. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  19. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  20. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  1. COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history.

    PubMed

    Young, R P; Hopkins, R J; Christmas, T; Black, P N; Metcalf, P; Gamble, G D

    2009-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by age, sex and pack-yr smoking history, and/or by the possible effects of lung cancer on spirometry, may result in over-diagnosis of COPD prevalence. In the present study, the prevalence of COPD (pre-bronchodilator Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2+ criteria) in patients diagnosed with lung cancer was 50% compared with 8% in a randomly recruited community control group, matched for age, sex and pack-yr smoking exposure (n = 602, odds ratio 11.6; p<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of those with lung cancer and lung function measured prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 127), we found a nonsignificant increase in COPD prevalence following diagnosis (56-61%; p = 0.45). After controlling for important variables, the prevalence of COPD in newly diagnosed lung cancer cases was six-fold greater than in matched smokers; this is much greater than previously reported. We conclude that COPD is both a common and important independent risk factor for lung cancer.

  2. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  3. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  4. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  5. Secretion and metabolism of monomeric human calcitonin: effects of age, sex, and thyroid damage.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, R D; Body, J J; Barta, J M; Heath, H

    1986-08-01

    Some data suggest that human calcitonin (CT) secretion is lower in women than in men, decreases with age and the menopause, and is absent in thyroidectomized persons. To further explore CT secretory physiology, we have studied basal and calcium-stimulated plasma immunoreactive CT (iCT) and silica-extractable monomeric CT concentrations in 148 healthy volunteers and 33 patients with a history of thyroid damage (total or subtotal thyroidectomy, radioiodine treatment for thyrotoxicosis). Both whole-plasma iCT and extractable CT levels were lower basally and after calcium infusion in women than in men, basal levels being reduced about 50% and calcium-stimulated values about 75% from those of male subjects. There were no significant changes in basal iCT or extractable CT concentrations with age, and CT secretory capacity (CT response to calcium infusion) likewise did not change with age. Infusion of monomeric CT to constant concentration in 27 persons permitted estimates of CT metabolic clearance rates (MCRs) and secretion rates (SRs). Calculated MCRs of about 9 ml/min.kg-1 (persons aged 21-30 yr) and 6 ml/min.kg-1 (persons aged 54-70 yr) were in good agreement with published data, and did not differ between the sexes. SRs were dependent upon the assay method used to estimate basal plasma CT concentrations, being highest when whole-plasma iCT values were used. Based on estimates of plasma monomeric CT from the silica extraction procedure, the SR of CT was 59 +/- 6 (SE) ng/d.kg-1 in men, and 22 +/- 3 ng/d.kg-1 in women. Thyroid damage reduced, but did not abolish, apparent CT immunoreactivity, even in silica extracts of plasma. However, all subsets of thyroid-damaged patients had absent-to-markedly-impaired CT secretion in response to calcium infusion. We conclude that CT secretion is substantially lower both basally and after stimulation in women than in men, and that this difference in CT immunoreactivity probably reflects differences in circulating CT bioactivity. The

  6. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  7. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  8. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis.

  9. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  10. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  11. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  12. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  13. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  14. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  15. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  16. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  17. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  18. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  19. Age and sex influence the balance between maximal cardiac output and peripheral vascular reserve.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Samuel J; Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Gonzales, Joaquin U; Beck, Kenneth C; Proctor, David N

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of age and sex on the relationship between central and peripheral vasodilatory capacity. Healthy men (19 younger, 12 older) and women (17 younger, 17 older) performed treadmill and knee extensor exercise to fatigue on separate days while maximal cardiac output (Q, acetylene uptake) and peak femoral blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) were measured, respectively. Maximal Q was reduced with age similarly in men (Y: 23.6 +/- 2.7 vs. O: 17.4 +/- 3.5 l/min; P < 0.05) and women (Y: 17.7 +/- 1.9 vs. O: 12.3 +/- 1.6 l/min; P < 0.05). Peak FBF was similar between younger (Y) and older (O) men (Y: 2.1 +/- 0.5 vs. O: 2.2 +/- 0.7 l/min) but was lower in older women compared with younger women (Y: 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. O: 1.4 +/- 0.4 l/min; P < 0.05). Maximal Q was positively correlated with peak FBF in men (Y: r = 0.55, O: r = 0.74; P < 0.05) but not in women (Y: r = 0.34, O: r = 0.10). Normalization of cardiac output to appendicular muscle mass and peak FBF to quadriceps mass reduced the correlation between these variables in younger men (r = 0.30), but the significant association remained in older men (r = 0.68; P < 0.05), with no change in women. These data suggest that 1) aerobic capacity is associated with peripheral vascular reserve in men but not women, and 2) aging is accompanied by a more pronounced sex difference in this relationship. PMID:19959767

  20. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  1. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  2. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  3. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  4. Analysis of Risk Alleles and Complement Activation Levels in Familial and Non-Familial Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T. M.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Verbakel, Sanne K.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Daha, Mohamed R.; Schick, Tina; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, in which complement-mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role. A positive family history is an important risk factor for developing AMD. Certain lifestyle factors are shown to be significantly associated with AMD in non-familial cases, but not in familial cases. This study aimed to investigate whether the contribution of common genetic variants and complement activation levels differs between familial and sporadic cases with AMD. Methods and Results 1216 AMD patients (281 familial and 935 sporadic) and 1043 controls (143 unaffected members with a family history of AMD and 900 unrelated controls without a family history of AMD) were included in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, and lifestyle and family history were documented with a questionnaire. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with AMD were genotyped, and serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C3d were measured. Associations were assessed in familial and sporadic individuals. The association with risk alleles of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene was significantly stronger in sporadic AMD patients compared to familial cases (p = 0.017 for all AMD stages and p = 0.003 for advanced AMD, respectively). ARMS2 risk alleles had the largest effect in sporadic cases but were not significantly associated with AMD in densely affected families. The C3d/C3 ratio was a significant risk factor for AMD in sporadic cases and may also be associated with familial cases. In patients with a densely affected family this effect was particularly strong with ORs of 5.37 and 4.99 for all AMD and advanced AMD respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that in familial AMD patients, the common genetic risk variant in ARMS2 is less important compared to sporadic AMD. In contrast, factors leading to increased complement activation appear to play a larger role in patients with a

  5. Cranial muscle markers: a preliminary examination of size, sex, and age effects.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Most muscle marker research consists of post-cranial analyses, but some researchers examine crania to reconstruct activities. Regardless of bones examined, anthropologists know of some of the complexities surrounding muscle marker development. Here, posterior cranial muscle markers are analyzed to determine whether they are useful in reconstructing activities by examining effects that may hinder reconstructions. Additionally, upper limb muscle markers and humeral cross-sectional robusticity variables are correlated with cranial muscle markers to determine if robust individuals are generally robust due to the synergistic effects of muscle use. Cranial muscle markers of 65 prehistoric California Amerinds are scored using a five-point observer rating scale. Body mass is calculated from femoral head size; maximum cranial length and breadth are measured with a spreading caliper; and age and sex are determined through standard procedures. Upper limb muscle markers are scored on seven sites using two dimensions within a seven-point scale. Cross-sectional properties are calculated from biplanar humeral radiographs. Aggregates are created for cranial muscle markers, upper limb muscle markers, and cross-sectional robusticity. Cranial muscle markers correlate significantly with cranial length, r=0.25 and cross-sectional robusticity of humerus, r=0.29; P's<0.05. All variables differed between sexes (Mann-Whitney=31.00-307.50, P's<0.01). Results imply that some differences in cranial muscle markers are related to size; however, individuals with well-developed cranial muscle markers have greater upper limb robusticity possibly due to activity patterns. Sex differences remained after size controls and may relate to activity differences.

  6. The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed.

    PubMed

    Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G

    2013-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

  7. Individual Differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Executive Dysfunction and Traits: Sex, Ethnicity, and Family Income

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to investigate sex, ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and risk markers, including executive dysfunction and temperament traits. Participants were 109 children who were 3 to 6 years old (64% male; 36% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers and teachers who completed a multistage, multi-informant screening, and diagnostic procedure. Parents completed a diagnostic interview and diagnostic and temperament questionnaires, teachers completed questionnaires, and children completed cognitive control tasks. Because of targeted overrecruitment of clinical cases, 56% of children in the sample were diagnosed with ADHD. Results suggested minimal sex differences, but prominent ethnic differences, in ADHD symptoms and temperament and executive function risk markers. Further, low family income was associated with increased ADHD symptoms and more temperament and executive function risk markers, and low family income explained many ethnic differences in ADHD symptoms and these risk markers. There were prominent interactions among child sex, ethnicity, and family income. Thus, study results suggest that children with multiple individual difference demographic risk factors (e.g., such as being male and ethnic minority) are at highly increased risk of ADHD symptoms and associated risk markers in the temperament and executive function domains. PMID:23889009

  8. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  9. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain.

  10. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  11. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  12. Osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure in human iliac crest as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Brüel, Annemarie; Jensen, Michael Vinkel; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Birkedal, Henrik; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-10-01

    Osteocytes are suggested to play a central role in bone remodeling. Evaluation of iliac crest biopsies is a standard procedure for evaluating bone conditions in the clinical setting. Despite the widespread use of such biopsies, little is known about the population of osteocytes in the iliac crest from normal individuals. Contradicting results have been reported on osteocyte lacunar properties in human bone. Hence, a solid understanding of the osteocyte population in healthy bone and the effect of age and sex is needed as good reference data are lacking. Furthermore, the role of cortical bone in bone quality has recently been suggested to be more important than previously realized. Therefore, the present study assesses osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure of the iliac crest as a function of age and sex. A total of 88 iliac crest bone samples from healthy individuals (46 women, aged 18.5-96.4years and 42 men, aged 22.6-94.6years) with an even age-distribution were examined using synchrotron radiation μCT and in house μCT, with >5×10(6) osteocyte lacunae measured and analyzed. The study revealed that osteocyte lacunar volumes were unaffected by both age and sex. Osteocyte lacunar density did not differ between women and men, and only showed a significant decrease with age when pooling data from both sexes. Cortical porosity and Haversian canal density increased while cortical thickness decreased with age, with cortical thinning dominating the age-related cortical bone loss. None of the cortical microstructural parameters showed any sex dependency. Only weak links between osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructural properties in iliac crest bone were found. Interestingly, the Haversian canal diameters were significantly but weakly negatively correlated with osteocyte lacunar volumes.

  13. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (± 29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.

  14. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (± 29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children. PMID:26130299

  15. Estimating risks of heat strain by age and sex: a population-level simulation model.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Dear, Keith

    2015-05-18

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan's man model "MANMO") to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions.

  16. The contributions of age and sex to variation in common tern population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ezard, T H G; Becker, P H; Coulson, T

    2006-11-01

    1. The decomposition of population growth rate into contributions from different demographic rates has many applications, ranging from evolutionary biology to conservation and management. Demographic rates with low variance may be pivotal for population persistence, but variable rates can have a dramatic influence on population growth rate. 2. In this study, the mean and variance in population growth rate (lambda) is decomposed into contributions from different ages and demographic rates using prospective and retrospective matrix analyses for male and female components of an increasing common tern (Sterna hirundo) population. 3. Three main results emerged: (1) subadult return was highly influential in prospective and retrospective analyses; (2) different age-classes made different contributions to variation in lambda: older age classes consistently produced offspring whereas young adults performed well only in high quality years; and (3) demographic rate covariation explained a significant proportion of variation in both sexes. A large contribution to lambda did not imply a large contribution to its variation. 4. This decomposition strengthens the argument that the relationship between variation in demographic rates and variation in lambda is complex. Understanding this relationship and its consequences for population persistence and evolutionary change demands closer examination of the lives, and deaths, of the individuals within populations within species.

  17. Mercury and Selenium Balance in Endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal Depend on Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Lyytikäinen, Merja; Pätynen, Juuso; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Sipilä, Tero; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-10-01

    The endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis) is exposed to relatively high concentrations of mercury (Hg) in freshwaters poor in selenium (Se), a known antagonist of Hg. The impact of age and sex on the bioaccumulation of Hg and Se was studied by analyzing liver, muscle, and hair samples from seals of different age groups. Adult females were found to accumulate significantly more Hg in the liver (with ca. 60% as HgSe), and less Hg in the muscles compared to adult males, which may be explained by accelerated metabolism during gestation and lactation. In adult seals, molar Se:Hg ratios in the muscles fall below one, which is considered a threshold for the emergence of adverse effects. As a result, Saimaa ringed seals may be at risk of developing health and reproductive problems. According to mass balance calculations, the pups are exposed to considerable amounts (μg/d) of mercury during gestation, although lactation is their main exposure route. In lanugo pups, Hg concentrates in the hair, and molting serves as a main detoxification route. For other age groups, demethylation followed by the formation of HgSe is the main detoxification route, and the demethylation capability develops in pups by the time of weaning.

  18. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  19. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  20. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  1. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance. PMID:21900466

  2. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  3. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  4. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  5. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  6. Parents as Educators of Sex and Relationship Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…

  7. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    PubMed Central

    Alves, José A.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Loonstra, AH Jelle; Potts, Peter M.; Granadeiro, José P.; Catry, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI). Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990). The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change or loss (e

  8. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  9. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  10. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  11. Developmental trajectories of sex-typed behavior in boys and girls: a longitudinal general population study of children aged 2.5-8 years.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Croudace, Tim; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The stability of sex-typed behavior from the preschool to the middle school years was examined. The Preschool Activities Inventory, a measure of within-sex variation in sex-typed behavior, was completed by the primary caregiver when the child was 2.5, 3.5, and 5 years, and a modified version, the Child Activities Inventory, was completed by the child at age 8. The investigation involved a general population sample of 2,726 boys and 2,775 girls. Sex-typed behavior increased through the preschool years, and those children who were the most sex typed at age 2.5 were still the most sex typed at age 5, with those children who showed the highest levels of sex-typed behavior during the preschool years continuing to do so at age 8.

  12. The Care Of The Aged: A Responsibility & Challenge For The Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    de Buda, Yvonne

    1979-01-01

    The population increase in the over 65 age group creates a challenge and responsibility for family physicians in the continuing and comprehensive care of the aged. Family physicians have to assess the medical, psychological and social needs of the elderly and provide them with the best care available by utilizing local facilities, community resources, health care personnel, and whenever possible, the cooperation of the patient's family. Medical students, family practice trainees and other health professionals require the appropriate training. New trends in the care of the elderly and medical education geared towards this task are discussed. PMID:20469307

  13. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hägg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=−0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: −0.0035, −0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ∼6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  14. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  15. Mandibular third molar development staging to chronologic age and sex in north Indian children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rai, B; Kaur, J; Anand, S C

    2009-12-01

    Age estimation is not only important for clinical but also for medico-legal purposes. The present study is an attempt to estimate the chronologic age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al8 and to compare third molar development by sex and age. We examined 250 orthopantomograms of young north Indian subjects of known chronologic age (range, 7-26 years). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test between sex and age. Regression analysis was performed to obtain BR regression formulae for dental age calculation with the chronologic age. Statistically significant differences in mandibular third-molar development between males and females were revealed regarding the calcification stages D and G. The results further indicated that third-molar formation was attained earlier in females than in males. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for both the sexes.

  16. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals.

  17. Widowhood in old age: Viewed in a family context☆

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family. PMID:24655677

  18. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  19. Sexual and Reproductive Health Indicators and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Female Family Planning Clinic Patients Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jay G.; Decker, Michele R.; Agénor, Madina; Borrero, Sonya; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Zelazny, Sarah; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to have ever experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Although IPV is associated with sexual risk and poor reproductive health outcomes among US women overall, little is known about whether IPV is related to sexual and reproductive health indicators among sexual minority women in particular. Methods: Baseline data from a prospective intervention trial were collected from women ages 16–29 years at 24 family planning clinics in western PA (n=3,455). Multivariable logistic regression for clustered survey data was used to compare women who have sex with men only (WSM) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) on (1) IPV prevalence and (2) sexual and reproductive health behaviors, outcomes, and services use, controlling for IPV. Finally, we tested the interaction of sexual minority status and IPV. Results: WSWM were significantly more likely than WSM to report a lifetime history of IPV (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 3.09). Controlling for IPV, WSWM reported higher levels of sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected vaginal and anal sex), male-perpetrated reproductive coercion, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pregnancy testing but less contraceptive care seeking. The association between IPV and lifetime STI diagnosis was greater among WSWM than among WSM. Conclusions: IPV was pervasive and associated with sexual risk and reproductive health indicators among WSWM in this clinic-based setting. Healthcare providers' sexual risk assessment and provision of sexual and reproductive health services should be informed by an understanding of women's sexual histories, including sex of sexual partners and IPV history, in order to help ensure that all women receive the clinical care they need. PMID:25961855

  20. Health Aspects of Adolescent Sex, 1982. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Alarming Increase in the Rate of Sexual Relations among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings begin with an opening statement by Senator Jeremiah Denton, which highlights the concerns of this hearing and introduces discussion panel participants: the Honorable Gordon J. Humphrey, U.S. Senator from New Hampshire; Herbert Ratner, former public health officer and editor of Child and Family Quarterly; Adele Hofmann, director,…

  1. Does the quality of dental images depend on patient's age and sex ?- Explanations from the forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Gelbrich, B; Gelbrich, G; Lessig, R

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate the dependency of image quality of dental panoramic radiographs on patient's age and sex, and to demonstrate that forensic science can explain these relationships. The image qualities of 100 dental panoramic radiographs obtained from 50 patients with two devices were assessed by ten independent observers of different specialisations. Image quality decreased with increasing age of the patients (P=0.003). One of the devices turned out to be superior to the other; however, this difference between the devices was present only in older patients but not in young ones (P=0.03). Image quality was higher in women than in men (P=0.01). The observed influences of age and sex are explained by results of forensic investigations concerning age-related changes of the dental pulp and sex differences of the skull geometry. Thus forensic science can elucidate effects relevant for everyday clinical practice. Studies on dental image quality must consider age and sex of the patients. PMID:22717952

  2. The effect of age and sex on facial mimicry: a three-dimensional study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Mapelli, A; Galante, D; Moriconi, S; Ibba, T M; Ferraro, L; Ferrario, V F

    2010-10-01

    To assess sex- and age-related characteristics in standardized facial movements, 40 healthy adults (20 men, 20 women; aged 20-50 years) performed seven standardized facial movements (maximum smile; free smile; "surprise" with closed mouth; "surprise" with open mouth; eye closure; right- and left-side eye closures). The three-dimensional coordinates of 21 soft tissue facial landmarks were recorded by a motion analyser, their movements computed, and asymmetry indices calculated. Within each movement, total facial mobility was independent from sex and age (analysis of variance, p>0.05). Asymmetry indices of the eyes and mouth were similar in both sexes (p>0.05). Age significantly influenced eye and mouth asymmetries of the right-side eye closure, and eye asymmetry of the surprise movement. On average, the asymmetry indices of the symmetric movements were always lower than 8%, and most did not deviate from the expected value of 0 (Student's t). Larger asymmetries were found for the asymmetric eye closures (eyes, up to 50%, p<0.05; mouth, up to 30%, p<0.05 only in the 20-30-year-old subjects). In conclusion, sex and age had a limited influence on total facial motion and asymmetry in normal adult men and women.

  3. Early Age of First Sex and Health Risk in an Urban Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Deborah L.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sex is associated with high-risk behaviors and outcomes, including sexual risk behaviors, forced sex, physical dating violence, and becoming pregnant or impregnating someone. Methods: Using 2005 and 2007 data from the New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 17,220), this study examined the prevalence of early sex among…

  4. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  5. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  6. [Analysis of sex chromosome homologies in representatives of the family Calliphoridae].

    PubMed

    Vedernikov, A E; Anan'ina, T V; Kokhanenko, A A; Stegniĭ, V N

    2010-10-01

    The distribution of sequences homologous to the Calliphora erythrocephala Mg. sex chromosome was studied in Protophormia terranovae R-D and Lucilia sp. The chromatin structure was found to be similar in regions containing homologous DNA sequences.

  7. The influence of offspring's sex and age at parents' divorce on the intergenerational transmission of divorce, Norwegian first marriages 1980-2003.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Engelhardt, Henriette

    2009-07-01

    Whether a couple remain married or divorce has repeatedly been shown to be of importance for the marital stability of their children. This paper addresses the related question of whether the intergenerational transmission of divorce is contingent on the age at which parents divorced and the sex of the spouse who experienced the parents' divorce. Using a population-wide data-set on Norwegian first marriages followed from 1980 to 2003, we find that the intergenerational transmission hypothesis holds also for Norway, that this relationship is stronger for women than for men, and that there is a negative age gradient in the transmission effect for women. The experience of multiple family transitions, such as a parent's remarriage or a second divorce, does not affect couples' divorce risk.

  8. Age-related sex differences in explicit measures of empathy do not predict brain responses across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Kalina J; Kinzler, Katherine D; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral research indicates that human females are more empathic than males, a disparity that widens from childhood to adulthood. Nevertheless, the extent to which such sex differences are an artifact of self-report indices is unclear. The present study compared age-related sex differences in both self-report and neurophysiological measures of empathic arousal, a primary building block of empathy. Participants included sixty-five 4-17-year-old children (mean 11.5±3.5 years) who completed the Bryant Empathy Scale, and were scanned while viewing animated clips depicting people being hurt. Female participants scored higher than males on self-reported dispositional empathy, a difference that increased with age. In contrast, no sex-related differential changes were detected in hemodynamic responses or in pupil dilation, with no interaction between sex and age. Results suggest a dissociation between explicit ratings and neurophysiological measures of empathic arousal. Past observed sex differences in empathy may reflect females' greater willingness to report empathic experiences. Findings are also discussed in terms of discrepancies in the methods used to assess affective responding and how they relate to the multi-faceted construct of empathy. PMID:23245217

  9. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  10. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  11. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  12. [Family, career and age as socialization factors of the middle and later adult years].

    PubMed

    Runge, I; Fischer, P

    1982-01-01

    The authors deal with the connections of age, family and vocational activity. By using Marx term "Gratisdienst" they develop an ideal of family functions for the vocational education of grown-up children. Family in this sense is individually and socially of importance as a medium of transmission. The authors also show the importance for society and give examples how the so called post-parental (post-familial) phases in family and lifecourse is orientated towards professional integration of the children. Some aspects how to use and explain this potential funds under socialist conditions in the GDR are discussed.

  13. [Family, career and age as socialization factors of the middle and later adult years].

    PubMed

    Runge, I; Fischer, P

    1982-01-01

    The authors deal with the connections of age, family and vocational activity. By using Marx term "Gratisdienst" they develop an ideal of family functions for the vocational education of grown-up children. Family in this sense is individually and socially of importance as a medium of transmission. The authors also show the importance for society and give examples how the so called post-parental (post-familial) phases in family and lifecourse is orientated towards professional integration of the children. Some aspects how to use and explain this potential funds un