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Sample records for age sex heart

  1. Activity of cholinesterases of blood and heart in rats of different sex and age during muscular loads and hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozanova, V. D.; Antonova, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The activity of acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and butyrilcholinesterase (Bche) in the blood and the heart of 3 and 13 month old control male rats is considerably lower than in female rats. In 25 month old rats, no sex differences in the Ache and Bche were revealed in the heart. In 3 and 13 month old male and female rats, under conditions of muscular exercises, the Ache and Bche activity is lower, and in hypokinetic male rats -- higher than that in respective control animals. In all the rats, irrespective of sex, age, and motor conditions, Ache and Bche activity tended to decrease from the sinoatrial node to the heart apex.

  2. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Dessotte, Carina Aparecida Marosti; Silva, Fernanda Souza; Furuya, Rejane Kiyomi; Ciol, Marcia Aparecida; Hoffman, Jeanne Marie; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I). RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0) for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1) for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms), but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5) vs. 5.4 (4.3) for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9) vs. 6.7 (7.2) for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84) or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84). CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process. PMID:26039290

  3. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (<45, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supralinearly with age in both sexes but was greater in men than women in each age group. Below age 45 <16% of referent-subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC, while above age 65 nearly 90% of referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  4. Effect of age and sex on efficacy and tolerability of β blockers in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Luis; Krum, Henry; Rosano, Giuseppe; Holmes, Jane; Altman, Douglas G; Collins, Peter D; Packer, Milton; Wikstrand, John; Coats, Andrew J S; Cleland, John G F; Kirchhof, Paulus; von Lueder, Thomas G; Rigby, Alan S; Andersson, Bert; Lip, Gregory YH; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Shibata, Marcelo C; Wedel, Hans; Böhm, Michael; Flather, Marcus D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of β blockers in a broad age range of women and men with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) by pooling individual patient data from placebo controlled randomised trials. Design Prospectively designed meta-analysis of individual patient data from patients aged 40-85 in sinus rhythm at baseline, with left ventricular ejection fraction <0.45. Participants 13 833 patients from 11 trials; median age 64; 24% women. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was all cause mortality; the major secondary outcome was admission to hospital for heart failure. Analysis was by intention to treat with an adjusted one stage Cox proportional hazards model. Results Compared with placebo, β blockers were effective in reducing mortality across all ages: hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.83) for the first quarter of age distribution (median age 50); 0.71 (0.58 to 0.87) for the second quarter (median age 60); 0.65 (0.53 to 0.78) for the third quarter (median age 68); and 0.77 (0.64 to 0.92) for the fourth quarter (median age 75). There was no significant interaction when age was modelled continuously (P=0.1), and the absolute reduction in mortality was 4.3% over a median follow-up of 1.3 years (number needed to treat 23). Admission to hospital for heart failure was significantly reduced by β blockers, although this effect was attenuated at older ages (interaction P=0.05). There was no evidence of an interaction between treatment effect and sex in any age group. Drug discontinuation was similar regardless of treatment allocation, age, or sex (14.4% in those give β blockers, 15.6% in those receiving placebo). Conclusion Irrespective of age or sex, patients with HFrEF in sinus rhythm should receive β blockers to reduce the risk of death and admission to hospital. Registration PROSPERO CRD42014010012; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00832442. PMID:27098105

  5. Rejuvenation of aging hearts.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-08-01

    Specific subtle changes in regulation or activity of factors that maintain homeostasis and cell differentiation may play significant roles in mammalian aging. Drift resulting from reaching the end of an organism's developmental program might involve a specific ordered set of changes. Several studies have suggested that dysfunctional changes associated with aging in skeletal muscle, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells may be caused by specific changes either in the extracellular environment or in intracellular regulatory networks and that such dysfunction may be reversible. On the basis these data, Loffredo et al. hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic factor (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF-11]) that appears to rejuvenate aging murine hearts, raising exciting prospects for the development of anti-aging therapeutics. However, much work remains to be done to evaluate the utility of GDF-11 as a therapeutic rejuvenation factor. Similar rejuvenating factors for diverse tissues may exist as well and will hopefully be identified in the near future.

  6. Sex differences in Portuguese lonely hearts advertisements.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix

    2005-10-01

    Advertisements from "Lonely Hearts" columns in the major daily Portuguese newspaper (Jornal de Notícias) were used to test hypotheses about the mate preferences of men and women. A total of 484 advertisements were coded for demographic descriptors and offers of and appeals for attractiveness, financial security, sincerity, expressiveness, and instrumentality, e.g., intelligence and ambition. Some results supported social exchange and evolutionary predictions: men sought younger women and offered security; women sought older men with status and resources. However, other results challenged such predictions: attractiveness and expressiveness did not differ by sex.

  7. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Young Women: Lifestyle-related factors that increase heart disease risk ...

  8. Age, dental infections, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K J; Asikainen, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Valtonen, V; Nieminen, M

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological and intervention studies have suggested that infections are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections have appeared as cardiovascular risk factors in cross-sectional and in follow-up studies, and the association has been independent of the "classic" coronary risk factors. This case-control study aimed at detailed assessment of the dental pathology found in various CHD categories (including elderly patients). Altogether, 85 patients with proven coronary heart disease and 53 random controls, matched for sex, age, geographic area, and socio-economic status, were compared with regard to dental status, assessed blindly with four separate scores, and to the "classic" coronary risk factors (seven of the controls had CHD, and they were not included in the analyses). The dental indices were higher among CHD patients than in the controls, but, contrary to previous studies, the differences were not significant (between the CHD patients and their matched controls or among the different CHD categories). This result could not be explained by potential confounding factors. The participants in the present study were older and had more often undergone recent dental treatment in comparison with subjects in our earlier studies. Age correlated with the severity of dental infections only in the random controls but not in the coronary patients who, although young, already had high dental scores. We believe that the higher age of the participants in the present study is the most likely reason for the results. Other possible explanations include an age-related selection bias among older CHD patients, and the fact that those participating in studies like this may have better general health and thus also less severe dental infections. Thus, the role of dental infections as a coronary risk factor varies according to the characteristics of the population studied.

  9. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Heart Age - Is Your Heart Older Than You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Heart Age Is Your Heart Older Than You? Language: ... that increase heart age. Problem US adults have hearts 7 years older than they should be. Though ...

  11. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  12. [Heart surgery in the aged patient].

    PubMed

    Klinner, W; Bernheim, C; Laiacker, H

    1985-10-31

    107 patients at the age of 80 years or more were operated for coronary or valvular heart disease between 1978 and 1984. The indication for surgery was instable angina in coronary patients and intractable heart failure in such with valvular lesions. 9 coronary and 5 valvular patients died postoperatively, 7 were early postoperative deaths, mainly due to myocardial failure. The majority of cases could be improved for 1 to 2 stages according to NYHA-classification. In this group pulmonary complications were predominant. According to this observation heart operations can also be indicated in the older age patient group without very much more risk than in younger ones.

  13. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  14. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - aging; Atherosclerosis - aging ... Some changes in the heart and blood vessels normally occur with age. However, many other changes that are common with aging are due to modifiable ...

  15. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Castanho, Vera S; Oliveira, Letícia S; Pinheiro, Hildete P; Oliveira, Helena CF; de Faria, Eliana C

    2001-01-01

    Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD) constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL) and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males. PMID:11305930

  16. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  17. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  18. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  19. Cardiac stem cell aging and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cesselli, Daniela; Aleksova, Aneta; Mazzega, Elisa; Caragnano, Angela; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo

    2017-01-19

    A side effect of the medical improvements of the last centuries is the progressive aging of the world population, which is estimated to reach the impressive number of 2 billion people with more than 65 years by 2050. As a consequence, age-related diseases, such as heart failure, will affect more and more patients in the next years. To understand the biological bases of these diseases will be a crucial task in order to find better treatments, and possibly slow age-related morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells have been at the center of a heated debate and their potential involvement in cardiac homeostasis has been questioned. In this review, we summarize evidence obtained by independent groups, on different animal models and humans, that strongly support the important role played by immature, cardiac resident cells in the cardioprotection against heart failure.

  20. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  1. Altruism and Rivalry: An Analysis of Age and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarin, Kurt

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on the degree to which altruistic behavior could be manipulated in a laboratory setting. The 192 children who participated were divided equally by sex into three age groups: 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years. Sex was varied both as a recipient and a benefactor characteristic. The experimental…

  2. [Guide values for heart rate and blood pressure with reference to 20, 40, 60 und 80% of maximum exertion considering age, sex and body mass in non-trained individuals].

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels.

  3. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: criteria for sexing and aging a skeleton.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Cohen, Haim; Abbas, Janan; Medlej, Bahaa; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2011-09-01

    Estimation of sex and age in skeletons is essential in anthropological and forensic medicine investigations. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) as a criterion for determining sex and age in forensic cases. Macroscopic examination of the inner aspect of the frontal bone of 768 skulls (326 males and 442 females) aged 1 to 103, which had undergone a head computerized tomography scan, was carried out using the volume rendering technique. HFI was divided into two categories: minor and major. HFI is a sex- and age-dependent phenomena, with females manifesting significantly higher prevalence than males (p<0.01). In both females and males, prevalence of HFI increases as age increases (p<0.01). We present herein the probabilities of designating an unknown skull to a specific sex and age cohort according to the presence of HFI (standardized to age distribution in an Israeli population). Moreover, we present the probability of an individual belonging to a specific sex or age cohort according to age or sex (respectively) and severity of HFI. We suggest a valid, reliable, and easy method for sex and age identification of unknown skulls.

  4. Sex Offenders in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L

    2016-09-01

    With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape.

  5. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  6. Sex through the ages in China.

    PubMed

    Gross, A

    1981-11-01

    This brief article summarizes some of the Chinese sexual customs as revealed by Van Gulik, Needham, Levy, the author, and others. Chinese sexology is related to medicine, philosophy, and cosmology, all of which form a unified view of the universe. Cosmologically, the Chinese view human life as between the sun ("Ying"/man) and the earth ("Yin"/women). Energy particles from the sun continually enter the fingers, pass through arms, head, and body, and exit via the toes, while energy from the earth enter through the toes and exits through the fingers. Illness occurs if there is an imbalance in this system; if either flow stops death ensues. Chinese medicine corrects the energy flow of the sun and earth by means of needles, heat, gymnastics, massage, and sexual practices. Sexual practices, affect this energy exchange by special techniques for relieving physical complaints and ultra-orgasmic practices, sometimes termed "coitus reservatus." Chinese reason that if either man or woman achieve orgasm, then considerable energy can be produced over a longer duration, perhaps increasing one's health and longevity. These beliefs flourished from the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.-220 A.D.) until the close of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.). Practices during this period were to encourage orgasms for men and women with age, health, seasonal factors, and the need for heirs as variables in the practices. For example, in a Sui Dynasty (589-608 A.D.) sex manual, once a day is right for a healthy male of 30, while once every 5-10 days is proper for a 50 year old man. However, these techniques took time to learn and even "perversions" developed. Excesses encouraged the belief that sexual expression should be limited. The Confucionists during the Ching Dynasty (1644-1912) saw ultra-orgasmic exercises as a threat to government and encouraged its end. Ultra-orgasmic techniques may be used today at the village level and are inseparable from the Chinese language and literature. Male homosexuality

  7. Sexual dimorphism in the expression of mitochondria-related genes in rat heart at different ages.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Vikrant; Han, Tao; Moland, Carrie L; Kwekel, Joshua C; Fuscoe, James C; Desai, Varsha G

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Moreover, sex and age are considered major risk factors in the development of CVDs. Mitochondria are vital for normal cardiac function, and regulation of mitochondrial structure and function may impact susceptibility to CVD. To identify potential role of mitochondria in sex-related differences in susceptibility to CVD, we analyzed the basal expression levels of mitochondria-related genes in the hearts of male and female rats. Whole genome expression profiling was performed in the hearts of young (8-week), adult (21-week), and old (78-week) male and female Fischer 344 rats and the expression of 670 unique genes related to various mitochondrial functions was analyzed. A significant (p<0.05) sexual dimorphism in expression levels of 46, 114, and 41 genes was observed in young, adult and old rats, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis revealed the influence of sex on various biological pathways related to cardiac energy metabolism at different ages. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was significantly different between the sexes in young and adult rat hearts. Adult male rats also showed higher expression of genes associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to females. In young and adult hearts, sexual dimorphism was not noted in genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation. In old rats, however, a majority of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation had higher expression in females compared to males. Such basal differences between the sexes in cardiac expression of genes associated with energy metabolism may indicate a likely involvement of mitochondria in susceptibility to CVDs. In addition, female rats showed lower expression levels of apoptotic genes in hearts compared to males at all ages, which may have implications for better preservation of cardiac mass in females than in males.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in the Expression of Mitochondria-Related Genes in Rat Heart at Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Vikrant; Han, Tao; Moland, Carrie L.; Kwekel, Joshua C.; Fuscoe, James C.; Desai, Varsha G.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Moreover, sex and age are considered major risk factors in the development of CVDs. Mitochondria are vital for normal cardiac function, and regulation of mitochondrial structure and function may impact susceptibility to CVD. To identify potential role of mitochondria in sex-related differences in susceptibility to CVD, we analyzed the basal expression levels of mitochondria-related genes in the hearts of male and female rats. Whole genome expression profiling was performed in the hearts of young (8-week), adult (21-week), and old (78-week) male and female Fischer 344 rats and the expression of 670 unique genes related to various mitochondrial functions was analyzed. A significant (p<0.05) sexual dimorphism in expression levels of 46, 114, and 41 genes was observed in young, adult and old rats, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis revealed the influence of sex on various biological pathways related to cardiac energy metabolism at different ages. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was significantly different between the sexes in young and adult rat hearts. Adult male rats also showed higher expression of genes associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to females. In young and adult hearts, sexual dimorphism was not noted in genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation. In old rats, however, a majority of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation had higher expression in females compared to males. Such basal differences between the sexes in cardiac expression of genes associated with energy metabolism may indicate a likely involvement of mitochondria in susceptibility to CVDs. In addition, female rats showed lower expression levels of apoptotic genes in hearts compared to males at all ages, which may have implications for better preservation of cardiac mass in females than in males. PMID:25615628

  9. Social Roles Contribute to Age and Sex Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara Formaniak; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses drawn from the social role model about the process that people use in deciding what other people are like, focusing on the difference that other people's age, race, and sex make. A sample of non-Latino White students (N=671) ranging in age from 18 to 81 years used the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)…

  10. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  11. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  12. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  13. Preventing Heart Disease - At Any Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to add more color now! Lower Your Sodium in 21 Days! Learn how you can lower your sodium and change your salty ways in 21 Days! ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  14. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-12-23

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences.

  15. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  16. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  17. Sex and Age Differences in Future Temporal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Edward; Sawler, Joyce

    This study explored sex differences in the Future Temporal Perspectives (FTP) of children. The influences of age, social class and intelligence were also investigated, or FTP was generally believed to be affected by them. Subjects were 96 boys and 96 girls, selected from 26 schools in Nova Scotia, from three age groups: 9.6-11.0, 12.0-13.6, and…

  18. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  19. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency, respectively. The risk thresholds for boys and girls were established at two developmental stages (late childhood: ages 10–12 years, and adolescence: ages 13–16 years) and compared between boys and girls. Sex similarities as well as differences existed in risk and promotive factors for delinquency. ROC analyses revealed only small sex differences in delinquency thresholds, that varied by age. Accumulative risk level had a linear relationship with boys’ delinquency and a quadratic relationship with girls’ delinquency, indicating stronger effects for girls at higher levels of risk. PMID:23183920

  20. Age and sex or gender (sex/gender) and HIV vaccine preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Shayesta

    2015-10-29

    An examination of age and sex or gender (sex/gender) in HIV vaccine preparedness studies can contribute to an understanding of these demographic variables in preparation for actual HIV vaccine trials. In this descriptive review, age and sex or gender (sex/gender) were examined in relation to willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in an HIV vaccine trial. Twenty-five articles were retrieved from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and 28 articles were retrieved from the non-OECD countries. In US studies that involved mainly white MSM, older men were more likely to be WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial and more likely to be retained than younger men. In most OECD studies, sex/gender was not associated with WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial, while females were more likely to be retained in most studies. Largely, age was not associated with WTP in the non-OECD countries, but the results on sex/gender were more variable. The relationship between adolescent or adult WTP in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials in South Africa did not appear to be modified by high school student status. In addition, more studies in discordant couples in the context of HIV vaccine preparedness could be conducted to examine gender roles and inequalities in preparation for HIV vaccine trials.

  1. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 and aging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart.

  2. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  3. Effects of age and sex on olanzapine plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ulrike; Marksteiner, Josef; Kemmler, Georg; Saria, Alois; Aichhorn, Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    Age and sex may influence both efficacy and side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. Women and elderly patients tend to have a higher prevalence for several side effects. Higher plasma levels in these groups of patients may be one reason. We studied the hypothesis that steady-state olanzapine plasma concentrations depend on age and sex. Sixty-seven inpatients on stable olanzapine dose were referred to routine therapeutic drug monitoring of olanzapine. Plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Obtained data were then analyzed by analysis of covariance. Olanzapine plasma levels showed a marked sex difference with significantly higher mean concentrations in female patients (adjusted mean concentrations, 18.5 ng/mL for men and 31.7 ng/mL for women; P = 0.003). On average, the weight-corrected concentration/dose ratios shown by women were 33.5% higher than those shown by men, irrespective of age. Regarding the effect of age, weight-corrected concentration/dose ratios increased by an average of 9.4% per decade of life. All results were adjusted for smoking. Comedication did not significantly influence these results. In conclusion, age and sex are important variables to consider when prescribing olanzapine for women and in the elderly.

  4. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Cahill, Nathan D; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; White, Tonya; Baum, Stefi A; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6670 FC measures). rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed. We report the following findings. (1) Males exhibited greater FC than females in 1352 FC measures (1025 survived Bonferroni correction; [Formula: see text]). In 641 FC measures, females exhibited greater FC than males but none survived Bonferroni correction. Significant FC differences were mainly present in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Although the average FC values for males and females were significantly different, FC values of males and females exhibited large overlap. (2) Age effects were present only in 29 FC measures and all significant age effects showed higher FC in younger subjects. Age and sex differences of FC remained significant after controlling for cognitive measures. (3) Although sex [Formula: see text] age interaction did not survive multiple comparison correction, FC in females exhibited a faster cross-sectional decline with age. (4) Male brains were more locally clustered in all lobes but the cerebellum; female brains had a higher clustering coefficient at the whole-brain level. Our results indicate that although both male and female brains show small-world network characteristics, male brains were more segregated and female brains were more integrated. Findings of this study further our understanding of FC in early adulthood and provide evidence to support that age and sex should be controlled for in FC studies of young adults.

  5. Ischaemic heart disease in women: are there sex differences in pathophysiology and risk factors?

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Viola; Badimon, Lina; Corti, Roberto; de Wit, Cor; Dorobantu, Maria; Hall, Alistair; Koller, Akos; Marzilli, Mario; Pries, Axel; Bugiardini, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and knowledge of the clinical consequences of atherosclerosis and CVD in women has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. Research efforts have increased and many reports on various aspects of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women have been published highlighting sex differences in pathophysiology, presentation, and treatment of IHD. Data, however, remain limited. A description of the state of the science, with recognition of the shortcomings of current data, is necessary to guide future research and move the field forward. In this report, we identify gaps in existing literature and make recommendations for future research. Women largely share similar cardiovascular risk factors for IHD with men; however, women with suspected or confirmed IHD have less coronary atherosclerosis than men, even though they are older and have more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Coronary endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease have been proposed as important determinants in the aetiology and prognosis of IHD in women, but research is limited on whether sex differences in these mechanisms truly exist. Differences in the epidemiology of IHD between women and men remain largely unexplained, as we are still unable to explain why women are protected towards IHD until older age compared with men. Eventually, a better understanding of these processes and mechanisms may improve the prevention and the clinical management of IHD in women. PMID:21159671

  6. Age and Sex Factors in the Control of Automobiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John A., Jr.; Soliday, Stanley M.

    The study investigated age and sex in the control of an automobile under normal driving conditions. Its major purpose was to gather baseline data for a driver license, road testing program. Forty volunteer subjects (10 men and 10 women over 30, 10 men and 10 women under 30) drove a specially instrumented car over an interstate highway course and a…

  7. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  8. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution.

  9. A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later Dementia expert says take up heart-healthy ... 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy aging of the brain relies on the health of your heart and ...

  10. Male breast cancer, age and sex chromosome aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, P A; Maloney, V; Cooke, R; Crolla, J A; Ashworth, A; Swerdlow, A J

    2013-01-01

    Background: In cultured, dividing transformed T lymphocytes and in dividing bone marrow cells from normal men and those with a haematological malignancy, sex chromosome aneuploidy has been found to increase in prevalence and degree with age. This has rarely been investigated in non-dividing uncultured blood samples. The loss and gain of the X chromosome in dividing transformed lymphocytes in women with age is much more frequent than that of the Y chromosome in males. However, paradoxically X chromosome aneuploidy is rarely seen in the dividing cells of bone marrow of females. Methods: In blood samples from 565 men with breast cancer and 54 control men from the England and Wales general population, 80 cell nuclei per sample were scored for presence of X and Y chromosomes using fluorescent centromeric probes. Results: Sex chromosome aneuploidy, largely Y chromosome loss, was present in 63% of cases and 57% of controls, with the prevalence and degree of aneuploidy increasingly sharply and highly significantly with age. At ages 65–80 years, 71% of cases and 85% of controls showed aneuploidy and 15% and 25%, respectively, had ⩾10% of cells aneuploid. Allowing for age, aneuploidy was less prevalent (P=0.03) in cases than controls. Conclusion: Sex chromosome aneuploidy in non-dividing nuclei of peripheral blood cells is frequent in adult men, the prevalence and degree increasing sharply with age. The possible relation of sex chromosome aneuploidy to breast cancer risk in men, and to cancer risk generally, needs further investigation, ideally in cohort studies. PMID:23299533

  11. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  12. Superficial White Matter: Effects of Age, Sex, and Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Clark, Kristi A.; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Mazziotta, John C.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18–74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

  13. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Langenickel, Thomas; Petruck, Jesika; Kode, Kiran; Rajman, Iris; Chandra, Priya; Zhou, Wei; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    LCZ696, a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, is in development for the treatment of heart failure. Administration of LCZ696 results in systemic exposure to sacubitril (inactive prodrug of LBQ657), LBQ657 (neprilysin inhibitor), and valsartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker). We investigated the potential effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) in an open-label, single oral dose (400 mg), parallel-group study in healthy subjects. Among 36 enrolled subjects, there were 19 male and 17 female subjects; 18 subjects were 18-45 years old (young), and 18 subjects were 65 years of age or older (elderly). Compared with young subjects, the AUCinf and T1/2 for LBQ657 were 42% and 30% greater, respectively, in elderly subjects. The Cmax for LBQ657 was similar between age groups. The AUCinf, Cmax, and T1/2 for valsartan were 30%, 24% greater, and 3.35 hours longer, respectively, in the elderly when compared with young subjects. All pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) were similar between male and female subjects, indicating no effect on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes based on sex. Considering the magnitude of change and its clinical significance, dose adjustment based on age or sex is not considered necessary.

  14. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes.

  15. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

  16. [The Rheological Properties of Blood Depending on Age and Sex].

    PubMed

    Filatova, O V; Sidorenko, A A; Agarkova, S A

    2015-01-01

    The rheological properties of blood (viscosity, concentration of red blood cells, erythrocyte sedimantation rate, prothrombin index, and fibrinogen and blood lipid concentration) were studied in apparently healthy subjects of both sexes within the age range from 1 to 75 years. We observed an increase in blood viscosity from infancy to adulthood, followed by a decrease in older age in males. A progressive increase in viscosity is observed in females with aging. We determined three age periods during which the viscosity values remain constant: 1) from the period of early infancy to the second childhood (3.6 ± 0.07 mPa s regardless of sex); 2) from adolescence to the second period of adulthood (5.1 ± 0.06 in men; 4.3 ± 0.05 mPa s in women); 3) elderly and senile age (4.7 ± 0.13 in men; 4.4 ± 0.09 mPa s in women). Sex-related differences in the absolute value of blood viscosity (p < 0.001) were discovered in the period of adulthood. Moreover, we observed sex-related differences in the values of determination coefficients of interrelation between viscosity and the level of red blood cells (R(M)2 = 0.41, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.35, p < 0.001), and viscosity and cholesterol level (R(M)2 = 0.47, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.68, p < 0.001) among men and women. The factor analysis showed that blood viscosity correlates with the concentration of red blood cells by 28%; with the level of fibrinogen, by 23%; with the cholesterol concentration, by 20%.

  17. Impact of donor-recipient sex match on long-term survival after heart transplantation in children: An analysis of 5797 pediatric heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Kemna, Mariska; Albers, Erin; Bradford, Miranda C; Law, Sabrina; Permut, Lester; McMullan, D Mike; Law, Yuk

    2016-03-01

    The effect of donor-recipient sex matching on long-term survival in pediatric heart transplantation is not well known. Adult data have shown worse survival when male recipients receive a sex-mismatched heart, with conflicting results in female recipients. We analyzed 5795 heart transplant recipients ≤ 18 yr in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (1990-2012). Recipients were stratified based on donor and recipient sex, creating four groups: MM (N = 1888), FM (N = 1384), FF (N = 1082), and MF (N = 1441). Males receiving sex-matched donor hearts had increased unadjusted allograft survival at five yr (73.2 vs. 71%, p = 0.01). However, this survival advantage disappeared with longer follow-up and when adjusted for additional risk factors by multivariable Cox regression analysis. In contrast, for females, receiving a sex-mismatched heart was associated with an 18% higher risk of allograft loss over time compared to receiving a sex-matched heart (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38) and a 26% higher risk compared to sex-matched male recipients (HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45). Females who receive a heart from a male donor appear to have a distinct long-term survival disadvantage compared to all other groups.

  18. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  19. Integrated modelling of age and sex patterns of European migration.

    PubMed

    Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; Forster, Jonathan J; Smith, Peter W F; Bijak, Jakub; Raymer, James

    2016-10-01

    Age and sex patterns of migration are essential for understanding drivers of population change and heterogeneity of migrant groups. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate such patterns for international migration in the European Union and European Free Trade Association from 2002 to 2008, which was a period of time when the number of members expanded from 19 to 31 countries. Our model corrects for the inadequacies and inconsistencies in the available data and estimates the missing patterns. The posterior distributions of the age and sex profiles are then combined with a matrix of origin-destination flows, resulting in a synthetic database with measures of uncertainty for migration flows and other model parameters.

  20. Analysis of web height ratios according to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif

    2015-06-01

    Each component of the web space, a three-dimensional structure, should be carefully created during reconstruction of web space loss. One of these web space components is the web height. In this study, the dorsal view of subjects' hands was analyzed to determine the web height ratios. The web height ratios were then compared with respect to age and sex. The second and third web height ratios differed between adult men and women and between children and adults. However, no differences were observed among children. This study is unique because it focuses on the web height ratios of all web spaces according to age and sex and provides a very easy-to-use scale that may help surgeons to perform web space reconstruction. Moreover, the present study adds to the literature by providing information on the first web height ratios of the hand.

  1. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  2. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  3. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    SciTech Connect

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with (3H)prazosin, (3H)yohimbine, (3H)dihydroalprenolol and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype.

  4. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Cahill, Nathan D.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; White, Tonya; Baum, Stefi A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6670 FC measures). rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22–36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed. We report the following findings. (1) Males exhibited greater FC than females in 1352 FC measures (1025 survived Bonferroni correction; \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $$p < 7.49{ \\rm{E}} - 6$$ \\end{document}). In 641 FC measures, females exhibited greater FC than males but none survived Bonferroni correction. Significant FC differences were mainly present in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Although the average FC values for males and females were significantly different, FC values of males and females exhibited large overlap. (2) Age effects were present only in 29 FC measures and all significant age effects showed higher FC in younger subjects. Age and sex differences of FC remained significant after controlling for cognitive measures. (3) Although sex \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $$\\times

  5. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  6. First trimester fetal heart rate as a predictor of newborn sex*

    PubMed Central

    Bracero, L. A.; Seybold, D. J.; Witsberger, S.; Rincon, L.; Modak, A.; Baxi, L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To predict the sex of newborns using first trimester fetal heart rate (FHR). Methods This was a retrospective review of medical records and ultrasounds performed between 8 and 13 weeks of gestation. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-tests while categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. Results We found no significant differences between 332 (50.7%) female and 323 (49.3%) male FHRs during the first trimester. The mean FHR for female fetuses was 167.0 ± 9.1 bpm and for male fetuses 167.3 ± 10.1 bpm (p = 0.62). There was no significant difference in crown rump length between female and male fetuses (4.01 ± 1.7 versus 3.98 ± 1.7 cm; p = 0.78) or in gestational age at birth (38.01 ± 2.1 versus 38.08 ± 2.1 weeks; p = 0.67). The males were significantly heavier than females (3305.3 ± 568.3 versus 3127.5 ± 579.8 g; p < 50.0001) but there were no differences in the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA), average for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Conclusions We found no significant difference between the female and male FHR during the first trimester in contrast to the prevailing lay view of females having a faster FHR. The only statistically significant difference was that males weighed more than female newborns. PMID:25754210

  7. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  8. Mitochondrial and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Aged Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Gregory P.; Sepe, Joseph J.; McKiernan, Susan H.; Aiken, Judd M.; Diffee, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac function. Exercise intervention has been suggested as a way to improve this decrement. Age-related decline in cardiac function is associated with decreases in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. The molecular mechanisms involved with age-related changes in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are poorly understood. We determined gene expression differences in hearts of Young (6 mo), Old (33 mo), and old exercise trained (Old + EXE) (34 mo) FBN rats, using Qiagen PCR arrays for Glucose, Fatty acid, and Mitochondrial metabolism. Old rats demonstrated decreased (p < 0.05) expression for key genes in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMPK signaling. There were no differences in the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism with age. These gene expression changes occurred prior to altered protein translation as we found no differences in the protein content of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivators 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and AMPKα2 between young and old hearts. Four months of exercise training did not attenuate the decline in the gene expression in aged hearts. Despite this lack of change in gene expression, exercise-trained rats demonstrated increased exercise capacity compared to their sedentary counterparts. Taken together, our results show that differential expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function decrease in the aging heart which may play a role in age-related declines in fatty acid oxidation, AMPK activity, and mitochondrial function in the heart. PMID:27601998

  9. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  10. Reading multifractal spectra: Aging by multifractal analysis of heart rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowiec, D.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Gałaska, R.; Wdowczyk-Szulc, J.; Żarczyńska-Buchowiecka, M.

    2011-06-01

    The method of effective reading of multifractal properties is proposed. The method consists in the analysis of a given signal together with the analysis of an integrated signal. A practical way to separate monofractal-type signals from other signals is given. The method is applied to 24-hour ECG recordings of RR-interbeat intervals to assess the effect of aging on autonomic regulation of the heart in healthy adults. Heart rate variability is evaluated by multifractal analysis in the VLF band. A switch from mono- to multifractality is observed between diurnal and nocturnal parts of series in the group of young adults. With aging the multifractal structure of nocturnal signals declines. The observed changes can be related to the circadian alternation in the central mechanisms controlling the cardiovascular system which becomes impaired with advance in age in human. Indices for age impairment of autonomic regulation are proposed.

  11. Otter scent signals age, sex, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Kean, Eleanor F; Müller, Carsten T; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Scent is used across taxa to communicate information about signaler identity. Eurasian otters Lutra lutra are mainly solitary and thought to use scent as their primary means of communication. Little is known, however, about what information otters communicate through scent or what social function this performs. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to sample and analyze volatile organic compounds from anal scent gland secretion from 158 otters of differing sex, age, and female reproductive status. Univariate and multivariate differences were clear between adult and juvenile otters. Complex sex differences were apparent in adult otters but not in younger individuals, suggesting the use of this scent secretion in mate attraction. The scent of pregnant and lactating females was highly differentiated from male and juvenile scent, but anecdotal reports suggest females avoid communication during these times.

  12. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  13. Higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt correlate with younger age but not orthostatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ives, Colleen T; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2013-08-15

    Reports have shown that younger individuals present with higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt (HUT). However, a correlation between the degree of heart rate increment and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher postural heart rate increments during HUT correlate with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in healthy subjects. Postural heart rate increment on HUT did not differ between men and women (P = 0.48) but did show a significant decrease by age group (P < 0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between heart rate increment on HUT and age [r = -0.63 (-0.73, -0.51), r(2) = 0.400; P < 0.0001]. There was a significant difference with respect to symptoms of orthostatic intolerance by sex (P = 0.03) but not age (P = 0.58). There was no significant correlation between either symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and age [r = -0.13 (-0.31, 0.06), r(2) = 0.017; P = 0.17] or heart rate increment on HUT and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance [r = 0.15 (-0.04, 0.33), r(2) = 0.022; P = 0.13]. The results demonstrate that higher postural heart rate increments in younger individuals do not result in an increase in orthostatic intolerance. This highlights the potential need for a reevaluation of the diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in younger individuals.

  14. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  15. Sex-specific differences in age-dependent progression of aortic dysfunction and related cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Gburi, Suzan; Deussen, Andreas Johannes; Galli, Roberta; Muders, Michael H; Zatschler, Birgit; Neisser, Anja; Müller, Bianca; Kopaliani, Irakli

    2017-03-08

    Sex-specific differences in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and arterial pressure have been evidenced in many mammals including spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although SHRs have been used extensively as a leading experimental model of hypertension, effects of sex-specific differences in RAS on aortic function and related cardiac remodeling during aging and hypertension have not been documented in detail. We examined structural and functional changes in aorta and heart of female and male SHRs at ages of 5, 14, 29 and 36-weeks. SHRs of both sexes were hypertensive from 14-weeks. Aortic endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis was evident at the age of 29-weeks in male SHRs, but first appeared only at the age of 36-weeks in female SHRs. There was a pronounced delay of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in aorta and heart of female SHRs, which was associated with preservation of 40 % more elastin and less extensive cardiac fibrosis than in males. At 5, 29 and 36-weeks of age female SHRs showed higher levels of aortic and myocardial AT2R and MasR mRNA and decreased ANGII-mediated aortic constriction. While female SHRs had increased relaxation to AT2R stimulation at 5 and 29-weeks compared to males, this difference disappeared at 36-weeks of age. This study documents sex-specific differences in the temporal progression of aortic dysfunction and LV hypertrophy in SHRs which are independent of arterial pressure and are apparently mediated by higher AT2R expression in the heart and aorta of female SHRs.

  16. FastStats: Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 96 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Death rates for diseases of heart, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Health, United States, 2015, table 22 [ ... causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin Health, United States, 2015, table ... in Heart Disease and Cancer Mortality Recent Trends in Heart Failure- ...

  17. Effects of sex and age on auditory spatial scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewald, Jörg; Hausmann, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that men outperform women in spatial analysis of complex auditory scenes (Zündorf et al., 2011). The present study investigated the relation between the effects of ageing and sex on the spatial segregation of concurrent sounds in younger and middle-aged adults. The experimental design allowed simultaneous presentation of target and distractor sound sources at different locations. The resulting spatial "pulling" effect (that is, the bias of target localization toward that of the distractor) was used as a measure of performance. The pulling effect was stronger in middle-aged than younger subjects, and female than male subjects. This indicates lower performance of the middle-aged women in the sensory and attentional mechanisms extracting spatial information about the acoustic event of interest from the auditory scene than both younger and male subjects. Moreover, age-specific differences were most prominent for conditions with targets in right hemispace and distractors in left hemispace, suggesting bilateral asymmetries underlying the effect of ageing.

  18. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  19. Age-dependent magnetosensitivity of heart muscle ouabain receptors.

    PubMed

    Narinyan, Lilia Yu; Ayrapetyan, Gayane S; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik N

    2013-05-01

    In our previous work we have shown that the age-dependent decrease in the magnetosensitivity of heart muscle hydration is accompanied by a dysfunction of the Na(+) /K(+) pump. The reciprocal relation between the Na(+/) K(+) pump and Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange in development was suggested as a possible pathway for the age-dependent decrease in the magnetosensitivity of heart muscle hydration (water content). Because high and low affinity ouabain receptors in cell membranes are involved in Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange and Na(+) /K(+) pump functions, respectively, the effect of a 0.2 T static magnetic field (SMF) on dose-dependent, ouabain-induced hydration and [(3) H]-ouabain binding with heart muscle tissues in young, adult and older rats was studied. Three populations of receptors in membranes with high (10(-11) -10(-9)  M), middle (10(-9) -10(-7)  M) and low (10(-7) -10(-4)  M) affinity to [(3) H]-ouabain were distinguished, which had specific dose-dependent [(3) H]-ouabain binding kinetics and effects on muscle hydration. The magnetosensitivity of [(3) H]-ouabain binding kinetics with high affinity receptors was prominent in all the three age groups of animals, while with low affinity receptors it was more expressed only in the young group of animals. All three types of receptors that caused modulations of muscle hydration were age dependent and magnetosensitive. Based on the obtained data we came to the conclusion that heart muscle hydration in young animals is more magnetosensitive due to the intense expression of high affinity ouabain receptors, which declines with aging.

  20. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    PubMed

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  1. Gene by Sex Interaction for Measures of Obesity in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Ashlee M.; Suchindran, Sunil; Pearce, Kaela; Rowell, Jennifer; Lien, Lillian F.; Guyton, John R.; McCarthy, Jeanette J.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and severe health concern with a substantial heritable component and marked sex differences. We sought to determine if the effect of genetic variants also differed by sex by performing a genome-wide association study modeling the effect of genotype-by-sex interaction on obesity phenotypes. Genotype data from individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort were analyzed across five exams. Although no variants showed genome-wide significant gene-by-sex interaction in any individual exam, four polymorphisms displayed a consistent BMI association (P-values .00186 to .00010) across all five exams. These variants were clustered downstream of LYPLAL1, which encodes a lipase/esterase expressed in adipose tissue, a locus previously identified as having sex-specific effects on central obesity. Primary effects in males were in the opposite direction from females and were replicated in Framingham Generation 3. Our data support a sex-influenced association between genetic variation at the LYPLAL1 locus and obesity-related traits. PMID:21253498

  2. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  4. Comorbidity Analysis According to Sex and Age in Hypertension Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Ma, James; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Ligui; Cao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension, an important risk factor for the health of human being, is often accompanied by various comorbidities. However, the incidence patterns of those comorbidities have not been widely studied. Aim: Applying big-data techniques on a large collection of electronic medical records, we investigated sex-specific and age-specific detection rates of some important comorbidities of hypertension, and sketched their relationships to reveal the risk for hypertension patients. Methods: We collected a total of 6,371,963 hypertension-related medical records from 106 hospitals in 72 cities throughout China. Those records were reported to a National Center for Disease Control in China between 2011 and 2013. Based on the comprehensive and geographically distributed data set, we identified the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension, and disclosed the sex-specific and age-specific patterns of those comorbidities. A comorbidities network was constructed based on the frequency of co-occurrence relationships among those comorbidities. Results: The top four comorbidities of hypertension were coronary heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipemia, and arteriosclerosis, whose detection rates were 21.71% (21.49% for men vs 21.95% for women), 16.00% (16.24% vs 15.74%), 13.81% (13.86% vs 13.76%), and 12.66% (12.25% vs 13.08%), respectively. The age-specific detection rates of comorbidities showed five unique patterns and also indicated that nephropathy, uremia, and anemia were significant risks for patients under 39 years of age. On the other hand, coronary heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipemia, and cerebral infarction were more likely to occur in older patients. The comorbidity network that we constructed indicated that the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension had strong co-occurrence correlations. Conclusions: Hypertension patients can be aware of their risks of comorbidities based on our sex-specific results, age-specific patterns, and the comorbidity network

  5. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  6. Oxidative Damage in the Aging Heart: an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Gustavo Lenci; Neto, Francisco Filipak; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira; Liebel, Samuel; de Fraga, Rogério; Bueno, Ronaldo da Rocha Loures

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of ‘aging’; however, the factors that affect this complex process are still poorly understood. Of these theories, the accumulation of oxidative damage over time is among the most accepted. Particularly, the heart is one of the most affected organs by oxidative stress. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate oxidative stress markers in myocardial tissue of rats at different ages. Methods: Seventy-two rats were distributed into 6 groups of 12 animals each and maintained for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and the levels of non-protein thiols, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined. Results: Superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were reduced in the older groups of animals, when compared with the younger group. However, protein carbonylation showed an increase in the 12-month group followed by a decrease in the older groups. In addition, the levels of non-protein thiols were increased in the 12-month group and not detected in the older groups. Conclusion: Our data showed that oxidative stress is not associated with aging in the heart. However, an increase in non-protein thiols may be an important factor that compensates for the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the oldest rats, to maintain appropriate antioxidant defenses against oxidative insults. PMID:27006709

  7. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Iris heterochromia: variations in form, age changes, sex dimorphism].

    PubMed

    Stelzer, O

    1979-06-01

    On a sample of n = 25,346 individuals from Vienna (10,855 males, 14,491 females) the iris pigmentation has been typed by the author. In this sample 65 cases of different types of heterochromia were found. The frequency of the occurrence of the different types of this anomaly could be calculated for the first time. Neglecting age, sex, and type of heterochromia the total frequency amounts to 0.256 (males: 0.157; females: 0.37) %. The variants of heterochromia very from cases of total heterochromia to those of various size; in addition to it a number of special types could be observed. The localization of the heterochrome parts of the iris shows certain variations; mostly, however, it is seen in the lower half of the iris. The nasal part is concerned in only one case; the temporal region never. Thus, the partial heterochromia is characteristic by a marked dependency of its localization. The colour of heterochromia varies from 2 a-14 according to the Martin-Schultz standard set of coloured eyes. However, No. 9 (ca. 50%) and No. 7 (ca. 20%) were the most frequent colours. The age variations are considerable. 5/6 of all heterochromias were found between the age from 2-19 years. Finally, a marked sexual dimorphism was observed, as in females heterochromia is much more frequent than in males.

  9. Age, sex, and nitrazepam kinetics: relation to antipyrine disposition.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D J; Abernethy, D R; Locniskar, A; Ochs, H R; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1985-12-01

    Forty healthy men and women 19 to 80 years old received a single 10 mg oral dose of the 7-nitro benzodiazepine nitrazepam. Nitrazepam plasma concentrations were measured during the next 72 hours. Among men, the elderly had a larger volume of distribution (Varea) than did younger subjects (1.96 vs. 1.63 L/kg; P less than 0.05); because clearance did not change with age (0.84 vs. 0.95 ml/min/kg), the prolonged t1/2 in elderly men (28 vs. 20 hours; P less than 0.01) was a result of the larger Varea. Elderly and young women did not differ in nitrazepam Varea (2.58 vs. 2.55 L/kg), t1/2 (26 vs. 27 hours), or total clearance (1.19 vs. 1.09 ml/min/kg). The nitrazepam free fraction in plasma (18% to 19% unbound) was not related to age or sex. Among 18 subjects who also received antipyrine, the clearance of nitrazepam and antipyrine were not correlated (r = 0.23). Thus age minimally influences nitrazepam clearance (accomplished mainly by nitroreduction), which in turn is not significantly related to antipyrine oxidizing capacity.

  10. Age, sex and personality in early cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Muro I Rodríguez, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies analysing personality and cannabis use in adult samples suggest that cannabis users show significant higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking and schizotypy. However, there are few studies exploring this relationship in adolescence using psychobiological models of personality. Given the relevance of identifying individual differences that lead adolescents to early cannabis use to prevent future health problems, the present study aimed to explore the relationship between age, sex, personality and early cannabis use using a psychobiological model of personality in a sample of 415 students (51.8% boys) from 12 to 18 years. Chi(2) tests showed significant higher prevalence of cannabis use in boys and in the group aged 15-18 years. Multiple analysis of variance showed significant higher scores in psychoticism, sensation seeking and in all its subscales in cannabis users group, while an interaction with age was found for extraversion and neuroticism: cannabis users scored higher than non-users in the youngest group (12-14 years) but lower in the oldest group in both dimensions. Finally, regression analysis showed that narrower traits of sensation seeking (experience seeking and disinhibition) were the most associated to early cannabis use. Results are discussed in terms of early cannabis users' personality profiles and in terms of the self-medication theory.

  11. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  12. Behavior problems of clinic children: relation to parental marital status, age and sex of child.

    PubMed

    Brady, C P; Bray, J H; Zeeb, L

    1986-07-01

    Behavior problems of 703 children seen in a clinical setting were examined for interactions between and effects of family type (i.e., parental marital status) and age and sex of child. Significant differences were found based on family type, with children of separated, divorced, and remarried parents having more problems. Expected interactions between marital status and age and sex of child were not obtained, although results support prior research with regard to the effects of age and sex.

  13. Association of Race and Sex With Risk of Incident Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events

    PubMed Central

    Safford, Monika M.; Brown, Todd M.; Muntner, Paul; Durant, Raegan W.; Glasser, Stephen; Halanych, Jewell; Shikany, James M.; Prineas, Ronald; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Bittner, Vera; Lewis, Cora E.; Gamboa, Christopher; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia; Howard, George

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT It is unknown whether long-standing disparities in incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) among US blacks and whites persist. OBJECTIVE To examine incident CHD by black and white race and by sex. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective cohort study of 24 443 participants without CHD at baseline from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, who resided in the continental United States and were enrolled between 2003 and 2007 with follow-up through December 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Expert-adjudicated total (fatal and nonfatal) CHD, fatal CHD, and nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction [MI]; very small non–ST-elevation MI [NSTEMI] had peak troponin level <0.5 µg/L). RESULTS Over a mean (SD) of 4.2 (1.5) years of follow-up, 659 incident CHD events occurred (153 in black men, 138 in black women, 254 in white men, and 114 in white women). Among men, the age-standardized incidence rate per 1000 person-years for total CHD was 9.0 (95% CI, 7.5–10.8) for blacks vs 8.1 (95% CI, 6.9–9.4) for whites; fatal CHD: 4.0 (95% CI, 2.9–5.3) vs 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4–2.6), respectively; and nonfatal CHD: 4.9 (95% CI, 3.8–6.2) vs 6.2 (95% CI, 5.2–7.4). Among women, the age-standardized incidence rate per 1000 person-years for total CHD was 5.0 (95% CI, 4.2–6.1) for blacks vs 3.4 (95% CI, 2.8–4.2) for whites; fatal CHD: 2.0 (95% CI, 1.5–2.7) vs 1.0 (95% CI, 0.7–1.5), respectively; and nonfatal CHD: 2.8 (95% CI, 2.2–3.7) vs 2.2 (95% CI, 1.7–2.9). Age- and region-adjusted hazard ratios for fatal CHD among blacks vs whites was near 2.0 for both men and women and became statistically nonsignificant after multivariable adjustment. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for incident nonfatal CHD for blacks vs whites was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.51–0.91) for men and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.58–1.15) for women. Of the 444 nonfatal CHD events, 139 participants (31.3%) had very small NSTEMIs. CONCLUSIONS The higher

  14. Change of patellar height with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Kar, Maitreyee Nandi; Bhakta, Abhijit; Mondal, Gopal Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kar, Chinmaya; Nandi, Sujit Narayan

    2012-12-01

    Patellar height is one of the important parameter in patellar stability. Growth spurt or excessive physical strain can lead to high-riding patella or patella alta. But this is not yet proved. This study was mainly targeted at eliciting the influence of age on Insall-Salvati index, one of the important index to measure patellar height. As the present study is meant for measuring the patellar height separately in male and female, it is also to find out the effect of gender on patellar height if any. The study was been conducted in North Bengal Medical College and Hospital among 93 subjects covering both adult and adolescent age groups. Patellar height of respective subjects was measured radiologically using Insall-Salvati Index; results were extrapolated for statistical analysis. It revealed that value of Insall-Salvati index was higher in adult compared to adolescent group but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistical tests shows no significant difference in Insall-Salvati index according to sex. While screening the athletes patella alta must be kept in mind as this can be associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, knees with apophysitis of tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schiatter disease). Not only that, significant cause of recurrent patellar dislocation can be associated with patella alta

  15. Age and sex determination of the Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Simon, John C.; Pratt, Thane K.; Baker, Paul E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We determined the best plumage and morphometric variables for ageing and sexing the Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on east Maui, Hawaii, by examining and measuring 30 museum specimens and 71 live birds captured in mist nets. Juvenal plumage was identified by the presence of pale-tipped wing bars on the middle and greater coverts, grayish olive dorsal plumage, and dingy white underparts and superciliaries. Birds undergoing first prebasic molt retained the juvenal remiges, rectrices, and wing coverts. Birds in first basic plumage possessed juvenal wing bars and a dull juvenal-like plumage. Subsequent molts were complete, and adults lacked wing bars. Adult males had bright yellow plumage on the cheeks, throat, and superciliaries, as did 27% of adult females. All other adult females had less yellow in the underparts. The dorsal plumage of adult females was more variable than adult males and was either yellow-olive like the males or grayish olive. Adult males had longer wing, bill, tail, and tarsometatarsus and greater mass than adult females. Virtually all males and females could be distinguished by wing length. Morphometrics of immature birds were significantly smaller than for adult males. Only immature male wing chord was significantly larger than that of adult females. Although it was difficult to distinguish between immatures and some adult females based on plumage coloration or measurements, a cut-off point of 70.4 mm for wing chord separated 91% of females from 93% of males, regardless of age.

  16. Telocytes and putative stem cells in ageing human heart.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related groups were studied: newborns (17 days-1 year), children (6-17 years) and adults (34-60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm(2) ) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52-62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22-28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6-7%, fibroblasts 3-10%, macrophages 1-8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults).

  17. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis.

  18. Age and sex differences in object control skills by children ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Stephen A; Angell, Rose M; Mason, Craig A

    2012-02-01

    Object control skills provide children the tools to be physically active-a major societal priority. At the fundamental movement level, object control skills form the foundation of further sports skill development. The purpose of this study was to examine children's (ages 5 to 14 years, Grades K-8) development of four key object control skills: catching, throwing, kicking, and striking. 186 children were tested on selected items from the Object Control Subtest of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, using a cross-sectional and correlational design. As anticipated, significant differences were found for age on all four skills. These improvements were characterized by early, rapid gains at ages 9 to 10, beyond which development occurred at a slower rate for catching, throwing, and kicking; striking development continued at a steady rate to age 14 years. Contrary to previous findings, no overall sex differences were found for catching or kicking. Overall sex differences favoring boys were observed for throwing and striking. Implications for evolutionary contributions to throwing and striking were discussed.

  19. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  20. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  1. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  2. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  3. Association between obesity and femoral neck strength according to age, sex, and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S H; Kim, B J; Koh, J M

    2017-03-29

    Indicators of total and abdominal obesity were negatively associated with femoral neck strength indices. There are age-, sex-, and fat distribution-specific differences in the magnitude of these associations. These suggested that indicators of obesity with different magnitude according to age, sex, and fat distribution associated with poor bone health.

  4. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  5. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  6. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  7. Homomorphic plant sex chromosomes are coming of age.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Dmitry A

    2015-07-01

    Sex chromosomes are a very peculiar part of the genome that have evolved independently in many groups of animals and plants (Bull ). Major research efforts have so far been focused on large heteromorphic sex chromosomes in a few animal and plant species (Chibalina & Filatov ; Zhou & Bachtrog ; Bellott et al. ; Hough et al. ; Zhou et al. ), while homomorphic (cytologically indistinguishable) sex chromosomes have largely been neglected. However, this situation is starting to change. In this issue, Geraldes et al. () describe a small (~100 kb long) sex-determining region on the homomorphic sex chromosomes of poplars (Populus trichocarpa and related species, Fig. ). All species in Populus and its sister genus Salix are dioecious, suggesting that dioecy and the sex chromosomes, if any, should be relatively old. Contrary to this expectation, Geraldes et al. () demonstrate that the sex-determining region in poplars is of very recent origin and probably evolved within the genus Populus only a few million years ago.

  8. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  9. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and heart failure: pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Jasper W L; Voors, Adriaan A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Smit, Andries J; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2007-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are molecules formed during a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugar residues, called the Maillard reaction. AGEs accumulate in the human body with age, and accumulation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In patients with diabetes, AGE accumulation is associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction. Enhanced AGE accumulation is not restricted to patients with diabetes, but can also occur in renal failure, enhanced states of oxidative stress, and by an increased intake of AGEs. Several lines of evidence suggest that AGEs are related to the development and progression of heart failure in non-diabetic patients as well. Preliminary small intervention studies with AGE cross-link breakers in heart failure patients have shown promising results. In this review, the role of AGEs in the development of heart failure and the role of AGE intervention as a possible treatment for heart failure are discussed.

  10. A quantitative trait loci-specific gene-by-sex interaction on systolic blood pressure among American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nora; MacCluer, Jean W; Göring, Harald H H; Cole, Shelley A; Rose, Kathryn M; Almasy, Laura; Diego, Vincent; Laston, Sandra; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Best, Lyle G; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; North, Kari E

    2006-08-01

    Age-adjusted systolic blood pressure is higher in males than females. Genetic factors may account for this sex-specific variation. To localize sex-specific quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing blood pressure, we conducted a genome scan of systolic blood pressure, in males and females, separately and combined, and tested for aggregate and QTL-specific genotype-by-sex interaction in American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the average of the last 2 measures was used for analyses. Systolic blood pressure was adjusted for age and antihypertensive treatment within study center. We performed variance component linkage analysis in the full sample and stratified by sex among 1168 females and 726 males. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood estimates based on all individuals, and multipoint identity-by-descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We detected suggestive evidence of a QTL influencing systolic blood pressure on chromosome 17 at 129 cM between markers D17S784 and D17S928 (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). This signal substantially improved when accounting for QTL-specific genotype-by-sex interaction (P = 0.04), because we observed an LOD score of 3.3 for systolic blood pressure in women on chromosome 17 at 136 cM. The magnitude of the linkage signal on chromosome 17q25.3 was slightly attenuated when participants taking antihypertensive medications were excluded, although suggestive evidence for linkage was still identified (LOD = 2.8 in women). Accounting for interaction with sex improved our ability to detect QTLs and demonstrated the importance of considering genotype-by-sex interaction in our search for blood pressure genes.

  11. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  12. Sex differences in the hypertensive population with chronic ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Bertomeu, Vicente; Murga, Nekane; de Pablo, Carmen; Calderón, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    Cardiopatía Isquémica Crónica e Hipertensión Arterial en la Práctica Clínica en España (CINHTIA) was a survey designed to assess the clinical management of hypertensive outpatients with chronic ischemic heart disease. Sex differences were examined. Blood pressures (BP) was considered controlled at levels of <140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg in diabetics (European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology 2003); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was considered controlled at levels <100 mg/dL (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III). In total, 2024 patients were included in the study. Women were older, with a higher body mass index and an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Dyslipidemia, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and peripheral arterial disease were more frequent in men. In contrast, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure were more common in women. BP and LDL-C control rates, although poor in both groups, were better in men (44.9% vs 30.5%, P<.001 and 33.0% vs 25.0%, P<.001, respectively). Stress testing and coronary angiography were more frequently performed in men.

  13. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  14. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  15. Nuclear AMPK regulated CARM1 stabilization impacts autophagy in aged heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Yu, Lu; Xue, Han; Yang, Zheng; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Mai; Ma, Heng

    2017-04-29

    Senescence-associated autophagy downregulation leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) participates in many cellular processes, including autophagy in mammals. However, the effect of CARM1 in aging-related cardiac autophagy decline remains undefined. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator in metabolism and autophagy, however, the role of nuclear AMPK in autophagy outcome in aged hearts still unclear. Hers we identify the correlation between nuclear AMPK and CARM1 in aging heart. We found that fasting could promote autophagy in young hearts but not in aged hearts. The CARM1 stabilization is markedly decrease in aged hearts, which impaired nucleus TFEB-CARM1 complex and autophagy flux. Further, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(SKP2), responsible for CARM1 degradation, was increased in aged hearts. We further validated that AMPK dependent FoxO3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced in nucleus, the decreased nuclear AMPK-FoxO3 activity fails to suppress SKP2-E3 ubiquitin ligase. This loss of repression leads to The CARM1 level and autophagy in aged hearts could be restored through AMPK activation. Taken together, AMPK deficiency results in nuclear CARM1 decrease mediated in part by SKP2, contributing to autophagy dysfunction in aged hearts. Our results identified nuclear AMPK controlled CARM1 stabilization as a new actor that regulates cardiac autophagy.

  16. Reducing the noise in behavioral assays: sex and age in adult zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J; Cousin, Margot A; Pierret, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods.

  17. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  18. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  19. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  20. Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S; George, M; Balmer, J; Davison, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a race recognised by the British Orienteering Federation. Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), mean heart rate (HRMEAN), standard deviation of her heart rate during each orienteering race (HRSD), and mean change in heart rate at each control point (ΔHRCONTROL) were identified. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. Results: National standard orienteers displayed a lower within orienteering race standard deviation in heart rate (6 (2) v 12 (2) beats/min, p<0.001) and a lower ΔHRCONTROL (5 (1) v 17 (4) beats/min, p<0.001). The mean heart rate during competition was higher in the national standard group (170 (11) v 158 (11) beats/min, p = 0.025). The HRMEAN for the national and club standard groups were 99 (8)% and 88 (9)% of their age predicted maximum heart rate (220-age) respectively. All orienteers aged >55 years (n = 4) recorded HRMEAN greater than their age predicted maximum. Conclusions: The heart rate responses indicate that national and club standard women orienteers of all ages participate in the sport at a vigorous intensity. The higher ΔHRCONTROL of club standard orienteers is probably due to failing to plan ahead before arriving at the controls and this, coupled with slowing down to navigate or relocate when lost, produced a higher HRSD. PMID:12782552

  1. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  2. Impaired alpha1-adrenergic responses in aged rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Guenoun, Thierry; Laplace, Monique; Crozatier, Bertrand

    2005-06-01

    To determine age-related changes in the cardiac effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation, both cardiomyocyte Ca2+-transient and cardiac protein kinase C (PKC) activity were measured in 3-month- (3MO) and 24-month- (24MO) old Wistar rats. Ca2+ transients obtained under 1 Hz pacing by microfluorimetry of cardiomyocyte loaded with indo-1 (405/480 nm fluorescence ratio) were compared in control conditions (Kreb's solution alone) and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation (phenylephrine or cirazoline, an alpha1-specific agonist). PKC activity and PKC translocation index (particulate/total activity) were also assayed before and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In 3MO, cirazoline induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient for a 10(-9) M concentration which returned to control values for larger concentrations. In contrast, in 24MO, we observed a constant negative effect of cirazoline on the Ca2+ transient with a significant decrease at 10(-6) M compared with both baseline and Kreb's solution. Preliminary experiments showed that, in a dose-response curve to phenylephrine, the response of Ca2+ transient was maximal at 10(-7) M. This concentration induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient in 3MO and a significant decrease in 24MO. The same concentration was chosen to perform PKC activity measurements under alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In the basal state, PKC particulate activity was higher in 24MO than that in 3MO but was not different in cytosolic fractions; so that the translocation index was higher in 24MO (P < 0.01). After phenylephrine, a translocation of PKC toward the particulate fraction was observed in 3MO but not in 24MO. In conclusion, cardiac alpha1-adrenoceptor response was found to be impaired in aged hearts. The negative effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation on Ca2+ transient in cardiomyocytes obtained from old rats can be related to an absence of alpha1-adrenergic-induced PKC translocation.

  3. Sex differences in pulse pressure trends with age are cross-cultural.

    PubMed

    Skurnick, Joan H; Aladjem, Mordechay; Aviv, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and trends with age have been consistently observed in both industrialized and unindustrialized populations. However, the impact of sex on pulse pressure, an index of vascular aging, in unindustrialized populations has not been addressed. The objective of this report was to characterize sex differences in aging trends of pulse pressure within unindustrialized populations. Using PubMed and Medline, we identified 60 articles with blood pressure data from unacculturated or partially acculturated populations. Data on 27 populations from 22 articles were included for analysis, on the basis of adequate description of study design and blood pressure measurement. Blood pressure means of adult age groups were modeled by linear and polynomial regression. The pulse pressure levels of women were lower than those of men in early adulthood and higher in older ages. Women had a steeper, steady increase in pulse pressure with age than men (P<0.001), whereas men had a stronger curvilinear upswing in pulse pressure with age (P=0.006). Partially acculturated populations had higher pulse pressures than unacculturated populations. Sex had a stronger effect on pulse pressure than acculturation. Pulse pressure trajectories of unindustrialized populations were slightly attenuated compared with those seen in National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys III and IV of the US population. A sex effect on pulse pressure trends with age prevails across unacculturated and acculturated populations. Accordingly, the biological principles of arterial aging, as expressed in pulse pressure, are the same in all humans, regardless of demography.

  4. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    PubMed

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  5. [Antibodies to endogenous bioregulators and their association with age and sex in chronic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Myagkova, M A; Petrochenko, S N; Morozova, V S; Moseikin, I A; Shypitsin, V V; Polyvyanaya, O Yu

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied changes in the levels of antibodies to endogenous bioregulators (Ab) to Β-endorphin, orphanin, serotonin, dopamine and angiotensin in 36 healthy people and 109 patients with dorsopathy with chronic pain syndrome. The association of these immunological indicators with age and sex was found. It has been concluded that the levels of Ab to endogenous bioregulators may be considered as a marker of algic system pathology that does not depend on age and is sex-related.

  6. Mortality in mild cognitive impairment varies by subtype, sex and lifestyle factors. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Vassilaki, Maria; Cha, Ruth H.; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Etiologic differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes may impact mortality. Objective To assess the rate of death in MCI overall, and by subtype, in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Methods Participants aged 70–89 years at enrollment were clinically evaluated at baseline and 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. Mortality in MCI cases vs. cognitively normal (CN) individuals was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 331 of 862 (38.4%) MCI cases and 224 of 1292 (17.3%) cognitively normal participants died. Compared to CN individuals, mortality was elevated in persons with MCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.61 to 2.55), and was higher for non-amnestic MCI (naMCI; HR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.39) than for amnestic MCI (aMCI; HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.41) after adjusting for confounders. Mortality varied significantly by sex, education, history of heart disease, and engaging in moderate physical exercise (p for interaction <0.05 for all). Mortality rate estimates were highest in MCI cases who were men, did not exercise, had heart disease, and had higher education vs. CN without these factors, and for naMCI cases vs. aMCI cases without these factors. Conclusions These findings suggest stronger impact of etiologic factors on naMCI mortality. Prevention of heart disease, exercise vigilance, may reduce MCI mortality. Delayed MCI diagnosis in persons with higher education impacts mortality, and higher mortality in men may explain similar dementia incidence by sex in our cohort. PMID:25697699

  7. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running.

  8. Sex and age differences in mercury distribution and excretion in methylmercury-administered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, K.; Yasutake, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sex differences in mercury distribution and excretion after single administration of methylmercury chloride (MMC, 5 mg/kg were studied in mice. A sex difference in urinary mercury excretion was found in sexually mature mice (age of 7 wk) of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA strains. Males showed higher mercury levels in urine than females, though no significant difference was found in fecal mercury levels 24 h post exposure to MMC. The higher urinary excretion rates in males accounted for significant lowering of mercury levels in the brain, liver, and blood, but not in the kidney, which showed higher values. At 5 min, however, the sex difference was found only in the kidney, showing higher levels in males. Changes in mercury distribution with time were studied in C57BL/6N mice. The brain mercury increased in both sexes up to 3 d, and decreased only in males on d 5. Liver and blood mercury decreased with time in both sexes, and these were constantly higher in females than in males. Renal mercury in males decreased to similar levels to females on d 3. The sex differences at various ages were studied with C57BL/6N mice 24 h after dosing. Two-week-old mice did not show significant sex differences in the mercury distribution and excretion, and their urinary mercury levels were much lower as compared to the older mice. Urinary mercury excretion in both sexes increased at 4 wk of age and then decreased at 45 wk of age. At 4, 7, 10, and 45 wk of age, males showed higher urinary mercury levels than females. From these findings, it has been suggested that urinary mercury excretion may be related to sex hormones, especially androgens.

  9. Age and sex differences in hospitalisation of nursing home residents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Falk; Allers, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nursing home residents (NHRs) are frequently suffering from multimorbidity, functional and cognitive impairment, often leading to hospital admissions. Studies have found that male NHRs are more often hospitalised. The influence of age is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of hospitalisations in NHRs, particularly focusing on age-specific and sex-specific differences. Design A systematic review was performed in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. Quality of studies was assessed. Setting Studies conducted in nursing homes were included. Participants Nursing home residents. Primary and secondary outcomes Outcome measures were the prevalence, incidence or duration of all-cause hospitalisation by age or sex. Results We identified 21 studies, 13 were conducted in the USA. The proportion of residents being hospitalised ranged across studies from 6.8% to 45.7% for various time periods of follow-up. A total of 20 studies assessed the influence of sex and found that hospitalisations are more often in male NHRs. A total of 16 studies conducted multivariate analyses and the OR of hospitalisation for males was between 1.22 and 1.67. Overall, 18 studies assessed the influence of age. Some studies showed an increasing proportion of admissions with increasing age, but several studies also found decreasing hospitalisations above the age of about 80–85 years. 8 of 13 studies conducting multivariate analyses included age as a continuous variable. Only 1 study reported stratified analyses by age and sex. 2 studies investigating primary causes of hospitalisation stratified by sex found some differences in main diagnoses. Discussion Male NHRs are more often hospitalised than females, but reasons for that are not well investigated. The influence of age is less clear, but there seems to be no clear linear relationship between age and the proportion being hospitalised. Further studies should investigate age and sex differences in frequencies and reasons for

  10. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age.

  11. Differences in the prognosis of early gastric cancer according to sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Do Dam; Oh, Seong Tae; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung-Sik; Kim, Beom Su

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have compared early gastric cancer (EGC) outcomes according to sex and age. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2085 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for EGC between 1989 and 2000. Prognosis and risk factors for nodal involvement were evaluated according to sex and age. Results: Male sex and age were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) but not relapse-free survival (RFS). In young (⩽55 years) patients, there were no significant differences in RFS and OS between men and women. However, older (>55 years) men had a poorer OS and older women had a poorer RFS. Young female patients had a higher proportion of gastric cancer-related death than young male patients. Female sex was an independent risk factor for nodal involvement in younger patients. Conclusions: Young women with EGC should be more intensively treated and monitored than other patient groups and should not be treated by endoscopic resection. PMID:28203280

  12. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  13. Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…

  14. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  15. Sex and age differences in coping styles among children with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolution of characteristic coping styles and identify areas for intervention. Pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), pain coping strategies (Pain Coping Questionnaire), and coping efficacy were assessed in children (ages 8-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years), presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (n=272). Significant sex differences in coping strategies were found. After controlling for pain intensity, girls used social support seeking more than boys, while boys used more behavioral distraction techniques. Adolescents engaged in more positive self-statements (a cognitive strategy) than children. Both boys and girls showed a trend toward pain coping efficacy being negatively correlated with average pain intensity. For girls, pain coping efficacy was also significantly negatively correlated with internalizing/catastrophizing. However, no sex or age differences in coping efficacy were found. This study demonstrates the early emergence of sex- and aged-based preferences in coping strategies among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The findings establish a basis for further research on early social influences in the development of pain coping styles in males and females. Implications for further clinical research in this area are discussed.

  16. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  17. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  18. The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Amicizia, Daniela; Domnich, Alexander; Arata, Lucia; Zoli, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Cacello, Elena; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella

    2017-02-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. The objective of the study was to study the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia. This retrospective study enrolled adult subjects with at least one episode of herpes zoster in the previous 10 y. A questionnaire on the patient's socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics was administered by general practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression was used to detect relationships between post-herpetic neuralgia and age, sex and their interaction. Fifty-nine of 272 patients reported post-herpetic neuralgia: a prevalence of 21.7%. Subjects with post-herpetic neuralgia (mean age 70.9 years) were significantly older (P = .001) than those without (64.2 years), the standardised mean difference being 0.5; no significant between-sex association was revealed (P = .96). A fully adjusted multivariable logistic analysis, however, revealed a highly significant (P = .007) age-sex interaction, with an odds ratio of 0.92; this also showed that older males were more likely to report post-herpetic neuralgia than younger males, while no obvious age-associated pattern was observed among females. We discerned a significant age-by-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia, which suggests that the effect of age on the development of this condition may differ between men and women.

  19. The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Cacello, Elena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. The objective of the study was to study the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia. This retrospective study enrolled adult subjects with at least one episode of herpes zoster in the previous 10 y. A questionnaire on the patient's socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics was administered by general practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression was used to detect relationships between post-herpetic neuralgia and age, sex and their interaction. Fifty-nine of 272 patients reported post-herpetic neuralgia: a prevalence of 21.7%. Subjects with post-herpetic neuralgia (mean age 70.9 years) were significantly older (P = .001) than those without (64.2 years), the standardised mean difference being 0.5; no significant between-sex association was revealed (P = .96). A fully adjusted multivariable logistic analysis, however, revealed a highly significant (P = .007) age-sex interaction, with an odds ratio of 0.92; this also showed that older males were more likely to report post-herpetic neuralgia than younger males, while no obvious age-associated pattern was observed among females. We discerned a significant age-by-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia, which suggests that the effect of age on the development of this condition may differ between men and women. PMID:28215122

  20. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  1. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  2. Age-dependent association between sex and renal cell carcinoma mortality: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Haitao; Gu, Weijie; Gu, Chengyuan; Zhang, Hailiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-03-17

    Research on sex differences in renal cancer-specific mortality (RCSM), which considered the sex effect to be constant throughout life, has yielded conflicting results. This study hypothesized the sex effect may be modified by age, which is a proxy for hormonal status. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (1988-2010) were used to identify 114,539 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study cohort was divided into three age groups using cutoffs of 42 and 58 years, which represent the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The cumulative incidence function and competing risks analyses were used to examine the effect of covariates on RCSM and other-cause mortality (OCM). In premenopausal period, male sex was a significant predictor of poor RCSM for both localized (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [aSHR] = 1.63, P = 0.002) and advanced (aSHR = 1.20, P = 0.041) disease. In postmenopausal period, the sex disparity diminished (aSHR = 1.05, P = 0.16) and reversed (aSHR = 0.95, P = 0.017) in localized and advanced disease, respectively. On the contrary, similar trend was not found for OCM across all age groups. Our results demonstrated the sex effect on RCSM was strongly modified by age. These findings may aid in clinical practice and need further evaluation of underlying biological mechanisms.

  3. Gestational Dietary Protein Is Associated with Sex Specific Decrease in Blood Flow, Fetal Heart Growth and Post-Natal Blood Pressure of Progeny

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Overview The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth. It represents the largest comprehensive study under field conditions of uterine hemodynamics in a monotocous species, with a similar long gestation period to the human. Primiparous 14mo heifers in Australia (n=360) and UK (n=180) were either individually or group fed, respectively, diets with differing protein content (18, 14, 10 or 7% crude protein (CP)) from 60d prior to 98 days post conception (dpc). Fetuses and placentae were excised at 98dpc (n = 48). Fetal development an median uterine artery blood flow were assessed monthly from 36dpc until term using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. MUA blood flow to the male feto-placental unit increased in early pregnancy associated with increased fetal growth. Protein restriction before and shortly after conception (-60d up to 23dpc) increased MUA diameter and indices of velocity during late pregnancy, reduced fetal heart weight in the female fetus and increased heart rate at birth, but decreased systolic blood pressure at six months of age. Conclusion and Significance Sex specific differences both in feto-placental Doppler perfusion indices and response of these indices to dietary perturbations were observed. Further, maternal diet affected development of fetal cardiovascular system associated with altered fetal haemodynamics in utero, with such effects having a sex bias. The results from this study provide further insight into the gender specific circulatory differences present in the fetal period and developing cardiovascular system. PMID:25915506

  4. Age and sex differences in somatic complaints associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Berry, J M; Storandt, M; Coyne, A

    1984-07-01

    Following the procedure used by Zemore and Eames (1979) with the Beck Depression Inventory, the 20 items of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were categorized as either somatic or psychological symptoms of depression. Scores of 179 college students and 462 community-dwelling older adults revealed significant, though small, age differences in somatic complaints. Somatic complaints were especially prominent in older women. Age differences in psychological symptoms of depression were not significant. Diagnosis of depression in later life, especially in women, may be confounded by the use of physical symptoms of depression that are comparable to physical changes that accompany the aging process.

  5. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances.

  6. Racial and sex differences in prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with cardiomyopathies enrolled into a heart failure disease management program.

    PubMed

    Marzouka, George; Cortazar, Frank; Alvarez, Jorge Alex; Dias, Andre; Hebert, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure (HF) to determine whether there are racial and sex differences and to determine the number of new cases of hypothyroidism. The study included 194 patients in an HF disease management program (HFDMP) in South Florida. Patients were interviewed for a history of hypothyroidism and referred for measurement of thyrotropin. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was calculated by race and sex. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 18% for all patients with HF and 23% among Hispanics; however, this trend was not statistically significant (P = .06). More men than women had hypothyroidism (P = .04). Patients with hypothyroidism had higher mean lipid profiles (P < .01) and lower mean heart rates (P = .03) than healthy patients. Hypothyroidism is prevalent among HF patients, especially men. Hispanics with HF may have a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism. The standardized protocol of the HFDMP helped identify new cases of hypothyroidism.

  7. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  8. Biological variation of immunoglobulin concentrations in normal human tears related to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sen, D K; Sarin, G S; Mathur, G P; Saha, K

    1978-06-01

    Single radial immunodiffusion method was used to measure the concentration of IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD in tears of 220 healthy individuals aged from 2 to 86 years. Relation of the values to age and sex has been evaluated statistically by regression analysis method. Mean IgA level was 30.7 mg/100 ml. IgG could be detected in 200 samples and the level was less than 1 mg/100 ml. IgM was detected in only 7 samples and the value was less than 1 mg/100 ml. IgD could not be detected in any of the sample. The IgA level in males and that in females differs significantly, the females having a higher mean value. The IgA level appears to increase in both sexes with age. No relationship with age and sex could be established in other types of immunoglobulins.

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  10. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  11. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  12. Age and sex differences in estimated tibia strength: influence of measurement site.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Variability in peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurement sites and outcome variables limit direct comparisons of results between studies. Furthermore, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in estimates of tibia strength. An additional purpose of this study was to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences in tibia strength. Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) aged 20-59yr had their tibias measured with pQCT from 5% to 85% of limb length in 10% increments distal to proximal. Bone strength index, strength strain index (SSI), moments of inertia (Ip, Imax, and Imin), and strength-to-mass ratios (polar moment of inertia to total bone mineral content [BMC] ratio [Ip:Tot.BMC] and strength strain index to total BMC ratio [SSI:Tot.BMC]) were quantified. There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all strength variables and strength-to-mass ratios. Site×sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for all strength variables. Men had greater (p<0.01) values than women for all strength variables. Sex differences in Ip, Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, SSI, and SSI:Tot.BMC ratios were the smallest at the 15% site and peaked at various sites, depending on variable. Site×age interactions existed for Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, and SSI:Tot.BMC. There were significant age effects, Imax, Ip:Tot.BMC, and SSI:Tot.BMC, as values were the lowest in the 20-29 age group. Age and sex differences varied by measurement site and variable, and larger sex differences existed for moments of inertia than SSI. Strength-to-mass ratios may reflect efficiency of the whole bone architecture.

  13. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  14. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  15. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  16. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  17. Mortality and morbidity during and after Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial: results by sex.

    PubMed

    Oparil, Suzanne; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Ford, Charles E; Furberg, Curt D; Habib, Gabriel B; Haywood, L Julian; Margolis, Karen; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Wright, Jackson T

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) or calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) is superior to a diuretic (chlorthalidone) in reducing cardiovascular disease incidence in sex subgroups, we carried out a prespecified subgroup analysis of 15 638 women and 17 719 men in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Total follow-up (active treatment + passive surveillance using national administrative databases to ascertain deaths and hospitalizations) was 8 to 13 years. The primary outcome was fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, stroke, combined cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, angina, coronary revascularization, heart failure [HF], or peripheral vascular disease), and end-stage renal disease. In-trial rates of HF, stroke, and combined cardiovascular disease were significantly higher for lisinopril compared with chlorthalidone, and rates of HF were significantly higher for amlodipine compared with chlorthalidone in both men and women. There were no significant treatment sex interactions. These findings did not persist through the extension period with the exception of the HF result for amlodipine versus chlorthalidone, which did not differ significantly by sex. For both women and men, rates were not lower in the amlodipine or lisinopril groups than in the chlorthalidone group for either the primary coronary heart disease outcome or any other cardiovascular disease outcome, and chlorthalidone-based treatment resulted in the lowest risk of HF. Neither lisinopril nor amlodipine is superior to chlorthalidone for initial treatment of hypertension in either women or men. Clinical Trial Registration- clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00000542.

  18. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF DIVERSE SOUNDS ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Haruka; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    With the goal of facilitating the creation of relaxing sound environments in stressful places, such as offices, we examined differences in the heart rate fluctuations of men and women induced by different sounds. Twenty-three healthy students (13 males and 10 females) aged between 18 and 23 listened to seven different sounds while we collected electrocardiogram data. We extracted the high frequency component (HF) and low frequency component (LF) of the signals using the wavelet method, and calculated LF/HF. We found no statistically significant differences between males and females in the frequency distribution of a no change group, increased group, and decreased group for any sound. However, certain sounds had somewhat similar patterns for men and women for all three groups. Additionally, the pairs of experimental sounds with highly similar effects on individuals were different for men and women.

  19. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  20. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  1. Age and sex differences in the risk of causing vehicle collisions in Spain, 1990 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Claret, Pablo Lardelli; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna del; Moleón, José Juan Jiménez; Cavanillas, Aurora Bueno; Martín, Miguel García; Vargas, Ramón Gálvez

    2003-03-01

    This retrospective, paired case-control study was designed to estimate crude and adjusted effects of age and sex on the risk of causing collisions between vehicles with four or more wheels in Spain during the period from 1990 to 1999. We selected all 220284 collisions registered from 1990 to 1999 in the Spanish Dirección General de Tráfico (DGT) traffic crash database in which only one driver committed any infraction. Information was collected about age, sex and several confounding factors for both the responsible and paired-by-collision nonresponsible drivers. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated for each age and sex category. For men, the lowest risk was seen for drivers aged 25-49 years. Below the age of 35 years the crude odds ratio (cOR) was highest in the 18-24-year-old group (1.61; CI: 1.57-1.65). The risk increased significantly and exponentially after the age of 50 years, to a maximum odds ratio of 3.71 (3.43-4.00) for drivers aged >74 years. In women, the lowest risk values were found for the 25-44-year-old age group. In older women the risk increased significantly with age to a maximum odds ratio of 3.02 (2.31-3.97) in the oldest age group. aOR estimates tended to be lower than crude estimates for drivers younger than 40 years of age, but the opposite was seen for drivers 40 years old and older. Regarding sex differences, among younger drivers crude and aORs for men were higher than for women. Our results suggest that the risk of causing a collision between vehicles with four or more wheels is directly dependent on the driver's age.

  2. Age, breed, sex and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Polzer, J; Slater, M R

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted at the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between January 1, 1986 and December 31, 1991. Logistic regression was used to assess age, breed, sex, and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. There were 70 acute cases, 183 chronic cases, and 779 controls. No statistical association was found between age, breed, sex, or seasonality and the diagnosis of acute laminitis. For chronic cases, the estimated odds ratio was statistically significant for age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI (1.02, 1.08)) and for the diagnosis of laminitis in the third quarter of the year (OR = 2.57, 95% CI (1.55, 4.25)) relative to the first quarter. There was no statistical association between breed or sex and chronic laminitis.

  3. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  4. Sexual behavior and HIV risk among age-discrepant, same-sex male couples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-06-13

    Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.

  5. Deception detection, transmission, and modality in age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Charlotte D.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e., unrehearsed) pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved 51 older adult and 44 college student “senders” who lied “authentically” in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, 77 older adult and 84 college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception. PMID:24982645

  6. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  7. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  8. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  9. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates.

  10. Fatty old hearts: role of cardiac lipotoxicity in age-related cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Drosatos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cardiomyopathy accounts for a significant part of heart failure cases. Imbalance of the energetic equilibrium of the heart along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes in the aggravation of cardiac function in the elderly. In this review article, studies that correlate cardiac aging with lipotoxicity are summarized. The involvement of inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, β-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms for the lipid-driven age-related cardiomyopathy are presented with the aim to indicate potential therapeutic targets for cardiac aging. PMID:27558317

  11. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  12. Does economic development contribute to sex differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality? Hong Kong as a natural experiment using a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schooling, C Mary; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Leung, Gabriel M

    2008-01-01

    Background The male excess risk of premature ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality may be partially due to an unknown macro-environmental influence associated with economic development. We examined whether excess male risk of IHD mortality was higher with birth in an economically developed environment. Methods We used multivariable logistic regression in a population-based case-control study of all adult deaths in Hong Kong Chinese in 1998 to compare sex differences in IHD mortality (1,189 deaths in men, 1,035 deaths in women and 20,842 controls) between Hong Kong residents born in economically developed Hong Kong or in contemporaneously undeveloped Guangdong province in China. Results Younger (35–64 years) native-born Hong Kong men had a higher risk of IHD death than such women (odds ratio 2.91, 95% confidence interval 1.66 to 5.13), adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle. There was no such sex difference in Hong Kong residents who had migrated from Guangdong. There were no sex differences in pneumonia deaths by birth place. Conclusion Most of these people migrated as young adults; we speculate that environmentally mediated differences in pubertal maturation (when the male disadvantage in lipids and fat patterning emerges) may contribute to excess male premature IHD mortality in developed environments. PMID:18221504

  13. Active Inhibitor-1 Maintains Protein Hyper-Phosphorylation in Aging Hearts and Halts Remodeling in Failing Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Kobra; Anjak, Ahmad; Cai, Wenfeng; Jiang, Min; Nicolaou, Persoulla; Pylar, George; Karakikes, Ioannis; Rapti, Kleopatra; Rubinstein, Jack; Hajjar, Roger J.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and depressed contractility are key characteristics in heart failure. Defects in sarcoplasmic reticulum function are characterized by decreased SERCA2a Ca-transport that is partially attributable to dephosphorylation of its regulator phospholamban by increased protein phosphatase 1 activity. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 through activation of its endogenous inhibitor-1 has been shown to enhance cardiac Ca-handling and contractility as well as protect from pathological stress remodeling in young mice. In this study, we assessed the long-term effects of inducible expression of constitutively active inhibitor-1 in the adult heart and followed function and remodeling through the aging process, up to 20 months. Mice with inhibitor-1 had normal survival and similar function to WTs. There was no overt remodeling as evidenced by measures of left ventricular end-systolic and diastolic diameters and posterior wall dimensions, heart weight to tibia length ratio, and histology. Higher phosphorylation of phospholamban at both Ser16 and Thr17 was maintained in aged hearts with active inhibitor-1, potentially offsetting the effects of elevated Ser2815-phosphorylation in ryanodine receptor, as there were no increases in arrhythmias under stress conditions in 20-month old mice. Furthermore, long-term expression of active inhibitor-1 via recombinant adeno-associated virus type 9 gene transfer in rats with pressure-overload induced heart failure improved function and prevented remodeling, associated with increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and Thr17. Thus, chronic inhibition of protein phosphatase 1, through increases in active inhibitor-1, does not accelerate age-related cardiomyopathy and gene transfer of this molecule in vivo improves function and halts remodeling in the long term. PMID:24312496

  14. The Effects of Ethnicity, Sex and Father's Occupation on Heart Health Knowledge and Nutrition Behavior of School Children: The Texas Youth Health Awareness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdine, James N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Relationships among ethnicity, sex, and father's occupation with heart health knowledge and nutrition behavior were studied in Texas seventh- and eighth-grade students. Findings indicated a strong need for heart health education and for culturally relevant nutrition education. (Author/CJB)

  15. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  16. What can asexual lineage age tell us about the maintenance of sex?

    PubMed

    Neiman, Maurine; Meirmans, Stephanie; Meirmans, Patrick G

    2009-06-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and extremely common relative to asexuality, indicating that it must confer profound benefits. This in turn points to major disadvantages of asexual reproduction, which is usually given as an explanation for why almost all asexual lineages are apparently quite short-lived. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that some asexual lineages are actually quite old. Insight into why sex is so common may come from understanding why asexual lineages persist in some places or taxa but not others. Here, we review the distribution of asexual lineage ages estimated from a diverse array of taxa, and we discuss our results in light of the main mutational and environmental hypotheses for sex. Along with strengthening the case for wide variation in asexual lineage age and the existence of many old asexual taxa, we also found that the distribution of asexual lineage age estimates follows a surprisingly regular distribution, to the extent that asexual taxa viewed as "scandalously" ancient merely fall on the high end of this distribution. We interpret this result to mean that similar mechanisms may determine asexual lineage age across eukaryotic taxa. We also derive some qualitative predictions for asexual lineage age under different theories for sex and discuss empirical evidence for these predictions. Ultimately, we were limited in the extent to which we could use these data to make inferences about the maintenance of sex by the absence of both clear theoretical expectations and estimates of key parameters.

  17. Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:22848800

  18. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  19. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-06-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions.

  20. Age-related disappearance of Mayer-like heart rate waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarisch, W. R.; Ferguson, J. J.; Shannon, R. P.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of age on the principal spectral components of heart rate obtained immediately after passive upright tilt was investigated in human subjects who underwent a 60-deg tilt over 9 sec. Two groups were examined, the first of which consisting of healthy male subjects aged 22-26 years, while the second was comprised of subjects aged 65-84 years on no medication; radiograms were recorded continuously beginning just prior to tilt until 3 min posttilt. The results of spectral analysis showed that elderly subjects did not exhibit the Mayer-like heart rate waves (the 0.07-0.09 Hz oscillations) that were present in the spectra of young subjects immediately after passive upright tilt. The findings are consistent with the concept of a 'dysautonomia of aging'. It is suggested that postural stress testing with spectral analysis of heart rate fluctuations may provide a useful way of assessing physiologic vs chronologic age.

  1. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face.

  2. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old), separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important

  3. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7-48 years old), separated into six age groups (7-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-17, 18-32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η(2)≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η(2)=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12-13 to 14-17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12-13 to 14-17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η(2)≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12-13 and 18-32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18-32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η(2)≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12-13 and 14-17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18-32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important for the development of

  4. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  5. Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition.

    PubMed

    Bird, S; George, M; Theakston, S; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R

    2003-03-01

    Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P < 0.001) for mean heart rate. Mean heart rates were 86 +/- 6% of the participants' maximal heart rates and were not associated with age. The orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P < 0.005) within-race standard deviation in heart rate (6 +/- 2 beats x min(-1)) than those in groups 2 and 3 (10 +/- 3 and 10 +/- 4 beats x min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the mean heart rates indicated that all three groups of orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.

  6. Sex-Specific Association of Sleep Apnea Severity with Subclinical Myocardial Injury, Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Heart Failure Risk in a Community Dwelling Cohort: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities-Sleep Heart Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Gabriela Querejeta; Redline, Susan; Claggett, Brian; Bello, Natalie; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Solomon, Scott D.; Shah, Amil M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and development of subsequent cardiovascular (CV) complications differ by sex. We hypothesize that the relationship between OSA and high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), cardiac structure, and CV outcomes differs by sex. Methods and Results 752 men and 893 women free of CV disease participating in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities and the Sleep Heart Health Studies were included. All participants (mean age 62.5±5.5 years) underwent polysomnography and measurement of hs-TnT. OSA severity was defined using established clinical categories. Subjects were followed for 13.6±3.2 years for incident coronary disease, heart failure, and CV and all-cause mortality. Surviving subjects underwent an echocardiography after 15.2±0.8 years. OSA was independently associated with hs-TnT among women (p=0.03) but not in men (p=0.94). Similarly, OSA was associated with incident HF or death in women (p=0.01) but not men (p=0.10). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for hs-TnT (p=0.09). Among surviving participants without an incident CV event, OSA assessed in mid-life was independently associated with higher left ventricle mass index only among women (p=0.001). Conclusions Sex-specific differences exist in the relationship between OSA and CV disease. OSA, assessed in mid-life, is independently associated with higher levels of concomitantly measured hs-TnT among women but not men, in whom other comorbidities associated with OSA may play a more important role. During 13-year follow-up, OSA was associated with incident HF or death only among women, and among those without an incident event, was independently associated with LV hypertrophy only in women. PMID:26316620

  7. Epidemiologic burden of hospitalisation for congestive heart failure among adults aged ≥19 years in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Tumanan-Mendoza, Bernadette A; Mendoza, Victor L; Bermudez–Delos Santos, April Ann A; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Pestaño, Noemi S; Natividad, Rudy Boy; Shiu, Louie Alfred; Macabeo, Renelene

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study determined the prevalence of hospitalisation due to congestive heart failure (CHF) among adult patients aged 19 years and above in the Philippines and its 17 regions in 2014. It also determined the demographic profile of these patients, aetiology and type of CHF, comorbidities, duration of hospitalisation and the overall in-hospital mortality rate. Methods Data collection was done using the hospitalisation claims database of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth). All patient claims for CHF, that is, patients who were admitted from 1 January to 31 December 2014, were included. Descriptive statistics were utilised to obtain the results. Results The prevalence rate was 1.6% or 1648 cases of CHF for every 100 000 patient claims for medical conditions in 2014. The mean age was 52.6±15.1 years. There was no sex predilection. Only 22.67% of the hospitalisation claims for CHF listed possible specific aetiologies, the most common of which was hypertensive heart disease (86.7%). There were more cases of systolic compared to diastolic heart failure. The mean length of hospital stay was 5.9 days (+8.2) days (median 4 days), with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 8.2%. Conclusions There were 16 cases of heart failure for every 1000 Filipino patients admitted due to a medical condition in 2014. Hypertension was possibly the most common aetiologic factor. Compared to western and Asia-Pacific countries, the local mortality rate was relatively higher.

  8. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  9. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  10. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  11. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  12. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  13. [Methodological note on subnational population projections by age and sex (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itoh, T

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this paper were to discuss the methods and assumptions on subnational population projections by age and sex, and to present 2 models on population projection for 47 Prefectures in Japan by age and sex up to 2000. Data are obtained from the results of the 1970 and 1975 population censuses of Japan for population by age and sex, and interprefectural migration streams by age and sex based on the 1970 population census. The 2 models are a sort of cohort-component method: 1 is the (NMR) net-migration model and the other is the (MTX) migration matrix model. The essential difference between the 2 is the separate consideration of out- and inmigration models. The formulas for estimating numbers of net migration in the NMR model are (4) and (5) in the text, where P is the number of the population, S is the life table survival ratios, and m is the rate of net migration. The formulas for estimating numbers of outmigration, migration streams from region i to region j, and inmigration, in the MTX model are (17)-(21), where E is the numbers of outmigration, e is the rate of outmigration, m (i,j) is the proportion of the number of migrants from i to j to total numbers of outmigrants from region i, and I is the numbers of inmigration for each region. Under constant conditions, for all rates, the projected population for 47 prefectures by age and sex up to 2000 using models NMR and MTX was obtained. The projected number of population in 2000 are shown in figures on pages 66 and 67. As the results of these projections, the increase in aged population between 1975-200 in the metropolitan areas, especially Tokyo (1), are greater than that in other areas, since the concentration of the young in the 3 metropolitan areas has rapidly dropped since 1950. (Author's modified)

  14. Age and Sex Related Differences in Subcortical Brain Iron Concentrations among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ting; Shen, Jing; Bao, Ruyi; Ni, Mingfei; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex can influence brain iron levels. We studied the influence of these variables on deep gray matter magnetic susceptibilities. In 183 healthy volunteers (44.7 ± 14.2 years, range 20-69, ♀ 49%), in vivo Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) at 1.5T was performed to estimate brain iron accumulation in the following regions of interest (ROIs): caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), globus pallidus (Gp), thalamus (Th), pulvinar (Pul), red nucleus (Rn), substantia nigra (Sn) and the cerebellar dentate nuclei (Dn). We gauged the influence of age and sex on magnetic susceptibility by specifying a series of Structural Equation Models. The distributions of susceptibility varied in degree across the structures, conforming to histologic findings (Hallgren & Sourander, 1958), with the highest degree of susceptibility in the Gp and the lowest in the Th. Iron increase correlated across several ROIs, which may reflect an underlying age-related process. Advanced age was associated with a particularly strong linear rise of susceptibility in the striatum. Nonlinear age trends were found in the Rn, where they were the most pronounced, followed by the Pul and Sn, while minimal nonlinear trends were observed for the Pt, Th, and Dn. Moreover, sex related variations were observed, so that women showed lower levels of susceptibility in the Sn after accounting for age. Regional susceptibility of the Pul increased linearly with age in men but exhibited a nonlinear association with age in women with a leveling off starting from midlife. Women expected to be post menopause (+51 years) showed lower total magnetic susceptibility in the subcortical gray matter. The current report is consistent with previous reports of age related variations of brain iron, but also adds to the current knowledge by reporting age-related changes in less studied, smaller subcortical nuclei. This is the first in-vivo report to show lower total subcortical brain iron levels selectively in women from

  15. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions.

  16. Predicting the location of the hip joint centres, impact of age group and sex

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Reiko; McGinley, Jennifer; Briggs, Chris; Baker, Richard; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical gait analysis incorporating three-dimensional motion analysis plays a key role in planning surgical treatments in people with gait disability. The position of the Hip Joint Centre (HJC) within the pelvis is thus critical to ensure accurate data interpretation. The position of the HJC is determined from regression equations based on anthropometric measurements derived from relatively small datasets. Current equations do not take sex or age into account, even though pelvis shape is known to differ between sex, and gait analysis is performed in populations with wide range of age. Three dimensional images of 157 deceased individuals (37 children, 120 skeletally matured) were collected with computed tomography. The location of the HJC within the pelvis was determined and regression equations to locate the HJC were developed using various anthropometrics predictors. We determined if accuracy improved when age and sex were introduced as variables. Statistical analysis did not support differentiating the equations according to sex. We found that age only modestly improved accuracy. We propose a range of new regression equations, derived from the largest dataset collected for this purpose to date. PMID:27883044

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  18. Formal Operations: Age and Sex Differences in Chinese and American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Joan Delahanty; Wong, Ann Catherine

    1977-01-01

    Hong Kong Chinese and American adolescents were given three Piagetian tasks of formal operations in order to assess cultural, age, and sex differences. Significant effects were demonstrated with Americans, older subjects, and males performing at more advanced levels. (Author/JMB)

  19. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  20. Blacks in Alabama; A Study of Selected Characteristics: Population, Place of Residence, Sex, Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alice; Diener, Thomas

    Using 1970 Federal Census data, this paper analyzes selected characteristics of the black population in Alabama, focusing on the following categories: (1) blacks in Alabama counties; (2) urban and rural blacks; and (3) blacks in Alabama by sex and age. Special emphasis is placed on producing and interpreting data by which postsecondary education…

  1. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  2. Age Group and Sex of Students: Fall 1989. Report No. 8-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    The major tables of this annual report on student characteristics array four major characteristics: age group; sex; level (undergraduate/graduate); and load (full-time/part-time). The main body of the report is divided into five sections: Part I contains data for the entire system as well as each institution and institutional type; Part II…

  3. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  4. Aggressive Conduct Disorder: The Influence of Social Class, Sex and Age on the Clinical Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, D.; Stewart, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates how socioeconomic status, sex, and age of admission to a child psychiatry ward influenced the clinical picture of aggressive conduct disorder among 58 affected children. As little evidence of variation in any of the three variables was found, results reinforced the idea that the disorder is a valid psychiatric syndrome. (RH)

  5. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution.

  6. Axis II comorbidity in borderline personality disorder is influenced by sex, age, and clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Judith; Pascual, Juan C; Ferrer, Marc; Soler, Joaquim; Rufat, M Jesús; Andión, Oscar; Tiana, Thais; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Casas, Miquel; Pérez, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a high clinical heterogeneity and frequent co-occurrence with other personality disorders (PDs). Although several studies have been performed to assess axis II comorbidity in BPD, more research is needed to clarify associated factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-occurrent axis II disorders in a large sample of patients with BPD and to investigate the influence of sex, age, and severity on this comorbidity. Data were collected from 484 patients with BPD through 2 semistructured interviews. We analyzed the frequency of axis II comorbidity and assessed differences regarding sex, age, and severity of BPD. About 74% of patients with BPD had at least 1 co-occurrent axis II disorder. The most common were paranoid, passive-aggressive, avoidant, and dependent PDs. Significant sex differences were found. Women presented more comorbidity with dependent PD, whereas men showed higher rates of comorbidity with antisocial PD. We also observed a significant positive correlation between age and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders in women with BPD. Another finding was the positive correlation between BPD severity and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders. These findings suggest that comorbidity with other axis II disorders and sex, age, and severity should be taken into account when developing treatment strategies and determining the prognosis of BPD.

  7. Looking, Smiling, Laughing, and Moving in Restaurants: Sex and Age Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert M.; Kirkevold, Barbara

    Body movements and facial expressions of males and females in a restaurant setting were examined, with the goal of providing differences in frequency as a function of age and sex. The subjects (N-197 males and N=131 females) were seated in three Seattle fast food restaurants and were selected on a semi-random basis and then observed for three…

  8. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  9. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  10. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  11. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  12. Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and Race: 1983 to 2080.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory

    1984-01-01

    Based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and net immigration trends, statistical tables depict the future U.S. population by age, sex, and race. Figures are based on the July 1, 1982, population estimates and race definitions and are projected using the cohort-component method with alternative assumptions for future fertility, mortality,…

  13. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  14. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  15. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  16. Muscularity as a function of species, sex and age in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the body skeletal muscle mass SMM (measured as a function of the ratio between the body creatine mass and the fat-free muscle creatine), and in muscularity (expressed as the ratio of SMM to fat-free body mass) were studied as functions of age, sex, and species in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. Six animals of each sex were examined in eight age cohorts ranging from 1 to 24 months. Both species and age factors affect SMM. Strong sexual dimorphism in the SMM changes with age was displayed by mouse, rat, and guinea pig, whereas the hamster and rabbit were statistically monomorphic. The mouse, rat, and hamster attain a maximal SMM at about 1 year of age, whereas in the guinea pig and rabbit the decrease in SMM starts after 2 years. The value of muscularity reached a peak at age of 2-3 months in all animals of both sexes, with a pronounced difference among the species. The mouse emerged as the most muscular, while the guinea pig the least muscular, of all species.

  17. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  18. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  20. Changes in multifractality with aging and heart failure in heartbeat interval time series.

    PubMed

    Munoz Diosdado, A; Angulo Brown, F; Del Rio Correa, J L

    2005-01-01

    We present a multifractal analysis of diurnal heart interbeat time series from healthy young subjects, healthy elderly subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Aging and CHF causes loss of multifractality. We analyze the multifractal spectrum asymmetry. We show that the joint analysis of the degree of multifractality and the asymmetry parameter can differentiate between the cardiac interbeat time series of young and elderly persons and it can also separate healthy subjects and CHF patients.

  1. Asymptomatic heart valve dysfunction in healthy middle-aged companion dogs and its implications for cardiac aging.

    PubMed

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for about one in every four deaths. Age is the greatest risk factor for heart disease in both people and dogs; however, heart disease is generally not considered as a major cause of morbidity or mortality in dogs. As part of the preliminary selection process for a veterinary clinical trial, 40 companion dogs with no history of cardiac pathology that were at least 6 years old and weighed at least 18 kg underwent a cardiac screening using Doppler echocardiography. Eleven dogs from this cohort were diagnosed with valvular regurgitation by echocardiography, and seven of these cases were of sufficient severity to warrant exclusion from the clinical trial. In only one case was a heart murmur detected by auscultation. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the dogs with moderate to severe valvular regurgitation compared to the rest of the cohort. These observations suggest that asymptomatic degenerative valvular disease detectable by echocardiography, but not by a standard veterinary exam including auscultation, may be present in a significant fraction of middle-aged companion dogs, indicating a previously underappreciated similarity between human and canine aging. Further, these data suggest that companion dogs may be a particularly useful animal model for understanding mechanisms of age-related degenerative valve disease and for developing and testing interventions to ameliorate cardiac disease. Future studies should address whether dogs with asymptomatic valve disease are at higher risk for subsequent morbidity or early death.

  2. Family size, birth order, and parental age among male paraphilics and sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order, and parents' ages at the time of the probands' births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada. The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics and sex offenders had even larger families than offender controls. Their parents tended to be older at their birth with 34.2% of mothers and 51.3% of fathers over 30 years of age, but there were no statistically significant subgroup differences. There were also significantly more multiparous teenage mothers than expected and more paraphilics' fathers who were younger than the mothers, both factors associated in the literature with increased risk of perinatal complications and abnormalities. The confounding influences of parental age, birth order, and family size were examined and indicated the need for large samples and multivariate analysis in evaluating the role of family variables associated with paraphilics and sex offenders.

  3. Age and sex differences in immune response following LPS treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kyle Chiman; van Mil, Spencer; Murray, Emma; Mallet, Jean-François; Matar, Chantal; Ismail, Nafissa

    2016-11-01

    Puberty is an important developmental event that is marked by the reorganizing and remodeling of the brain. Exposure to stress during this critical period of development can have enduring effects on both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate age and sex differences in immune response by examining sickness behavior, body temperature changes, and serum cytokine levels following an immune challenge. The effects of circulating gonadal hormones on age and sex differences in immune response were also examined. Results showed that male mice display more sickness behavior and greater fluctuations in body temperature following LPS treatment than female mice. Moreover, adult male mice display more sickness behavior and a greater drop in body temperature following LPS treatment compared to pubertal male mice. Following gonadectomy, pubertal and adult males displayed steeper and prolonged drops in body temperature compared to sham-operated counterparts. Gonadectomy did not eliminate sex differences in LPS-induced body temperature changes, suggesting that additional factors contribute to the observed differences. LPS treatment increased cytokine levels in all mice. However, the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was higher in adult compared to pubertal mice, while the increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines was greater in pubertal than in adult mice. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of age and sex differences in acute immune response following LPS treatment and possible mechanisms involved in the enduring alterations in behavior and brain function following pubertal exposure to LPS.

  4. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  5. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  6. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 mon) and aged (20 mon) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/R in vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a promising

  7. Rate of cognitive decline in relation to sex after 60 years-of-age: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leandro; Ferreira Santos-Galduróz, Ruth; Ferri, Cleusa Pinheiro; Fernandes Galduróz, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains between the sexes at 60 years-of-age. However is important to analyze whether the rate of cognitive decline is also similar between the sexes after this age. The present study examined previously published literature to investigate whether cognitive decline is distinct between men and women after the age of 60 years. A systematic review was carried out with the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases (2001-2011) using the following search terms: aging, aged, cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, mental health and cognition. We analyzed longitudinal research that used neuropsychological tests for evaluating cognitive function, showed results separated by sex and that excluded participants with dementia. Elderly women showed better performance in tests of episodic memory, whereas elderly men had a better visuospatial ability. Only one study detected distinct rates of cognitive decline in specific tests between the sexes. Despite differences observed in some domains, most of the studies showed that this rate is similar between the sexes until the age of 80 years. It is unclear whether sex influences the rate of cognitive decline after the age of 80 years. The present review observed that sex does not determine the rate of cognitive decline between 60 and 80 years-of-age. The contextual and cultural factors that involve men and women might determine a distinct decline between them, rather than sex alone.

  8. Sex differences over age groups in self-posed smiling in photographs.

    PubMed

    Otta, E

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate self-posed smiling behavior in photographs as a function of both sex and age. The photographs of 1,171 Brazilian middle-class people, taken in a wide variety of informal social settings were examined. Only 25.7% of the girls and 25.0% of the boys of 2- to 5-yrs-age group were seen smiling in the photographs. Older children, adolescents, and adults were much more expressive than young children. Furthermore, significantly more females were seen smiling than males. Females also smiled more expansively than males. Finally, smiling was less frequent among middle-aged and older groups, especially among males. The present study replicated the sex difference in self-posed smiling behavior consistently reported by American researchers examining college yearbook photographs. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides being associated with emotional experience, smiling has a strong social motivation.

  9. Ozone-induced inhibition of theophylline elimination in rabbits: effect of age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The effect of age and sex on the elimination of theophylline in New Zealand White rabbits was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone (OT) for 3.75 hr/day over 5 consecutive days. Animals were given air alone 5 to 7 days before and after the 5 days of OT exposure. The elimination half-life of theophylline was significantly prolonged on Days 1 and 5 of OT exposure in the rabbits greater than 2 years old, with no effect being seen in those 3 to 4 months old. No OT-induced change was seen in the apparent volume of distribution to account for the observed change in theophylline elimination half-life. The female rabbit in particular demonstrated this age-related effect; while in the male, variability prevented the observed difference from reaching significance. The results indicated inhibition of theophylline elimination by O3 in the rabbit depends on age and sex.

  10. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  11. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  12. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  13. Age- and sex-related differences in extra-hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Trapani, Laura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether differences in LDLr behavior in extra-hepatic tissues and whether extra-hepatic receptors could differentially contribute to cholesterol homeostasis under physiological conditions, we evaluated the presence and regulation of LDLr from both a gender and an aging perspective. We used the brain cortex, the gastrocnemius, and the heart ventricle of 3- and 12-month-old male and female rats. We observed a protein decrease of total LDLr in 12-month-old female rat brains that was completely restored by 17-β estradiol treatment. In the gastrocnemius, LDLr accumulates in the skeletal muscle in both male and female aged rats as a precursor probably due to a glycosylation impairment. In the heart, no modifications were observed in either older rats or rats of a specific gender. These data highlight a tissue-specific dysregulation of LDLr that is age- and gender-dependent.

  14. Age affects over-marking of opposite-sex scent marks in meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus

    PubMed Central

    Ferkin, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Models of age-related effects on behavior predict that among short-lived species younger adults are more attractive and attracted to opposite-sex conspecifics than are older adults, whereas the converse is predicted for long-lived species. Although most studies of age-related effects on behavior support these predictions, they are not supported by many studies of scent marking, a behavior used in mate attraction. Over-marking, a form of scent marking, is a tactic used by many terrestrial mammals to convey information about themselves to opposite-sex conspecifics. The present study tested the hypothesis that the age of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus; a microtine rodent, affects their over- and scent marking behaviors when they encounter the marks of opposite-sex conspecifics. Sex differences existed in the over-marking behavior of adult voles among the three different age groups that were tested. Male voles that were 5-7 mo-old and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a higher proportion of the marks of females than did 2-3 mo-old male voles. Female voles that were 2-3 mo-old, 5-7 mo-old, and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a similar number of marks deposited by male voles. Overall, the data were not consistent with models predicting the behavior of short-lived animals such as rodents when they encounter the opposite sex. The differences in over-marking displayed by older and younger adult male voles may be associated with life history tradeoffs, the likelihood that they will encounter sexually receptive females, and being selected as mates. PMID:20607141

  15. Oxytocin's effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Feifel, David; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin's central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin's effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala-mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala-mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest.

  16. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Sex chromosome loss and aging: in situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Guttenbach, M; Koschorz, B; Bernthaler, U; Grimm, T; Schmid, M

    1995-01-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss, on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to approximately 4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (< 13 years, 13-51 years, and > 51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: Chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7485166

  18. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  19. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  20. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  1. Age, Sex, and Contact with Elderly Adults as Predictors of Knowledge about Psychological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested Australian undergraduates' (N=179) knowledge of mental health in old age. Results showed women scored higher than men and scores rose with age and with contact when age was partialed out. Australian students averaged two more items correct than did the American students for whom the test was developed. (Author)

  2. The relation of femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight.

    PubMed

    Britz, Hayley M; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2009-07-01

    As computational modeling becomes an increasingly common tool for probing the regulation of bone remodeling, the need for experimental data to refine and validate such models also grows. For example, van Oers et al. (R.F. van Oers, R. Ruimerman, B. van Rietbergen, P.A. Hilbers, R. Huiskes, Relating osteon diameter to strain. Bone 2008;43: 476-482.) recently described a mechanism by which osteon size may be regulated (inversely) by strain. Empirical data supporting this relation, particularly in humans, are sparse. Therefore, we sought to determine if there is a link between body weight (the only measure related to loading available for a cadaveric population) and osteon geometry in human bone. We hypothesized that after controlling for age, sex and height, weight would be inversely related to femoral osteon size (area, On.Ar; diameter, On.Dm). Secondarily we sought to describe the relation between osteon circularity (On.Cr) and these parameters. Osteons (n=12,690) were mapped within microradiographs of femoral mid-diaphyseal specimens (n=88; 45 male, 43 female; 17-97 yrs). Univariate analysis of covariance was conducted (n=87; 1 outlier) with sex as a fixed factor and height, weight and log-transformed age as covariates. Weight was negatively related to On.Ar and On.Dm (p=0.006 and p=0.004, respectively). Age was significantly related to osteon and, it was also significantly related to circularity (all p<0.001). This relation was negative for On.Ar and On.Dm and positive for On.Cr (increasing circularity with age). On.Ar and On.Dm were found to be significantly different between the sexes (p=0.021 and p=0.019, respectively), with females having smaller osteons. No relation between sex and On.Cr was detected (p=0.449). Height was not significantly related to any of the geometric parameters. Partial eta-squared values revealed that age accounted for the largest proportion (On.Ar: 28%, On.Dm: 18%, On.Cr: 30%), weight accounted for the second largest (On.Ar: 9%, On

  3. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to age and sex in tribal districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L; Choubisa, Leela; Choubisa, Darshana

    2010-07-01

    An association between the incidence of osteo-dental fluorosis with age and sex was studied in 18621 residents of 73 villages of two tribal districts, Dungarpur and Udaipur of Rajasthan (India). The mean fluoride (F) concentration in drinking water sources of these villages varied from 1.0 to 6.1 mg/L. Out of 11205 individuals of Dungarpur and 7416 of Udaipur districts, 8090 (72.1%) and 2914 (39.2%) exhibited evidence of dental fluorosis respectively. The maximum incidence of dental fluorosis was encountered in the age group of 13-20 years and minimum in the age group of 5 to 12 years in both the districts. Regarding the incidence of skeletal fluorosis, 21 years of age revealed 27.6% in Dungarpur and 12.0% in Udaipur. Whereas 44 years showed maximum incidence of skeletal fluorosis, its minimum incidence was found in the age group of 21-28 years. Severity of fluorosis could be associated with the advancing of age and F concentration. Moreover, males showed relatively a higher incidence of dental and skeletal fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Chi square test revealed the association between the incidence of fluorosis with that of age and sex was non-significant except for dental fluorosis in Dungarpur district (p < 0.05). Those villages having almost same F level, showed a variable incidence of fluorosis because of frequency of F intake and duration of F exposure besides other determinants.

  4. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  6. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  7. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  8. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2016-04-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  9. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: genotype-specific risks by age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Bickeböller, H; Campion, D; Brice, A; Amouyel, P; Hannequin, D; Didierjean, O; Penet, C; Martin, C; Pérez-Tur, J; Michon, A; Dubois, B; Ledoze, F; Thomas-Anterion, C; Pasquier, F; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Moreaud, O; Babron, M C; Meulien, D; Guez, D; Chartier-Harlin, M C; Frebourg, T; Agid, Y; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE epsilon3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [epsilon4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE epsilon2 allele (OR[epsilon2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the epsilon4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[epsilon4/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[epsilon3/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the epsilon4 allele versus the epsilon3 allele, OR(epsilon4), were not equal in all age classes: OR(epsilon4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In epsilon3/epsilon4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. PMID:9012418

  10. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers.

  12. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  13. Differences between the sexes and age-related changes in orienteering speed.

    PubMed

    Bird, S; Balmer, J; Olds, T; Davison, R C

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the age and sex of the competitor on orienteering speed during competitive events. The results of the fastest three male and fastest three female competitors in each 5-year age band (21-79 years), from four national orienteering events, were analysed. The data for age and orienteering speed were log-transformed and regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between age and sex and orienteering speed. For comparison, data for the fastest Great Britain finisher in the 10,000-m track and 10-km cross-country events for age groups 40-69 years at the World Masters Championships were also analysed. The results showed that, before the age of 40 years, there was no substantial slowing in orienteering speed for males (0.5-4.2% per decade) but a moderate decline (4.7-10.0% per decade) for females. After the age of 45 years, the orienteering speed of males and females slowed by 13+/-2% and 16+/-4% per decade (mean +/- s), respectively, until around the age of 69, after which the deterioration was accentuated. The orienteering speed of the females was 81+/-4, 74+/-6 and 69+/-7% that of the males at ages 21, 45 and 65 years, respectively. The magnitudes of the age-related slowing of orienteering speed and of the difference in orienteering speed between males and females aged 45 years and over were greater than those reported for the other endurance running events. This may reflect the physical demands of running in orienteering terrain, tactical and cognitive aspects of the sport, or sociocultural aspects of the participating population.

  14. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Arpesella, Giorgio; Gherardi, Sonia; Bombardini, Tonino; Picano, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death) underwent a transesophageal (TE) Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol) to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia). The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV). Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT) echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For the first time stress

  15. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2007-01-01

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26–79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: Anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age. PMID:17335783

  16. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  17. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  18. The role of insulin in age-related sex differences of cardiovascular risk profile and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Willeit, J; Kiechl, S; Egger, G; Oberhollenzer, M; Oberhollenzer, F; Muggeo, M; Poewe, W; Bonora, E

    1997-04-01

    Metabolic changes and shifts in vascular risk profiles during and after menopause may partly explain the loss of premenopausal protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current population-based survey addresses changes in risk factors and insulin levels across an age range of 40-79 years in men and women. Population recruitment was performed as part of the Bruneck Study from July to November 1990. In brief, of 1000 subjects randomly selected for inclusion 936 participated, with insulin measurements available in a random subgroup of 880 men and women, 60 of whom were excluded due to manifest diabetes mellitus. Insulin concentrations were assessed according to Hales and Randle and by a human insulin-specific radioimmunoassay. A rise in insulin concentrations with advancing age in women (5th-8th decade, 10.5-14.4 mU/l or +1.2%/year) contrasts with a marked gradual decline in insulin levels in men (5th-8th decade, 12.5-5.9 mU/l or -2.4%/year). Age trends of insulin concentrations in sexes emerged as independent of age-related changes in body weight, type of fat distribution, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, social status, fasting glucose, and physical activity (P < 0.001 for sex-specific difference in the regression slopes). Insulin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women of equal age differed significantly (10.1 vs. 13.9 mU/l, P = 0.003), thus advocating that variations of insulin observed may in part be related to shifts in sex hormone status. Levels of virtually all vascular risk attributes were lower in premenopausal women than in men of equal age, but the opposite was true for the elderly. The switch in the sex preponderance of vascular risk factors may be crucially involved in closing the CVD incidence gap between genders after menopause. The analysis suggests that variations in insulin levels are a common metabolic basis for sex/age trends in fasting glucose, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, LDL

  19. Age and sex differences in reward behavior in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M

    2014-05-01

    Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed.

  20. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area.

  1. Age and sex differences in strategies of coping and defense across the life span.

    PubMed

    Diehl, M; Coyle, N; Labouvie-Vief, G

    1996-03-01

    Age and sex differences in the use of coping and defense strategies were examined in life-span sample of 381 individuals. Participants responded to 2 self-report measures assessing mechanisms of coping and defense and measures assessing their level of cognitive complexity. Older adults used a combination of coping and defense strategies indicative of greater impulse control and the tendency to positively appraise conflict situations. Adolescents and younger adults used strategies that were outwardly aggressive and psychologically undifferentiated, indicating lower levels of impulse control and self-awareness. Women used more internalizing defenses than men and used coping strategies that flexibly integrated intra-and interpersonal aspects of conflict situations. Taken together, findings provide evidence for the age- and sex-specific use of strategies of coping and defense, suggesting that men and women may face different developmental tasks in the process toward maturity in adulthood.

  2. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.

  3. Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González S., A.; Acosta P., J. L.; Sandoval M., M.

    2004-09-01

    We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray-scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age, sex and electrolytic changes.

  4. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development.

  5. No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Gaulin, Steven J C; Dunbar, Matt D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6-82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities.

  6. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  7. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  8. Ancient X chromosomes reveal contrasting sex bias in Neolithic and Bronze Age Eurasian migrations.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Amy; Günther, Torsten; Rosenberg, Noah A; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-03-07

    Dramatic events in human prehistory, such as the spread of agriculture to Europe from Anatolia and the late Neolithic/Bronze Age migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, can be investigated using patterns of genetic variation among the people who lived in those times. In particular, studies of differing female and male demographic histories on the basis of ancient genomes can provide information about complexities of social structures and cultural interactions in prehistoric populations. We use a mechanistic admixture model to compare the sex-specifically-inherited X chromosome with the autosomes in 20 early Neolithic and 16 late Neolithic/Bronze Age human remains. Contrary to previous hypotheses suggested by the patrilocality of many agricultural populations, we find no evidence of sex-biased admixture during the migration that spread farming across Europe during the early Neolithic. For later migrations from the Pontic Steppe during the late Neolithic/Bronze Age, however, we estimate a dramatic male bias, with approximately five to 14 migrating males for every migrating female. We find evidence of ongoing, primarily male, migration from the steppe to central Europe over a period of multiple generations, with a level of sex bias that excludes a pulse migration during a single generation. The contrasting patterns of sex-specific migration during these two migrations suggest a view of differing cultural histories in which the Neolithic transition was driven by mass migration of both males and females in roughly equal numbers, perhaps whole families, whereas the later Bronze Age migration and cultural shift were instead driven by male migration, potentially connected to new technology and conquest.

  9. Sex differences in heart rate responses to script-driven imagery soon after trauma and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, Birgit; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Glucksman, Edward; Ehlers, Anke

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Trauma survivors’ physiological responses to idiosyncratic trauma reminders may be predictive of later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The majority of previous studies have been cross-sectional and have produced mixed findings. Sex differences may contribute to this heterogeneity. The present study investigated the predictive validity of heightened physiological responsivity to script-driven imagery and sex for the development of PTSD. METHODS Heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured at two weeks post-trauma in 158 assault survivors during baseline and while listening to an idiosyncratic trauma script. At 6 months, 15.2% of male and 28.1 % of female participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. RESULTS GLM and logistic regression analyses showed that HR response to script-driven imagery and sex interacted in predicting PTSD symptom severity at six months. Women had greater PTSD symptom severities overall. Female HR responders to script driven imagery showed the highest PTSD symptom severities, and were almost three times more likely to develop PTSD at six months compared to men and female nonresponders (OR = 2.72, 95% CI= 1.13-6.57). RSA responder type did not predict PTSD, OR = .64, 95%CI = .30 – 1.33. CONCLUSION Female trauma survivors who respond to trauma reminders with increased HR may be at particular risk of developing PTSD. Physiological reactivity to trauma cues may be a useful index for screening and prevention of PTSD. PMID:20947782

  10. Age- and Hypertension-Associated Protein Aggregates in Mouse Heart Have Similar Proteomic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Mercanti, Federico; Wang, Xianwei; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Tackett, Alan J; Prayaga, Sastry V S; Romeo, Francesco; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2016-05-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are largely defined by protein aggregates in affected tissues. Aggregates contain some shared components as well as proteins thought to be specific for each disease. Aggregation has not previously been reported in the normal, aging heart or the hypertensive heart. Detergent-insoluble protein aggregates were isolated from mouse heart and characterized on 2-dimensional gels. Their levels increased markedly and significantly with aging and after sustained angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Of the aggregate components identified by high-resolution proteomics, half changed in abundance with age (392/787) or with sustained hypertension (459/824), whereas 30% (273/901) changed concordantly in both, each P<0.05. One fifth of these proteins were previously associated with age-progressive neurodegenerative or cardiovascular diseases, or both (eg, ApoE, ApoJ, ApoAIV, clusterin, complement C3, and others involved in stress-response and protein-homeostasis pathways). Because fibrosis is a characteristic of both aged and hypertensive hearts, we posited that aging of fibroblasts may contribute to the aggregates observed in cardiac tissue. Indeed, as cardiac myofibroblasts "senesced" (approached their replicative limit) in vitro, they accrued aggregates with many of the same constituent proteins observed in vivo during natural aging or sustained hypertension. In summary, we have shown for the first time that compact (detergent-insoluble) protein aggregates accumulate during natural aging, chronic hypertension, and in vitro myofibroblast senescence, sharing many common proteins. Thus, aggregates that arise from disparate causes (aging, hypertension, and replicative senescence) may have common underlying mechanisms of accrual.

  11. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  12. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  13. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  14. Evaluation of Skull Cortical Thickness Changes With Age and Sex From Computed Tomography Scans.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Lynch, Sarah K; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-02-01

    Head injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common, yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further insight into the mechanism of head injury resulting from blunt trauma. In particular, skull thickness is thought be a very important factor governing deformation of the skull and its propensity for fracture. Previously, age- and sex-based skull cortical thickness changes were difficult to evaluate based on the need for cadaveric skulls. In this cross-sectional study, skull thickness changes with age and sex have been evaluated at homologous locations using a validated cortical density-based algorithm to accurately quantify cortical thickness from 123 high-resolution clinical computed tomography (CT) scans. The flat bones of the skull have a sandwich structure; therefore, skull thickness was evaluated for the inner and outer tables as well the full thickness. General trends indicated an increase in the full skull thickness, mostly attributed to an increase in the thickness of the diploic layer; however, these trends were not found to be statistically significant. There was a significant relationship between cortical thinning and age for both tables of the frontal, occipital, and parietal bones ranging between a 36% and 60% decrease from ages 20 to 100 years in females, whereas males exhibited no significant changes. Understanding how cortical and full skull thickness changes with age from a wide range of subjects can have implications in improving the biofidelity of age- and sex-specific finite element models and therefore aid in the prediction and understanding of TBI from impact and blast injuries.

  15. Sex Differences in Longevity and in Responses to Anti-Aging Interventions: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven N; Bartke, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A robust, often underappreciated, feature of human biology is that women live longer than men not just in technologically advanced, low-mortality countries such as those in Europe or North America, but across low- and high-mortality countries of the modern world as well as through history. Women's survival advantage is not due to protection from one or a few diseases. Women die at lower rates than men from virtually all the top causes of death with the notable exception of Alzheimer's disease, to which women are particularly prone. Yet, despite this robust survival advantage, women across countries of the world suffer worse health throughout life. The biological mechanisms underlying either longer female survival or poorer female health remain elusive and understudied. Mechanisms of mammalian biology, particularly with respect to aging and disease, are most easily studied in laboratory mice. Although there are no consistent differences in longevity between mouse sexes even within single genotypes, there are often substantial differences in individual studies, sometimes favoring females, other times males. Investigating the environmental causes of this puzzling variation in longevity differences could prove illuminating. Sex differences in response to life-extending genetic or pharmacological interventions appear surprisingly often in mice. Longevity enhancement due to reduced signaling through IGF-1 or mTOR signaling typically favors females, whereas enhancement via a range of pharmacological treatments favors males. These patterns could be due to interactions of the interventions with sex steroids, with adiponectin or leptin levels, or with the sex differences in immune function or the regional distribution of body fat. Clearly, generalizations from one sex cannot be extended to the other, and inclusion of both sexes in biomedical studies of human or other animals is worth the effort and expense.

  16. Effect of slaughter age and sex on the production output of South African Black ostriches.

    PubMed

    Brand, T S; Jordaan, J W; Bhiya, C S; Aucamp, B B

    2010-08-01

    1. The effects of different slaughter ages and sex on the yield and quality of economically important end-products of slaughtered ostriches was examined to determine the most economic slaughter age for growing/finishing ostriches. Two batches of 4- and 6-month-old ostriches were assigned to 10 treatment groups and fed ad libitum up to slaughter ages of 8·5, 10·5, 12·5, 14·5 and 16·5 months. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake of ostriches were measured for each age. 2. Cold carcase yields and total feather yields of males were higher than females but yields of other products were similar. 3. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake increased with age with significant differences between most age groups. Cold carcase weight increased by approximately 2·2 kg and skin surface area increased by 3·1 dm³ with each additional month of growth but the quality (grade) of skins and the proportion of first grade skins decreased with increasing age. This, together with an increase in feed intake associated with age to slaughtering should be taken into account when determining the optimal slaughter age. 4. The set of biological variables established in this study can be used to determine the most economical slaughter age under varying market conditions.

  17. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  18. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  19. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  20. ALTERATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF RED BLOOD CELLS MEMBRANES PROTEINS OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX VOLUNTEERS.

    PubMed

    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T

    2015-01-01

    Considering the age and sex-dependent trend in the manifestation of various diseases, as well as an important pathogenic role of circulatory disorders, we decided to study the age-dependent changes in the physical properties of RBCs membrane proteins (their electric charge and molecular weight) in healthy people of different sex (males and females) and age. Blood of 56 healthy volunteers (Tbilisi, Georgia) of different sex and gender was studied (the patients were divided in 8 groups (7 patients in each groups): 1 - 18-25 years old male, 2 - 18-25 years old female, 3 - 25-44 years old male, 4 - 25-44 years old female, 5 - 44-60 years old male, 6 - 44-60 years old female; 7 - 60-80 years old male, 8 - 70-80 years old female). In groups 6 and 8 were women in menopause was determined according 12 months of amenorrhea. Individuals often consume alcohol addicts, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases were excluded from the study. The study protocol was approved by Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. RBCs membrane proteins have been extracted from human heparinized blood and their mobility was studied by electrophoretic method. The electrophoretic mobility of RBCs membrane proteins decreases with age of healthy volunteers, that indicates decrease of total charge of proteins, depending on the electrically charged amino acids content. In female patients the electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs membrane proteins especially intensively decreases in period of menopause. Increase of molecular weight of proteins (100-200 kDa) from RBCs' membranes of alder age group was manifested. Intensively decrease electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes membrane proteins from female patients in period of menopause indicates on estrogen related mechanism of the regulation of membrane protein conformation and composition in females. Increased content of high molecular weight proteins in the RBCs membranes from patients of older age groups may be caused to

  1. Modeling the aging heart: from local respiratory defects to global rhythm disturbances.

    PubMed

    Khrapko, Konstantin; Trayanova, Natalia; Nattel, Stanley

    2015-05-05

    In this issue, Baris et al. (2015) describe cardiac rhythm abnormalities in a mouse model of mitochondrial dysfunction in widely distributed cells of the aging human heart. How do a few metabolically challenged cells disrupt cardiac rhythm? We suggest that these cells provide "crystallization centers" for latent dysfunctional zones to allow arrhythmia emergence.

  2. Aging and CaMKII Alter Intracellular Ca2+ Transients and Heart Rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Santalla, Manuela; Valverde, Carlos A.; Harnichar, Ezequiel; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Aguilar-Fuentes, Javier; Mattiazzi, Alicia; Ferrero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated to disrupted contractility and rhythmicity, among other cardiovascular alterations. Drosophila melanogaster shows a pattern of aging similar to human beings and recapitulates the arrhythmogenic conditions found in the human heart. Moreover, the kinase CaMKII has been characterized as an important regulator of heart function and an arrhythmogenic molecule that participate in Ca2+ handling. Using a genetically engineered expressed Ca2+ indicator, we report changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling at two different ages. Aging prolonged relaxation, reduced spontaneous heart rate (HR) and increased the occurrence of arrhythmias, ectopic beats and asystoles. Alignment between Drosophila melanogaster and human CaMKII showed a high degree of conservation and indicates that relevant phosphorylation sites in humans are also present in the fruit fly. Inhibition of CaMKII by KN-93 (CaMKII-specific inhibitor), reduced HR without significant changes in other parameters. By contrast, overexpression of CaMKII increased HR and reduced arrhythmias. Moreover, it increased fluorescence amplitude, maximal rate of rise of fluorescence and reduced time to peak fluorescence. These results suggest that CaMKII in Drosophila melanogaster acts directly on heart function and that increasing CaMKII expression levels could be beneficial to improve contractility. PMID:25003749

  3. Aging and CaMKII alter intracellular Ca2+ transients and heart rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Santalla, Manuela; Valverde, Carlos A; Harnichar, Ezequiel; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Aguilar-Fuentes, Javier; Mattiazzi, Alicia; Ferrero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated to disrupted contractility and rhythmicity, among other cardiovascular alterations. Drosophila melanogaster shows a pattern of aging similar to human beings and recapitulates the arrhythmogenic conditions found in the human heart. Moreover, the kinase CaMKII has been characterized as an important regulator of heart function and an arrhythmogenic molecule that participate in Ca2+ handling. Using a genetically engineered expressed Ca2+ indicator, we report changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling at two different ages. Aging prolonged relaxation, reduced spontaneous heart rate (HR) and increased the occurrence of arrhythmias, ectopic beats and asystoles. Alignment between Drosophila melanogaster and human CaMKII showed a high degree of conservation and indicates that relevant phosphorylation sites in humans are also present in the fruit fly. Inhibition of CaMKII by KN-93 (CaMKII-specific inhibitor), reduced HR without significant changes in other parameters. By contrast, overexpression of CaMKII increased HR and reduced arrhythmias. Moreover, it increased fluorescence amplitude, maximal rate of rise of fluorescence and reduced time to peak fluorescence. These results suggest that CaMKII in Drosophila melanogaster acts directly on heart function and that increasing CaMKII expression levels could be beneficial to improve contractility.

  4. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  5. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  6. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  7. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  8. Diurnal, seasonal, and sex patterns of heart rate in grip-restrained African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse).

    PubMed

    Dzenda, Tavershima; Ayo, Joseph O; Sinkalu, Victor O; Yaqub, Lukuman S

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine heart rate (HR) values, including diurnal, seasonal, and sex patterns, in the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse). HR was measured using stethoscope in grip-restrained African giant rats of either sex (103 bucks and 98 does), live-trapped from a tropical Savannah, and caged individually in the laboratory during the harmattan (cold-dry), hot-dry, and rainy seasons over a 3-year period. The HR fluctuated between 90 and 210 beats per minute (bpm) throughout the study period. Diurnal changes in HR (mean ± SEM) during the hot-dry and rainy seasons were nonsignificant (P > 0.05), but the morning and afternoon values differed (P < 0.01) during the cold-dry season. The HR varied (P < 0.05) among seasons, with peak, nadir, and moderate values recorded during the cold-dry (165.8 ± 0.51 bpm), hot-dry (153.1 ± 0.74 bpm), and rainy (163.4 ± 0.70 bpm) seasons, respectively. Mean HR of bucks was lower than that of does during the cold-dry (P < 0.0001) and hot-dry (P < 0.01) seasons, but sex difference during the rainy season was insignificant (P > 0.05). Overall, mean HR was lower (P < 0.0001) in bucks (158.8 ± 0.53 bpm) than in does (164.8 ± 0.53 bpm). In conclusion, values of HR in African giant rats are shown for the first time. Season, sex, and daytime influenced the HR, and should be considered during clinical evaluations of the rats.

  9. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-09

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  10. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically.

  11. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  12. Age and sex distribution of some retinal macular diseases: senile and presenile macular degeneration and central serous retinitis.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Tengroth, B; Voss, M

    1984-01-01

    The age and sex distribution of senile macular degeneration (SMD) was investigated at the Low Vision Clinic in Stockholm. SMD increased with age and was found to be more common among women than men. This difference was not due to the fact that women live longer than men or related to women consulting ophthalmologists more often than men because of visual handicap. The age and sex distribution of presenile macular degeneration ( PSMD ) and central serous retinitis (CSR) was investigated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Falun Hospital. Also PSMD increased with age and was found to be more common among women than men, even if the sex difference was not as clear as for SMD. CSR was found to be more frequent at younger ages and, contrary to SMD and PSMD , more common among men. The reasons for these sex differences in frequencies of SMD, PSMD and CSR are not known.

  13. Heart ‘omics’ in AGEing (HOMAGE): design, research objectives and characteristics of the common database

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lotte; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rouet, Philippe; Pinet, Florence; Bauters, Christophe; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Mamas, Mamas; Diez, Javier; McDonald, Kenneth; Cleland, John G. F.; Rocca, Hans-Peter Brunner-La; Heymans, Stephane; Latini, Roberto; Masson, Serge; Sever, Peter; Delles, Christian; Pocock, Stuart; Collier, Timothy; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure is common in older people and its prevalence is increasing. The Heart ‘omics’ in AGEing (HOMAGE) project aims to provide a biomarker approach that will improve the early diagnosis of heart failure. A large clinical database, based on (1) prospective population studies or (2) cross-sectional, prospective studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients at risk for or with overt cardiovascular disease will be constructed to determine most promising ‘omics’-based biomarkers to identify the risk of developing heart failure and/or comorbidities. Population studies, patient cohorts and RCTs are eligible for inclusion in the common database, if they received ethical approval to obtain and share data and have baseline information on cardiovascular risk factors. Currently, the HOMAGE database includes 43,065 subjects, from 20 studies in eight European countries, including healthy subjects from three population studies in France, Belgium and Italy (n  =  7,124), patients with heart failure (n  =  4,312) from four cohorts in the UK, Spain and Switzerland and patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease (n  =  31,629) in 13 cohorts. It is anticipated that more partners will join the consortium and enlarge the pooled data. This large merged database will be a useful resource with which to identify candidate biomarkers that play a role in the mechanism underlying the onset and progression of heart failure. PMID:25332706

  14. Age and sex dependent changes in liver gene expression during the life cycle of the rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Age- and sex-related susceptibility to adverse drug reactions and disease is a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of hepatic genes expressed at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the basal liver gene expression patterns is a necessary first step in addressing this hypothesis and will inform our assessments of adverse drug reactions as the liver plays a central role in drug metabolism and biotransformation. Untreated male and female F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Liver tissues were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. Results An initial list of differentially expressed genes was selected using criteria based upon p-value (p < 0.05) and fold-change (+/- 1.5). Three dimensional principal component analyses revealed differences between males and females beginning at 2 weeks with more divergent profiles beginning at 5 weeks. The greatest sex-differences were observed between 8 and 52 weeks before converging again at 104 weeks. K-means clustering identified groups of genes that displayed age-related patterns of expression. Various adult aging-related clusters represented gene pathways related to xenobiotic metabolism, DNA damage repair, and oxidative stress. Conclusions These results suggest an underlying role for genes in specific clusters in potentiating age- and sex-related differences in susceptibility to adverse health effects. Furthermore, such a comprehensive picture of life cycle changes in gene expression deepens our understanding and informs the utility of liver gene expression biomarkers. PMID:21118493

  15. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  16. Effect of age and sex on retinal layer thickness and volume in normal eyes

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jae Yon; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sex and age on the thickness of the retinal layer in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Fifty healthy subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 had their retinal layers measured using SD-OCT at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Mean thickness and volume were measured for 9 retinal layers in the fovea, the pericentral ring, and the peripheral ring. The differences of sex- and age-related thickness and volume in each retinal layer were analyzed. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were thinnest in the fovea area, whereas the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor layer (PHL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were thickest at similar locations. Mean thickness of the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and OPL was significantly greater in men than women. However, mean thickness of the ONL was greater in women than in men. When compared between patients < 30 years and > 60 years of age, the thickness and volume of peripheral RNFL, GCL, and pericentral and peripheral IPL were significantly larger in the younger group than the older group. Conversely, the thickness and volume of foveal INL and IR were larger in the older group than in the younger group. The thickness and volume of the retinal layer in normal eyes significantly vary depending on age and sex. These results should be considered when evaluating layer analysis in retinal disease. PMID:27861391

  17. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  18. Sex and age as determinants of rat T-cell phenotypic characteristics: influence of peripubertal gonadectomy.

    PubMed

    Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Kosec, Duško; Pilipović, Ivan; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Bufan, Biljana; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Leposavić, Gordana

    2017-03-09

    The study examined the influence of age, sex and peripubertal gonadectomy on a set of T-cell phenotypic parameters. Rats of both sexes were gonadectomised at the age of 1 month and peripheral blood and spleen T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised and gonadectomised 3- and 11-month-old rats were examined for the expression of differentiation/activation (CD90/CD45RC) and immunoregulatory markers. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised rats showed age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in (1) total count (lower in female than male 11-month-old rats); (2) CD4+:CD8 + cell ratio (higher in female than male rats of both ages); (3) the proportion of recent thymic emigrants in CD8 + T cells (lower in female than male 3-month-old rats) and (4) the proportions of mature naïve and memory/activated cells (irrespective of age, the proportion of naïve cells was higher, whereas that of memory/activated cells was lower in females). Gonadectomy influenced magnitudes or direction of these sex differences. Additionally, sex differences in peripheral blood T-lymphocyte parameters did not fully correspond to those observed in T-splenocyte parameters, suggesting the compartment-specific regulation of the major T-cell subpopulations' and their subsets' composition. Furthermore, there was no sexual dimorphism in the proportion of either CD25 + Foxp3 + cells among CD4 + or CD161+ (NKT) cells within CD8 + T lymphocytes. However, there was gonadal hormone-independent age-associated sexual dimorphism in the proportion of CD161 + cells (NKT cells) in CD8 + T splenocytes. Overall, the study revealed age-dependent variations in sexual dimorphisms in T-cell parameters relevant for immune response efficacy and showed that they are T-cell compartment-specific and partly gonadal hormone-related.

  19. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to /sup 131/I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum 24 hours after administration (the /sup 131/I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K(exp(-..mu../sub 1/t) - exp(-..mu../sub 2/t)) (..mu..Ci), where ..mu../sub 1/ = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptake at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/..mu..Ci-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. The model could prove useful in the dosimetry of very short-lived radioiodines. Tables of age- and sex-dependent coefficients are provided to enable readers to make their own calculations. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Sex and Age Aspects in Patients Suffering From Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Piegeler, Tobias; Thoeni, Nils; Kaserer, Alexander; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Mueller, Stefan M.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R.; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Several studies suggest a sex- and age-based bias in the treatment of these patients. This particular bias may have a significant impact on the patient's outcome. However, the reasons for these findings are still unclear and discussed controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze treatment and out-of-hospital survival rates for potential sex- and age-based differences in patients requiring out-of-hospital CPR provided by an emergency physician in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 3961 consecutive patients (2003–2009) were included in this retrospective analysis to determine the frequency of out-of-hospital CPR and prehospital survival rate, and to identify potential sex- and age-based differences regarding survival and treatment of the patients. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients required CPR during the study period. Seventeen patients had to be excluded because of incomplete or inconclusive documentation, resulting in 743 patients (511 males, 229 females) undergoing further statistical analysis. Female patients were significantly older, compared with male patients (68 ± 18 [mean ± SD] vs 64 ± 18 years, P = .012). Men were resuscitated slightly more often than women (86.4% vs 82.1%). Overall out-of-hospital mortality rate was found to be 81.2% (492/632 patients) with no differences between sexes (82.1% for males vs 79% for females, odds ratio 1.039, 95% confidence interval 0.961–1.123). No sex differences were detected in out-of-hospital treatment, as assessed by the different medications administered, initial prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, and prehospital suspected leading diagnosis. The data of our study demonstrate that there was no sex-based bias in treating patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting in our physician-led emergency ambulance service. PMID:27149475

  1. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed

  2. Identification of small juvenile stem cells in aged bone marrow and their therapeutic potential for repair of the ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Igura, Koichi; Okada, Motoi; Kim, Ha Won; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Stem cell-mediated cardiac regeneration is impaired with age. In this study, we identified a novel subpopulation of small juvenile stem cells (SJSCs) isolated from aged bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) with high proliferation and differentiation potential. SJSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers, CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD59(+)/CD90(+), but were negative for CD45(-)/CD117(-) as examined by flow cytometry analysis. SJSCs showed higher proliferation, colony formation, and differentiation abilities compared with BMSCs. We also observed that SJSCs significantly expressed cardiac lineage markers (Gata-4 and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C) and pluripotency markers (octamer-binding transcription factor 4, sex-determining region Y box 2, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, and Nanog) as well as antiaging factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase and sirtuin 1. Interestingly, SJSCs either from young or aged animals showed significantly longer telomere length as well as lower senescence-associated β-galactosidase expression, suggesting that SJSCs possess antiaging properties, whereas aged BMSCs have limited potential for proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, transplantation of aged SJSCs into the infarcted rat heart significantly reduced the infarction size and improved left ventricular function, whereas transplantation of aged BMSCs was less effective. Moreover, neovascularization as well as cardiomyogenic differentiation in the peri-infarcted area were significantly increased in the SJSC-transplanted group compared with the BMSC-transplated group, as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SJSCs possess characteristics of antiaging, pluripotency, and high proliferation and differentiation rates, and, therefore, these cells offer great therapeutic potential for repair of the injured myocardium.

  3. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication.

  4. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort.

  5. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and <29.9 kg·m(-2)), who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment programs, namely, strength training (n = 30), endurance training (n = 30), a combination of strength training and endurance training (n = 30), and a careful treatment including diet and physical recommendations (n = 29). Each of the training groups exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  6. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  7. Intraoperative cholangiography. A review of indications and analysis of age-sex groups.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S B; Lerner, H J; Leifer, E D; Lindheim, S R

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of patients who had biliary tract stone formation as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization and indication for surgery. Five hundred and eighty-nine consecutive charts were reviewed of patients admitted between 1975 and 1979. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 166 patients of whom 22 had common duct exploration. Choledochotomy in this series was performed in 63 cases without utilizing pre-exploratory cholangiography. A normal intraoperative cholangiogram was found to be 100% accurate; however, an abnormal cholangiogram was associated with a 16% false positive rate of exploration of the common duct. The incidence of unsuspected common duct stones detected only by intraoperative cholangiography was 2.3%. Age-sex analysis confirms a 10-year mean age difference between men and women within the population of this study (p less than 0.001). This age-sex difference is maintained in patients without common duct pathology as well as in patients with sterile bile. However, the mean age difference between male and female patients with either demonstrable common duct obstruction by stones or infected bile as determined by routine intraoperative culture is not statistically significant. A review of the role of intraoperative cholangiography, and the experience at Northeastern Hospital is discussed. PMID:6639173

  8. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  9. Effect of age and sex on maturation of sensory systems and balance control.

    PubMed

    Steindl, R; Kunz, K; Schrott-Fischer, A; Scholtz, A W

    2006-06-01

    Maintenance of postural balance requires an active sensorimotor control system. Current data are limited and sometimes conflicting regarding the influence of the proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular afferent systems on posture control in children. This study investigated the development of sensory organization according to each sensory component in relation to age and sex. A total of 140 children (70 males, 70 females; mean age 10y [SD 4y]; age range 3y 5mo-16y 2mo) and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females; mean age 30y 6mo [SD 8y 4mo]; age range 17y 2mo-49y 1mo) were examined using the Sensory Organization Test. Participants were tested in three visual conditions (eyes open, blindfolded, and sway-referenced visual enclosure) while standing on either a fixed or a sway-referenced force platform. Mean equilibrium scores for the six balance conditions showed rapid increases and maturation ceiling levels for age-related development of the sensorimotor control system. Proprioceptive function seemed to mature at 3 to 4 years of age. Visual and vestibular afferent systems reached adult level at 15 to 16 years of age, revealing differences between young males and females. Characterizing balance impairments can contribute to the diagnostic evaluation of neuromotor disorders.

  10. Age at onset in Huntington's disease: effect of line of inheritance and patient's sex.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R A; Vegter-van der Vlis, M; Hermans, J; Elshove, H M; Moll, A C; van de Kamp, J J; Bruyn, G W

    1991-01-01

    The Leiden Roster for Huntington's disease (HD) contained data on 2617 cases up to July 1988. The age at onset (AO) was known in 1084 cases and in 1020 of these both their AO and the sex of the affected parent was known. The mean AO was higher for females than for males and higher for maternal than for paternal cases. However, in the group born before 1925 only females with maternal inheritance had a higher mean AO. Data on influence of sex and line of inheritance were present for the grandparents as well as for the great grandparents. Influence of the line of inheritance from the grandparents was particularly present for the grandmother-father (MP) lineage; regarding the great grandparents a significant difference was found between the MPM and PMP lineage. The results obtained for juvenile HD cases were comparable to those previously published. In late onset cases (over 50 years) no maternal preponderance in inheritance was found. PMID:1833547

  11. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  12. Proteomic analyses of age related changes in A.BY/SnJ mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A.BY/SnJ mice are used to study pathological alterations in the heart due to enteroviral infections. Since age is a well-known factor influencing the susceptibility of mice to infection, response to stress and manifestation of cardiovascular diseases, the myocardial proteome of A.BY/SnJ mice aged 1 and 4 months was comparatively studied using two dimensional-differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results Complementary analyses by 2D-DIGE and gel-free LC-MS/MS revealed 96 distinct proteins displaying age associated alterations in their levels. Proteins related to protein transport, and transport chain, lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport showed significant changes in 4 months old mouse hearts compared to juvenile hearts. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport were identified at significantly higher levels in older mice and dysregulation of proteins of the respiratory transport chain were observed. Conclusion The current proteomics study discloses age dependent changes occurring in the hearts already in young mice of the strain A.BY/SnJ. Besides alterations in protein transport, we provide evidence that a decrease of ATP synthase in murine hearts starts already in the first months of life, leading to well-known low expression levels manifested in old mice thereby raising the possibility of reduced energy supply. In the first few months of murine life this seems to be compensated by an increased lipid metabolism. The functional alterations described should be considered during experimental setups in disease related studies. PMID:23816347

  13. A comparison of heart rate variability, n-3 PUFA status and lipid mediator profile in age- and BMI-matched middle-aged vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana M; Sanders, Thomas A B; Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna; Gray, Robert; Al-Khatib, Haya; Hall, Wendy L

    2017-04-03

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference -67 ms; 95 % CI -130, -3·4, P50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.

  14. The lived experience of middle-aged women with New York Heart Association class III heart failure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer Wayment; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Lynch-Sauer, Judith

    2009-09-01

    Although heart failure (HF) is equally prevalent in men and women, women with HF are more likely to report decreased quality of life and are more likely to die of the disease compared with men. Moreover, HF has been studied less extensively in women and no study has specifically addressed women with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III HF using a qualitative method. This pilot study sought to gain insight into the lived experience of women with NYHA class III HF. Using a phenomenological approach, interviews obtained from 4 middle-aged women with NYHA class III HF were analyzed using the Giorgi method of data analysis. Five themes emerged: (1) developing a new conception of self, (2) conceding physical limitations, (3) enduring emotional heartache, (4) accepting support, and (5) rejuvenating through rest. This study provides a beginning to our understanding of the lived experience of women with NYHA class III HF. However, further exploration is needed to increase our knowledge of HF in women, particularly among diverse populations.

  15. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors.

    PubMed

    Witelson, S F; Beresh, H; Kigar, D L

    2006-02-01

    The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume and each hemisphere's volume in women and in right-handed men accounting for 36% of the variation in verbal intelligence. There was no evidence of such a relationship in non-right-handed men, indicating that at least for verbal intelligence, functional asymmetry may be a relevant factor in structure-function relationships in men, but not in women. In women, general visuospatial ability was also positively correlated with cerebral volume, but less strongly, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance. In men, there was a non-significant trend of a negative correlation between visuospatial ability and cerebral volume, suggesting that the neural substrate of visuospatial ability may differ between the sexes. Analyses of additional research subjects used as test cases provided support for our regression models. In men, visuospatial ability and cerebral volume were strongly linked via the factor of chronological age, suggesting that the well-documented decline in visuospatial intelligence with age is related, at least in right-handed men, to the decrease in cerebral

  16. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity.

  17. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus.

  19. Advancing age produces sex differences in vasomotor kinetics during and after skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Shawn E

    2007-09-01

    Little is known of the vasomotor responses of skeletal muscle arterioles during and following muscle contraction. We hypothesized that aging leads to impaired arteriolar responses to muscle contraction and recovery. Nitric oxide (NO) availability, which is age dependent, has been implicated in components of these kinetics. Therefore, we also hypothesized that changes in the kinetics of vascular responses are associated with the NO pathway. Groups were young (3 mo), old (24 mo), endothelial NO synthase knockout (eNOS-/-), and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA)-treated male and female C57BL/6 mice. The kinetics of vasodilation during and following 1 min of contractions of the gluteus maximus muscle were recorded in second-order (regional distribution) and third-order (local control) arterioles. Baseline, peak (during contraction), and maximal diameters (pharmacological) were not affected by age or sex. The kinetics of dilation and recovery were not different between males and females at the young age. There was a significant slowing of vasodilation at the onset of contractions (approximately 2-fold; P < 0.05) and a significant speeding of recovery ( approximately 5-fold; P < 0.05) in old males vs. old females and vs. young eNOS-/-, and L-NA did not affect the kinetics at the onset of muscle contraction. eNOS-/- mimicked the rapid recovery of old males in second-order arterioles; acute NO production (L-NA) explained approximately 50% of this effect. These data demonstrate fundamental age-related differences between the sexes in the dynamic function of skeletal muscle arterioles. Understanding how youthful function persists in females but not males may provide therapeutic insight into clinical interventions to maintain dynamic microvascular control of nutrient supply with age.

  20. Cerebral cortex: an MRI-based study of volume and variance with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Carne, Ross P; Vogrin, Simon; Litewka, Lucas; Cook, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine quantitative differences in lobar cerebral cortical volumes in a healthy adult population. Quantitative volumetric MRI of whole brain, cerebral and cerebellar volumes was performed in a cross-sectional analysis of 97 normal volunteers, with segmented frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical volumes measured in a subgroup of 60 subjects, 30 male and 30 female, matched for age and sex. The right cerebral hemisphere was larger than the left across the study group with a small (<1%) but significant difference in symmetry (P<0.001). No difference was found between volumes of right and left cerebellar hemispheres. Rightward cerebral cortical asymmetry (right larger than left) was found to be significant across all lobes except parietal. Males had greater cerebral, cerebellar and cerebral cortical lobar volumes than females. Larger male cerebral cortical volumes were seen in all lobes except for left parietal. Females had greater left parietal to left cerebral hemisphere and smaller left temporal to left cerebral hemisphere ratios. There was a mild reduction in cerebral volumes with age, more marked in males. This study confirms and augments past work indicating underlying structural asymmetries in the human brain, and provides further evidence that brain structures in humans are differentially sensitive to the effects of both age and sex.

  1. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption.

  2. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  3. Sex and age differences in heavy binge drinking and its effects on alcohol responsivity following abstinence.

    PubMed

    Melón, Laverne C; Wray, Kevin N; Moore, Eileen M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2013-03-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence may perturb the maturing neuroenvironment and increase susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. In the present series of experiments, we utilized a modified version of the drinking in the dark-multiple scheduled access (DID-MSA) procedure to study how heavy binge drinking during adolescence alters responsivity to ethanol later in adulthood. Adult and adolescent C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) males and females were given access to a 20% ethanol solution for 3 hourly periods, each separated by 2h of free water access. B6 adults and adolescents consumed 2 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol an hour and displayed significant intoxication and binge-like blood ethanol concentrations. There was an interaction of sex and age, however, driven by high intakes in adult B6 females, who peaked at 11.01 g/kg. Adolescents of both sexes and adult males never consumed more than 9.3 g/kg. D2 mice consumed negligible amounts of alcohol and showed no evidence of intoxication. B6 mice were abstinent for one month and were retested on the balance beam 10 min following 1.75 g/kg ethanol challenge (20%v/v; i.p). They were also tested for changes in home cage locomotion immediately following the 1.75 g/kg dose (for 10 min prior to balance beam). Although there was no effect of age of exposure, all mice with a binge drinking history demonstrated a significantly dampened ataxic response to an ethanol challenge. Female mice that binge drank during adulthood showed a significantly augmented locomotor response to ethanol when compared to their water drinking controls. This alteration was not noted for males or for females that binge drank during adolescence. These results highlight the importance of biological sex, and its interaction with age, in the development of behavioral adaptation following binge drinking.

  4. Comparing supervised learning methods for classifying sex, age, context and individual Mudi dogs from barking.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Ana; Bielza, Concha; Pongrácz, Péter; Faragó, Tamás; Bálint, Anna; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    Barking is perhaps the most characteristic form of vocalization in dogs; however, very little is known about its role in the intraspecific communication of this species. Besides the obvious need for ethological research, both in the field and in the laboratory, the possible information content of barks can also be explored by computerized acoustic analyses. This study compares four different supervised learning methods (naive Bayes, classification trees, [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors and logistic regression) combined with three strategies for selecting variables (all variables, filter and wrapper feature subset selections) to classify Mudi dogs by sex, age, context and individual from their barks. The classification accuracy of the models obtained was estimated by means of [Formula: see text]-fold cross-validation. Percentages of correct classifications were 85.13 % for determining sex, 80.25 % for predicting age (recodified as young, adult and old), 55.50 % for classifying contexts (seven situations) and 67.63 % for recognizing individuals (8 dogs), so the results are encouraging. The best-performing method was [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors following a wrapper feature selection approach. The results for classifying contexts and recognizing individual dogs were better with this method than they were for other approaches reported in the specialized literature. This is the first time that the sex and age of domestic dogs have been predicted with the help of sound analysis. This study shows that dog barks carry ample information regarding the caller's indexical features. Our computerized analysis provides indirect proof that barks may serve as an important source of information for dogs as well.

  5. Blue judogi may bias competitive performance when seeding system is not used: sex, age, and level of competition effects.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Miarka, Bianca; Rosa, João P P; Lima, Giscard H O; Takito, Monica Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated whether the judogi colour (blue or white) could influence a combat outcome (victory or defeat) in 1,233 judo official combats. Sex, age group, and level of competition were also considered in the analysis. Binomial probability tests showed a higher probability of an athlete's winning a combat wearing blue judogi for both sexes, levels of competition (regional and state), and for the athletes of the junior and senior categories. Thus, blue judogi may bias competitive outcome for both sexes in regional and state level competitions and for athletes above junior age.

  6. Spatial patterns of age-sex structures in Costa Rica: a study in demographic modernization.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H W; Fesenmaier, D R

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and demographic factors in Costa Rica is examined. "Specifically, the paper illustrates the evolution of spatial patterns in age-sex structures over three points in time for a single case study area." The authors suggest that there is order in the evolving patterns and that this order may be explained by the economic modernization process. Data are from the 1950, 1963, and 1973 censuses. Although some spatial order is indicated, the patterns are confused primarily by an increase in fertility that apparently occurred between 1950 and 1963.

  7. Arsenic Exposure and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to age and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic exposure and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of exposure. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life exposure to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic exposure on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human exposure, should be a research priority.

  8. Age-Dependent Effect of Pediatric Cardiac Progenitor Cells After Juvenile Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Udit; Smith, Amanda W.; French, Kristin M.; Boopathy, Archana V.; George, Alex; Trac, David; Brown, Milton E.; Shen, Ming; Jiang, Rong; Fernandez, Janet D.; Kogon, Brian E.; Kanter, Kirk R.; Alsoufi, Baahaldin; Wagner, Mary B.; Platt, Manu O.

    2016-01-01

    Children with congenital heart diseases have increased morbidity and mortality, despite various surgical treatments, therefore warranting better treatment strategies. Here we investigate the role of age of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) on ventricular remodeling in a model of juvenile heart failure. hCPCs isolated from children undergoing reconstructive surgeries were divided into 3 groups based on age: neonate (1 day to 1 month), infant (1 month to 1 year), and child (1 to 5 years). Adolescent athymic rats were subjected to sham or pulmonary artery banding surgery to generate a model of right ventricular (RV) heart failure. Two weeks after surgery, hCPCs were injected in RV musculature noninvasively. Analysis of cardiac function 4 weeks post-transplantation demonstrated significantly increased tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV ejection fraction and significantly decreased wall thickness and fibrosis in rats transplanted with neonatal hCPCs compared with saline-injected rats. Computational modeling and systems biology analysis were performed on arrays and gave insights into potential mechanisms at the microRNA and gene level. Mechanisms including migration and proliferation assays, as suggested by computational modeling, showed improved chemotactic and proliferative capacity of neonatal hCPCs compared with infant/child hCPCs. In vivo immunostaining further suggested increased recruitment of stem cell antigen 1-positive cells in the right ventricle. This is the first study to assess the role of hCPC age in juvenile RV heart failure. Interestingly, the reparative potential of hCPCs is age-dependent, with neonatal hCPCs exerting the maximum beneficial effect compared with infant and child hCPCs. Significance Stem cell therapy for children with congenital heart defects is moving forward, with several completed and ongoing clinical trials. Although there are studies showing how children differ from adults, few focus on the differences

  9. Humeral development from neonatal period to skeletal maturity--application in age and sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ♂ and 91 ♀) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples.

  10. Age and sex influence marmot antipredator behavior during periods of heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Lea, Amanda J; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2011-08-01

    Animals adjust their antipredator behavior according to environmental variation in risk, and to account for their ability to respond to threats. Intrinsic factors that influence an animal's ability to respond to predators (e.g., age, body condition) should explain variation in antipredator behavior. For example, a juvenile might allocate more time to vigilance than an adult because mortality as a result of predation is often high for this age class; however, the relationship between age/vulnerability and antipredator behavior is not always clear or as predicted. We explored the influence of intrinsic factors on yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) antipredator behavior using data pooled from 4 years of experiments. We hypothesized that inherently vulnerable animals (e.g., young, males, and individuals in poor condition) would exhibit more antipredator behavior prior to and immediately following conspecific alarm calls. As expected, males and yearlings suppressed foraging more than females and adults following alarm call playbacks. In contrast to predictions, animals in better condition respond more than animals in below average condition. Interestingly, these intrinsic properties did not influence baseline time budgets; animals of all ages, sexes, and condition levels devoted comparable amounts of time to foraging prior to alarm calls. Our results support the hypothesis that inherent differences in vulnerability influence antipredator behavior; furthermore, it appears that a crucial, but poorly acknowledged, interaction exists between risk and state-dependence. Elevated risk may be required to reveal the workings of state-dependent behavior, and studies of antipredator behavior in a single context may draw incomplete conclusions about age- or sex-specific strategies.

  11. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  12. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  13. Women with heart failure are at high psychosocial risk: a systematic review of how sex and gender influence heart failure self-care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M

    2011-03-06

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.

  14. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  15. What predicts sex partners' age differences among African American youth? A longitudinal study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C

    2010-07-01

    Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.

  16. Mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in rat heart with aging: critical role of reactive oxygen species and cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, Giuseppe; Matera, Mariagiuseppa; Moro, Nicola; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Paradies, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a key factor in the heart aging process. Mitochondrial respiration is an important site of ROS generation and a potential contributor to heart functional changes with aging. We have examined the effects of aging on various parameters related to mitochondrial bioenergetics in rat heart, such as complex I activity, oxygen consumption, membrane potential, ROS production, and cardiolipin content and oxidation. A loss in complex I activity, state 3 respiration, and membrane potential was found in mitochondria with aging. The capacity of mitochondria to produce H(2)O(2) was significantly increased in aged rats. The mitochondrial content of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, significantly decreased as a function of aging, whereas there was a significant increase in the level of oxidized cardiolipin. The lower complex I activity in mitochondria from aged rats could be almost completely restored to the level of young heart by exogenously added cardiolipin, but not by other phospholipids nor by peroxidized cardiolipin. It is proposed that aging causes heart mitochondrial complex I deficiency, which can be attributed to ROS-induced cardiolipin peroxidation. These results may prove useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction associated with heart aging.

  17. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  18. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  19. Adolescent bisphenol-A exposure decreases dendritic spine density: role of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA exposure during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at age 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA exposure did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both age and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA exposure warrants further investigation.

  20. Cancer of the colon and rectum: Potential effects of sex-age interactions on incidence and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Purim, Ofer; Gordon, Noa; Brenner, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex differences in epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer have been under intensive investigation for the last three decades. Given that most of the sex-related differences reported were also age-related, this study sought to determine the potential effect of a sex-age interaction on colorectal cancer development and progression. Material/Methods Statistical data on sex- and age-specific colon or rectal cancer incidence, disease stage and survival for white persons were derived from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Age-specific incidence rates in 2002–2006 were analyzed by 5-year age groups (45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84 years) in men and women. Sex differences were measured by calculating rate differences (RD) and rate ratios (RR). Equivalent analyses for a similar time period were performed for stage distribution and 5-year relative survival. Results Age-specific incidence rates were higher for men, for all life-time periods. However, the magnitude of the male predominance was age-dependent. The RR and RD did not remain constant over time: they increased gradually with age, peaked at 70–74 years, and declined thereafter. The distribution of stage at diagnosis was similar between men and women, but women seemed to have better survival, until the age of 64 years for colon cancer and 74 years for rectal cancer. Conclusions There seem to be significant age-related sex differences in the incidence of colorectal cancer, and maybe also in its prognosis. PMID:23511310

  1. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  2. Relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among adolescents in the classroom: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.

  3. Total body nitrogen in health and disease: effects of age, weight, height, and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-06-01

    Total body levels of nitrogen were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 136 healthy adults in the general population (age 20 to 80 years), in 55 cancer patients, and in 20 obese subjects. In order to evaluate the TBN values for the patients, it was necessary to normalize the data for possible differences due to body habitus. This normalization was defined as the ratio of the measured nitrogen level to a predicted nitrogen level derived from the normal population. The parameters of sex, age, height, weight, and fat were used to calculate expected normal values of nitrogen. For the cancer patients, an average TBN deficit of less than 10% was observed. Individual patients, however, showed deviations from the TBN/sub p/ value as large as 28%. For obese patients, the TBN values were normal to slightly high. When adjusted for body size, the deficit of TBN in the cancer patients was approximately half that observd for TBK.

  4. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  5. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts.

  6. Age and Sex Differences in Reward Behavior in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed. PMID:23754712

  7. Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Horta, Marilyn; Lin, Tian; Feifel, David; Fischer, Håkan; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex. PMID:26441637

  8. Cross-Classification of Human Urinary Lipidome by Sex, Age, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Okemoto, Kazuo; Maekawa, Keiko; Tajima, Yoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in past decades have led to the development of integrative analytical approaches to lipidomics, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and information about biogenic lipids is rapidly accumulating. Although several cohort-based studies have been conducted on the composition of urinary lipidome, the data on urinary lipids cross-classified by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) are insufficient to screen for various abnormalities. To promote the development of urinary lipid metabolome-based diagnostic assay, we analyzed 60 urine samples from healthy white adults (young (c.a., 30 years) and old (c.a., 60 years) men/women) using LC/MS. Women had a higher urinary concentration of omega-3 12-lipoxygenase (LOX)-generated oxylipins with anti-inflammatory activity compared to men. In addition, young women showed increased abundance of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cytochrome P450 (P450)-produced oxylipins with anti-hypertensive activity compared with young men, whereas elderly women exhibited higher concentration of 5-LOX-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins than elderly men. There were no significant differences in urinary oxylipin levels between young and old subjects or between subjects with low and high BMI. Our findings suggest that sex, but neither ages nor BMI could be a confounding factor for measuring the composition of urinary lipid metabolites in the healthy population. The information showed contribute to the development of reliable biomarker findings from urine. PMID:27973561

  9. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  10. Effect of sex, age and genetics on crossover interference in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Li, Jinquan; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Crossovers generated by homologous recombination ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. Crossover interference results in chiasmata being more evenly distributed along chromosomes, but the mechanism underlying crossover interference remains elusive. Based on large pedigrees of Holstein and Jersey cattle with genotype data, we extracted three-generation families, including 147,327 male and 71,687 female meioses in Holstein, and 108,163 male and 37,008 female meioses in Jersey, respectively. We identified crossovers in these meioses and fitted the Housworth-Stahl “interference-escape” model to study crossover interference patterns in the cattle genome. Our result reveals that the degree of crossover interference is stronger in females than in males. We found evidence for inter-chromosomal variation in the level of crossover interference, with smaller chromosomes exhibiting stronger interference. In addition, crossover interference levels decreased with maternal age. Finally, sex-specific GWAS analyses identified one locus near the NEK9 gene on chromosome 10 to have a significant effect on crossover interference levels. This locus has been previously associated with recombination rate in cattle. Collectively, this large-scale analysis provided a comprehensive description of crossover interference across chromosome, sex and age groups, identified associated candidate genes, and produced useful insights into the mechanism of crossover interference. PMID:27892966

  11. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2016-10-13

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  12. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Wang, Qian; Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Liu, Dahai; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  13. Age Did Not Influence Use of the HeartCare System

    PubMed Central

    Ground, Anita; Jones, Josette; Flatley-Brennan, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Persistent questions remain regarding computer use by elders, particularly those recovering from a major surgical procedure. Fifty-three participants of the HeartCare project were provided home-accessible WWW-based recovery support post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and used it to access tailored educational web pages, communicate via email, and join a discussion group. We employed use data to evaluate the impact of age on use for the first 30 days after discharge and determined that the age of the participants did not significantly influence use of the system in this study.

  14. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  15. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage-specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C.

  16. Effect of age and methacholine on the rate and coronary flow of isolated hearts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, X S; Tanz, R D; Chang, K S

    1989-08-01

    1. Isolated hearts perfused by the method of Langendorff from 6, 12 and 24 week streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats displayed a significant bradycardia following 60 min equilibration. The rate of hearts from 12-week diabetic rats (164 +/- 17) displayed the greatest bradycardia compared to age-matched controls (268 +/- 15; P less than 0.001), and diabetics treated with insulin (232 +/- 17; P less than 0.01), but by 52 weeks the heart rate of the 3 groups was similar. With advancing age the effect of STZ diabetes on the rate of rat isolated perfused hearts remained unchanged but the rate of the control and diabetic + insulin groups declined. 2. Hearts from 6-52 week STZ-treated rats were found to be more sensitive to the negative chronotropic effect of methacholine, the greatest difference occurring in hearts from the 12 week animals. Atropine (10(-7) M) did not affect the resting heart rate of age-matched controls or diabetics but blocked methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M)-induced bradycardia in both, suggesting that the site of action of diabetic bradycardia is not the muscarinic receptors. 3. At the end of equilibration there was a significant decrease in coronary flow in hearts from 12 week diabetic animals. In spontaneously beating diabetic rat hearts administration of methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M) produced a significantly greater decrease in coronary flow in the 12, 24 and 52 week diabetic hearts. When electrically paced (5 Hz) however, there was no difference in response to methacholine between the three groups except at 52 weeks between the age-matched control and diabetic groups. This suggests that the more pronounced reduction induced by methacholine on the coronary flow of diabetic hearts is secondary to its negative chronotropic effect. 4. In general, hearts from diabetic animals treated with insulin respond similarly to their agematched controls in the presence and absence of methacholine.

  17. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  18. Associations between AUDIT-C and mortality vary by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alex H S; Bradley, Katharine A; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9-12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5-8 and 9-12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or "vital sign" that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems.

  19. Age- and sex-dependent thymic abnormalities in NZB × SJL F1 hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, F.; Robert, F.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular organization of the thymus was investigated in 3- and 12-month-old NZB × SJL F1 hybrid (NS) mice. Age-dependent alterations were demonstrated which differed strikingly according to the sex of the animals. In female mice, marked abnormalities of the thymus developed during ageing. They consisted of a more or less pronounced hypertrophy accompanied by histological changes and modifications in the nature of the lymphocyte populations. Three types of qualitative changes were found at 12 months of age: (1) depletion of cortical thymocytes as evidenced by histology, by the evaluation of peanut-agglutinin (PNA) binding and by cell electrophoresis; (2) hyperplasia of the medullary lymphoid tissue, probably reflecting the expansion of a population of mature T lymphocytes. This was further suggested by a rise (up to 60%) in the frequency of lymphocytes lacking both PNA receptor and B cell markers, by an increased proportion (57%) of high electrophoretic mobility (EPM) lymphocytes and by an augmentation of in vitro reactivities to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and, although to a lesser extent, to concanavalin A (Con A). (3) The appearance of significant numbers of B lymphocytes (up to 20%) as assessed by surface immunoglobulin (sIg) and complement receptor (CR) detection which was accompanied by a vigorous responsiveness of thymus cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). None of these abnormalities was seen in the male mice. Instead, the thymus of NS males displayed a nearly normal age-related involution without major change in the proportions of its lymphocyte subpopulations. NS mice thus provide an interesting model of thymic disease influenced by sex-linked factors. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:7438550

  20. Sex disparities in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic subsite, race and age.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gwen; Devesa, Susan S; Cross, Amanda J; Inskip, Peter D; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B

    2011-04-01

    Although incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has declined in recent years, rates remain higher in men than in women and the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (MF IRR) increases progressively across the colon from the cecum to the rectum. Rates among races/ethnicities other than Whites or Blacks have not been frequently reported. To examine CRC rates by sex across anatomic subsite, age and racial/ethnic groups, we used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for cases diagnosed among residents of 13 registries during 1992-2006. Incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population; MF IRR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Among each racial/ethnic group, the MF IRR increased fairly monotonically from close to unity for cecal cancers to 1.81 (Hispanics) for rectal cancers. MF IRRs increased with age most rapidly for distal colon cancers from <1.0 at ages <50 years to 1.4-1.9 at older ages. The MF IRR for rectal cancers also rose with age from about 1.0 to 2.0. For proximal cancer, the MF IRR was consistently <1.5; among American Indian/Alaska Natives, it was <1.0 across all ages. The MF IRRs for CRC vary markedly according to subsite and age but less by racial/ethnic group. These findings may partially reflect differences in screening experiences and access to medical care but also suggest that etiologic factors may be playing a role.

  1. Morphological Integration of the Human Pelvis with Respect to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Angela M; Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research has shown that modern human pelvic dimensions, especially of the birth canal, are sexually dimorphic. Studies also suggest that females with younger ages-at-death have narrower canal dimensions than those who die at older ages, possibly due to continued independent growth of the pubis. A recent examination of this pattern argued that it is unlikely that these differences relate to mortality, but the source of the difference in pelvic dimensions with age remains unresolved. We use pelvic dimensions to assess differences in magnitudes of morphological integration between adult females and males across ages-at-death. We first ascertain whether the sexes have different strengths of integration, and then assess if differences in magnitudes of integration are associated with age-at-death. Pelvic dimensions of all groups were moderately integrated. Females and males have similar magnitudes of integration, and there is no change in the strength of integration with age. Examining individual regions of the pelvis indicates that the ilium, pubis, and pelvic inlet and outlet have stronger integration than the overall pelvis. This was particularly true of the pelvic outlet, which demonstrated the strongest integration. Our findings suggest that regions of the pelvis are more strongly integrated internally, and less integrated with each other, which would allow for proportional growth among regions of the pelvis with age that do not affect its overall integration. No single region of the pelvis appears to be motivating the difference in pelvic dimensions between age groups. We further consider the implications of these findings on evolutionary constraints. Anat Rec, 300:666-674, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  3. Age-associated changes in basal c-fos transcription factor binding activity in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Tsou, H; Azhar, G; Lu, X G; Kovacs, S; Peacocke, M; Wei, J Y

    1996-12-15

    The early response proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed at very low levels in the mammalian heart at baseline. To further investigate the mechanism of altered c-fos expression with age, we studied in the basal state the binding of five transcription proteins to their cognate sites in the c-fos promoter/enhancer region, in adult and old F344 rats. Our results show a reduced binding of E2F and AP1 proteins to the c-fos promoter in aging hearts. The major calcium/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and SP1 binding was unchanged. The only increase seen with age was in the serum response element (SRE) binding proteins. SRE is the point of convergence of different signal transduction pathways (via MAP kinases and the Rho family of GTPases) at the c-fos promoter. Increased SRE binding may reflect a compensation for a decreased binding of other transcription proteins to the c-fos promoter, alteration in the phosphorylation status of SRF, or a change in the ternary complex factors Elk 1 or SAP 1. Other possibilities include defects in the signal transduction pathways with aging, which combine to produce an overall negative balance in the function of the c-fos promoter despite the increased SRE binding activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown decreased c-fos expression with age. This may be due partly to alterations in the basal levels of transcription factor binding.

  4. Chronographic Imprint of Age-Induced Alterations in Heart Rate Dynamical Organization

    PubMed Central

    Makowiec, Danuta; Wejer, Dorota; Kaczkowska, Agnieszka; Żarczyńska-Buchowiecka, Marta; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2015-01-01

    Beat-to-beat changes in the heart period are transformed into a network of increments between subsequent RR-intervals, which enables graphical descriptions of short-term heart period variability. Three types of such descriptions are considered: (1) network graphs arising from a set of vertices and directed edges, (2) contour plots of adjacency matrices A, representing the networks and transition matrices T, resulting from A, and (3) vector plots of gradients of the matrices A and T. Two indices are considered which summarize properties of A and T: the approximate deceleration capacity and the entropy rate. The method, applied to time series of nocturnal RR-intervals recorded from healthy subjects of different ages, reveals important aspect of changes in the autonomic activity caused by biological aging. Independent of the subject’s age, following accelerations, a pendulum-like dynamics appears. With decelerations, this dynamics develops in line with the subject’s age. This aging transition can be graphically visualized by vectors connecting the maxima of the transition probabilities of T, which, metaphorically, resemble a chronometer or the hands of a clock. PMID:26236241

  5. Growth-Hormone Dynamics in Healthy Adults are Related to Age and Sex, and Strongly Dependent on Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2015-01-01

    Context Studies on 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion are rare. The influence of sex, age and adiposity are well recognized but generally derived from specific selected subject groups, not spanning sexes, many age decades, and a range of body weights. Objective The goal was to investigate GH dynamics in a group of 130 healthy adult subjects, both men and women, across 5 age decades, and a 2.5 fold range of body mass index (BMI). Methods GH was measured by a sensitive immunofluorometric assay. Secretion parameters were quantified by automated deconvolution and relative pattern randomness by approximate entropy (ApEn). Results Median age was 40, range 20–77 year. Median BMI was 26, range 18.3–49.8 kg/m2. Pulsatile 24-hour GH secretion was negatively correlated with age (P=0.002) and BMI (P<0.0001). Basal GH secretion negatively correlated with BMI (P=0.003) and not with age. The sex-dependent GH secretion (larger in women) was no longer detectable after 50 year. IGF-1 levels were lower in women after 50 year compared with men of similar age. ApEn showed age-related increase in both sexes and was higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal women than men of comparable age (P<0.0001). A single fasting GH measurement is non-informative of 24-hour GH secretion. Conclusion BMI dominates the negative regulation of 24-hour GH secretion across 5 decades of age in this till now largest cohort of healthy adults, who underwent 24-hour blood sampling. Sex also impacts GH secretion before age 50 yr and its regularity at all ages. Serum IGF-I differences partly depend on pre- or postmenopausal state. Finally, a single GH measurement is not informative of 24-hour GH secretion. PMID:26228064

  6. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  7. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  8. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  9. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  10. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients and the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chao; Tuo, Bi-Guang; Wu, Wei-Min; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Kui

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients in China to analyze the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The results showed that the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer increased with age. In patients under 60 years old, the prevalence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in females was markedly lower than that in males, especially the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients was markedly higher than in patients without H. pylori infection. In the patients under 60 years old, sex differences were still seen in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers was markedly increased with age in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, and H. pylori infection were three independent risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  11. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on kicking development and static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey on their participation in school or community-sponsored soccer. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form was significantly related to sex (Grade 6: boys outperformed girls), static and dynamic balance (Grade 7), and age (Grade 6).

  12. Influence of age and sex on line bisection: a study of normal performance with implications for visuospatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Varnava, Alice; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-11-01

    Line bisection is an established clinical task used to diagnose visuospatial neglect. To date, few studies have considered the extent to which age and sex as background variables contribute to bisection performance. Both variables affect the neural substrates underlying cognitive processes and hence the behavioural performance of bisection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and sex on normal bisection performance, using three different line lengths to elucidate the influence of these potential contributing factors. Seventy men and 70 women, divided equally into seven age-cohorts between 14 and 80 years, bisected lines. Results indicated clear age- and sex-related differences both in the magnitude and direction of bisection deviations across the three line lengths. Differences are discussed in terms of neural changes across the adult lifespan including hemispheric differences and hormonally mediated changes.

  13. The effect of age, sex, and physical activity on entheseal morphology in a contemporary Italian skeletal collection.

    PubMed

    Milella, Marco; Giovanna Belcastro, Maria; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Mariotti, Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Entheseal changes are traditionally included in a large array of skeletal features commonly referred to as "skeletal markers of activity." However, medical studies and recent anthropological analyses of identified skeletal series suggest a complex combination of physiological and biomechanical factors underlying the variability of such "markers." The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between age, sex, physical activity, and entheseal variability. To this end, 23 postcranial entheses are examined in a large (N = 484) Italian contemporary skeletal series using standardized scoring methods. The sample comprises subjects of known age, sex and, mostly, occupation. Results show a strong relationship between age and entheseal changes. Differences between sexes are also highlighted, while the effects of physical activity appear moderate. Altogether, our study indicates that entheseal morphology primarily reflects the age of an individual, while correlation with lifetime activity remains ambiguous.

  14. Sex- and age-dependent patterns of survival and breeding success in a long-lived endangered avian scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Serrano, David; Blanco, Guillermo; Ceballos, Olga; Grande, Juan M.; Tella, José L.; Donázar, José A.

    2017-01-01

    In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males. We found an age-related improvement in breeding success at the population level responding to the selective appearance and disappearance of phenotypes of different quality but unrelated to within-individual aging effects. Old males (≥8 yrs) showed a higher survival than both young males (≤7 yrs) and females, these later in turn not showing aging effects. Evolutionary trade-offs between age of recruitment and fitness (probably related to costs of territory acquisition and defense) as well as human-related mortality may explain these findings. Sex- and age-related differences in foraging strategies and susceptibility to toxics could be behind the relatively low survival of females and young males, adding a new concern for the conservation of this endangered species. PMID:28074860

  15. Sex- and age-dependent patterns of survival and breeding success in a long-lived endangered avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Serrano, David; Blanco, Guillermo; Ceballos, Olga; Grande, Juan M; Tella, José L; Donázar, José A

    2017-01-11

    In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males. We found an age-related improvement in breeding success at the population level responding to the selective appearance and disappearance of phenotypes of different quality but unrelated to within-individual aging effects. Old males (≥8 yrs) showed a higher survival than both young males (≤7 yrs) and females, these later in turn not showing aging effects. Evolutionary trade-offs between age of recruitment and fitness (probably related to costs of territory acquisition and defense) as well as human-related mortality may explain these findings. Sex- and age-related differences in foraging strategies and susceptibility to toxics could be behind the relatively low survival of females and young males, adding a new concern for the conservation of this endangered species.

  16. Sex- and age-dependent patterns of survival and breeding success in a long-lived endangered avian scavenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Serrano, David; Blanco, Guillermo; Ceballos, Olga; Grande, Juan M.; Tella, José L.; Donázar, José A.

    2017-01-01

    In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males. We found an age-related improvement in breeding success at the population level responding to the selective appearance and disappearance of phenotypes of different quality but unrelated to within-individual aging effects. Old males (≥8 yrs) showed a higher survival than both young males (≤7 yrs) and females, these later in turn not showing aging effects. Evolutionary trade-offs between age of recruitment and fitness (probably related to costs of territory acquisition and defense) as well as human-related mortality may explain these findings. Sex- and age-related differences in foraging strategies and susceptibility to toxics could be behind the relatively low survival of females and young males, adding a new concern for the conservation of this endangered species.

  17. Sex Differences in Platelet Reactivity and Cardiovascular and Psychological Response to Mental Stress in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Ersboll, Mads; Vora, Amit N.; Zhang, Ye; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph G.; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although emotional stress is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and related clinical events, sex-specific differences in the psychobiological response to mental stress have not been clearly identified. OBJECTIVES We aimed to study the differential psychological and cardiovascular responses to mental stress between male and female patients with stable IHD. METHODS Patients with stable IHD enrolled in the REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram) study underwent psychometric assessments, transthoracic echocardiography, and platelet aggregation studies at baseline and after 3 mental stress tasks. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) was defined as the development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality, reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥8% by transthoracic echocardiography, and/or ischemic ST-segment change on electrocardiogram during 1 or more of the 3 mental stress tasks. RESULTS In the 310 participants with known IHD (18% women, 82% men), most baseline characteristics were similar between women and men (including heart rate, blood pressure, and LVEF), although women were more likely to be nonwhite, living alone (p < 0.001), and unmarried (p < 0.001); they also had higher baseline depression and anxiety (p < 0.05). At rest, women had heightened platelet aggregation responses to serotonin (p = 0.007) and epinephrine (p = 0.004) compared with men. Following mental stress, women had more MSIMI (57% vs. 41%, p < 0.04), expressed more negative (p = 0.02) and less positive emotion (p < 0.001), and demonstrated higher collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation responses (p = 0.04) than men. Men were more likely than women to show changes in traditional physiological measures, such as blood pressure (p < 0.05) and double product. CONCLUSIONS In this exploratory analysis, we identified clear, measurable, and differential responses to mental stress in women and men

  18. The electrocardiogram of the Beagle dog: reference values and effect of sex, genetic strain, body position and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Hanton, G; Rabemampianina, Y

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a database for electrocardiographic parameters of Beagle dogs used for toxicological studies and to evaluate the influence of supplier, sex, heart rate (HR) and body position for electrocardiogram (ECG) recording on ECG parameters. Peripheral ECG leads were recorded from 934 female and 946 male dogs from Marshall Farms and 27 females and 30 males from Harlan, either standing on a table or restrained in a hammock. HR, RR, PQ and QT intervals, P and QRS duration and P-wave amplitude were measured. There were no major differences between sexes for ECG parameters. The axis of the heart was shifted to the left when the animals were restrained in a hammock compared to when they were standing on a table. The PQ interval was higher (about 9%) in Harlan than in Marshall dogs. HR was negatively correlated with QT (coefficient of linear correlation: r=-0.61 to -0.74), which emphasizes the need for a formula correcting QT interval for HR when interpreting changes in QT interval. HR was also negatively correlated with PQ intervals (r=-0.26 to -0.11), whereas a positive correlation was found between HR and the amplitude of the P wave (r=0.21-0.34). The level of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (SA) was quantified by calculating the ratio of maximum to minimum RR interval measured over a 10 s period. This ratio was negatively correlated with HR (r =-0.49 to -0.33). Therefore, at high HRs, SA was less marked than at low HRs, but it did not completely disappear. Analysis of beat-to-beat variation indicated that QT and PQ intervals and the amplitude of P wave fluctuated over time and the degree of this variability was positively correlated with the level of SA. In conclusion, we have established reference values for the duration and/or amplitude of some ECG parameters both in terms of means and variability over the recording period, and we have evaluated the influence of body position, genetic strain and HR on the ECG parameters. These data can

  19. Absence of sex differences in systolic blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Maruf, F A; Ogochukwu, U N; Dim, P A; Alada, A Ra

    2012-06-07

    The influence of sex on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses associated with cardiovascular morbidity, in healthy young adults was determined in ninety healthy young adults (47 females and 43 males) exercised using Bruce protocol. SBP and HR were measured pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. SBPresponse (peak minus pre-exercise SBP), %SBPresponse [(peak minus pre-exercise SBP)÷pre-exercise SBP]x100, SBP3 (SBP 3 minutes into recovery), SBP4 (SBP 4 minutes into recovery), SBP3:peak (SBP3÷peak SBP), %SBPd3 [(peak SBP minus SBP 3 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]x100, %SBPd4 [(peak SBP minus SBP 4 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]X100, HRresponse (Peak HR minus pre-exercise HR), %HRresponse [(peak HR minus pre-exercise HR)÷pre-exercise HR]x 100, HR3 (HR 3 minutes into recovery), HR4 (HR 4 minutes into recovery), %HRd3 [(peak HR minus HR 3 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]x100, %HRd4 [(peak HR minus HR 4 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]X100, and HR50-70 (HR between 50th and 70th seconds into recovery) were derived from SBP and HR measurements. SBPpeak, HRresponse and %HRresponse were higher in males than in females whereas, SBPresponse, %SBPresponse and HRpeak were not different. There were no significant differences in the post-exercise SBP and HR responses of males and females except for SBP3, SBP4, HR3 and HR4. After adjusting for exercise duration, body mass index (BMI), and resting SBP and HR, these variables became similar. Sex differences in some SBP and HR responses to exercise, become nonexistent after adjusting for BMI, exercise duration, and resting SBP and HR.

  20. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  1. Age and sex related differences in normal pituitary gland and fossa volumes.

    PubMed

    Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Pecina, Tatjana Cicvara; Vyroubal, Vlasta; Kruljac, Ivan; Slaus, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of age and sex on the volumes of the pituitary fossa and gland in 91 males and 108 females from Croatia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the endocranium for complaints not related to the pituitary gland. Isometric 3DT1 MPRAGE and 3DT1 MPR sequences were obtained on 1.5. Tesla and analysed on ISSA software. The volumes were obtained from the sum of all the areas multiplied by the thickness of the section. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa for males was 1111.1.4 mm(3), for females 1354.4.2 mm(3). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P=0.0.09) between age of the patient, and pituitary volume. Age of the patient and free volume demonstrate a significant positive correlation (P=0.0.01) indicating that the amount of unoccupied space in the pituitary fossa significantly increases with age. Determining general morphological values, as well as variations of pituitary depth and the occupation of the fossa with the pituitary gland is of great help in everyday diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  2. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  3. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  4. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards.

  5. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.

  6. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  7. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  8. The Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jie; Li, Boyang; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied. There was a log-linear increase in the age effect on IHD mortality as those aged 80–84 showed 277 and 161 times greater IHD mortality risk than those aged 20–24 in urban and rural populations, respectively. While there was an upward trend in the period effect in both populations, the influence of the cohort effect on mortality decreased over time for those born from 1904 to 1993. The age, period, and cohort effects on mortality in China were generally comparable between urban and rural populations. The results suggest that population aging is a major driver behind the rapid rise in IHD mortality. Increased exposure to air pollution may also have played a role in driving the period effect PMID:28067846

  9. Respiration and heart rate complexity: effects of age and gender assessed by band-limited transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shamim; Edwards, Bradley A; Lee, Joon; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Butler, James P; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-10-01

    Aging and disease are accompanied with a reduction of complex variability in the temporal patterns of heart rate. This reduction has been attributed to a break down of the underlying regulatory feedback mechanisms that maintain a homeodynamic state. Previous work has established the utility of entropy as an index of disorder, for quantification of changes in heart rate complexity. However, questions remain regarding the origin of heart rate complexity and the mechanisms involved in its reduction with aging and disease. In this work we use a newly developed technique based on the concept of band-limited transfer entropy to assess the aging-related changes in contribution of respiration and blood pressure to entropy of heart rate at different frequency bands. Noninvasive measurements of heart beat interval, respiration, and systolic blood pressure were recorded from 20 young (21-34 years) and 20 older (68-85 years) healthy adults. Band-limited transfer entropy analysis revealed a reduction in high-frequency contribution of respiration to heart rate complexity (p<0.001) with normal aging, particularly in men. These results have the potential for dissecting the relative contributions of respiration and blood pressure-related reflexes to heart rate complexity and their degeneration with normal aging.

  10. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF.

  11. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Takehiro; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF. PMID:28328981

  12. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk.

  13. Sex- and age-dependent gene expression in human liver: An implication for drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Takata, Ryo; Kito, Go; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2017-02-01

    Sex and age differences in hepatic expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes could cause variations in drug metabolism, but has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian population. In this study, the global expression of human hepatic genes was analyzed by microarrays in 40 Japanese subjects (27 males and 13 females). Thirty-five sex-biased genes were identified (P < 0.005). Whereas, 60 age-biased genes in two age groups, <60 years and ≥70 years (P < 0.001), were identified in males. By Gene Ontology analysis, the sex-biased genes were related to protein catabolism and modification, while the age-biased genes were related to transcription regulation and cell death. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the female-biased expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes BChE, CYP4X1, and SULT1E1 (≥1.5-fold, P < 0.05). Further analysis of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes indicated that expression of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in females in the ≥70 age group was less than in the <60 age group (≥1.5-fold, P < 0.05), and this trend was also observed for PXR expression in males (≥1.5-fold, P < 0.05). The results presented provide important insights into hepatic physiology and function, especially drug metabolism, with respect to sex and age.

  14. [Risk and protective factors in adolescents' drug use, and differences by age and sex].

    PubMed

    López Larrosa, Silvia; Rodríguez-Arias Palomo, José Luis

    2010-11-01

    Adolescents' drug use has huge social and personal implications, so it is essential to identify risk and protective factors. In this research, the CTCYS was used with 2440 adolescents to detect risk and protective factors for drug use in the community, family, school and peers/individual; differences in risk and protective factors by age and sex; and relationships between risk and protective factors and substance use. Protective factors are high. Risk factors are high in the community, the school and the individual. Older adolescents have more risks and less protection than the youngest; and there are sex differences, because males have less protection and more risks. The risk factors more closely related to drug use are availability of drugs in the community, family attitudes favourable to drug use, family history of antisocial behaviour, early start and use of drugs by friends, perceived risk and attitudes favourable to drug use. In the protective factors, the role played by social skills for alcohol use is important.

  15. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  16. Resting heart rate and the development of antisocial behavior from age 9 to 14: Genetic and environmental influences

    PubMed Central

    BAKER, LAURA A.; TUVBLAD, CATHERINE; REYNOLDS, CHANDRA; ZHENG, MO; LOZANO, DORA ISABEL; RAINE, ADRIAN

    2009-01-01

    The genetic and environmental basis of a well-replicated association between antisocial behavior (ASB) and resting heart rate was investigated in a longitudinal twin study, based on two measurements between the ages of 9 and 14 years. ASB was defined as a broad continuum of externalizing behavior problems, assessed at each occasion through a composite measure based on parent ratings of trait aggression, delinquent behaviors, and psychopathic traits in their children. Parent ratings of ASB significantly decreased across age from childhood to early adolescence, although latent growth models indicated significant variation and twin similarity in the growth patterns, which were explained almost entirely by genetic influences. Resting heart rate at age 9–10 years old was inversely related to levels of ASB but not change patterns of ASB across age or occasions. Biometrical analyses indicated significant genetic influences on heart rate during childhood, as well as ASB throughout development from age 9 to 14. Both level and slope variation were significantly influenced by genetic factors. Of importance, the low resting heart rate and ASB association was significantly and entirely explained by their genetic covariation, although the heritable component of heart rate explained only a small portion (1–4%) of the substantial genetic variance in ASB. Although the effect size is small, children with low resting heart rate appear to be genetically predisposed toward externalizing behavior problems as early as age 9 years old. PMID:19583891

  17. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (± 29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.

  18. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  19. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Grønbæk, Morten; O’Reilly, Eilis; Bälter, Katarina; Goldbourt, Uri; Hallmans, Göran; Knekt, Paul; Liu, Simin; Pereira, Mark; Pietinen, Pirjo; Spiegelman, Donna; Stevens, June; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. CHD Incidence is low in men younger than 40 and in women younger than 50 years and for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate effects of alcohol on CHD risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD depends on age. Methods and results A pooled analysis of eight prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline. Average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups: hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0–29.9 g/day) aged 39–50, 50–59, and 60+ years were 0.58 (95% C.I. 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.60–0.86), and 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference (IRD) between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (IRD=45 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 8 to 84), than in middle-aged (IRD=64 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 24 to 102) and older adults (IRD=89 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 44 to 140). Similar results were observed in women. Conclusions Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of CHD in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. PMID:20351238

  20. Estimating risks of heat strain by age and sex: a population-level simulation model.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Dear, Keith

    2015-05-18

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan's man model "MANMO") to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions.

  1. Nitrative Thioredoxin Inactivation as a Cause of Enhanced Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in the Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangxiang; Tao, Ling; Jiao, Xiangying; Gao, Erhe; Lopez, Bernard L.; Christopher, Theodore A.; Koch, Walter; Ma, Xin L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Several recent studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin (Trx) is an important anti-apoptotic/cytoprotective molecule. The present study was designed to determine whether Trx activity is altered in the aging heart in a way that may contribute to increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Methods and Results Compared to young animals, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were increased in aging animals (P<0.01). Trx activity was decreased in the aging heart before MI/R, and this difference was further amplified after MI/R. Trx expression was moderately increased and Trx nitration, a post-translational modification that inhibits Trx activity, was increased in the aging heart. Moreover, Trx-ASK1 complex formation was reduced and activity of p38 MAPK was increased. Treatment with FP15 (a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst) reduced Trx nitration, increased Trx activity, restored Trx-ASK1 interaction, reduced P38 MAPK activity, attenuated caspase 3 activation and reduced infarct size in aging animals (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results demonstrated that Trx activity is decreased in the aging heart by post-translational nitrative modification. Interventions that restore Trx activity in the aging heart may be novel therapies to attenuate MI/R injury in aging patients. PMID:17561092

  2. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  3. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  4. Sex Differences in Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Epps, Kelly C.; Holper, Elizabeth M.; Selzer, Faith; Vlachos, Helen A.; Gualano, Sarah K.; Abbott, J. Dawn; Jacobs, Alice K.; Marroquin, Oscar C.; Naidu, Srihari S.; Groeneveld, Peter W.; Wilensky, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Women <50 years of age with coronary artery disease (CAD) may represent a group at higher risk for recurrent ischemic events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, no long-term, multi-center outcomes assessment exists in this population. Methods and Results Using the NHLBI Dynamic Registry we evaluated the association of sex and age on cardiovascular-related outcomes in10,963 patients (3,797 women, 394 <50 years) undergoing PCI and followed for 5 years. Death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), and repeat PCI were primary outcomes comprising major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). While procedural success rates were similar by sex, the cumulative rate of MACE at 1 year was higher in young women (27.8 vs. 19.9%, p=0.003) driven largely by higher rates of repeat revascularizations for target vessel or target lesion failure (CABG: 8.9% vs. 3.9%, p<0.001, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0; PCI: 19.0% vs. 13.0%, p=0.005, aHR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). At 5 years, young women remained at higher risk for repeat procedures (CABG: 10.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.04, aHR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.88; repeat PCI [target vessel]: 19.7% vs. 11.8%, p=0.002, aHR 1.8, 95% CI 1.24-2.82). Compared to older women, younger women remained at increased risk of MACE, while all outcome rates were similar in older women and men. Conclusions Young women, despite having less severe angiographic CAD have an increased risk of target vessel and target lesion failure. The causes of this difference deserve further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005677. PMID:26908855

  5. Temporal stability and moderating effects of age and sex on CNTRaCS task performance.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Milton E; McLouth, Christopher J; Barch, Deanna M; Carter, Cameron S; Gold, James M; Luck, Steven J; MacDonald, Angus W; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Keane, Brian P; Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-07-01

    Research in schizophrenia has increasingly focused on incorporating measures from cognitive neuroscience, but little is known about their psychometric characteristics. Here, we extend prior research by reporting on temporal stability, as well as age and sex effects, for cognitive neuroscience paradigms optimized as part of the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical applications for Schizophrenia consortium. Ninety-nine outpatients with schizophrenia and 131 healthy controls performed 5 tasks assessing 4 constructs at 3 sessions. The constructs were (1) Goal maintenance (Dot Probe Expectancy [DPX] and AX continuous performance tasks [AX-CPT]); (2) Episodic memory (Relational and Item-Specific Encoding and Retrieval task [RiSE]); (3) Visual integration (Jittered Orientation Visual Integration task [JOVI]); and (4) Perceptual gain control (Contrast-Contrast Effect Task [CCE]). Patients performed worse than controls on all but the CCE, and the magnitude of these group differences was stable across sessions, with no sex differences observed. Improvements over sessions were seen for the AX-CPT, the DPX, and the JOVI though practice effects for the AX-CPT and the DPX were primarily present in older participants. For the AX-CPT and the JOVI, practice effects were larger for T1 to T2 than for T2 to T3. Age was associated with poor associative recognition on the RiSE and accuracy on the JOVI. Test-rest reliability ranged from poor for the JOVI threshold score to adequate to good for the DPX, AX-CPT, and JOVI accuracy measures, with RiSE and CCE measures in the moderate range. These results suggest that group differences in DPX, AX-CPT, RiSE, and JOVI are robust and consistent across repeated testing.

  6. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children.

    PubMed

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and nine-year old children (n = 358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in nine-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (P = 0.02 for o,p' -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies.

  7. Efficient breathing at neonatal ages: A sex and Epo-dependent issue.

    PubMed

    Iturri, Pablo; Bairam, Aida; Soliz, Jorge

    2016-12-29

    During postnatal life, the respiratory control system undergoes intense development and is highly responsive to stimuli emerging from the environment. In fact, interruption of breathing prevents gas exchange and results in systemic hypoxia that, if prolonged, can lead to cardio-respiratory failure or sudden infant death. Moreover, in newborns and infants, respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction show significant sexual dimorphism with a higher prevalence in males. To this day, the therapeutic tools available to alleviate these respiratory disorders remain limited. Furthermore, the factors explaining the sexual dimorphism in newborns and during infancy remain unknown. Erythropoietin (Epo) was originally discovered as a cytokine able to increase the production of red blood cells upon conditions of reduced oxygen availability. We now know that Epo is a cytokine also secreted by neurons and astrocytes that protects the brain during trauma or hypoxic stress in a sex dependent manner. In this novel line of research, our previous studies demonstrated at adult ages that cerebral Epo acts as a respiratory stimulant in rodents and humans. These results provided a strong rationale for exploring the role of cerebral Epo in neuronal respiratory control during postnatal development. The objective of this review is to summarize our recent findings showing that cerebral Epo is a potent sex-specific respiratory stimulant at neonatal ages. Keeping in mind that Epo is routinely and safely administrated in newborn humans for anemia and neonatal asphyxia, we predict that our research provides the basis necessary to promote the clinical use of Epo against neonatal respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction.

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a nonacademic setting. Effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Khoury, S; Yarows, S A; O'Brien, T K; Sowers, J R

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) are likely to eliminate the stress of visits and observer bias in office blood pressure (BP) recordings, allow consideration of the circadian variability in BP, and correlate well with target organ damage. To define the prevalence of "white coat" hypertension in a rural community to a nonacademic setting, and to assess age and sex related differences, we studied 131 patients who had more than two prior office diastolic BP measurements greater than 90 mm Hg and less than 115 mm Hg. Blood pressure was measured every 10 to 60 min for 24 h using the SpaceLabs 90207 device. Office BP readings were higher than ABPM in the group as a whole, in individual age groups, and in both sexes. The differences were more pronounced at night. Average differences between office and ambulatory BP ranged between 14.4 +/- 1.7/2.9 +/- 2.0 (ABPM at 10:00), and 33.8 +/- 2.3/22.8 +/- 1.5 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic +/- SE) (ABPM at 01:00). The nighttime drop in systolic BP was not apparent in subjects more than 65 years old. Women had a proportionately higher mean office BP than men (115.0 +/- 0.9 office v 110.2 +/- 1.3 mm Hg ABPM in women and 112.3 +/- 0.9 v 104.3 +/- 1.1 mm Hg in men) (P = .013), and the elderly did not display the relationship between ambulatory and office mean BP seen in younger subjects (r = 0.15, P = .30 v r = 0.36, P = .0004, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  10. Quality of life in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome with a focus on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Du; Broman, Lisbet; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gonzalez, Henrik; Borg, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.

  11. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 381 boys and 338 girls (ages 4-14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed in throwing development and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school- or community-sponsored sports. To determine the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis, which indicated that mature throwing development was influenced by sport participation and sex. Boys performed better at all grades.

  12. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys.

  13. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children in Grades K to 8. The subjects were 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on catching and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and participation in sports within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Mature catching development was influenced by sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 8 all girls and boys showed mature catching patterns.

  14. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Schmutz, Einat A; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2-6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14-18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  15. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G.; Kakebeeke, Tanja H.; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S.; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H.; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J.; Schmutz, Einat A.; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E.; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2–6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14–18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  16. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  17. Age-dependent diastolic heart failure in an in vivo Drosophila model

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Matthew P; Peters, Christian J; Zhou, Shiwei; Williams, Hannah H; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2017-01-01

    While the signals and complexes that coordinate the heartbeat are well established, how the heart maintains its electromechanical rhythm over a lifetime remains an open question with significant implications to human health. Reasoning that this homeostatic challenge confronts all pulsatile organs, we developed a high resolution imaging and analysis toolset for measuring cardiac function in intact, unanesthetized Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that, as in humans, normal aging primarily manifests as defects in relaxation (diastole) while preserving contractile performance. Using this approach, we discovered that a pair of two-pore potassium channel (K2P) subunits, largely dispensable early in life, are necessary for terminating contraction (systole) in aged animals, where their loss culminates in fibrillatory cardiac arrest. As the pumping function of its heart is acutely dispensable for survival, Drosophila represents a uniquely accessible model for understanding the signaling networks maintaining cardiac performance during normal aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20851.001 PMID:28328397

  18. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    PubMed Central

    Alves, José A.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Loonstra, AH Jelle; Potts, Peter M.; Granadeiro, José P.; Catry, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI). Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990). The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change or loss (e

  19. The impact of psychiatric illness on suicide: differences by diagnosis of disorders and by sex and age of subjects.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ping

    2011-11-01

    People with a psychiatric illness are at high risk for suicide; however, variation of the risk by patients' sex and age and by specific diagnosis needs to be explored in a more detail. This large population study systematically assesses suicide incidence rate ratio (IRR) and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with various psychiatric disorders by comparing 21,169 suicides in Denmark over a 17-year period with sex-age-time-matched population controls. The study shows that suicide risk is significantly increased for persons with a hospitalized psychiatric disorder and the associated risk varies significantly by diagnosis and by sex and age of subjects. Further adjustment for personal socioeconomic differences eliminates the IRRs associated with various disorders only to a limited extend. Recurrent depression and borderline personality disorder increase suicide risk the strongest while dementia increases the risk the least for both males and females. The influence of various disorders generally weakens with increasing age; however, there are important exceptions. Schizophrenia affects people aged ≤35 years the strongest in terms of both IRR and PAR. Recurrent depression increases suicide risk particularly strong in all age groups and the associated PAR increases steadily with age. Borderline personality disorder has a strong effect in young people, especially those ≤35 years. Alcohol use disorder accounts the highest PAR of suicides in males of 36-60 years old. For the elderly above 60 years old, reaction to stress and adjustment disorder increases the risk for suicide the most in both sexes. These findings suggest that approaches to psychiatric suicide prevention should be varied according to diagnosis and sex and age of subjects.

  20. Age-related differences in biomedical and folk beliefs as causes for diabetes and heart disease among Mexican origin adults.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Wilkinson, Anna V; Sandoval, Juan-Miguel; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    An understanding of health beliefs is key to creating culturally appropriate health services for Hispanic populations in the US. In this study we explore age-based variations in causal beliefs for heart disease and diabetes among Mexican origin adults in Houston, TX. This cross-sectional study included 497 adults of Mexican origin. Participants were asked to indicate the importance of biomedically defined and folk illness-related risk factors as causes for heart disease and diabetes. Biomedical risk factors were ranked highest as causes of diabetes and heart disease among all participants. Folk illness-related factors were ranked below biomedical factors as causes of heart disease among all age groups. Susto was ranked above the median as a risk factor for diabetes among older participants. Age-related differences in causal beliefs may have implications for designing culturally appropriate health services, such as tailored diabetes interventions for older Mexican origin adults.

  1. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Tetschke, Florian; Nowack, Samuel; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Kynass, Isabelle; Bode, Franziska; Tegtmeyer, Janine; Kumm, Kathrin; Moraru, Liviu; Götz, Theresa; Haueisen, Jens; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although HRP analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG), however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are: (i) to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS) approach with that of CTG based Dawes-Redman methodology; and (ii) to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and HRP. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation. In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV) of R2 = 0.200 (coefficient of determination) in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R2 = 0.648 in 30 min recordings, R2 = 0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 min, and R2 = 0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 min. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations (AC) and decelerations (DC) in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R2 = 0.706. According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures. PMID:25505399

  2. Cohort study of effect of being overweight and change in weight on risk of coronary heart disease in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T. B.; Launer, L. J.; Madans, J.; Feldman, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk of late life coronary heart disease associated with being overweight in late middle or old age and to assess whether weight change modifies this risk. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of subjects in the epidemiological follow up study of the national health and nutrition examination survey I. SETTING: United States. SUBJECTS: 621 men and 960 women free of coronary heart disease in 1982-84 (mean age 77 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Body mass index of 27 or more in late middle age was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease in late life (relative risk = 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.1)) while body mass index of 27 or more in old age was not (1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)). This difference in risk was due largely to weight loss between middle and old age. Exclusion of those with weight loss of 10% or more increased risk associated with heavier weight in old age (1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)). Thinner older people who lost weight and heavier people who had gained weight showed increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with thinner people with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier weight in late middle age was a risk factor for coronary heart disease in late life. Heavier weight in old age was associated with an increased risk once those with substantial weight loss were excluded. The contribution of weight to risk of coronary heart disease in older people may be underestimated if weight history is neglected. PMID:9224080

  3. Shape variability of the adult human acetabulum and acetabular fossa related to sex and age by geometric morphometrics. Implications for adult age estimation.

    PubMed

    San-Millán, Marta; Rissech, Carme; Turbón, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to explore shape variability of the acetabulum during the human adult life span, in relation to sex and age. The human acetabular shape was analysed in 682 os coxae from three different documented skeletal collections from the Iberian Peninsula. Two landmarks and thirty-two sliding semi-landmarks were used for the geometric morphometric procedures and a clock-wise standard was used for orientation. The 180° meridian (6:00) line was positioned over the midpoint of the acetabular notch and 36 reference points in 10° increments along the rim were marked. Data showed that size, sex and age significantly influence acetabular shape variation. Sex differences were significant in individuals younger than 65 years old and were characterised by males exhibiting relatively extended acetabular rim profiles from 10:00 to 1:00, narrower acetabular notches, and reduced acetabular fossae. In addition, three main age-related changes occurred to the acetabular shape in both sexes: outer acetabular profile modification, with extension from 10:00 to 1:00 and reduction from 7:00 to 9:00, acetabular notch narrowing, and acetabular fossa reduction. The age-related changes that were observed are shared by both sexes and seem to be related to bone production associated with age. Specifically, age appears to affect the entire border of the lunate surface: the acetabular rim, both acetabular horns, and the outer edge of the acetabular fossa. Furthermore, shape data confirmed the clover-leaf shape of the acetabular fossa in both males and females. These results improve our understanding of acetabular shape, and assist in refining age-estimation methods and enhancing hip surgery and rehabilitation.

  4. The Mitochondrial Lon Protease Is Required for Age-Specific and Sex-Specific Adaptation to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Wong, Sarah; Halaszynski, Kelly; Salomon, Matthew P; Davies, Kelvin J A; Tower, John

    2017-01-09

    Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity. Adaptation to oxidative stress is lost with age in both sexes. Transgenic expression of transformer gene during development transforms chromosomal males into pseudo-females and confers the female-specific pattern of Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H2O2 stress adaptation; these effects were also observed using adult-specific transformation. Conversely, knockdown of transformer in chromosomal females eliminates the female-specific Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H2O2 stress adaptation and produces the male-specific paraquat (superoxide) stress adaptation. Sex-specific expression of alternative Lon isoforms was also observed in mouse tissues. The results develop Drosophila melanogaster as a model for sex-specific stress adaptation regulated by the Lon protease, with potential implications for understanding sexual dimorphism in human disease.

  5. Comparison of age- and sex-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemia complex in the cat and the dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    1983-05-01

    Data on cancer cases in cats and dogs were collected systematically by the Animal Neoplasm Registry of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, Calif., a population-based animal tumor registry. Etiologic relationships were evaluated on the basis of comparisons of age-specific, sex-specific, and age-neutered-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemias. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates for all leukemias per 100,000 cats or dogs were 224.3 and 30.5, respectively. The cat had 6.1 times more malignant lymphomas and 15.7 times more myeloproliferative disease than the dog. Feline age-specific rates indicated a bimodal age pattern for all leukemias and for malignant lymphoma alone and a single early peak for myeloproliferative disease. In the dog, all age-specific patterns increased with age and peaked later in life. Feline sex-specific, age-adjusted rates showed that the neutered female was at lowest risk, followed by the neutered male, entire female, and entire male. In the dog, the neutered male was at lowest risk while the other three sex categories were clustered. However, the magnitude of expression within each species separately was the same for the neutered male, entire male, and entire female, but not for the neutered female. Neutering decreased the risk of leukemias in the female cat by approximately one-half but did not affect the risk of leukemias in the female dog.

  6. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  7. Early Age of First Sex and Health Risk in an Urban Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Deborah L.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sex is associated with high-risk behaviors and outcomes, including sexual risk behaviors, forced sex, physical dating violence, and becoming pregnant or impregnating someone. Methods: Using 2005 and 2007 data from the New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 17,220), this study examined the prevalence of early sex among…

  8. The effect of age and sex on facial mimicry: a three-dimensional study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Mapelli, A; Galante, D; Moriconi, S; Ibba, T M; Ferraro, L; Ferrario, V F

    2010-10-01

    To assess sex- and age-related characteristics in standardized facial movements, 40 healthy adults (20 men, 20 women; aged 20-50 years) performed seven standardized facial movements (maximum smile; free smile; "surprise" with closed mouth; "surprise" with open mouth; eye closure; right- and left-side eye closures). The three-dimensional coordinates of 21 soft tissue facial landmarks were recorded by a motion analyser, their movements computed, and asymmetry indices calculated. Within each movement, total facial mobility was independent from sex and age (analysis of variance, p>0.05). Asymmetry indices of the eyes and mouth were similar in both sexes (p>0.05). Age significantly influenced eye and mouth asymmetries of the right-side eye closure, and eye asymmetry of the surprise movement. On average, the asymmetry indices of the symmetric movements were always lower than 8%, and most did not deviate from the expected value of 0 (Student's t). Larger asymmetries were found for the asymmetric eye closures (eyes, up to 50%, p<0.05; mouth, up to 30%, p<0.05 only in the 20-30-year-old subjects). In conclusion, sex and age had a limited influence on total facial motion and asymmetry in normal adult men and women.

  9. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (P<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (P<0.05) sex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  10. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  11. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  12. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white Americans by sex, stage, and age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Devesa, Susan S; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2008-08-20

    Rapid increases in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus have been reported among white men. We further explored the temporal patterns of this disease among white individuals by sex, stage, and age by use of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We identified 22,759 patients from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 2004, with esophageal cancer, of whom 9526 were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Among white men, increases in the incidence of esophageal cancer were largely attributed to a 463% increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma over this time period, from 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90 to 1.13) in 1975-1979 to 5.69 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 5.47 to 5.91) in 2000-2004. A similar rapid increase was also apparent among white women, among whom the adenocarcinoma rate increased 335%, from 0.17 (95% CI = 0.13 to 0.21) to 0.74 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.81), over the same time period. Adenocarcinoma rates rose among white men and women in all stage and age groups, indicating that these increases are real and not an artifact of surveillance.

  13. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  14. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  15. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-11-26

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women.

  16. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability—Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID

  17. Dexamethasone induces apoptosis in the developing rat amygdala in an age, region, and sex specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David L.; Hiroi, Ryoko; Chong, David L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) in early development can lead to long-term changes in brain function and behavior although little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Perinatal exposure to GCs alters adult anxiety and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of either late gestational or neonatal exposure to the GC receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX), on apoptosis within the amygdala, a region critical for emotional regulation. DEX was administered to timed-pregnant rat dams from gestational day 18 until parturition, or postnatal day 4-6. Offspring were sacrificed the day following the last DEX treatment and tissue was processed for immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3, a marker for apoptotic cells. Prenatal DEX treatment significantly increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala of both sexes, largely due to increases within the medial and basomedial sub-regions. Postnatal DEX treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity within the amygdala, although effects reached significance only in the central nucleus of females. Overall, DEX induction of cleaved caspase-3 in the amygdala was greater following prenatal compared to postnatal treatment, yet in both instances elevations in cleaved caspase-3 correlated with an increase in pro-apoptotic Bax mRNA expression. Dual-label immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 and the neuronal marker NeuN confirmed that virtually all cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala were neurons and a subset of these cells (primarily following postnatal treatment) expressed a GABAergic calcium binding protein phenotype (calbindin or calretinin). Together these results indicate that early developmental GC exposure induces neuronal apoptosis within the amygdala in an age, sex, and region dependent manner. PMID:22008524

  18. Immunologic Aging in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Does Infant Sternotomy Matter?

    PubMed

    Elder, Robert W; George, Roshan P; McCabe, Nancy M; Rodriguez, Fred H; Book, Wendy M; Mahle, William T; Kirk, Allan D

    2015-10-01

    Thymectomy is performed routinely in infants undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Children post-sternotomy have decreased numbers of T lymphocytes, although the mechanisms involved and long-term consequences of this have not been defined. We hypothesized that lymphopenia in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) would be reflective of premature T cell maturation and exhaustion. Adults with ACHD who had sternotomy to repair congenital heart disease as infants (<1 year) and age-matched ACHD patients without prior sternotomy were studied using polychromatic flow cytometry interrogating markers of lymphocyte maturation, exhaustion and senescence. Group differences were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Eighteen ACHD patients aged 21-40 years participated: 10 cases and 8 controls. Median age at sternotomy for cases was 52 days. Cases and controls were matched for age (28.9 vs. 29.1 years; p = 0.83), gender (p = 0.15) and race (p = 0.62) and had similar case complexity. Cases had a lower mean percentage of cytotoxic CD8 lymphocytes compared to controls (26.8 vs. 33.9 %; p = 0.016), with fewer naive, undifferentiated CD8 T cells (31.0 vs. 53.6 %; p = 0.027). CD8 cells expressing PD1, a marker of immune exhaustion, trended higher in cases versus controls (25.6 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.083). Mean percentage of CD4 cells was higher in cases versus controls (65.6 vs. 59.6 %; p = 0.027), without differences in CD4 T cell maturation subtype. In summary, ACHD patients who undergo sternotomy as infants exhibit differences in T lymphocyte composition compared to ACHD controls, suggesting accelerated immunologic exhaustion. Investigation is warranted to assess the progressive nature and clinical impact of this immune phenotypic change.

  19. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, P<0·001), but HRR3 was higher in group Y (82·7 ± 10·2 versus 79·9 ± 12·25; P = 0·04). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, among all subjects, the HRR1 alone was independently associated with age (P<0·001). The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) was in a negative relationship with HRR1 and in a positive one with HRR3 (P<0·05) with respect to all athletes. The HRR during 3 min postexercise should be reported for the purpose of better assessing functional adaptation to exercise among elite athletes as well as the age-associated differences in recovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age.

  20. Spontaneous body sway as a function of sex, age, and vision: posturographic study in 30 healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollegger, H; Baumgartner, C; Wöber, C; Oder, W; Deecke, L

    1992-01-01

    Detailed neurological examinations and body sway measurements with a stable force measuring platform were carried out on 30 healthy adults between 21 and 63 years of age. The results were analyzed for sex- and age-associated changes with regard to three different sway components (total sway, anterio-posterior sway, lateral sway) and two different conditions (eyes open, eyes closed). Sex-associated differences were highly significant for all sway components in the oldest age group (51-65 years) in which men exhibited more spontaneous postural sway than women in the condition eyes open. With eyes closed these differences increased. Middle-aged men (36-50 years) also exhibited significantly more postural sway than women of the same age. In the condition eyes open especially total sway and anterioposterior sway were increased, whereas in the condition eyes closed total sway and lateral sway were predominantly higher in men than in women. In the youngest age group (21-35 years) no sex-related differences in postural sway were found. Age-associated differences were significant for anterioposterior sway (eyes open) in men, increasing continuously from the young to the middle-aged, and again from the middle-aged to the older age group. Anterioposterior sway in women, on the contrary, did not change with age. Age-associated differences in women were found for total sway (eyes open) and lateral sway (eyes closed). However, the highest values for total sway and lateral sway within the female group were obtained from young women in both conditions eyes open and eyes closed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species.

  2. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  3. Sex and age distribution in transport-related injuries in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman Sayyar; Sharzei, Kaveh; Zargar, Moosa

    2004-05-01

    Intercountry or regional differences in patterns of injury by the road user type have significant implication for prevention policies. In order to have an estimate from the existing conditions of transport-related injuries (TRIs) and especially to evaluate sex and age distribution of traffic accident victims, we analyzed information of 8426 hospitalized trauma patients during 13 months of data gathering process. Forty-five percent of the injuries were related to car accidents and men/women ratio in these patients was 4.2/1. The highest men/women ratio was (16/1) for motorcyclists, while the lowest ratio (1/1), was for rear seat car passengers. Mean (+/-S.D.) age of the patients was 31 (+/-18), and men were nearly 2 years younger than women (33 versus 31). Sixty-seven percent of the females' and 44% of the males' injuries were related to pedestrian crashes. Motorcycle-related injuries in men and car passenger related injuries in women were the second most common type of crash (42 and 22%, respectively). The use of protective devices in our population was worrisome. In only 6% of the male motorcyclists helmet use was reported, and 3% of the male car occupants had used seatbelts at the time of the accident. The condition in the female population was much worse and no use of the protective devices was reported in this group of the patients. Crude mortality rate in men was nearly two times that of women (6.2% versus 3.8%). After adjustment for age, injury severity score (ISS) and category of the road users, men and women had similar mortality rate.

  4. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  5. Alpha- and gamma- tocopherol prevent age-related transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the global effects of vitamin E supplementation on aging, we used high density oligonucleotide arrays to measure transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain (neocortex) of 30-month-old B6C3F1 mice supplemented with alpha- and gamma-tocopherol since middle age (15 months). Gene ...

  6. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  7. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego–alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  8. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  9. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  10. Nutritional ecology of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp habitat: Effects of age, sex, and season.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Alavi, Shauhin E; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Bransford, Timothy D; Erb, Wendy M; Zulfa, Astri; Sulistyo, Fransiska; Farida, Wartika Rosa; Rothman, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in food abundance has strong effects on wildlife feeding and nutrition. This variation is exemplified by the peatland forests of Central Kalimantan, which are characterized by unpredictable fruiting fluctuations, relatively low levels of fruit availability, and low fruit periods (<3% of trees fruiting) that can last nearly a year. Challenged by these environments, large, arboreal frugivores like orangutans must periodically rely on non-preferred, lower-quality foods to meet their nutritional needs. We examined variation in nutrient intake among age-sex classes and seasons over a 7-year period at the Tuanan Orangutan Research Station in Central Kalimantan. We conducted 2,316 full-day focal follows on 62 habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). We found differences in total energy and macronutrient intake across age-sex classes, controlling for metabolic body mass. Intake of both total energy and macronutrients varied with fruit availability, and preference of dietary items increased with their nutritional quality. Foraging-related variables, such as day journey length, travel time, and feeding time, also varied among age-sex classes and with fruit availability. Our results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that great variation in foraging strategies exists among species, populations, and age-sex classes and in response to periods of resource scarcity.

  11. Flexible and inflexible task sets: asymmetric interference when switching between emotional expression, sex, and age classification of perceived faces.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Stefanie; Werheid, Katja; Koch, Iring

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the processing characteristics of categorizing emotional facial expressions are different from those of categorizing facial age and sex information. Given that emotions change rapidly, it was hypothesized that processing facial expressions involves a more flexible task set that causes less between-task interference than the task sets involved in processing age or sex of a face. Participants switched between three tasks: categorizing a face as looking happy or angry (emotion task), young or old (age task), and male or female (sex task). Interference between tasks was measured by global interference and response interference. Both measures revealed patterns of asymmetric interference. Global between-task interference was reduced when a task was mixed with the emotion task. Response interference, as measured by congruency effects, was larger for the emotion task than for the nonemotional tasks. The results support the idea that processing emotional facial expression constitutes a more flexible task set that causes less interference (i.e., task-set "inertia") than processing the age or sex of a face.

  12. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  13. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  14. Isolation and characterization of extrachromosomal circular DNAs in mouse heart, brain and liver tissues at various ages

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Eucaryotic cells contains extrachromosomal circular (eccDNAs) which can be separated and distinguished from chromosomal DNA. Using alkaline denaturation-renaturation, exonuclease III digestion and density gradient centrifugations, covalently closed circular DNA (cc-cDNA) molecules were isolated from 1-, 8-, 16-, and 24-month C57BL/6 mouse heart, brain and liver organs. Restriction enzyme analyses and other enzymatic treatments established the covalently closed nature of the isolated molecules. Electron microscopic analyses of heart eccDNAs showed similar size distributions at all ages, but more discrete size classes and slightly larger circles were observed in 24-month heart eccDNA preparations. Heart contained more circles per cell than either liver or brain, which contained approximately the same amount of eccDNAs per genome. Furthermore, ({sup 3}H)-pBR322 recovery studies revealed no endogenous factors that might have affected the yields of eccDNAs from young and old tissues. To determine if there were any age-related or tissue-specific differences in r