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Sample records for age sga babies

  1. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  3. Plasma clusterin increased prior to small for gestational age (SGA) associated with preeclampsia and decreased prior to SGA in normotensive pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Marion; McCowan, Lesley M E; Wu, Steven; Cooper, Garth J S; North, Robyn A

    2012-06-01

    In our search for early biomarkers for the pregnancy complicationssmall for gestational age (SGA) and preeclampsia (PE) we analysed plasma from 19-21 weeks gestation in women recruited into the SCOPE study, a prospective cohort of nulliparous women, by differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). DIGE revealed the differential expression of clusterin levels and its isoforms in top6-depleted plasma of women who delivered an SGA infant but remained normotensive (SGA-NT; N = 8) compared to healthy women with an uncomplicated pregnancy outcome (Controls, N = 8). Immunosorbent enzyme-linked assay (ELISA) showed that compared to plasma clusterin levels from healthy controls [71.1 (SD 12.4) µg/mL, n = 39], clusterin was decreased in SGA-NT [58.3 (SD 11.7), N = 20, P < 0.0001], increased in women with SGA and PE [81.5 (SD 14.8), N = 20, P < 0.01], but similar in PE alone [71.2 (SD 9.4)g/ml, P = 1.0]. Screening for clusterin levels and/or its different isoformsmay be useful in mid-pregnancy to identify women who subsequently develop SGA but remain normotensive or who develop preeclampsia with SGA.

  4. Current pattern of Ponderal Indices of term small-for-gestational age in a population of Nigerian babies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695

  5. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and small for gestational age (SGA): genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Jancevska, A; Gucev, Z S; Tasic, V; Pop-Jordanova, N

    2009-12-01

    Short stature associated with GH deficiency has been estimated to occur in about 1 in 4000 to 1 in 10,000 in various studies. In the last decade new genetic defects have been described in all the levels of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)-GH-IGF (insulin-like growth factor) axis. Genetic defects in the GHRH and in various parts of the Insulin-like growth factor system have been demonstrated. Genetic defects causing isolated GH deficiency (GHD), as well as multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies have been analysed in detail. Signalling molecules and transcription factors leading to the development of the pituitary gland have been discovered and their function recognized. In animal models and in humans the importance of the transcription factors HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, TBX19, SOX2 and SOX3 has been extensively studied. Genetic alterations of those transcription factors dictate the highly variable phenotype: from isolated hypopituitarism to multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies with or without malformations (e.g. septo-optic dysplasia or holoprosencephaly). Small for gestational age (SGA) children are increasingly recognized to be a heterogeneous group in which new mechanisms of growth retardation and metabolic disturbances have been proposed. Since SGA is considered to be the main reason for the short stature in 10% of short adults this is a large group with a great potential for novel insights into mechanisms of growth and metabolic disturbances. A group of signalling proteins are involved in prenatal (SGA) growth retardation: IRS-1, PDK1, AKT1, and S6K1. In addition, an attractive modern theory supposes that a disturbed mother-placenta-foetus relation results in the activation of the so-called "thrifty phenotype" of which the IGF system is a vital part. The mechanisms assure short-term postnatal survival in conditions of deficient nutritional supply. However, as a consequence, the abundant postnatal nutritional supply and the "thrifty

  6. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  7. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  8. Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

  9. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  10. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  11. Congenital heart disease in low-birth-weight infants: effects of small for gestational age (SGA) status and maturity on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Daniel; Azen, Colleen; Bhombal, Shazia; Hastings, Laura; Paquette, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role that small for gestational age (SGA) status plays in postoperative outcomes for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to examine the effect of SGA status, gestational and chronologic age, and weight on differences in morbidities and mortalities during the immediate postoperative hospitalization period. The charts of infants with CHD weighing less than 2.5 kg who underwent operative repair during the neonatal period between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Infants with an isolated patent ductus arteriosus were excluded from the study. Data on hospital morbidities and mortality before discharge were collected. The study identified 136 LBW infants with a diagnosis of CHD. Among the 74 infants who underwent surgery and had complete chart records, the SGA infants had a higher gestational age at birth (36.8 vs. 32.3 weeks; p < 0.0001). The SGA and non-SGA infants did not differ in terms of survival to discharge or immediate postoperative outcomes. A lower weight at surgery was significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection. In contradistinction, an older postnatal age at surgery was associated with an increased risk of preoperative infection (p < 0.0001). Additionally, lower gestational age at birth was associated with home oxygen use, higher tracheostomy rates, and discharge with a gastrostomy tube. Small for gestational age status played no protective role in the outcome for LBW infants after primary surgery for CHD. A weight of 2.4 kg or greater at the time of surgery was associated with lower rates of postoperative infections. Greater duration of time between birth and surgery was associated with a greater risk of preoperative infection. A gestational age of 32 weeks or more at birth was associated with decreased morbidities, which could influence obstetric management. PMID:24997649

  12. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  13. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Patrizia; Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Farris, Evelina; Bianco, Vincenzo; Sassi, Roberto; De Giovanni, Maria; Gallo, Valeria; D’Onofrio, Antonietta; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases).Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children. PMID:27583297

  14. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  15. Nutrition, sex, gestational age, and hair growth in babies.

    PubMed

    Berger, H M; King, J; Doughty, S; Wharton, B A

    1978-04-01

    Hair growth measurements are a sensitive indicator of nutrition and we have assessed their value in the perinatal period. The proportion of growing roots and their diameter were studied at birth in 114 babies and repeated 3 weeks later in 29 low birthweight babies. Intrauterine malnutrition resulted in thinner roots but the changes after birth were not related to nutrition and these measurements will not be useful in feeding studies in this period. At birth, gestational age and sex affected the hair root, and it may be important to recognise these differences if the hair root is used in biochemical screening tests. We have used a new simple technique for measuring the root diameter using an image-splitting eye-piece.

  16. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  17. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  18. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  19. Labour and Neonatal Outcome in Small for Gestational Age Babies Delivered Beyond 36+0 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boers, K. E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. At present, evidence on whether these pregnancies should be managed expectantly or by induction is lacking. To get insight in current policy we analysed data of the National Dutch Perinatal Registry (PRN). Methods. We used data of all nulliparae between 2000 and 2005 with a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks, with a birth weight below the 10th percentile. We analysed two groups of pregnancies: (I) with isolated SGA and (II) with both SGA and hypertensive disorders. Onset of labour was related to route of delivery and neonatal outcome. Results. Induction was associated with a higher risk of emergency caesarean section (CS), without improvement in neonatal outcome. For women with isolated SGA the relative risk of emergency CS after induction was 2.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.1 to 2.5) and for women with both SGA and hypertensive disorders the relative risk was 2.7 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.1). Conclusion. Induction in pregnancies complicated by SGA at term is associated with a higher risk of instrumental deliveries without improvement of neonatal outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine the best strategy in suspected IUGR at term. PMID:21490789

  20. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat (ENT) Dental/Orthodontics Urology Orthopedics Child Development Psychology Special Education Services DO WE NEED TO IMPROVE ... body proportions and head circumference Improved psychological and cognitive function Possible Adverse Side Effects of GHT for ...

  1. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  2. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  3. Dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA) – A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Bakker, Rachel; Irving, Hyacinth; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Malini, Shobha; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA). Search Strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches. Selection Criteria Case control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included. Data collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birth weight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardized protocol. Meta-analyses on dose-response relationship were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data. Main Results Compared to abstainers, the overall dose-response relationships for low birth weight and SGA had no effect up to 10 g/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth had no effect up to 18 g/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day) of pure alcohol consumption; thereafter, the relationship had monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for both outcomes. Conclusions Dose-response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes while light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consults should be initiated. PMID:21729235

  4. Applying measures of discriminatory accuracy to revisit traditional risk factors for being small for gestational age in Sweden: a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Sol Pía; Wagner, Phillip; Merlo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Small for gestational age (SGA) is considered as an indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, and multiple maternal and newborn characteristics have been identified as risk factors for SGA. This knowledge is mainly based on measures of average association (ie, OR) that quantify differences in average risk between exposed and unexposed groups. Nevertheless, average associations do not assess the discriminatory accuracy of the risk factors (ie, its ability to discriminate the babies who will develop SGA from those that will not). Therefore, applying measures of discriminatory accuracy rather than measures of association only, our study revisits known risk factors of SGA and discusses their role from a public health perspective. Design Cross-sectional study. We measured maternal (ie, smoking, hypertension, age, marital status, education) and delivery (ie, sex, gestational age, birth order) characteristics and performed logistic regression models to estimate both ORs and measures of discriminatory accuracy, like the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) and the net reclassification improvement. Setting Data were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Participants Our sample included 731 989 babies born during 1987–1993. Results We replicated the expected associations. For instance, smoking (OR=2.57), having had a previous SGA baby (OR=5.48) and hypertension (OR=4.02) were strongly associated with SGA. However, they show a very small discriminatory accuracy (AU-ROC≈0.5). The discriminatory accuracy increased, but remained unsatisfactorily low (AU-ROC=0.6), when including all variables studied in the same model. Conclusions Traditional risk factors for SGA alone or in combination have a low accuracy for discriminating babies with SGA from those without SGA. A proper understanding of these findings is of fundamental relevance to address future research and to design policymaking recommendations in a more informed

  5. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  6. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  7. LBW and SGA Impact Longitudinal Growth and Nutritional Status of Filipino Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Palmera; Ayaso, Edna B.; Monterde, Donna Bella S.; Acosta, Luz P.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Tallo, Veronica; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    We performed this study to longitudinally compare rates of stunting, wasting and underweight among low birthweight (LBW), non-LBW, and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants in Leyte, The Philippines and factors that predicted catch up. Birthweights of 357 infants born in Leyte, The Philippines were obtained within 48 hours of delivery and infants were evaluated at one, six and 12 months. Newborns were classified as LBW, SGA, or both. We derived length-for-age, weight-for-length and weight-for-age Z-scores using WHOAnthro. Generalized estimating equations models were used to compare the differences in prevalence and mean Z-scores for these growth and nutritional outcomes, with separate models made with LBW and SGA as distinct primary predictors. We compared the longitudinal risk of stunting, wasting and underweight during infancy among LBW versus non-LBW and SGA versus non-SGA infants, while also evaluating key potential confounding, explanatory and modifying covariates. Overall, 9.0% of infants were born prematurely, 14.0% of infants were LBW and 22.9% were SGA. LBW infants had significantly increased odds of stunting, wasting and underweight persisting to 12 months of age, and SGA infants had significantly increased odds of stunting and underweight. LBW and SGA infants had higher rates of weight-for-length gain in the first month of life. Maternal educational attainment and exclusive breastfeeding decreased the risk of stunting and undernutrition. In this setting, LBW and SGA infants have higher rates of growth stunting and undernutrition during the first year of life and do not exhibit catch-up growth by 12 months of age. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00486863 PMID:27441564

  8. Hispanic Baby Boomers: Health Inequities Likely to Persist in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Valentine M.; Wallace, Steven P.; Bagdasaryan, Sofya; Aranda, Maria P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As the Baby-Boom generation enters the ranks of the elderly adults over the next 4 decades, the United States will witness an unprecedented growth in racial/ethnic diversity among the older adult population. Hispanics will comprise 20% of the next generation of older adults, representing the largest minority population aged 65 years and…

  9. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments After"; (3) "Basic…

  10. 'Comfortable in my own skin': a new form of sexual freedom for ageing baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R

    2014-12-01

    'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age.

  11. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  12. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA. PMID:25946517

  13. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  14. Baby Boomers and the Shifting Political Construction of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Robert B.; Gonyea, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Employing the political construct of "target" populations, we suggest that the Boomers in old age will constitute a conceptually distinct population from that represented by either their parents or grandparents. A fourfold typology organized along the dimensions posited by Schneider and Ingram (1993) yields categorizations of target populations as…

  15. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  16. Thyroid Function in Small for Gestational Age Newborns: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagnoli, Franco; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes - disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23149390

  17. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bagnoli; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes--disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants.

  18. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  19. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  20. Wellness engineering for better quality of life of aging baby boomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    Current health care system serving 78M aging baby-boomers is no longer sustainable, as the cost about 1/5 GDP will reach 1/4 GDT when all is retired in decades, unless the system is changed. We design a high-tech safe net to enhance the timeliness of early correct treatment execution (otherwise, causing 1/4 mortality associated with an escalating legal fee waste). We follow the common sense that "a stitch in time saves nine," and adopt the military surveillance know-how in designing early warning health management system, comprising of smart sensor pairs for point-care surveillance. However, the grand plan of affordable smart sensors hardware for households requires an ODM & OEM teaming to conduct parallel designing and sequential marketing strategy. The military software strategy combating a treacherous adversary enemy match well with point cares surveillance overcoming real world microorganism variability. Moreover, such smart military software provides self-reference change detection, not by traditional cohort ensemble average, but by individual own higher order statistics (HOS) independent component analysis (ICA), which take the advantage of known initial condition for each individual and desirable over-sampling daily dynamics. The triggering of warning follows the military algorithms comprising of Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). To further reduce the unwanted false negative rate, a benchmarked is made against the traditional cohort-ensemble baseline average & the upper & lower bounds of variance as adopted by the gatekeepers - Medical Doctors (MD) and Nurses.

  1. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  2. Baby Your Baby with Sunscreen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159390.html Baby Your Baby With Sunscreen For starters, apply it at least 15 minutes ... way to protect babies is to avoid direct sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p. ...

  3. AARP Online Portrayal of Social Security: Engaging Aging Baby Boomers through Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Michael L.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.

    2006-01-01

    Although baby boomers were not the sole focus of the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) website content on the issue of Social Security reform, their interests were addressed in a variety of ways. AARP provided information, position statements, a live chat forum, and message boards. Additionally, AARP had a partnership with the Rock…

  4. Early Language Stimulation of Down's Syndrome Babies: A Study on the Optimum Age To Begin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2002-01-01

    Examined the marked delay in language acquisition suffered by babies with Down Syndrome and how early treatment affects the subsequent observed development among 36 subjects in Spain. Found statistically significant differences in language acquisitions in favor of newborns, compared with 90-day-old through 18-month-old infants who experienced…

  5. Comparative Study of the Cognitive Sequelae of School-Aged Victims of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipanicic, Annie; Nolin, Pierre; Fortin, Gilles; Gobeil, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is now recognized as being the main cause of severe traumatic brain injury in infancy. However, our understanding of the impact of this type of abuse on child development remains sketchy. The main objective of the current study was therefore to shed light on the cognitive dysfunctions that are particular to…

  6. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    PubMed

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age.

  7. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  8. Consumption and the constitution of age: expenditure patterns on clothing, hair and cosmetics among post-war 'baby boomers'.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products.

  9. Comparison of SGA oral medications and a long-acting injectable SGA: the PROACTIVE study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M

    2015-03-01

    Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials. PMID:24870446

  10. "Don't Be Such a Baby!" Competence and Age as Intersectional Co-Markers on Children's Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Anette; Heikkilä, Mia; Sundhall, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how norms about age intersect with gender and thus create social positions about incompetent and competent children. The paper also analyzes the relationship between gender, incompetence, and notions of "the baby." The theoretical framework uses concepts taken from gender theory (Butler, "Gender…

  11. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  12. The Health Experiences and Development of Teen-Age Mothered Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jeannette Doris

    Conducted from an educational sociologist's point of view, this study explores the relationship of mother's age to the development of her child. A documentary frequency technique was used to investigate four general questions: (1) Do children of younger mothers, ages 16 years and under, have health problems different from the health problems of…

  13. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  14. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  15. Age, the environment and our reproductive future: bonking baby boomers and the future of sex.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R John

    2014-02-01

    There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility. Although birth control is a complex issue involving myriad social and political factors, the technical vacuum in this area is significant. Through no fault of the family planning authorities, there have been no radically new methods of fertility control since the oral contraceptive pill was introduced in 1960 and even this contribution to planned parenthood has its roots in the biochemistry of the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has, by and large, turned its back on fundamental research activities in this area. At present, our major investment in reproductive healthcare involves treating ever-increasing numbers of couples with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, these treatments are often delivered without critically considering the underlying causes of this condition or seriously contemplating the long-term consequences of the current enthusiasm for such therapy. Significantly, the clinical factors underpinning the commitment of couples to ART include advanced maternal age and a variety of lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, which are known to compromise the developmental potential of the oocyte and DNA integrity in spermatozoa.

  16. Age, the environment and our reproductive future: bonking baby boomers and the future of sex.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R John

    2014-02-01

    There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility. Although birth control is a complex issue involving myriad social and political factors, the technical vacuum in this area is significant. Through no fault of the family planning authorities, there have been no radically new methods of fertility control since the oral contraceptive pill was introduced in 1960 and even this contribution to planned parenthood has its roots in the biochemistry of the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has, by and large, turned its back on fundamental research activities in this area. At present, our major investment in reproductive healthcare involves treating ever-increasing numbers of couples with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, these treatments are often delivered without critically considering the underlying causes of this condition or seriously contemplating the long-term consequences of the current enthusiasm for such therapy. Significantly, the clinical factors underpinning the commitment of couples to ART include advanced maternal age and a variety of lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, which are known to compromise the developmental potential of the oocyte and DNA integrity in spermatozoa. PMID:24194569

  17. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  18. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  19. Baby massage.

    PubMed

    Carr, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Having initially trained as a nurse and then a midwife, massage for me was back to hands on care. In 1992, as part of my continuing professional development, I undertook an anatomy, physiology and massage course. My aim was to acquire skills that could benefit the mothers I cared for. My journey with baby massage began when I had my first son in 1993. At that time there were no courses or sessions on baby massage available but I did adapt some of the massage techniques I had learnt during my massage course to benefit me and my son. PMID:24163920

  20. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  1. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation. PMID:25445061

  2. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation.

  3. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  4. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  5. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  6. 76 FR 14694 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) AGENCY: Employment and Training... operating the National Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment...

  7. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  8. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and vaccines; Babies and immunizations; Babies and vaccinations; Chickenpox - shots; DTaP - shots; Hepatitis A - shots; Hepatitis B - shots; Hib - shots; Haemophilus influenza - shots; Influenza - shots; Meningococcal - ...

  9. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  10. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  11. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  12. 76 FR 7880 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Ex Offenders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... or on http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application information, eligibility requirements... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY...

  13. 76 FR 31366 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... performance. The complete SGA and any subsequent SGA amendments are described in further detail on ETA's Web site at http:// ] www.doleta.gov/grants or on http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant...

  14. Ultrasonic recognition of the small-for-gestational-age fetus.

    PubMed

    Brown, H L; Miller, J M; Gabert, H A; Kissling, G

    1987-04-01

    Sonar biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, and estimated fetal weight were obtained within ten days of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (N = 102) and non-SGA (N = 204) newborns. The effectiveness of each ultrasound variable in the antenatal recognition of the SGA fetus was assessed. An abnormal abdominal circumference was the best predictor, confirming SGA in 98% of cases. Other variables (biparietal diameter, femur length, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, or estimated fetal weight) were less accurate for predicting SGA. When we determined expected results based on a 10% prevalence of SGA, negative predictive value was greater than 92% for all variables studied; however, with the exception of estimated fetal weight and femur length, positive predictive values were disappointing, including abdominal circumference (21%). This report establishes the limits of ultrasound-derived growth variables in the antenatal identification of the SGA fetus.

  15. 76 FR 14695 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) Housing Assistance AGENCY: Employment and... Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), 29...

  16. 76 FR 11815 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (SGA) for the Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration (ETJD) AGENCY: Employment and Training... jobs (ETJ) programs, as well as other activities and services, to increase the workforce participation... beyond transitional jobs (TJ) programs currently operating or tested previously. ETA seeks...

  17. 77 FR 9703 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Young...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... (SGA) for Serving Young Adult Ex-Offenders Through Training and Service-Learning AGENCY: Employment and... have never been convicted as an adult under Federal or State Law. ETA expects to award a minimum of...

  18. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  19. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  20. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  1. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... middle-of-the-night feeding and diaper change reading or singing to baby giving the baby a ...

  2. Breastfeed Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips 9 of 10 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Give your baby vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, your breast milk won’t provide enough vitamin ...

  3. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...

  4. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  5. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent dengue virus infection during pregnancy » Use mosquito repellents with up to 50% DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or ... For babies over 2 months of age, use repellents with up to 30% DEET, picaridin or IR3535. ...

  6. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  7. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

  8. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    PubMed

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  9. 75 FR 61180 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for YouthBuild Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Applications (SGA) for YouthBuild Grants AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Announcement Type: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA... date for receipt of applications under this announcement is December 3, 2010. Applications must...

  10. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    PubMed Central

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  11. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  12. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  13. 75 FR 47827 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... promise for improving employment outcomes and wages for individuals with significant disabilities and... minimum, applicants must identify at least two of the following seven strategic components as significant... minimum of four local WIBs that have the capacity to carry-out the State's proposal under this SGA...

  14. 77 FR 2092 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Reintegration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders (RExO) Adult Generation 5 AGENCY: Employment and...

  15. 76 FR 10400 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Green Jobs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (SGA) for Green Jobs Innovation Fund AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Investment Act of 1998, Title I, Subtitle D, Section 171(d), Public Law 105-220 for the Green Jobs Innovation... in green jobs. ETA proposes to fund approximately five to eight grants to national and...

  16. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (SGA) for Serving Juvenile Offenders in High-Poverty, High-Crime Communities AGENCY: Employment and...-poverty, high-crime communities. The purpose of these grants is to improve the long-term labor market... competitively select local sub- grantees to operate the program in a minimum of five high-poverty,...

  17. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Workforce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). SUMMARY: Through this notice, the Department... employment and training services that generate long-term improvements in the performance of the...

  18. 76 FR 6634 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Civic Justice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications... Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number.... Applicants may submit only one proposal of up to $1.5 million to cover a 30-month period of performance...

  19. 76 FR 3926 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... (SGA) for Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY...) from the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants funding source to... improve their ability to deliver education and career training programs that can be completed in two...

  20. 77 FR 11592 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... (SGA) for the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY... Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grants program. The TAACCCT grants program... career training programs that can be completed in two years or less, and are suited for workers who...

  1. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Career...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (SGA) for the Career Pathways Innovation Fund Grants Program AGENCY: Employment and Training... Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Public Law 105-220 to develop and implement career pathway programs in... system in career pathway programs. ETA proposes to fund approximately 40 to 50 grants ranging from...

  2. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Commentary on a Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…

  3. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 4 hours ago If you are ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 2 days ago A powerful piece ...

  4. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  5. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  6. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  7. Outcomes of Small for Gestational Age Infants < 27 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Lilia C.; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Li, Lei; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Bara, Rebecca; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants <27 weeks gestation is associated with mortality, morbidity, growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ corrected age (CA). Study design This was a retrospective cohort study from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network’s Generic Database and Follow-up Studies. Infants born at <27 weeks’ gestation from January 2006 to July 2008 were included. SGA was defined as birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age by the Olsen growth curves. Infants with birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental data were compared between the groups. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as any of the following: cognitive score <70 on BSID III, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral hearing loss (+/− amplification) or blindness (vision <20/200). Logistic regression analysis evaluated the association between SGA status and death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Results There were 385 SGA and 2586 non-SGA infants. Compared with the non-SGA group, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have higher level of education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. SGA infants were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, a higher mortality and to have received prolonged mechanical ventilation and postnatal steroids. SGA status was associated with higher odds of death or neurodevelopmental impairment [OR 3.91 (95% CI: 2.91–5.25), P<0.001]. Conclusion SGA status among infants <27 weeks’ gestation was associated with an increased risk for postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ CA. PMID:23415614

  8. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  9. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid suffocation. Chances are much better that you'll bring home a calm, contented baby if you ... by the manufacturer before the second birthday, you'll need to use a convertible seat designed for ...

  10. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  11. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... because some babies are sensitive to them. Vaseline (petroleum jelly): good to prevent diaper rash, and to ... 2014 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, ...

  12. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  13. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  14. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, most babies have developed the fine motor skills — the small, precise movements — needed to pick up ... practice soon evolves into a masterful and efficient skill. Allow your child to self-feed as much ...

  15. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  16. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  17. Subtle increases in heart size persist into adulthood in growth restricted babies: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, Clare; Skilton, Michael R; Ruohonen, Saku; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laitinen, Tomi; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. We sought to determine whether adults born with intrauterine growth restriction have primary maladaptive changes in cardiac structure. Methods Study participants were adults (34–49 years) who attended the 31-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (longitudinal cohort). Transthoracic echocardiograms and demographic and cardiovascular risk surveys were completed for 157 adults born small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <10th population centile) and 627 born average for gestational age (average for gestational age (AGA), birth weight 50th–90th population centile). Results Those born growth restricted had subtly enlarged hearts with indexed left ventricular (LV) end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters slightly greater in the SGA individuals than the AGA group (LVESD 18.7 mm/m2 SGA vs 18.1 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01; LVEDD 27.5 mm/m2 SGA vs 26.6 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); LV base-to-apex length (47.4 mm/m2 SGA vs 46.0 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); LV basal diameter (26.4 mm/m2 SGA vs 25.7 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); and right ventricular base-to-apex length (40.1 mm/m2 SGA vs 39.2 mm/m2 AGA, p=0.02). LV stroke volume was greater in those born AGA (74.5 mL SGA vs 78.8 mL AGA, p<0.01), with no significant difference in cardiac output (5 L/min SGA vs 5.2 L/min AGA, p=0.06), heart rate, diastolic indices or sphericity index. Conclusions Adults born SGA have some statistically significant but subtle changes in cardiac structure and function, which are less marked than have been described in childhood, and are unlikely to play a pathogenic role in their elevated cardiovascular risk. PMID:26339495

  18. Phonetic features by babies with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Rademaker, A W

    1994-11-01

    Twenty-three babies with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were audiotaped at regular intervals from 5 to 35 months of age. Narrow phonetic transcription of their comfort-state vocalizations and word approximations was accomplished to describe phonetic development over time and according to the nonrandomized age of palatoplasty. The babies that had earlier palatal repair produced significantly higher percentages of oral stops after 12 months of age than babies with similar clefts that had later palatal repair. No significant differences are evident, however, according to age of palatoplasty, for mean frequency use of oral fricatives up to 3 years of age. For all 23 babies, regardless of the age of palatoplasty intervention, time is an even stronger variable than age of palatoplasty for development of palatal, alveolar and velar place features, oral stops, and oral fricatives.

  19. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  20. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

  1. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  2. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  3. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  4. Obesity and systolic blood pressure in young adult men born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premuzić, Vedran; Karanović, Sandra; Vrdoljak, Ana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-09-01

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are supposed to be at higher risk to develop cardiovascular disorders, and recent report showed that concurrent obesity influences blood pressure (BP) in SGA children. Our aim was to investigate the impact of obesity and birth weight on blood pressure values in young adult men born SGA and controls born after normal pregnancy, Normotensive, non-treated adult men were enrolled (N = 185; mean age 21.29 +/- 0.9 years). Birth parameters were obtained from medical records and SGA was defined as birth weight (BW) under 10th percentile for gestational age and obesity as BMI > 25 kg/m2. According to the presence or absence of obesity and BW the subjects were divided into four groups: (1) non-obese with normal BW (N = 50), (2) non-obese SGA (N = 67), (3) obese with normal BW (N = 40), (4) obese SGA (N = 28). BP was measured using Omron M6 and Spacelab 90207 device following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Systolic BP, 24-hour BP variability and pulse pressure were significantly higher in SGA subjects than in those with normal BW (p < 0.05). The highest 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values as well as 24-hour pulse pressure were found in the subgroup of obese SGA subjects (p < 0.001). Significant differences for the above parameters were observed between obese SGA group and non-obese SGA group (p < 0.05). Obese SGA subjects had higher 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values compared to obese normal BW group. No difference was found in BP between non-obese SGA and non-obese group with normal BW (p > 0.05). In addition to BW and shorter pregnancy duration, obesity concurrently and significantly determines systolic BP in young normotensive men and point to a need for more aggressive implementation of healthy lifestyle as early as possible.

  5. Organizing the Baby Boomer Construct: An Exploration of Marketing, Social Systems, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Hilt, Michael L.; Reilly, Hugh J.

    2007-01-01

    Baby boomer trends are applied in the development of a conceptual framework that offers a social systems and cultural model for future studies. While there has been considerable recent attention paid to baby boomers, the studies lack a coherent theoretical base that would allow for more advanced and continuing research. Aging baby boomers heading…

  6. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  7. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…

  8. When Babies Scream: Why Babies Scream and What to Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    When a baby screams, that is a signal that all is not well for the body of the baby, for her emotional well-being, and/or for the baby's relationship with the teacher. During the first year of life, infants learn that adults are in control of providing reassuring care. Adults will "make things better" when a baby's tummy feels horribly empty, when…

  9. Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B P; Rigby, H

    1996-03-01

    Community-living seniors (n = 113) and nursing home residents (n = 43) provided their impressions of baby-talk and neutral-talk scenarios and completed measures of functional health, need for succorance, and self-esteem. Two orthogonal dimensions were found in perceptions of baby talk: Warmth and Superiority. The personality trait of need for succorance was consistently associated with perceptions of warmth in baby talk, whereas functional health, age, and institutionalization were associated with perceptions of superiority. Significant interactions were found between perceptions of baby talk and frequency of receiving baby talk in the prediction of self-esteem, providing suggestive evidence for previously expressed concerns about potentially harmful effects of receiving baby talk on self-esteem among seniors who have negative perceptions of baby talk. However, older persons with positive perceptions of baby talk reported higher self-esteem when they frequently received baby talk, in accordance with person-environment theory. The self-esteem interaction for men occurred on the Superiority dimension, whereas the interaction for women occurred on the Warmth dimension.

  10. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  11. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  12. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... because the lungs of preterm babies often lack surfactant, a liquid substance that allows the lungs to remain expanded. Treatment: Artificial surfactants can be used to treat these babies, along ...

  13. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  14. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  15. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not ...

  16. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  17. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  18. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  19. Sleep State Indices of Risk for Small-for-Gestional-Age Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    Full-term neonates from 37 pairs of same-sex twins, either small or appropriate for gestational age (SGA/AGA), were observed during the first sleep cycle after feeding to determine if behavioral indices of central nervous system (CNS) functioning were related to risk for the SGA infants. No differences were observed between groups for time spent…

  20. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems. PMID:27625810

  1. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  2. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Angharad R.; Thompson, John M.D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Cornforth, Christine M.; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined – that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  3. Aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a suitable choice for the potential term in the two-dimensional baby Skyrme model yields solitons that have a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. The solitons are therefore aloof, in the sense that static multi-soliton bound states have constituents that preserve their individual identities and are sufficiently far apart that tail interactions yield small binding energies. The static multi-soliton solutions are found to have a cluster structure that is reproduced by a simple binary species particle model. In the standard three-dimensional Skyrme model of nuclei, solitons are too tightly bound and are often too symmetric, due to symmetry enhancement as solitons coalesce to form bound states. The aloof baby Skyrmion results endorse a way to resolve these issues and provides motivation for a detailed study of the related three-dimensional version of the Skyrme model.

  4. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  5. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daire, V; Savarirayan, R; Lachman, R S; Neidich, J A; Grace, K; Rimoin, D L; Wilcox, W R

    2001-04-15

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification. PMID:11337746

  6. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  7. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies.

  8. Care of low birth weight babies in slums.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B

    1989-01-01

    We studied 289 newborn infants from birth till one year of age. Low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) were 52.9%. Boys suffered 9.7 episodes of sickness, and girls 8.6 episodes of sickness. The mean episodes of various sicknesses, and their impact on weight gain, feeding pattern and growth pattern are discussed. Six deaths were observed, of which 4 were among the low birth weight babies. Mortality in babies born less than 2 kg was 44.4% and above 2 kg was less than 1%. PMID:2807450

  9. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2007-01-01

    A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

  10. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  11. Health benefits of encore careers for baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Topiwala, Anya; Patel, Shivani; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-05-01

    Baby boomers now represent an aging population group at risk of the diseases of older age. Their relatively high education, amongst other attributes, means that they can make a significant contribution to the work force beyond the statutory retirement age. On an individual level, potential health benefits may motivate them to pursue encore careers. We review some of the evidence supporting such a trend.

  12. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  13. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  14. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  15. 76 FR 24917 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for H-1B Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application information, eligibility requirements, review... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY...

  16. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  17. Your baby in the birth canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby's head to pass through the pelvis. Internal Rotation As your baby's head descends further, the head ... rotates under and around the pubic bone. External Rotation As the baby's head is delivered, it will ...

  18. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  19. Growth and body composition of preterm, small-for-gestational-age infants at a postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks.

    PubMed

    Yau, K I; Chang, M H

    1993-06-01

    In order to understand the nutritional status of preterm, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in the early postnatal period, the growth and body composition of preterm, SGA infants was followed prospectively from birth to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks. The infants were stratified into different groups by gestational age, clinical condition and body proportionality. In each subgroup, the growth and changes in body composition of SGA infants were compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants of a comparable postmenstrual age. At birth, the SGA infants of both the 31-33 and 34-36 week gestational-age groups were smaller than AGA infants in all body measurements, including arm area (AA), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA). When the preterm SGA infants had grown to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks, the amount of fat they had accumulated was as much as, or more than that in term AGA infants. Yet, they had less muscle mass and their body weight, body length and head circumference were less than those in term AGA infants. This pattern of growth and the changes in body composition had been persistently observed in SGA infants of different gestational-age groups, different clinical status and different body proportionality. Differences between postnatal enteral nutrition and placental nutrition, or different energy utilization, in preterm SGA infants are hypothesized to account for these observations. The growth of less mature (31-33 weeks gestation) SGA infants and those preterm SGA infants with an eventful clinical course was suboptimal as compared with other SGA infants in the same subgroup. In this study, the weight to length ratio (WLR) was used to define the status of nutrition in preterm SGA infants: WLR < or = 2 S.D. or > 2 S.D. off the reference mean. Infants in both groups showed some catch-up growth in body weight. Yet, at near-term their body weight were still more than 2 S.D. below the mean of term AGA. In each gestational-age

  20. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  1. Antenatal blood pressure for prediction of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age babies: development and validation in two general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; de Stavola, Bianca L; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M; Crozier, Sarah; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can routine antenatal blood pressure measurements between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation contribute to the prediction of pre-eclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes? Methods This study used repeated antenatal measurements of blood pressure from 12 996 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to develop prediction models and validated these in 3005 women from the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). A model based on maternal early pregnancy characteristics only (BMI, height, age, parity, smoking, existing and previous gestational hypertension and diabetes, and ethnicity) plus initial mean arterial pressure was compared with a model additionally including current mean arterial pressure, a model including the deviation of current mean arterial pressure from a stratified normogram, and a model including both at different gestational ages from 20-36 weeks. Study answer and limitations The addition of blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improved prediction models compared with use of early pregnancy risk factors alone, but they contributed little to the prediction of preterm birth or small for gestational age. Though multiple imputation of missing data was used to increase the sample size and minimise selection bias, the validation sample might have been slightly underpowered as the number of cases of pre-eclampsia was just below the recommended 100. Several risk factors were self reported, potentially introducing measurement error, but this reflects how information would be obtained in clinical practice. What this study adds The addition of routinely collected blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improves predictive models for pre-eclampsia based on blood pressure in early pregnancy and other characteristics, facilitating a reduction in scheduled antenatal care. Funding, competing interests, data sharing UK Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, and UK Medical Research Council. Other

  2. Shaken baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I

    2002-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most common cause of death or serious neurological injury resulting from child abuse. It is specific to infancy, when children have unique anatomic features. Subdural and retinal haemorrhages are markers of shaking injury. An American radiologist, John Caffey, coined the name whiplash shaken infant syndrome in 1974. It was, however, a British neurosurgeon, Guthkelch who first described shaking as the cause of subdural haemorrhage in infants. Impact was later thought to play a major part in the causation of brain damage. Recently improved neuropathology and imaging techniques have established the cause of brain injury as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive and specific method of confirming a shaking injury. Families of children with subdural haemorrhages should be thoroughly investigated by social welfare agencies. PMID:12509690

  3. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important.

  4. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important. PMID:27118366

  5. In re Baby M.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    In 1985 William Stern and Mary Beth Whitehead signed a surrogate parenting agreement which provided that Whitehead would be inseminated with Stern's semen and would surrender any resulting child to him and his wife, at which time she would be paid $10,000. Whitehead subsequently tried to keep the child, but the New Jersey Superior Court (Chancery Division/Family Part, Bergen County) awarded temporary custody of "Baby M" to the Sterns and then ruled on 31 March 1987 that the surrogacy contract was valid and that Stern should have sole custody, with Whitehead's parental rights to be terminated and Mrs. Stern given the right to adopt the child. In the current decision, the New Jersey Supreme Court upholds the awarding of custody to Mr. Stern as in the child's best interest, but holds the contract to be unenforceable and restores Whitehead's parental rights, leaving the terms of her visitation rights as noncustodial parent to be established by the trial court.

  6. Isorotating baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss how internal rotation with fixed angular frequency can affect the solitons in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken to the SO(2). Two particular choices of the potential term are considered, the “old” potential and the “new” double vacuum potential, We do not impose any assumptions about the symmetry on the fields. Our results confirm existence of two types of instabilities determined by the relation between the mass parameter of the potential μ and the angular frequency ω. It is shown that multi-Skyrmions in the model with old potential at some critical value of the angular frequency become unstable with respect to decay into single Skyrmion constituents.

  7. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  8. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  9. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  10. The baby killers are still at large.

    PubMed

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago. PMID:12319575

  11. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  12. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  13. Urinary nephrin: A new predictive marker for pregnancies with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ga Young; Lee, Kyung A; Park, Mi Hye; Park, Hye Sook; Ha, Eun Hee; Chun, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the differences in urinary nephrin among controls, gravidas with preeclampsia (PE), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. We also determined whether or not maternal urinary concentrations of nephrin are associated with the subsequent development of PE and SGA infants. Methods We analyzed maternal urinary levels of nephrin in women who were normal controls (n=50), women who were delivered SGA infants (n=40), and gravidas with PE (n=33) in the first, second and third trimesters. Urinary nephrin concentrations were measured with nephrin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results The levels of urinary nephrin were higher in gravida developing preeclampsia or SGA than in controls after adjusting serum creatinine (P<0.05 for both). Maternal urine concentrations of nephrin were higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA and PE in the third trimester (P<0.05), and also higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA in the first trimester (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting SGA from normal pregnancies were 67% and 89% in the first trimester, 60% and 79% in the second trimester, and 80% and 84% in the third trimester, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting PE from normal pregnancies were 67% and 83% in the first trimester and 73% and 79% in the third trimester, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that urinary nephrin can be used as an early marker in pregnancies at risk for developing PE and SGA infants. PMID:24327976

  14. Liver transplantation in small babies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J; Gámez, M; Santamaría, M L; Murcia, J; Díaz, M C; Camarena, C; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1993-08-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease with 1- and 5-year survivals approaching 90% and 70%, respectively. Survival is influenced by the recipient's age, weight, primary disease, vascular malformations, and nutritional status. Younger patients weighing less than 13 kg are considered to be a high-risk group. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of this group of patients on the overall results of our pediatric liver transplant program. From January 1986 through January 1992 we performed 76 liver transplants in 59 pediatric patients. Sixteen received a second graft and a third was required in one. Fourteen patients weighed less than 13 kg (mean, 11 kg; range, 6 to 13 kg). Their mean age was 12 months, with a range of 8 to 36 months. Indications for transplantation were: biliary atresia (9), Byler's disease (1), tyrosinemia (3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (1). The incidence of rejection in this group (52%) was not significantly different from that in other patients (61%). Ten episodes of acute rejection required only steroids: in one monoclonal antibodies were added. Five patients had a new graft implanted, four for hepatic artery thrombosis and one for primary liver nonfunction. Nine patients are alive (64%) with the follow-up time ranging from 2 to 56 months (mean, 31). Five patients died of multiorgan failure (3), portal vein thrombosis (1), and primary liver nonfunction (1). Four-year graft and patient survival rates were 47% and 64%, respectively. Small babies are a high-risk group in a pediatric liver transplant program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Parental Perception of a Baby Sign Workshop on Stress and Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Baby sign language is gaining in popularity. However, research has indicated a lack of empirical research supporting its use. In addition, research suggests that baby sign training may increase stress levels in parents. Methods: Nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years; five months participated in a…

  16. Adolescent Mothers' Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmens, Donna A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the experiences of adolescent mothers with depression following the birth of their babies. A sample of 20 participants, between the ages of 16 and 18, were asked to reflect upon and describe their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about being depressed after the birth of their babies. Implications for practice and directions for future…

  17. Vocal Development of 9-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kathy L.; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Schulte, Julie; Halter, Kelli Ann

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the prelinguistic vocal development of 30 9- month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate and age-matched peers (N=15). Fewer of the babies with cleft palate had reached the canonical babbling stage (57 percent versus 93 percent) and had smaller consonant inventories. However, syllable types and length and number of…

  18. Babies, Music and Gender: Music Playschools in Finland as Multimodal Participatory Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…

  19. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  20. ["Baby cradle coop slots" for abandoned (anonymous) babies: legal problems].

    PubMed

    Riedel, U

    2006-04-01

    It is illegal to propagate or offer anonymous births or to "cradle" abandoned babies in anonymous coop slots ("Babyklappen" in German). Such offers must be rescinded. Offers concerning anonymity of births are ill-suited, since they do not save life. They are unnecessary, because women and children can be assisted even if they are in dire straits, by utilising available help as offered by statutory German child and adolescent aid institutions. Those illegal offers do not solve any problems but create new difficulties and result in lifelong misery for children and parents. Offers for anonymousness create a previously non-existent demand and discredit legal help facilities. Persons assisting anonymous deliveries or recovering "baby cradle" ("Babyklappen") children are obliged to report this to the local registrar's office (in hospitals by the hospital director). Anonymous babies must be immediately reported by hospitals or institutions to local police authorities, and they should be reported to the municipal Youth Office.

  1. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  2. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  3. An Analysis of the Frame-Content Theory in Babble of 9-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate ([plus or minus]cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions…

  4. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months: Response to Howard and Doherty-Sneddon's Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Johnston, J. Cyne; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence related to the effectiveness of baby sign language for children with typical development. This response to a Commentary on the review stresses that the primary purpose of the review was to assist caregivers and policy makers with informed decision-making related to the benefits of the…

  5. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903

  6. Revisiting the Measurement of Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, over 80% of adults surveyed report some familiarity with Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) and the dangers of shaking infants younger than 2 years of age ([Dias et al., 2005] and [Russell and Britner, 2006]). Hence, in the context of SBS prevention, the question of whether caregivers knew the safety risks of shaking an infant…

  7. Will the Retiring Baby Boomers Return to Rural Periphery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Jussi S.

    2009-01-01

    Many belonging to large post-war age cohorts in the western countries moved from rural areas to larger industrializing cities. They retire soon and can consider moving back to the childhood places. This article studies these baby boomers and the issues about their return to peripheral rural areas. The case regards one rural municipality,…

  8. Just a Talking Book? Word Learning from Watching Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael B.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Wartella, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view "Baby Wordsworth," a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks.…

  9. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research

  10. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  12. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  13. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments. PMID:15586985

  14. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S F; Vlug, R D; Smits-Wintjens, V E H J; Heckman, E J; Te Pas, A B; Fijnvandraat, K; Lopriore, E

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  15. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  16. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  17. Baby Boomers’ Adoption of Consumer Health Technologies: Survey on Readiness and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study explores how baby boomers’ readiness to use various technologies for health purposes compares to other segments of the adult population. Objective The goals of the study are to (1) examine what technologies baby boomers are ready to use for health purposes, (2) investigate barriers to baby boomers’ use of technology for health purposes, and (3) understand whether readiness for and barriers to baby boomers’ use of consumer health technologies differ from those of other younger and older consumers. Methods Data were collected via a survey offered to a random sample of 3000 subscribers to a large pharmacy benefit management company. Respondents had the option to complete the survey online or by completing a paper-based version of the survey. Results Data from 469 respondents (response rate 15.63%) were analyzed, including 258 baby boomers (aged 46-64 years), 72 younger (aged 18-45 years), and 139 older (age >64 years) participants. Baby boomers were found to be similar to the younger age group, but significantly more likely than the older age group to be ready to use 5 technologies for health purposes (health information websites, email, automated call centers, medical video conferencing, and texting). Baby boomers were less ready than the younger age group to adopt podcasts, kiosks, smartphones, blogs, and wikis for health care purposes. However, baby boomers were more likely than older adults to use smartphones and podcasts for health care purposes. Specific adoption

  18. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  19. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 children born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

  20. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  1. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially for ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  2. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  3. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  4. Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160211.html Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development Tiny movements help ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When parents watch babies sleep, they often assume that the tiny twitches they ...

  5. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For ... sleep sooner. continue My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...

  6. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  12. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  13. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  14. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  15. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  16. Phonetic analyses of the speech development of babies with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A

    1988-04-01

    Phonetic transcription was completed of the vocalizations of 23 babies with cleft palate at 9 specified ages from 3 to 36 months of age. Frequency of occurrence was calculated for: (1) consonant place features, (2) consonant manner features, (3) stop types, (4) fricative types, (5) vowel place features, and (6) vowel height features. The data are discussed for the entire population, for those babies with greater palatal tissue for whom palatoplasty was conducted at or prior to 12 months of age and for those babies with lesser tissue for whom palatoplasty was conducted after 12 months of age. Results suggest that (1) neither group used oral place features at the rate produced by babies born with intact velopharyngeal mechanisms, but that (2) the greater tissue group exhibited somewhat higher emergence of oral stop and fricative productions.

  17. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style. PMID:23210674

  18. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  19. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this…

  20. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  1. Drug Affected Babies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This 42-item annotated bibliography, represents a comprehensive effort to gather information on the educational problems of infant children of substance-abusing parents. Extensive searches were conducted in databases in the fields of education, medicine, social sciences, and the humanities. In particular, studies on the problems of "crack babies"…

  2. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D During Pregnancy & Small-for-Gestational Age in Black and White Infants

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Huh, Susanna Y.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In a prospective prenatal cohort study, we examined associations of second trimester and cord plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) with small-for-gestational age (SGA), and the extent to which vitamin D might explain black/white differences in SGA. Methods We studied 1067 white and 236 black mother-infant pairs recruited from 8 obstetrical offices early in pregnancy in Massachusetts. We analyzed 25(OH)D levels using an immunoassay and performed multivariable logistic models to estimate the odds of SGA by category of 25(OH)D level. Results Mean (standard deviation [SD]) second trimester 25(OH)D level was 60 nmol/L (21) and was lower for black (46 nmol/L [22]) than white (62 nmol/L [20]) women. 59 infants were SGA (4.5%) and more black than white infants were SGA (8.5% vs. 3.7%). The odds of SGA were higher with maternal 25(OH)D levels <25 vs. ≥25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.16, 8.63). The increased odds of SGA among black vs. white participants decreased from an OR of 2.04(1.04, 4.04) to 1.68(0.82, 3.46) after adjusting for 25(OH)D. Conclusions Second trimester 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L were associated with higher odds of SGA. Our data raise the possibility that Vitamin D status may contribute to racial disparities in SGA. PMID:22658824

  3. Heart rate variability and cardiac reflexes in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Taylor, Barry J; Bolton, David P G; Sayers, Rachel M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the influence of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac reflexes, we studied 27 healthy small for gestational age (SGA) and 23 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants during a nap study. Resting HRV was assessed by point dispersion of Poincaré plots for overall (SDRR) and instantaneous beat-to-beat variability (SDDeltaRR) and the ratio (SDRR/SDDeltaRR). Heart rate reflex and arousal responses to a 60 degrees head-up tilt were determined. All tests/measures were repeated twice in quiet and active sleep and in prone and supine sleep positions at 1 and 3 mo of age. SGA infants exhibited higher resting sympathetic tone [SDRR/SDDeltaRR: 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.0) and 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.8) in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.046] and a tendency for a smaller tachycardic reflex response to the tilt [Deltaheart rate: 24 beats/min (95% confidence interval: 20, 28) and 30 (95% confidence interval: 25, 34)] in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.06]. HRV indexes were reduced in the prone compared with supine position (P<0.0001), but reflex tilt responses were unchanged with position. SGA/AGA differences were independent of sleep position. Gestational age weight status did not influence the likelihood of arousal, but prone sleeping per se reduced the odds 2.5-fold. The findings suggest reduced autonomic activity and cardiac reflexes in SGA infants. The finding that the sympathetic component of the control of HRV was higher in SGA infants could link with findings in adulthood of an association between being born SGA and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16306252

  4. Baby Signs: How To Talk with Your Baby before Your Baby Can Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Based on research in infant sign language, this book teaches parents methods of communicating with their infants through the use of simple bodily movements that signify objects, events, and needs. Noting that communication between parent and child can flourish between 9 months and 30 months, when a baby's desire to communicate outstrips the…

  5. Labor and Delivery Experiences of Mothers with Suspected Large Babies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erika R.; Declercq, Eugene R.; Belanoff, Candice; Stotland, Naomi E.; Iverson, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with clinicians’ prenatal suspicion of a large baby; and to determine whether communicating fetal size concerns to patients was associated with labor and delivery interventions and outcomes. Methods We examined data from women without a prior cesarean who responded to Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women who had given birth between July 2011 and June 2012 (n=1,960). We estimated the effect of having a suspected large baby (SLB) on the odds of six labor and delivery outcomes. Results Nearly one-third (31.2%) of women were told by their maternity care providers that their babies might be getting “quite large”; however, only 9.9% delivered a baby weighing ≥4,000 grams (19.7% among mothers with SLBs, 5.5% without). Women with SLBs had increased adjusted odds of medically-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.6), attempted self-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.7), and use of epidural analgesics (AOR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–2.9). No differences were noted for overall cesarean rates, although women with SLBs were more likely to ask for (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.8–7.6) and have planned (AOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0–4.5) cesarean deliveries. These associations were not affected by adjustment for gestational age and birthweight. Conclusion Only one in five US women who were told that their babies might be getting quite large actually delivered infants weighing ≥4,000 grams. However, the suspicion of a large baby was associated with an increase in perinatal interventions, regardless of actual fetal size. PMID:26140835

  6. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  7. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  8. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD. PMID:16139550

  9. Small-for-gestational-age term birth: the contribution of socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors to recurrence.

    PubMed

    Read, A W; Stanley, F J

    1993-04-01

    This paper follows a previous study comparing women who had repeatedly given birth to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) term infants ('repeater' mothers) with multiparous women who had had only one such infant ('non-repeater' mothers). The present investigation involves the individual matching of each woman in the above groups with a control mother whose offspring were all term non-SGA infants. The study was based on all Western Australian Caucasian women giving birth to singletons and the study population comprised 594 repeater cases with 594 matched controls and 935 non-repeater cases with 935 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses indicated that demographic and paternal factors were significant predictors for recurrent SGA term birth whereas obstetric conditions, particularly preeclampsia, were important for the prediction of isolated SGA term birth. Maternal smoking, low maternal birthweight and lack of higher educational qualifications were associated with both types of SGA birth. After multivariable analyses, a strong and significant association remained between having a first infant as a teenager and recurrent SGA term birth. The tendency to repeat SGA term birth appears to be associated with social, economic and behavioural disadvantage and is unlikely to be ameliorated without fundamental changes in society.

  10. Baby universes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-15

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2} but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e{sup -N}) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  11. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children.

  12. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children. PMID:27353148

  13. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  14. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    PubMed

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems. PMID:9096820

  15. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  16. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  17. Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) Scoring System in Prediction of Mortality in Premature Babies

    PubMed Central

    Ezz-Eldin, Zahraa Mohamed; Hamid, Tamer A. Abdel; Nabil, Hossam El-Din

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB II) score is a recently developed tool to predict initial risk of mortality amongst low birth weight babies, the utility of which is scarce in many developing countries. Objective To assess the efficiency of CRIB II score as a tool to predict the risk for neonatal mortality among the LBW babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a tertiary care facility Kasr El-Aini paediatric hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Materials and Methods Prospective cohort study design where 113 neonates, admitted during the first 24 hours to the NICU of Kasr El-Aini Hospital, from November 2013 till May 2014 were included. On admission, history taking, neonatal examination, arterial blood gas analysis and variables of CRIB II score were done. Subjects were followed up from admission till discharge or death. Results Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Gestational age ranged from 25-32 weeks, the birth weight ranged from 700-1500 gm with mean of 1134.5 (± 202). CRIB II score ranged from 1-19 with a mean of 9.9 (± 4.0). The total mortality in the included cohort was 34.5% (31/113). Significant positive correlations were found between gestational age, birth weight, temperature, excess base, CRIB II score and the occurrence of mortality and with progressive increase in mortality with increasing CRIB II score (p=0.001). CRIB II score ≥ 11, gestational age ≤ 28 and birth weight ≤ 1100 were all found to be significantly associated with neonatal mortality. Area under ROC curve for CRIB II, gestational age and birth weight were found to be (0.968, 0.900 and 0.834) respectively. CRIB II score with cutoff point of ≥ 11 was the most sensitive (94.9%) with the predictive value (74.0%) and specificity (82.4%) compared to birth weight and gestational age. CRIB II score showed good calibration to predict neonatal mortality as demonstrated with Hosmer-lemeshow goodness of fit test (p= 0.952). Conclusion CRIB II score is a valid

  18. Field trials of the Baby Check score card: mothers scoring their babies at home.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Green, S J; Cole, T J; Walker, K A; Bonnett, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card has been developed to help parents and health professionals grade the severity of acute illness in babies. This paper reports the results of two field trials in which mothers used Baby Check at home, 104 mothers scoring their babies daily for a week and 56 using it for six months. They all found Baby Check easy to use, between 68% and 81% found it useful, and 96% would recommended it to others. Over 70% of those using it daily used it very competently. Those using it infrequently did less well, suggesting that familiarity with the assessment is important. The scores obtained show that Baby Check's use would not increase the number of mothers seeking medical advice. With introduction and practice most mothers should be able to use Baby Check effectively. It should help them assess their babies' illnesses and make appropriate decisions about seeking medical advice.

  19. Collodion baby dehydration: the danger of high transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Buyse, L; Graves, C; Marks, R; Wijeyesekera, K; Alfaham, M; Finlay, A Y

    1993-07-01

    We describe transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements in a collodion baby suffering from severe hypernatraemic dehydration and hypothermia, who required intravenous fluid therapy in a special incubator. The TEWL values 4 days after birth were abnormally high compared with normal infants of the same age. The TEWL measurements returned towards normal within the first month, in parallel with the improvement of both the skin signs and the electrolyte and fluid balance.

  20. Stop experimenting on my baby!

    PubMed

    Holzman, I R

    1999-09-01

    Having a small sick baby in a neonatal intensive care unit can be an extremely difficult experience for any family. A minority family brings to this setting the additional burden of a concern that racism may affect the care their child receives. While the technology may be overwhelming, the unique rules and an apparent disparity in the enforcement of these rules can suggest discrimination. In some cases, these parental perceptions lead to a charge of experimentation. An increased understanding by health care providers of the cultural differences and life experiences that families bring to stressful situations can improve communication.

  1. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  2. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales. PMID:18995909

  3. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  4. Libraries Are for Babies, Too! [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    This video, produced and shot in Maine libraries, provides a tour of five different approaches to library services for babies. Highlights include: "Finger Fun for Babies" at the Portland Public Library; "Small Is Beautiful" at the Wells Library; unique outreach activities sponsored by the Casco Library and Warren Library in Westbrook; and a…

  5. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  6. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby Print A A A Text Size What's ... recommendations. If you've recently moved to a new area, you may not have personal or social ...

  7. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A ... familia If you're going to have a new brother or sister, you'll want to know ...

  8. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  9. Visiting your baby in the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having a hard time with your emotions, ask for the social worker in the NICU. Or, talk to your doctor. It is ok to ask for help. By taking care of yourself, you are taking care of your baby too. Your baby needs your love and touch to grow and improve.

  10. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  11. Rich Responses Help Babies Learn and Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."

  12. The "baby lung" became an adult.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Pesenti, Antonio; Quintel, Michael; Mancebo, Jordi; Brochard, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The baby lung was originally defined as the fraction of lung parenchyma that, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still maintains normal inflation. Its size obviously depends on ARDS severity and relates to the compliance of the respiratory system. CO2 clearance and blood oxygenation primarily occur within the baby lung. While the specific compliance suggests the intrinsic mechanical characteristics to be nearly normal, evidence from positron emission tomography suggests that at least a part of the well-aerated baby lung is inflamed. The baby lung is more a functional concept than an anatomical one; in fact, in the prone position, the baby lung "shifts" from the ventral lung regions toward the dorsal lung regions while usually increasing its size. This change is associated with better gas exchange, more homogeneously distributed trans-pulmonary forces, and a survival advantage. Positive end expiratory pressure also increases the baby lung size, both allowing better inflation of already open units and adding new pulmonary units. Viewed as surrogates of stress and strain, tidal volume and plateau pressures are better tailored to baby lung size than to ideal body weight. Although less information is available for the baby lung during spontaneous breathing efforts, the general principles regulating the safety of ventilation are also applicable under these conditions. PMID:26781952

  13. Binocular Fixation in the Newborn Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan M.; Findlay, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which 15 babies were presented with visual stimuli which varied in shape and distance from the eye. Results indicated that the majority of subjects binocularly fixated all three stimuli and it was concluded that the newborn baby has the basic requirements for binocular vision. (Author/GO)

  14. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  15. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  16. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  17. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  18. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  19. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers' Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age.

  20. [Shaken baby syndrome: which lesions in imaging ?].

    PubMed

    Adamsbaum, C; Husson, B

    2012-09-01

    Non-accidental brain trauma (also called shaken baby syndrome) represent the main cause for morbidity and mortality in the context of child abuse. It often occur in young infants aged less than 8months. The shaking leading to brain injuries are very violent and sometimes associated with a final impact. Intracranial injuries may be isolated without skeletal trauma or bruising. In any suspicion of such a diagnosis, emergency hospitalization is indicated. Brain CT, easy to perform in emergency, is the diagnostic key. It discloses diffuse subdural hematomas in typical sites as vertex, interhemispheric space and tentorium. There is no clear background of trauma and the related story is changing over time. The 3D analysis of the skull looks for signs of recent impact as a fracture that is sometimes complex and/or a soft tissue swelling of the scalp. Intraparenchymal injuries (contusions, tearing, and overall anoxic ischemic injuries) are better analyzed with MRI. The prognosis depends on their extent. Ophtalmologic examination is systematically performed looking for retinal hemorrhages (around one third of cases) which may be very subtle. Bruising is a major diagnostic sign, but inconstantly present. A precise datation of skeletal and/or brain injuries is not possible with imaging and the only indication of use is to establish the presence of "age different lesions". This indicates repeated trauma and thereby a high risk of recurrence.

  1. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-11-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using /sup 153/Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation.

  2. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  3. Morbidity status of low birth weight babies in rural areas of Assam: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Madhur; Baruah, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) infants suffer more episodes of common childhood diseases and the spells of illness are more prolonged and serious. Longitudinal studies are useful to observe the health and disease pattern of LBW babies over time. Aims: This study was carried out in rural areas of Assam to assess the morbidity pattern of LBW babies during their first 6 months of life and to compare them with normal birth weight (NBW) counterparts. Materials and Methods: Total 30 LBW babies (0-2 months) and equal numbers of NBW babies from three subcenters under Boko Primary Health Centre of Assam were followed up in monthly intervals till 6 months of age in a prospective fashion. Results: More than two thirds of LBW babies (77%) were suffering from moderate or severe under-nutrition during the follow up. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) was the predominant morbidity suffered by LBW infants. The other illnesses suffered by the LBW infants during the follow up were diarrhea, skin disorders, fever and ear disorders. LBW infants had more episodes of hospitalization (65%) than the NBW infants (35%). Incidence rate of episodes of morbidity was found to be higher among those LBW infants who remained underweight at 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 49.3 per 100 infant months) and those who were not exclusively breast fed till 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 66.7 per 100 infant months). Conclusion: The study revealed that during the follow up, incidence of morbidities were higher among the LBW babies compared to NBW babies. It was also observed that ARI was the predominant morbidity in the LBW infants during first 6 months of age. PMID:26288777

  4. The Greater St. Louis LGBT Health and Human Services Needs Assessment: an examination of the Silent and Baby Boom generations.

    PubMed

    Jenkins Morales, Meghan; King, M Denise; Hiler, Hattie; Coopwood, Martin S; Wayland, Sherrill

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand differences and similarities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Baby Boomers and members of the Silent generation in the greater St. Louis region in relation to perceived barriers to service use, LGBT identity disclosure, experiences of violence and victimization, and mental health. An online survey was completed by 118 Baby Boomers and 33 Silents. Baby Boomers were found to perceive more barriers to health care and legal services, have fewer legal documents in place, feel less safe in their communities, and have experienced an increased rate of verbal harassment compared to their predecessors. Differences may be attributed to higher levels of LGBT identity disclosure among Baby Boomers across their lifetime. These findings support the current work of Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders Metro St. Louis, with implications for other communities, and shed light on the need for continued advancement in the development and implementation of programs as LGBT Baby Boomers age.

  5. Objectionable Advertising: A Q-Sort Comparing the Perceptions of Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study examined similarities and differences between the reactions of Baby Boomers (age 29 to 47) and members of Generation X (age 17 to 28) to 35 objectionable magazine advertisements. In an earlier study, 29 students in an advertising campaigns course ranked the objectionable advertisements (identified by students in an introductory course) by…

  6. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  7. How much wrapping do babies need at night?

    PubMed

    Wigfield, R E; Fleming, P J; Azaz, Y E; Howell, T E; Jacobs, D E; Nadin, P S; McCabe, R; Stewart, A J

    1993-08-01

    In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C minimum bedroom temperature falling to 4.0 tog at 25 degrees C). For a particular temperature they also applied 2 tog more insulation in winter than in summer. The amounts of bedclothing used in the home were compared with insulation levels predicted to achieve thermo-neutrality over a similar range of environmental temperature from heat balance studies in young infants. They corresponded closely. The average amount of bedclothing chosen for babies in Avon allows them to remain in thermoneutral conditions throughout the night. These values are proposed as broad guidelines for the thermal care of young babies at night.

  8. [The shaken baby syndrome as a kind of domestic abuse].

    PubMed

    Talarowska, Monika; Florkowski, Antoni; Mossakowska, Joanna; Gałecki, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    In the recent decades research on child abuse has grown impressively. Four types of child abuse: physical, psychological (emotional), sexual, and neglect have been clinically observed and defined. In 1972, John Caffey, a pediatric radiologist, published an article on the theory and practice of the abusive shaking of infants. This was followed, in 1974, with a second article on the whiplash shaken baby syndrome (SBS). Shaken baby syndrome, is caused by the violent shaking of a child with or without contact between the child's head and a hard surface. Such contact may result in head trauma, including subdural hematoma, diffuse axonal injury and retinal hemorrhage. The annual estimated rate of inflicted traumatic brain injury is 30 cases per 100,000 children aged 1 year of younger. Shaken baby syndrome often occurs after shaking in response to crying bouts. In 2001, an estimated 903,000 children were victims of SBS. Additionally, 1300 children were fatally injured from SBS the same year. The ability to detect SBS is difficult secondary to under reporting and misdiagnosis. There is no established set of symptoms that indicate SBS.

  9. Babies, Television and Videos: How Did We Get Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…

  10. The Social Tunnel Versus the Python: A New Way to Understand the Impact of Baby Booms and Baby Busts on a Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…

  11. Infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via consumption of homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Won Chan; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-10-01

    Limited data are available on the residue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in baby food. In this study, 24 PBDE congeners were determined in 147 homemade baby food samples collected from 97 households for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and from 24 to 27-month-old infant groups during the period of 2012-2013. The concentrations of total PBDEs (ΣPBDE) ranged from 24.5 to 6000 (mean: 263) pg/g fresh weight, higher than those found in commercial formulae from the United States. The predominant congeners were BDEs 209 and 47, accounting for 92% of the ΣPBDE concentrations, reflected by high deca-BDE consumption in Korea. The residue levels and detection rates of BDE 47 in the baby food samples showed a gradual increasing trend with an increase in infant ages, due to changes in the food ingredients from hypoallergenic to greasy. The daily intakes of BDEs 47 and 209 via baby food consumption ranged from 0.04 to 0.58, 0.80 to 20.3, and 1.06 to 22.3 ng/kg body weight/day for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 24-27-month-old infant groups, respectively; these intakes were lower than the oral reference doses proposed by the US EPA. Together with three exposure sources, baby food, breast milk and dust ingestion for 6-month-old infants, the daily intake of ΣPBDE was 25.5 ng/kg body weight/day, which was similar to the intake via baby food consumption only for over 24-month-old infants in our study. This indicates that baby food is an important exposure pathway of PBDEs for over 24-month-old infants. This is the first study regarding the occurrence and exposure assessment of PBDEs via homemade baby food.

  12. Ultradian components of the sleep-wake cycle in babies.

    PubMed

    Menna-Barreto, L; Benedito-Silva, A A; Marques, N; de Andrade, M M; Louzada, F

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral states may be analyzed as expressions of underlying cyclic activity involving several physiological systems. The human sleep-wake cycle in the first year of life shows, in addition to the establishment of circadian rhythmicity around the second month, the dynamics of its ultradian components, as can be seen in the more or less gradual decline of the polyphasic pattern. To detect these changes, we have analyzed the sleep-wake cycle of five babies of different ages (3, 4, 9, 11, and 13 months) observed for 5 consecutive days (Monday through Friday), 10 h (08:00-18:00 h) per day at a kindergarten by the first author, and during the night (18:00-08:00 h) by the parents. Behavioral observations were designed for minimizing interference with the babies' habits. Sleep/wake data were arranged in 60-min intervals, and the relative amount of time spent asleep per interval constituted the time series submitted for statistical analysis. The five resulting time series were submitted to spectral analysis for detecting the composition of frequencies contributing to the observed sleep/wake cycle. Several frequencies were thus obtained for each baby in the ultradian and circadian domain, ranging from one cycle in 2.0 h to one cycle in 24 h. The circadian component was the strongest rhythmic influence for all individuals except for the youngest (3-month-old) baby, who showed a semicircadian component as the main frequency in the power spectrum. Three individuals showed ultradian frequencies in the domain of 3-4 h. Differences in the spectra derive from three possible, and probably not exclusive, causes: 1) ontogenetic changes, 2) different masking effects, and 3) individual differences. PMID:8500186

  13. Improvements in bimanual hand function after baby-CIMT in two-year old children with unilateral cerebral palsy: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nordstrand, Linda; Holmefur, Marie; Kits, Annika; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that early-onset intensive intervention positively affects motor development has rarely been investigated for hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study explored the possible impact of baby constraint-induced movement therapy (baby-CIMT) on hand function at two years of age. We hypothesized that baby-CIMT in the first year of life would lead to better bimanual hand use at two years of age than would not receiving baby-CIMT. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was administered at age 21 months (SD 2.4 months) in 72 children with unilateral CP, 31 of who received baby-CIMT. When dividing the children into four functional levels based on AHA, the proportional distribution differed between the groups in favour of baby-CIMT. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the baby-CIMT group were more likely than were children in the no baby-CIMT group to have a high functional level, even when controlling for the effect of brain lesion type (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.44-23.56, p = 0.001). However, no difference was found between groups in the odds of having a very low functional level (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08-1.17, p = 0.084). The result shows that baby-CIMT at early age can have a positive effect. Children who received baby-CIMT were six times more likely to have a high functional level at two years of age than were children in the no baby-CIMT group.

  14. Improvements in bimanual hand function after baby-CIMT in two-year old children with unilateral cerebral palsy: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nordstrand, Linda; Holmefur, Marie; Kits, Annika; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that early-onset intensive intervention positively affects motor development has rarely been investigated for hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study explored the possible impact of baby constraint-induced movement therapy (baby-CIMT) on hand function at two years of age. We hypothesized that baby-CIMT in the first year of life would lead to better bimanual hand use at two years of age than would not receiving baby-CIMT. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was administered at age 21 months (SD 2.4 months) in 72 children with unilateral CP, 31 of who received baby-CIMT. When dividing the children into four functional levels based on AHA, the proportional distribution differed between the groups in favour of baby-CIMT. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the baby-CIMT group were more likely than were children in the no baby-CIMT group to have a high functional level, even when controlling for the effect of brain lesion type (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.44-23.56, p = 0.001). However, no difference was found between groups in the odds of having a very low functional level (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08-1.17, p = 0.084). The result shows that baby-CIMT at early age can have a positive effect. Children who received baby-CIMT were six times more likely to have a high functional level at two years of age than were children in the no baby-CIMT group. PMID:26100242

  15. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  16. Minding the baby a reflective parenting program.

    PubMed

    Slade, Arietta; Sadler, Lois; De Dios-Kenn, Cheryl; Webb, Denise; Currier-Ezepchick, Janice; Mayes, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Minding the Baby, an interdisciplinary, relationship based home visiting program, was initiated to help young, at-risk new mothers keep their babies (and themselves) "in mind" in a variety of ways. The intervention--delivered by a team that includes a nurse practitioner and clinical social worker--uses a mentalization based approach; that is, we work with mothers and babies in a variety of ways to develop mothers' reflective capacities. This approach--which is an adaptation of both nurse home visiting and infant-parent psychotherapy models--seems particularly well suited to highly traumatized mothers and their families, as it is aimed at addressing the particular relationship disruptions that stem from mothers' early trauma and derailed attachment history. We discuss the history of psychoanalytically oriented and attachment based mother-infant intervention, the theoretical assumptions of mentalization theory, and provide an overview of the Minding the Baby program. The treatments of two teenage mothers and their infants are described.

  17. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new baby . At the very least, ... he starts asking about mom's growing "stomach." Picture books for preschoolers can be very helpful. So can ...

  18. Questions Parents Ask about Baby Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby against these diseases? No. Breastfeeding offers temporary immunity against some minor infections like colds, but it ... preferable to “artificial” vaccination, leading to a “natural” immunity. Some even arrange chickenpox “parties” to ensure their ...

  19. Why lions roar like babies cry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

  20. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough infographic . Keep Your Baby's Whooping Cough Vaccine Current Getting the whooping cough vaccine during pregnancy provides ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  1. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... problems with memory and attention severe mental retardation cerebral palsy Even in milder cases, in which babies look ...

  2. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    PubMed

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended.

  3. Your Baby's Development: The First Trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... During this stage, the baby is called an embryo. What changes occur during the embryonic stage? During ... parts begin to develop. The cells of the embryo (called embryonic stem cells) multiply and change into ...

  4. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  5. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  6. Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep!

    MedlinePlus

    ... from spreading to your baby. The antibiotic (usually penicillin) is given to you through an IV (in ... vein) during childbirth. If you are allergic to penicillin, there are other antibiotics to help treat you ...

  7. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  8. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  9. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism. PMID:22106569

  10. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  11. When to transfuse preterm babies

    PubMed Central

    Bell, EF

    2009-01-01

    The physiological anaemia experienced by preterm babies is exacerbated by common care practices such as early clamping of the umbilical cord at birth and gradual exsanguination by phlebotomy for laboratory monitoring. The need for subsequent transfusion with red blood cells can be reduced by delaying cord clamping for 30–60 s in infants who do not require immediate resuscitation. The need for transfusions can be further reduced by limiting phlebotomy losses, providing good nutrition, and using standard guidelines for transfusion based on haemoglobin or haematocrit. What those guidelines should be is not clear. Analysis of two recent large clinical trials comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion guidelines leads to several conclusions. Restrictive transfusion guidelines may reduce the number of transfusions given, but there is no reduction in donor exposures if a single-donor transfusion programme is used. There is some evidence that more liberal transfusion guidelines may help to prevent brain injury, but information on the impact of transfusion practice on long-term outcome is lacking. Until further guidance emerges, transfusion thresholds lower than those used in the two trials should not be used, as there is no evidence that lower thresholds are safe. PMID:18653585

  12. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  13. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants.

  14. The "Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis" as the Basis for Bilingual Babies' Phonetic Processing Advantage: New insights from fNIRS Brain Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitto, L. A.; Berens, M. S.; Kovelman, I.; Dubins, M. H.; Jasinska, K.; Shalinsky, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a neuroimaging study focusing on young bilinguals, we explored the brains of bilingual and monolingual babies across two age groups (younger 4-6 months, older 10-12 months), using fNIRS in a new event-related design, as babies processed linguistic phonetic (Native English, Non-Native Hindi) and nonlinguistic Tone stimuli. We found that phonetic…

  15. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ravi Kumar; Deo, Krishna Kumar; Neupane, Uttam; Chaudhary Bhaskar, Subhadra; Yadav, Birendra Kumar; Pokharel, Hanoon P.; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies) and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies). Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), mother's age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal. PMID:26783406

  16. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  17. Bringing Up Baby with Baby Signs: Language Ideologies and Socialization in Hearing Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the functional roles of "baby signing" in three hearing families in the United States, as well as a discussion of the social and ideological implications of the practice. Baby signing fits neatly into the parenting ideologies prevalent in the professional class in the United States that value early…

  18. Where have all the babies gone?

    PubMed

    1992-05-15

    Critical comment is provided on the phenomena of couples postponing childbearing in Singapore. In spite of a media campaign to promote childbearing and tax incentives, women are choosing to be DINKS, couples with double incomes and no kids. Women's reasons for not having children are to enjoy more freedom and a better material life and maintain a career. Seet Ai Mee, the junior minister of community development, in 1990 spoke in a public address about women's lack of belief in marriage and the loss of independence and career prospects when children come along. Official concern is based on the rising median age of childbearing which has gone from 23.4 years in 1970 to 27.7 years in 1991. A continuing trend would put women 30 years old at the age of 1st childbearing in the year 2000. 1 of 5 women presently do not have children. 2.9% fewer babies were born in the 1st 10 months of 1991 compared with 1990. The Director of the Population Planning Unite believes that the campaign has been successful in promoting coupling, but not procreation. Examples are given of 4 women who chose not to have children. 1 was a 26-year old university graduate who was a product manager. She is married and thinks that the ad campaign is not appropriately geared to an educated population. Romance and hard sell are out of place. Another psychotherapist expressed the opinion that women wanted a house a car before having children, and later age at childbearing was desired because the desire was to a small family anyway. Freedom has a greater value over the desire for children. A 30-year old writer finds women with children boring, and later age at childbearing means greater maternal maturity. Several examples are given of women who desire an earlier start on childbearing because of the demands placed on older mothers. The director of a counseling and care center defines DINKS as educated higher income people who want a career, personal goals, travel, and other things. There should not be a

  19. Balancing the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death in the early preterm small-for-gestational-age fetus

    PubMed Central

    TRUDELL, Amanda S.; TUULI, Methodius G.; CAHILL, Alison G.; MACONES, George A.; ODIBO, Anthony O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Timing of delivery for the early preterm small for gestational age (SGA) fetus remains unknown. Our aim was to estimate the risk of stillbirth in the early preterm SGA fetus compared to the risk of neonatal death. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies undergoing second trimester anatomy ultrasound excluding fetal anomalies, aneuploidy and pregnancies with incomplete neonatal follow-up. SGA was defined as birthweight < 10th percentile by the Alexander standard. Life-table analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risks of stillbirth/10,000 ongoing SGA pregnancies and risk of neonatal death/10,000 SGA live births for 2 week GA strata in the early preterm period (24-33 and 6/7 weeks). We further examined the composite risk of expectant management and then compared the risk of expectant management with the risk of immediate delivery. Results Of 76,453 singleton pregnancies, 7,036 SGA pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria were ongoing at 24 weeks with 64 stillbirths, 226 live births and 18 neonatal deaths between 24-33 and 6/7 weeks. As the risk of stillbirth increases with advancing GA, the risk of neonatal death falls, until the 32-33 and 6/7 week GA stratum. The relative risk of expectant management compared with immediate delivery remains <1 for each gestational age strata. Conclusion Our findings suggest the balance between the competing risks of stillbirth and neonatal death for the early preterm SGA fetus occurs at 32-33 and 6/7 weeks. These data can be useful when delivery timing remains uncertain. PMID:24746999

  20. Babies behind bars; an Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    Enright, F; Boyle, T; Murphy, J

    2007-01-01

    In the Irish Prison service prison is not deemed suitable for babes. Rarely are mothers separated from their children in Ireland as they get temporary release renewed weekly to keep her at home with her baby. The governor explained the system of the prison which I detail below. The women's prison is now known as the Dochas Centre meaning hope, named so by the women themselves. We found that 14 babies lived in the centre with their mothers in the last 4 years. Their length of stay ranged from 2 days to 3 months. Of the 14 babies in prison, five were born to women who were pregnant on admission and the other nine brought their babies with them. Six women are separated from their children, in total 24, due to her incarceration. The implications are that a formal system is needed to plan the baby's admission, stay and discharge with formal links with HSE health and child protection systems where necessary. The HSE and the Irish prison's service are looking at further amalgamation or integration of health care into the prison system.

  1. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  2. Metabolic and energy balance in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age, very low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Picaud, J C; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Salle, B L; Senterre, J

    1994-12-01

    This study compared nutrient utilization and postnatal weight gain composition in eight appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight 1293 +/- 107 g; gestational age 28.8 +/- 1.4 weeks) and eight symmetrically growth-retarded (SGA: birth weight 1110 +/- 230 g; gestational age 32.7 +/- 1.9 weeks), very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. There was no significant difference in protein, mineral and energy intake between AGA and SGA infants. Nitrogen absorption (84 +/- 3 and 83 +/- 4%) and nitrogen retention (356 +/- 48 and 352 +/- 43 mg/kg/day) were similar in both groups. Fat absorption tended to be lower in AGA (78 +/- 15%) than in SGA (87 +/- 4%) infants. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorptions were similar in AGA and SGA infants. Metabolizable energy utilization was similar in both groups; about 55% was expended and 45% stored in new tissues. Energy expenditure was 58 +/- 4 kcal/kg/day in SGA infants and 61 +/- 9 kcal/kg/day in AGA infants. Weight gain and its composition were similar in both groups. We conclude that nutrient and energy utilization are similar in AGA and symmetrically growth-retarded, VLBW infants.

  3. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  4. Quit4baby: Results From a Pilot Test of a Mobile Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) programs have been shown to be effective in helping adult smokers quit smoking. This study describes the results of a pilot test of Quit4baby, a smoking cessation text messaging program for pregnant smokers that was adapted from Text2quit. Objective The study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby for women currently enrolled in Text4baby, a perinatal health text messaging program. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in Text4baby and who were current smokers or had quit within the last 4 weeks (n=20) were enrolled in Quit4baby. Those under the age of 18, not pregnant, not current smokers, those using nicotine replacement therapy, and those not interested in participating were ineligible. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks postenrollment. Results Most participants responded to the program favorably. Highly rated aspects included the content of the program, skills taught within the program, and encouragement and social support provided by the program. Participants reported that the program was helpful in quitting, that the program gave good ideas on quitting, and that they would recommend the program to a friend. Suggestions for improvement included increasing the message dose and making the quitpal more interactive. Conclusions This pilot test provides support for the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby. Future studies are needed to assess whether Quit4baby is effective for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:25650765

  5. Growth and development of permanent teeth germ of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shoujen; Yen, Yeayin; Ko, Yingchin; Chen, Engrin )

    1989-06-01

    This paper is intended to present a study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. The focus of the study is to demonstrate how a contaminated food source can affect the growth and development of permanent teeth germ in children. A sporadic outbreak of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Japan in October of 1968. An epidemiological study revealed the outbreak of this disease was caused by contaminated Kanemi rice oil. This episode of rice oil poisoned with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was the first reported outbreak of PCB poisoning in the world. A second episode occurred in central Taiwan eleven years after the Japanese episode. Registered data from the Taiwan Provincial Government Health Department reported 1,843 cases in 1980. Of this group, more than 800 women were child-bearing age and most of these women would or soon would be married and pregnant. The offsprings of these women were in danger, because it has been proven that PCB intoxication could affect the fetus. These babies, only contaminated through the placenta, are called PCB transplacental Yusho babies in Japan and PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Babies with PCB poisoning could have Fetal PCB syndrome (FPS) and may have retarded eruption of permanent teeth and other anomalies such as reduced numbers of teeth and abnormal shaped roots. The study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies is an important public health issue for Taiwan. Although there may be other issues, this study focuses only on the growth and development of permanent teeth of those babies affected by PCB transplacental contamination.

  6. Is baby-led weaning feasible? When do babies first reach out for and eat finger foods?

    PubMed

    Wright, Charlotte M; Cameron, Kirsty; Tsiaka, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2011-01-01

    The baby-led weaning philosophy proposes that when solids are introduced, infants should be encouraged to self-feed with solid food, as opposed to spoon-feeding purees. We used data from the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS) to define the range of ages at which infants reach out for and eat finger foods and related this to developmental status. GMS recruited infants shortly after birth and followed them prospectively using postal questionnaires. Of the 923 eligible children, 602 had data on when they first reached out for food, and 340 (56%) had done so before age 6 months, but 36 (6%) were still not reaching for food at age 8 months. Infants who had not reached out for food by 6 months were less likely to be walking unaided at age 1 year (85 out of 224, 38%) compared with those who did (155 out of 286, 54%; P < 0.001). For the 447 parents who completed a diary of the first five occasions when their child ate finger foods, the first finger food eaten was before age 6 months for 170 (40%) and before age 8 months for 383 (90%); foods offered were mainly bread, rusks or biscuits. Of the 604 with information at age 8 months about current intake, all but 58 (9.6%) were having some finger foods at least daily, but only 309 (51%) were having them more than once per day. Baby-led weaning is probably feasible for a majority of infants, but could lead to nutritional problems for infants who are relatively developmentally delayed.

  7. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  8. Newborn measles antibody profile in a teaching hospital: Can sex of babies determine measles IgG acquisition from their respective mothers?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Yakubu, Mava; Abdullahi, Ibrahim Bello; Pwavimbo, Ambe Jose; Mahmud, Talba Aliyu; Clapton, Difirwiti Harry

    2013-01-01

    Known sex specific differences in fetal, neonatal morbidity and mortality have been documented. Sex differences also exist in birth-weight centile with males being larger than females at birth. However, these sex differences are not fully explored when studying passive measles immunity acquired by babies from their mothers. Moreover, the mechanisms that confer these sex differences are to a large extent unknown. Therefore, this study assessed sex of babies as a determinant of measles immunoglobulin G acquisition from their respective mothers. One hundred and seventy four newborn babies were enrolled in this study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure maternal measles antibodies (MMA) from sera collected from these babies at birth. Gestational age of the newborn babies was determined using the Nagele rule, ultrasound scan reports and the Dubowitz criteria. Sex and mean MMA of these babies was compared using the Student’s t test. Significant comparison existed between mean MMA and sex of post term babies (P = 0.000), such that post term males had higher levels of MMA than females. However, overall sex and mean MMA comparison of these babies was not significant (P = 0.977). There were more MMA in male post term babies relative to their female peers; however, overall sex comparison of MMA was not significant. Therefore, there is the need for further study.

  9. Newborn measles antibody profile in a teaching hospital: Can sex of babies determine measles IgG acquisition from their respective mothers?

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Yakubu, Mava; Abdullahi, Ibrahim Bello; Pwavimbo, Ambe Jose; Mahmud, Talba Aliyu; Clapton, Difirwiti Harry

    2013-03-01

    Known sex specific differences in fetal, neonatal morbidity and mortality have been documented. Sex differences also exist in birth-weight centile with males being larger than females at birth. However, these sex differences are not fully explored when studying passive measles immunity acquired by babies from their mothers. Moreover, the mechanisms that confer these sex differences are to a large extent unknown. Therefore, this study assessed sex of babies as a determinant of measles immunoglobulin G acquisition from their respective mothers. One hundred and seventy four newborn babies were enrolled in this study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure maternal measles antibodies (MMA) from sera collected from these babies at birth. Gestational age of the newborn babies was determined using the Nagele rule, ultrasound scan reports and the Dubowitz criteria. Sex and mean MMA of these babies was compared using the Student's t test. Significant comparison existed between mean MMA and sex of post term babies (P = 0.000), such that post term males had higher levels of MMA than females. However, overall sex and mean MMA comparison of these babies was not significant (P = 0.977). There were more MMA in male post term babies relative to their female peers; however, overall sex comparison of MMA was not significant. Therefore, there is the need for further study. PMID:27625835

  10. The Major Impacts of the Baby Boom Cohort upon American Life, Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Charles E.

    Impacts of the "Baby Boom" generation, the 75 million persons born between 1947 and 1962 in the United States, are analyzed. Factors influencing this unprecedented increase in birth rates included "catching up" by men who had been at war, a higher proportion of women in childbearing years, a decrease in the average marriage age, and the prosperous…

  11. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  12. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  13. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  14. Common feeding problems in babies and children: 2.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    1998-01-01

    Weaning is the cause of much concern among first-time mothers. A milk-only diet is advised until 3-4 months of age. Health professionals should ensure the baby receives a sufficient and balanced diet during the weaning period, to meet the needs for energy and growth. Breast milk or infant formula should continue up to the age of at least one year. The weaning period is a good time to educate parents in good nutrition. A wide variety of foods should be the aim in child nutrition, but each different type needs to be started separately during weaning. Care is needed to ensure vegetarian babies receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals (especially iron). Failure to thrive has a multitude of causes, and treatment must be that of the cause. Strictly vegan children who eat no dairy products will need added synthetic vitamin B12. Failure to thrive may be due to physical problems (eg choanal atresia), infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, parental ignorance or poverty. Other causes include coeliac disease, cow's milk protein allergy, cystic fibrosis, severe eczema or asthma, or diabetes.

  15. Battered baby syndrome at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Muita, J W; Nduati, R W

    1990-12-01

    Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

  16. Common feeding problems in babies and children: 2.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    1998-01-01

    Weaning is the cause of much concern among first-time mothers. A milk-only diet is advised until 3-4 months of age. Health professionals should ensure the baby receives a sufficient and balanced diet during the weaning period, to meet the needs for energy and growth. Breast milk or infant formula should continue up to the age of at least one year. The weaning period is a good time to educate parents in good nutrition. A wide variety of foods should be the aim in child nutrition, but each different type needs to be started separately during weaning. Care is needed to ensure vegetarian babies receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals (especially iron). Failure to thrive has a multitude of causes, and treatment must be that of the cause. Strictly vegan children who eat no dairy products will need added synthetic vitamin B12. Failure to thrive may be due to physical problems (eg choanal atresia), infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, parental ignorance or poverty. Other causes include coeliac disease, cow's milk protein allergy, cystic fibrosis, severe eczema or asthma, or diabetes. PMID:9814353

  17. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  18. [Severe hypernatraemic dehydration in collodion baby].

    PubMed

    Magid, Tobias; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Nymann, Peter; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2007-03-26

    Case report on severe hypernatraemic dehydration in a non-recognised collodion baby who also suffered from hydrops fetalis caused by supraventricular tachycardia. Excessive transcutaneous fluid loss caused s-Na+ reaching 182 mmol/l within 36 hours of birth. The infant was cautiously rehydrated during the following three days. No sign of neurologic impairment was observed. It is emphasized that early observation of the collodion baby must take place in a humidified incubator. Major weight changes in the newborn should always result in analysis of serum sodium.

  19. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  20. Hyperbiliverdinemia in the bronze baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S M; Wians, F H; Ackerman, N B; Davis, B M

    1987-01-01

    The bronze baby syndrome is an unusual complication of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate. The pigment or pigments responsible for the discoloration in this syndrome have not yet been identified. Suspected pigments include photodegradation products of bilirubin and copper-porphyrins. We present here the case of a neonate with bronze baby syndrome whose serum had increased spectral absorbance in the region of maximum absorbance for biliverdin. We suggest that biliverdin pigments may also contribute to the "bronze" color associated with this syndrome.

  1. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... other is sprayed into your child's nose. The flu shot contains killed (inactive) viruses. It is not possible ... the flu from this type of vaccine. The flu shot is approved for people age 6 months and ...

  2. Estimation of fluoride intake from milk-based infant formulas and baby foods.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hie Jin; Sohn, Woosung; Kim, Baek Il; Kwon, Ho Keun; Choi, Choong Ho; Kim, Hae-Young

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the amount of fluoride ingested from infant formula and baby food in infants aged up to 6 months in South Korea. The fluoride content of 20 commercially available formulas and 8 baby food samples from 4 different brands was measured using a modified microdiffusion method and fluoride ion selective electrode. The amount of fluoride (F) ingested by infants was estimated assuming that the samples were reconstituted with water containing 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 ppm F. When the reconstituted formulas and baby foods contained 0.8 ppm F water, the infants were estimated to ingest fluoride in the range of 0.018 to 0.298 mg/kg/day. The findings of this study suggest that there is a need for clear guidelines for fluoride consumption by infants that should be followed by manufacturers and parents.

  3. Taking babies' temperatures: science versus social taboos in battle over Baby Check.

    PubMed

    Handysides, S

    1993-09-11

    Baby Check, a scoring system for assessing the severity of illness in babies under 6 months old, has not met with the success its developers expected. The inclusion of rectal temperature in the assessment was strongly opposed by the Royal College of Midwives, which refused to alter its view despite evidence of the safety and accuracy of rectal thermometry. British parents appear not to like rectal thermometers either. Most other medical bodies have supported Baby Check and the reason for midwives' opposition may have more to do with professional pique at not being consulted than clinical wisdom. PMID:8401058

  4. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  5. 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies who feed themselves solid foods early on may not be at increased ... known as "baby-led" weaning: Instead of introducing solid foods the traditional way -- spoon-feeding rice cereal, ...

  6. Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160434.html Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions About 3,500 U.S. infants ... Despite decades of warnings from the "Back to Sleep" campaign, many parents are still putting their babies ...

  7. Why at Least 39 Weeks Is Best for Your Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to have a c-section. A c-section can cause problems for your baby. Babies ... through the vagina, also called the birth canal.) C-sections can cause problems in future pregnancies. Once ...

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pande, C; Sarin, S K; Patra, S; Kumar, A; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Bhutia, K; Gupta, E; Mukhopadhyay, C K; Dutta, A K; Trivedi, S S

    2013-11-01

    Vertical transmission of Hepatitis B virus HBV can result in a state of chronic HBV infection and its complications. HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prevents transmission of overt infection to the babies. However, whether it also prevents occult HBV infection in babies is not known. Consecutive pregnant women of any gestation found to be HBsAg positive were followed till delivery, and their babies were included in the study. Immediately after delivery, babies were randomized to receive either HBIG or placebo in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine (at 0, 6, 10 and 14 weeks). The primary end-point of the study, assessed at 18 weeks of age, was remaining free of any HBV infection (either overt or occult) plus the development of adequate immune response to vaccine. The babies were further followed up for a median of 2 years of age to determine their eventual outcome. Risk factors for HBV transmission and for poor immune response in babies were studied. Of the 283 eligible babies, 259 were included in the trial and randomized to receive either HBIG (n=128) or placebo (n=131) in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine. Of the 222 of 259 (86%) babies who completed 18 weeks of follow-up, only 62/222 (28%) reached primary end-point. Of the remaining, 6/222 (3%) developed overt HBV infection, 142/222 (64%) developed occult HBV infection, and 12/222 (5%) had no HBV infection but had poor immune response. All 6 overt infections occurred in the placebo group (P=0.030), while occult HBV infections were more common in the HBIG group (76/106 [72%] vs. 66/116 [57%]; P=0.025). This may be due to the immune pressure of HBIG. There was no significant difference between the two groups in frequency of babies developing poor immune response or those achieving primary end-point. The final outcome of these babies at 24 months of age was as follows: overt HBV infection 4%, occult HBV infection 42%, no HBV infection but poor immune response 8% and no HBV

  9. Small and large size for gestational age and neighborhood deprivation measured within increasing proximity to homes

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Anna E.; Messer, Lynne C.; Nguyen, Thuan; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood deprivation is consistently associated with greater risk of low birthweight. However, large birth size is increasingly relevant but overlooked in neighborhood health research, and proximity within which neighborhood deprivation may affect birth outcomes is unknown. We estimated race/ethnic-specific effects of neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) within 1, 3, 5, and 8 km buffers around Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n=3,716; 2004-2007) respondents’ homes on small and large for gestational age (SGA, LGA). NDI was positively associated with LGA and SGA in most race/ethnic groups. The results varied little across the four buffer sizes. PMID:25240489

  10. Infants & Toddlers: How Babies Use Gestures to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…

  11. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  12. Shaken Baby Syndrome: What Caregivers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the causes of shaken baby syndrome and how to recognize, respond to, and prevent it. Identifies horseplay to avoid and recommends never shaking baby even for apnea. Offers 12 tips for working with crying babies and includes ten discussion questions to test knowledge of the syndrome. (DLH)

  13. Infant & Toddlers: How to Calm an Exuberant Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…

  14. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  15. Australian baby boomers face retirement during the global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis. PMID:23837628

  16. With Babies and Banners: Illustrated Historical Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Lyn; Gray, Lorraine

    Background reading materials are provided in this booklet developed to be used in conjunction with the award winning color documentary film "With Babies and Banners." The film records the role that the women of Flint, Michigan, played in the great General Motors sit-down strike of 1937. The readings are suitable for college audiences and for…

  17. Evaluation of products for treating babies' napkins.

    PubMed Central

    Gaya, H.; Thirlwall, J.; Shaw, E. J.; Hassam, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A test is described for assessing the sanitizing effect of napkin treatment products on naturally urine-wetted and faecally-contaminated napkins. This test defines in-use conditions which closely resemble typical domestic situations. One napkin treatment product ('Napisan'), tested at two different concentrations and with challenges of different numbers of babies' napkins, performed satisfactorily under the conditions used. PMID:448064

  18. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  19. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  20. Got Diabetes? Thinking about Having a Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... suh-lin) if ordered by your doctor. 4 Monitor your blood sugar often • Be aware that your blood sugar can ... you begin to take care of your baby. ✓ Monitor and control your blood sugar. ✓ See your doctor regularly. Usually twice a year, ...

  1. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the educational desires…

  2. The Baby Boom--Entering Midlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; De Vita, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. baby-boom generation, born between 1946 and 1964, is the largest generation in the nations's history. Numbering over 80 million people in 1990, this giant generation has indelibly changed U.S. society, requiring adjustments in schools, labor markets, housing markets, and government programs. Perhaps more than any other institution,…

  3. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

    PubMed

    Julien, P

    1996-01-01

    The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

  4. Modelling Neonatal Care Pathways for Babies Born Preterm: An Application of Multistate Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Lisa; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Keith R.; Modi, Neena; Manktelow, Bradley N.

    2016-01-01

    Modelling length of stay in neonatal care is vital to inform service planning and the counselling of parents. Preterm babies, at the highest risk of mortality, can have long stays in neonatal care and require high resource use. Previous work has incorporated babies that die into length of stay estimates, but this still overlooks the levels of care required during their stay. This work incorporates all babies, and the levels of care they require, into length of stay estimates. Data were obtained from the National Neonatal Research Database for singleton babies born at 24–31 weeks gestational age discharged from a neonatal unit in England from 2011 to 2014. A Cox multistate model, adjusted for gestational age, was used to consider a baby’s two competing outcomes: death or discharge from neonatal care, whilst also considering the different levels of care required: intensive care; high dependency care and special care. The probabilities of receiving each of the levels of care, or having died or been discharged from neonatal care are presented graphically overall and adjusted for gestational age. Stacked predicted probabilities produced for each week of gestational age provide a useful tool for clinicians when counselling parents about length of stay and for commissioners when considering allocation of resources. Multistate modelling provides a useful method for describing the entire neonatal care pathway, where rates of in-unit mortality can be high. For a healthcare service focussed on costs, it is important to consider all babies that contribute towards workload, and the levels of care they require. PMID:27764232

  5. Physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth among predominantly Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Gollenberg, Audra L; Pekow, Penelope; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Freedson, Patty S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the association between multiple domains of physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. We utilized data from 1,040 participants in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Physical activity was assessed by bilingual interviewers using a modified version of the Kaiser physical activity survey in early (mean = 15 weeks) and mid pregnancy (mean = 28 weeks). Physical activity (i.e., sports/exercise, household, occupational, and active living) in pre, early and mid pregnancy was categorized in quartiles. SGA was classified as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Pre- and early-pregnancy physical activity were not associated with SGA. In multivariable analyses, women with high total activity in mid-pregnancy had a decreased risk of SGA [risk ratio (RR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.82; p(trend) = 0.003] as compared to those with low total activity. Findings were similar for high household activity (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.34-1.40; p(trend) = 0.26), active living (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.13; p(trend) = 0.04), and occupational activity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.47-1.34; p(trend) = 0.26). High levels of sports/exercise were associated with an increased SGA risk without a significant dose-response association (RR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.39; p(trend) = 0.33). Results extend prior studies of physical activity and SGA to the Hispanic population.

  6. Dietary intake in young adults born small or appropriate for gestational age: data from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Compare the dietary intake of young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) versus those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Data at the 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France). Data from 229 AGA-born adults and 172 SGA-born adults with available dietary information are presented. Methods Dietary intake was based on a food questionnaire including 19 items. The χ2 test was run to compare intake between SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. An a priori score was calculated based on the adherence to recommendations from the French Nutrition and Health Program and included 8 components with the lowest value indicating a lower adherence to recommendations. The score was then divided into quartiles. Relative risks and 95% CIs, controlling for age and sex in multivariate analysis, were calculated in order to determine the risk of belonging to the first versus the second to the fourth quartiles in SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. Results Intakes of SGA-born adults indicated that they consumed more meat, sugar and less fish than AGA-born individuals (all p<0.05). Multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and sex showed that the relative risk of belonging to the first quartile versus the other three quartiles did not disclose any significant difference in SGA-born versus AGA-born participants: RR=0.92 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.30). Conclusions Aside from the differences found by univariate analyses, no significant differences were obtained in multivariate analyses. Findings suggest that parameters of fetal programming are more associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood rather than dietary patterns. PMID:27473954

  7. The importance of head growth patterns in predicting the cognitive abilities and literacy skills of small-for-gestational-age children.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Virginia; Amsel, Rhonda; Whyte, Hilary E A

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of head growth compromise beginning in utero and continuing, in some cases, through the first 9 months of life on the cognitive and literacy skills of school-age small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. Seventy-one SGA children, aged 7 to 9 years (gestational ages, 24-41 weeks) and 16 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age control children of comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and age at testing completed tests assessing intelligence, receptive language, working memory, problem solving, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling. SGA children were subdivided into head-growth pattern groups based on their head circumference at birth and at 9 months postterm. Analyses showed that SGA children with poor prenatal and postnatal head growth had the worst outcomes, followed by those with prenatal brain compromise, but good postnatal head growth. SGA children with preserved head growth in utero as well as good head growth after birth demonstrated the best outcomes, although spelling skills were deficient relative to full-term peers. The Verbal and Full Scale IQ ratings of the SGA children who had experienced brain compromise in utero declined significantly from 5 to 8 years of age. We conclude that mild intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) has a minimal effect on the development of cognitive or academic abilities, providing that brain growth in utero is not affected. IUGR that slows brain growth in utero impairs the acquisition of some cognitive and academic abilities, even when followed by good catch-up head growth after birth, whereas poor brain growth in utero followed by little or no catch-up head growth results in widespread impairments. Findings highlight the limits to brain plasticity and emphasize the importance of optimal prenatal and postnatal brain growth.

  8. Racial disparities in cord blood vitamin D levels and its association with small-for-gestational-age infants

    PubMed Central

    Seto, T L; Tabangin, M E; Langdon, G; Mangeot, C; Dawodu, A; Steinhoff, M; Narendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of race and maternal characteristics and their association with cord blood vitamin D levels and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Study Design: Cord blood vitamin D levels were measured in 438 infants (276 black and 162 white). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between maternal characteristics, vitamin D status and SGA. Results: Black race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants. Conclusion: Identification of risk factors (black race, Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status. PMID:27101387

  9. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier

  10. Differences in eating behaviour, well-being and personality between mothers following baby-led vs. traditional weaning styles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Baby-led weaning, where infants self-feed family foods in place of traditional spoon-feeding of purees, is continuing to grow in popularity. Evidence is emerging which suggests that the method may promote healthier eating behaviour and weight gain in children, but the research is in its infancy. One issue is the self-selecting nature of participants to the approach. Although those who follow a baby-led approach are known to have a higher education and more professional occupation, little is known about wider maternal characteristics, which might affect either adoption of or outcomes of the method. The aim of this study was to explore differences in maternal characteristics between those adopting a baby-led or traditional approach. Six hundred four mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months completed a questionnaire including a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and depression scales) and Ten Item Personality Questionnaire (TIPQ) alongside details of weaning approach (baby-led vs. traditional). Mothers who adopted a baby-led weaning style scored significantly lower on restrained eating (DEBQ), anxiety and introversion (TIPQ) and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (BSI). Mothers who currently adopt a baby-led approach are therefore significantly different in personality, eating behaviour and well-being characteristics compared with those adopting a traditional approach. These characteristics may affect likelihood of choosing a baby-led approach or indirectly affect outcomes for infants weaned using the approach. Further research exploring baby-led weaning in a wider population sample is needed.

  11. Development: Ages & Stages--Emerging Physical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children develop their motor skills at different age levels. Newborn's movements are jerky and uncoordinated. Spending lots of floor time with a baby lying on her back or stomach helps her develop coordination, balance, and muscle strength during her earliest months. As locomotion enters a baby's life, she…

  12. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Paul; Reiter, Edward

    2012-05-15

    The term small for gestational age (SGA) refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD) units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%-10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.

  13. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The term small for gestational age (SGA) refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD) units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%–10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder. PMID:22587301

  14. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals.

  15. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals. PMID:3745839

  16. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth. PMID:26831196

  17. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth.

  18. Traumatic brain injury and shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; Amorim, Robson L O; de Andrade, A Ferreira; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of physical child abuse, which is frequently overlooked. It is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding and no external signs of head trauma. This syndrome is seen most commonly in children under 2 years, mainly in children under 6 months. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals.

  19. On the death of a baby.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, R; Stinson, P

    1981-01-01

    Andrew was a desperately premature baby weighing under two pounds. He died after months of "heroic' efforts in an intensive care facility. The story of his short cruel institutionalised life is a case study in the limits and excesses of modern medicine. The night he told us our son Andrew was about to die the doctor who had taken charge of him six months before also told us we were "intellectually tight' that we had "no feelings only thoughts and words and strategies'. We were "bad parents'. As the parents of a five-year-old daughter we knew the love a mother and father feels for children. Yet as Andrew's parents we were used to condemnation and insult. Andrew was a baby born 15 weeks prematurely weighing only 1lb 12oz and in a state of painful deterioration almost from the start. We wanted him to be allowed to die a natural death. Andrew's story is the story of what can happen when a baby becomes hopelessly entrapped in an intensive care unit where the machinery is more sophisticated than the code of law and ethics governing its use. The letter printed below was sent to the administrator and numerous personnel of the hospital that controlled the life and death of our son. The physician-in-chief of that hospital characterised it as a "carefully documented critique'. The letter appear here somewhat edited and abridged and the names of people and institutions have been changed all but our own. It is the personal record of what happened to our baby and to us. PMID:7205897

  20. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  1. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  2. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  3. Misshapen Heads in Babies: Position or Pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Bronfin, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    A newborn's skull is highly malleable and rapidly expanding. As a result, any restrictive or constrictive forces applied to a baby's head can result in dramatic distortions. These changes can be mild, reversible deformations or severe, irreversible malformations that can result in brain injury. This paper reviews the anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal brain and skull growth, the etiology of cranial deformation, the types of craniosynostosis most commonly seen in infants, and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21765737

  4. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  5. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

  6. Bronze baby syndrome: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Jori, G; Reddi, E; Rubaltelli, F F

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the appropriateness of an animal model for the bronze baby syndrome. Ligation of the common bile duct in adult Wistar rats induces an accumulation of porphyrins and copper in the liver and a 20% conversion of protoporphyrin IX into (Cu(II)-protoporphyrin IX. Upon irradiation of these animals with super-blue lamps, the plasma content of Cu(II)-protoporphyrin increases by about 30%. Cholestasis also increases the recovery of porphyrins in the urine, although light treatment of ligated rats further increases urinary porphyrin excretion. The spectroscopic changes induced by irradiation of sera of ligated rats are consistent with the formation of products that have the typical spectrum found in bronze baby syndrome patients, i.e. a reduced absorbance in the visible region and an increased absorption in near-UV and red spectral regions. The products responsible for the brown discoloration found in bronze baby syndrome seem to result from phototransformation of copper-porphyrins subsequent to an electron transfer between photoexcited bilirubin and the copper ion.

  7. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    DOE PAGES

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-25

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)- dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper wemore » present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.« less

  8. Shaken baby syndrome as a form of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Elnour, Ibtisam B; Ganesh, Anuradha

    2011-08-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a form of abuse that is characterised by brain injury. Because of the subtle and yet debilitating neurobehavioural impairment which ensues, SBS represents a diagnostic dilemma for attending clinicians. The situation is made worse by the young age of the affected child who may not be capable of explaining what happened. SBS has been reported in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, there is a dearth of literature on the topic from Arab/Islamic countries. This article attempts to shed light on the syndrome by reviewing information on the aetiology of SBS, as well as on its diagnosis and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. The central aim of this review is to increase awareness of SBS so that enlightened policies for prevention and intervention could be developed in the region and particularly in Oman.

  9. Parental awareness, habits, and social factors and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Febres, C; Echeverri, E A; Keene, H J

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental awareness, habits, and social factors in a particular parent population and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in their children. The sample consisted of Hispanic, Black, and White families and included 100 parents with 100 children from the Pediatric Clinic and the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at Houston Medical Center, University of Texas, Houston. Questionnaires including information related to demographic data, educational level, marital status, baby care, and knowledge and beliefs about BBTD were completed by the parents. Each child was examined with mouth mirror and tongue blade to determine the presence of BBTD. Overall, 19 of the children were found to have BBTD. The racial distribution of the children with and without BBTD was statistically significant (P = 0.03) with the Hispanic population being over-represented in the BBTD group (72.2% versus 37.0%) and Blacks under-represented (16.2% versus 50.6%). The ages at which babies with BBTD were weaned from the bottle were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those with no BBTD, and those weaned after 14 months of age were more likely to have BBTD. The percentage of babies with BBTD weaned from the bottle after 14 months old was higher (36.8%) than babies without the condition (26.5%). Awareness of BBTD was generally lower among parents of the BBTD children than parents of children without BBTD, as reflected by the feeding patterns of their children and their responses to questions dealing with their knowledge of BBTD. PMID:9048409

  10. An Analysis of the Frame-Content Theory in Babble of Nine-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate (± cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions of the theory (labial-central, alveolar-front, and velar-back). Both groups demonstrated the three consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory. Other patterns not predicted by the Frame-Content theory emerged as strong patterns as well. PMID:21889772

  11. Baby-led weaning: transitioning to solid foods at the baby's own pace.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Gill

    2011-06-01

    Baby-led weaning is an approach to the introduction of solid foods that is being followed by increasing numbers of parents, but what is it, and should health visitors be encouraging it? This paper aims to refresh practitioners' background knowledge of complementary feeding and to outline the key features of baby-led weaning, as well as to explore the evidence that supports this approach as a logical adjunct to the move to six months for the introduction of solid foods. The more common concerns of parents and professionals, such as choking and iron intake, are addressed. Tips for implementing baby-led weaning are included and some of the potential benefits identified.

  12. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers (Birth to age 5)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of-pocket medical costs. continue Step 4: Find Childcare By law, childcare providers cannot discriminate against children with special needs. ... be sure that the day care center or childcare provider you choose has the skills and setting ...

  13. Baby bottle tooth decay in Native American children in Head Start centers.

    PubMed

    Broderick, E; Mabry, J; Robertson, D; Thompson, J

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a unique pattern of dental caries (tooth decay) affecting the dentition of young children. It is associated with the practice of putting the child to sleep with a nursing bottle filled with liquid that contains sugar. Practitioners who treat Native American children have noted that this population suffers from a high prevalence of the condition. In order to establish specific program priorities and treatment needs for this segment of the Native American population, additional information is required on both prevalence and severity of baby bottle tooth decay. In this survey, an overall prevalence of 70 percent was observed when Navajo and Cherokee Head Start students ages 4-5 years were examined. Of the children affected by baby bottle tooth decay, 87 percent displayed the most severe manifestation of the disease. The prevalence of this disease in these Native American children appears to be substantially higher than in other populations. Further study is needed to identify the factors contributing to this difference in prevalence and to identify effective measures for reducing the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay among Native Americans.

  14. The heat balance of small babies nursed in incubators and under radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Wheldon, A E; Rutter, N

    1982-04-01

    The heat balance of 12 healthy preterm babies (mean birth weight 1.58 kg, gestation 32 weeks, age 7 days) was studied first in an incubator and then under a radiant warmer during normal nursing. Heat production and heat loss by radiation, convection and evaporation were measured in presumed thermoneutral conditions. Although rectal and mean skin temperatures were normal and the same in both environments, there were important differences. Radiation was the major source of heat loss in the incubator and convective losses were low. Under the radiant warmer convection was the major source of heat loss and heat was gained by radiation. A small rise in metabolic heat production occurred under the radiant warmer. Respiratory water loss was low in both environments. Skin water loss was significantly higher under the radiant warmer. The most immature baby (gestation 28 weeks) could not be kept warm in the incubator despite high air temperature, because the evaporative heat loss from her skin was very high. Her body temperatures were normal under the radiant warmer. It is concluded that both devices provide acceptable thermal environments for most preterm babies but that incubators without humidification may be inadequate for immature babies with a high skin water loss.

  15. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Large Population of Galaxies Found in the Young Universe with ESO's VLT The Universe was a more fertile place soon after it was formed than has previously been suspected. A team of French and Italian astronomers [1] made indeed the surprising discovery of a large and unknown population of distant galaxies observed when the Universe was only 10 to 30% its present age. ESO PR Photo 29a/05 ESO PR Photo 29a/05 New Population of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 424 pix - 191k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 449k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2269 x 2402 pix - 2.0M] ESO PR Photo 29b/05 ESO PR Photo 29b/05 Average Spectra of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 506 pix - 141k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1012 pix - 320k] This breakthrough is based on observations made with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) as part of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The VVDS started early 2002 on Melipal, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Array [2]. In a total sample of about 8,000 galaxies selected only on the basis of their observed brightness in red light, almost 1,000 bright and vigorously star forming galaxies were discovered that were formed between 9 and 12 billion years ago (i.e. about 1,500 to 4,500 million years after the Big Bang). "To our surprise, says Olivier Le Fèvre, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France) and co-leader of the VVDS project, "this is two to six times higher than had been found previously. These galaxies had been missed because previous surveys had selected objects in a much more restrictive manner than we did. And they did so to accommodate the much lower efficiency of the previous generation of instruments." While observations and models have consistently indicated that the Universe had not yet formed many stars in the first billion years of cosmic time, the discovery announced today by scientists calls for a significant change in this picture. The astronomers indeed find that stars formed two to three times

  16. Health care utilization in the first year of life among small- and large- for-gestational age term infants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Rizzo, Joanne H; England, Lucinda J; Callaghan, William M; Vesco, Kimberly K; Bruce, F Carol; Bulkley, Joanna E; Sharma, Andrea J; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess if small- and large-for gestational age term infants have greater health care utilization during the first year of life. The sample included 28,215 singleton term infants (37-42 weeks) without major birth defects delivered from 1998 through 2007 and continuously enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northwest for 12 months after delivery. Birth weight for gestational age was categorized into 3 levels: <10th percentile (SGA), 10-90th percentile (AGA), >90th percentile (LGA). Length of delivery hospitalization, re-hospitalizations and sick/emergency room visits were obtained from electronic records. Logistic regression models estimated associations between birth weight category and re-hospitalization. Generalized linear models estimated adjusted mean number of sick/emergency visits. Among term infants, 6.2 % were SGA and 13.9 % were LGA. Of infants born by cesarean section, SGA infants had 2.7 higher odds [95 % 1.9, 3.8] than AGA infants of staying ≥5 nights during the delivery hospitalization; of those born vaginally, SGA infants had 1.5 higher adjusted odds [95 % 1.1, 2.1] of staying ≥4 nights. LGA compared to AGA infants had higher odds of re-hospitalization within 2 weeks of delivery [OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.58] and of a length of stay ≥4 days during that hospitalization [OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3, 5.0]. The adjusted mean number of sick/emergency room visits was slightly higher in SGA (7.8) than AGA (7.5) infants (P < .05). Term infants born SGA or LGA had greater health care utilization than their counterparts, although the increase in utilization beyond the initial delivery hospitalization was small. PMID:22855007

  17. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  18. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  19. What midwives need to know about baby massage.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2012-09-01

    Baby massage has become increasingly popular in the West among parents and healthcare practitioners alike, with numerous studies continuing to hail the benefits of taking time to massage and bond with your baby. Newborn and infant massage is of particular interest to midwives in their primary role, helping families to bond and heal the pain of traumatic births, but now many midwives are offering baby massage sessions privately in their spare time also. Here's the low down. PMID:23082398

  20. Learning to Be "Me" while Coming to Understand "We": Encouraging Prosocial Babies in Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Mary Benson; Addleman, Jennifer M.; Fulford, Amanda M.; Moore, Sarah L.; Mooney, Shari J.; Sisk, Samantha S.; Zachariah, Jasmine

    2009-01-01

    At the same time young babies are developing an understanding of self as separate from others--what it means to be "me"--many also face having to negotiate living, learning, growing, and developing as part of a group--what it means to be "we". This is true for more than half of all infants in the United States under the age of 9 months, who now…

  1. Comparative analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels in pre-term and term babies delivered at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Obasa, Temitope Olorunsola; Adesiyun, Omotayo Olukemi; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji; Ojuawo, Ayodele Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is an enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt required for the production of reducing equivalents needed to mop up free radicals. thereby keeping hemoglobin in its free state. Deficiency of the enzyme can cause severe neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to compare G6PD levels in pre-term and term babies, and evaluate the extent to which G6PD deficiency determines the severity of jaundice in various gestational age groups. Samples of cord blood collected from consecutively delivered babies in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were assayed for G6PD levels, and the babies were observed for jaundice during the first week of life. Those who developed jaundice had serial serum bilirubin measured. Nine hundred and thirty-three babies had G6PD assayed, with 348 being G6PD deficient, giving a hospital based prevalence of 37.3%. Of the 644 who were followed up, 143 (22.2%) were pre-term and 501(77.8%) were term babies. Babies with gestational age (GA) 27–29 weeks had the highest G6PD levels. However, there was no significant variation among the different gestational age groups (F=0.64, P=0.64). Jaundice occurred more in pre-term compared to term babies with a relative risk of 2.41 (χ2=60.95, P=0.00001). Occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies was irrespective of G6PD status (χ2=0.2, P=0.66, RR=1.09, CI=0.83age and the occurrence of jaundice (R2=-0.874). Pre-term babies are more likely to have higher G6PD levels, but occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies is irrespective of G6PD status. More severe jaundice (especially for gestational age) occurring in pre-term babies requires critical care. PMID:22690313

  2. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; P<0.001) than infants who did not, characterized by a diet that was lower in white potatoes (14% vs 22%) and higher in dark-green (6% vs 5%) and deep-yellow (35% vs 10%) vegetables. Commercial baby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants.

  3. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  4. The p53 family member p73 modulates the proproliferative role of IGFBP3 in short children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Caratozzolo, Mariano Francesco; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Brunetti, Giacomina; Cavallo, Luciano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Tullo, Apollonia

    2015-08-01

    The regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) gene expression is complex, because it can be induced by agents that both stimulate and inhibit the proliferation. The principal aim of this study was to investigate whether p73, a member of the p53 gene family, has a role in the regulation of the IGFBP3 expression and whether this regulation occurs in a context of cell survival or death. We demonstrate that IGFBP3 is a direct TAp73α (the p73 isoform that contains the trans-activation domain) target gene and activates the expression of IGFBP3 in actively proliferating cells. As IGFBP3 plays a key role in regulating the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor type 1 (GH/IGF1) axis, whose alterations in gene expression appear to have a role in the growth failure of children born small for gestational age (SGA), we measured the mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 in a group of SGA children. We found that mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 are significantly lower in SGA children compared with controls and, in particular, p73 mRNA expression is significantly lower in SGA children with respect to height. Our results shed light on the intricate GH/IGF pathway, suggesting p73 as a good biomarker of the clinical risk for SGA children to remain short in adulthood. PMID:26063735

  5. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  6. We want what’s best for our baby: Prenatal Parenting of Babies with Lethal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Krowchuk, Heidi; Hall, Wendasha Jenkins; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on qualitative research into the experience of couples who chose to continue their pregnancies after receiving a lethal fetal diagnosis, and to embrace the parenting of their baby in the shortened time they have. This analysis of interview data is part of a larger research project describing parents’ experiences of continuing pregnancy with a known lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD). PMID:26594107

  7. Leaching of bisphenol A from new and old babies' bottles, and new babies' feeding teats.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L L; Mustafa, A M

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical. PMID:15038686

  8. [Outcome after a shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lind, K; Laurent-Vannier, A; Toure, H; Brugel, D-G; Chevignard, M

    2013-04-01

    The Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a severe inflicted brain injury due to an adult violently shaking an infant. Diagnostic guidelines have been recently published by the "Haute Autorité de santé". The mortality rate after SBS is 21.6 % and the long-term outcome is good for only 8 to 36 % patients followed over more than 5 years. The aim of this article is to describe sequelae after a SBS, their mechanisms, prognostic factors and recommendations for a better long-term care of the patients.

  9. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  10. Inspecting baby Skyrmions with effective metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Goulart, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper we investigate the causal structure of the baby Skyrme model using appropriate geometrical tools. We discuss several features of excitations propagating on top of background solutions and show that the evolution of high frequency waves is governed by a curved effective geometry. Examples are given for which the effective metric describes the interaction between waves and solitonic solutions such as kinks, antikinks, and hedgehogs. In particular, it is shown how violent processes involving the collisions of solitons and antisolitons may induce metrics which are not globally hyperbolic. We argue that it might be illuminating to calculate the effective metric as a diagnostic test for pathological regimes in numerical simulations.

  11. Advising parents on washing babies' clothes.

    PubMed

    Scowen, P

    1996-01-01

    Detergents and other laundry products are generally effective and safe for all the family, but use carefully according to the maker's instructions and keep out of the reach of children. Rinse thoroughly to remove detergent residue from fabrics. If handwashing clothes, dissolve detergent before immersing hands. Wear rubber gloves if possible. Wash, rinse and dry hands thoroughly after contact with detergent. If a baby or parent has eczema, it may be necessary to try different products to see which one the client can tolerate. A non-perfumed, non-enzyme product may be found less irritating. PMID:9077252

  12. Website Babies Portal: development and evaluation of the contents regarding orofacial functions

    PubMed Central

    CORRÊA, Camila de Castro; PAULETO, Adriana Regina Colombo; FERRARI, Deborah Viviane; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre

    2013-01-01

    Education mediated by technology facilitates the access to information and can reach more people, including a broader range of socio-economic groups and ages, and at a low-cost. The website "Babies Portal - Speech-Language Pathology/Audiology and Dentistry" (http://portaldosbebes.fob.usp.br) was developed to provide parents with information on communication procedure disorders and oral health, enabling them to prevent and identify any changes in development early while looking for the best treatment. Objective: The objective is to describe the development and evaluation of the content pertaining to the oral functions featured in the "Babies Portal". Methods: The first stage consisted of a literature review, development/selection of illustrations and an evaluation of the possible external links that could be available. In the second stage, 10 speech-language and hearing pathologists (group A) and five parents of babies (group B) evaluated the website via an online form, which included ethical and personal information and questions about the quality, technical information and comparative prior knowledge acquired after the access. In the first stage, there was the construction of five sections ("The Oral Functions", "Breastfeeding", "Food", "Pacifier, baby bottle and finger sucking" and "Breath") based on scientific studies, presenting objective information, content links prepared by the Ministry of Health and a Dentistry section in the "Babies Portal" website. Videos, static and dynamic images were also distributed throughout the sections. Results: Regarding the second stage, 90% of all speech-language and hearing pathologists judged a good/excellent quality for all sections and classified the technical quality as very good. By their turn, 88% of the parents (group B) reported that the website helped or helped very much in understanding the contents, and 80% rated the quality as good or excellent. Conclusions: Five sections concerning the oral functions were

  13. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.

    PubMed

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    The role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is gaining acceptance. Mainstream research favouring respiratory compromise has failed to provide a plausible pathogenetic mechanism despite many years of investigation and thousands of research papers. Bacterial colonisation of the colon of the human infant is influenced by many factors including age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences development of the immune system. The gut microflora could be important in protection against the bacteria and/or their toxins purportedly involved in SIDS pathogenesis. The aim was to perform a preliminary investigation of the gut microflora in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with live comparison babies. The intestinal contents from 52 SIDS, and 102 faecal samples from age-matched live comparison infants were screened by PCR to target 16s RNA genes of Clostridium innocuum, Cl. Perfringens, Cl. difficile, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Staphylococcus aureus. Gut colonisation of the babies with these bacteria was analysed in relation to age, gender and type of feeding; and for SIDS babies sleeping position. Cl. difficile, Cl. innocuum and B. thetaiotaomicron were significantly associated with SIDS with 25%, 46% and 30% of cases PCR positive for these respective bacteria compared with only 6%, 23% and 8.8% respectively in the comparison group. SIDS babies had dual colonisation by both Cl. perfringens and Cl. difficile significantly more often than comparison babies and also with triple colonisation by Cl. perfringens, Cl. difficile and Cl. innocuum. SIDS babies were more often colonised by S. aureus than comparison babies. In addition, SIDS babies found prone were significantly more likely to be colonised by S. aureus than for other positions recorded (OR = ∞; CI = 2·04 - ∞). No significant differences between breast and bottle-fed SIDS babies was observed in regard to each

  14. "My Baby & Me": Effects of an Early, Comprehensive Parenting Intervention on At-Risk Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Cathy L.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Noria, Christine W.; Borkowski, John G.; Swank, Paul R.; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G.; Carta, Judith J.; Warren, Steven F.; Ramey, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168…

  15. Are Children's Faces Really More Appealing than Those of Adults? Testing the Baby Schema Hypothesis beyond Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Li Zhuo; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis ("Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie" (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were…

  16. Blind Babies Play Program: A Model for Affordable, Sustainable Early Childhood Literacy Intervention through Play and Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacko, Virginia A.; Mayros, Roxann; Brady-Simmons, Carol; Chica, Isabel; Moore, J. Elton

    2013-01-01

    The Miami Lighthouse, in its 81 years of service to persons who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), has adapted to meet the ever-changing needs of clients of all ages. To meet the significant needs of visually impaired children--more than 80% of early learning is visual (Blind Babies Foundation, 2012)--the…

  17. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Eisenger, K.; Brown, S.

    1995-08-28

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism, and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At age 14 months, motor and intellectual development were normal, but growth remained below the 10th centile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Let Baby Set the Delivery Date: Wait Until 39 Weeks if You Can

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Health Capsules ... the lifelong health of that baby.” search Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Wise Choices ...

  19. Baby Galaxies in the Adult Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals).

    Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline.

    The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.

  20. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  1. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers.

    PubMed

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N

    2009-03-01

    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products. PMID:18992296

  2. Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Diameter in Small for Gestational Age and Growth Restricted Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roig, M. Dolores; Mazarico, Edurne; Valladares, Esther; Guirado, Laura; Fernandez-Arias, Mireia; Vela, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and aortic diameter (AD) in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Methods Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks. Results Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm]), than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447–0.485 mm]), and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm]) (p = 0.023). Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258–4.655 mm]), than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm]) (p = 0.028). Conclusions Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease. PMID:26017141

  3. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  4. Baby Boomers and Community College: A Study of Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, DiAnne H.

    2009-01-01

    Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…

  5. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies. Hepatitis B Vaccine Helps Protect Your Baby’s Future! What is hepatitis B and why do I need to protect my baby now? Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by the ...

  6. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested for hepatitis C. Doctors, nurses and other health care providers can: Test all baby boomers and people with other risks ... hepatitis C and all doctors, nurses, and other health care providers should test all their patients who are baby boomers for ...

  8. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  9. Baby Care Basics: What Every Infant Caregiver Needs To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents information on caring for infants in a child care setting. Suggestions include responding quickly to crying, setting the schedule to baby's pace, talking to the baby, using proper hand-washing procedures, checking the room daily for safety, going outdoors every day, and building partnerships with parents. Includes a sample form for…

  10. Pedagogy with Babies: Perspectives of Eight Nursery Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…

  11. Early Mother/Baby Contact: Consequences/Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorster, de Wet

    To assess the effect of early mother-infant proximity on later stress and behavior, two studies were made which involved a sample of mother-baby pairs that was larger than samples utilized in previous studies. In Study 1, involving 300 consecutive mother-baby couples at the Maternity Hospital in Plymouth, England clinical medical officers used a…

  12. Better Baby Care: A Book for Family Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Margaret; Tate, Costella

    A resource for child caregivers providing family day care for infants and toddlers, this book is designed to provide information and suggestions in a format that is easy to follow, and in language that is easy to read. Chapter 1 gives tips on "baby-proofing" the home, as well as ideas for toys, equipment, and how to integrate a baby into the…

  13. Teenagers and Their Babies: A Perinatal Home Visitor's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…

  14. Talking with Your Baby: Family as the First School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Brophy, Holly Elisabeth

    Noting that children s first words are exciting for parents to hear, this book describes how babies can "talk" before they learn to say actual words and shows ways parents can help babies learn language. The book addresses a neglected area in child development--how to help low literacy parents and parents for whom English is a Second Language…

  15. The total thermal insulation of the new-born baby

    PubMed Central

    Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.; O'Connell, Bridget

    1970-01-01

    1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0·9 and 4·8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38° C for the babies who were studied naked. 2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature. 3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic ∼ 5 mm thick. 4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31° C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this. 5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31° C varied with body size: it averaged 0·156° C.m2.hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0·9-1·2 kg, rose to 0·190° C.m2.hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1·8-2·2 kg, and averaged 0·201° C.m2.hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg. 6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0·23° C.m2.hr/kcal. PMID:5503276

  16. Birth and motherhood: childbirth experience and mothers' perceptions of themselves and their babies.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed. PMID:25704337

  17. Probabilistic Monte Carlo estimation for quantitative exposure assessment of lotion transfer via baby wipes usage.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Li, Lijuan; Brink, Susanna; Zhou, Shaoying

    2016-08-01

    Unique aspects of childhood exposure to products need childs specific exposure data. This study developed a probabilistic exposure model for lotion transfer to diapered skin through normal use of baby wipes in children up to 48 months of age. Monte Carlo simulations used baby wipe diary data from the US, Germany and the UK, body weight data from the US, and lotion transfer data from single and multiple wipes adjusting for separate diaper changes. The models predicted a declining number of wipes used/day with a reduction in lotion transfer as age and body weight increased. Experimental testing on multiple sequential wipes used on an overlapping area showed a reduction in lotion deposition by 23.9% after the first wipe. Overall, the weighted population average over the approximate diapering period of 0-36 months across the three geographies at 50th, 90th, & 95th percentiles, were between 130, 230, 260 mg/kg/day, respectively, and 150, 270, 310 mg/kg/day depending on whether a reduction due to overlap is implemented. The statistical model represents an effective strategy to determine exposure to baby wipes lotion for exposure based risk assessment.

  18. Probabilistic Monte Carlo estimation for quantitative exposure assessment of lotion transfer via baby wipes usage.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Li, Lijuan; Brink, Susanna; Zhou, Shaoying

    2016-08-01

    Unique aspects of childhood exposure to products need childs specific exposure data. This study developed a probabilistic exposure model for lotion transfer to diapered skin through normal use of baby wipes in children up to 48 months of age. Monte Carlo simulations used baby wipe diary data from the US, Germany and the UK, body weight data from the US, and lotion transfer data from single and multiple wipes adjusting for separate diaper changes. The models predicted a declining number of wipes used/day with a reduction in lotion transfer as age and body weight increased. Experimental testing on multiple sequential wipes used on an overlapping area showed a reduction in lotion deposition by 23.9% after the first wipe. Overall, the weighted population average over the approximate diapering period of 0-36 months across the three geographies at 50th, 90th, & 95th percentiles, were between 130, 230, 260 mg/kg/day, respectively, and 150, 270, 310 mg/kg/day depending on whether a reduction due to overlap is implemented. The statistical model represents an effective strategy to determine exposure to baby wipes lotion for exposure based risk assessment. PMID:27184939

  19. Birth and motherhood: childbirth experience and mothers' perceptions of themselves and their babies.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed.

  20. Neurological sequelae of the operation "baby lift" airplane disaster.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Conners, C K; Brook, I; Feldman, S; Mason, J K; Dugas, M; Collis, L; Copeland, B; Lewis, O; Denhoff, E

    1994-01-01

    The aircraft disaster of the first flight of Operation "Baby Lift", which departed from Saigon, Vietnam, April 4, 1975, was survived by 149 orphaned children on their way to adoptive homes in the West. It had 157 passenger fatalities. The aircraft disaster exposed the surviving children to a complex disaster environment in which subatmospheric decompression, hypoxia, and deceleration were experienced, many children suffered a transient unconsciousness. We examined 135 surviving children between 1978 and 1985. The U.S. resident children were examined in the years 1979 to 1982 at an average age of 8 years and 6 months. They displayed the following symptomatology: attention deficit (> 75%), hyperactivity (> 65%), impulse disorder (> 55%), learning disabilities (> 35%), speech and language pathology (> 70%), and soft neurological signs (> 75%). The European children were examined in the years 1983 to 1985. On arrival at the adoptive home, 2 weeks after the accident they displayed the following symptomatology: muscle hypotonia (26%), seizures (2.5%), and regressed developmental milestones (33%). At the time of the diagnostic evaluations (1983 to 1985) the average age was 11 years and 8 months. They displayed the following symptomatology: attention deficit (59%), hyperactivity (52%), impulse disorder (48%), learning disabilities (43%), soft neurological signs (43%), epilepsy (16%), and speech and language pathology (34%). We conclude that a complex disaster environment can cause brain damage in children without prolonged unconsciousness, and that victims of disasters require a thorough evaluation from a multidisciplinary team. PMID:7923394

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must be grown in Zambia in insect-proof, pest-free greenhouses approved jointly by the Zambian national plant protection organization (NPPO) and APHIS. (1) The greenhouses...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  4. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia,...

  5. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  6. Stories appreciating both sides of the generation gap: baby boomer and Generation X nurses working together.

    PubMed

    Sudheimer, Erin E

    2009-01-01

    With nurses from the baby boomer and Generation X providing the majority of bedside nursing care, multigenerational differences are present in the workplace. The key to improved job satisfaction is the development of understanding and talking through differences between nurses of these age groups. From the perspective of a Generation X nurse, this paper addresses the differences in work ethic and values between these age groups and shows how such differences affect satisfaction with professional nursing. Improved job fulfillment can increase nursing retention and lessen the effects of the nursing shortage.

  7. [Baby online to support the mother-baby relationship in neonatalogy].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marie-France; Biondini, Christophe; Boyer, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal separations are always harmful to the development of the parent/baby relationship. At Alès general hospital, the Bébé online scheme enables live images to be transmitted remotely and safely between maternity wards and neonatalogy, physically distant from each other. Supervised by the nursing team, it supports the attachment process by giving parents the possibility of maintainingvisual contact with their newborn.

  8. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  9. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, C A; Butterworth, G; Roberts, T; Graupner, L; Hole, G

    1994-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:7845772

  10. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:24601036

  11. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  12. Malnutrition and hypernatraemia in breastfed babies.

    PubMed

    Paul, A C; Ranjini, K; Muthulakshmi; Roy, A; Kirubakaran, C

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-known advantages of breast-feeding to both mother and infant, malnutrition of breastfed infants does occur. We report two term neonates who presented in the 3rd week of life with severe wasting, hypernatraemic dehydration and pre-renal failure while being exclusively breastfed. Breast-milk sodium levels were markedly elevated on admission. Both infants recovered following adequate hydration and showed excellent catch-up growth during follow-up while exclusive breast-feeding was maintained. The critical malnutrition in both cases was detected by the family physician during routine postnatal visits. Both mothers were well motivated toward breast-feeding and were unaware of the severity of the baby's illness.

  13. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  14. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    PubMed

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  15. Primary health care of the newborn baby.

    PubMed

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228

  16. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-S.

    2008-05-15

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  17. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  18. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  19. Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK): a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their babies in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Catherine; Sanchez, Maria de la Luz; Mathur, Ankur; Yang, Shufang; Sundaram, Vandana; Parsonnet, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK) is an ongoing prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women and their babies established to determine the effect of infectious diseases on weight, linear growth and immune system development during childhood. Additionally, a nested randomised intervention of household and personal cleaning products tests the effects of the microbicides triclosan and triclocarban on these outcomes and incidence of infection. Participants Healthy pregnant women were identified and enrolled primarily at public clinics; their babies, enrolled shortly after birth, are followed to age 36 months. Automated weekly surveys assess daily health status, infectious disease symptoms, healthcare provider visits and antibiotic use, in the mother during pregnancy and the baby once born. At 4-monthly household visits, information and samples are collected from the mother (urine, stool, saliva, skin swab), the baby (blood by heel/toe stick, urine, stool, saliva, skin swab) and the household (environmental swabs). Annual blood samples are obtained by venipuncture (mother and baby). Medical charts are abstracted for allergy and infectious illness in the mother during pregnancy and the baby. Findings to date From 7/2011 to 2/2015, 158 mothers were enrolled at approximately 20 weeks gestation; 127 babies were enrolled. Two-thirds of mothers are Hispanic, one-third are non-US born and one-third speak primarily Spanish; mean years of education is 13 (SD 6.2) years. Households have on average 4.5 residents. Most households (97%) were randomised to participate in the intervention. Completion of weekly surveys (86%) and follow-up (75% after 14 months) is excellent in this young, mobile population; collection of samples is ongoing with thousands of specimens stored. Future plans Enrolled babies will be followed until age 36 months (last anticipated visit: 07/2018) with medical chart review completed soon thereafter. All epidemiological information and

  20. Is the Association between Children's Baby Video Viewing and Poor Language Development Robust? A Reanalysis of Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007) reported that exposure to Baby Einstein videos was negatively associated with language development. The current study uses the Zimmerman et al. (2007) data set to replicate and extend the original analyses. Caregivers of 392 children aged 6 to 16 months and 358 children aged 17 to 27 months reported on…

  1. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result. PMID:20618730

  2. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result.

  3. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  4. The myth of the miracle baby: how neonatal nurses interpret media accounts of babies of extreme prematurity.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra

    2015-09-01

    Improved life sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has resulted in an increased probability of survival in extremely premature babies. Miracle baby stories in the popular press are a regular occurrence and these reports are often the first source from which the general public learn about extremely premature babies. The research from which this paper is drawn sought to explore the care-giving and ethical dilemmas of neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies 24 weeks gestation and less. This current paper aims to outline the views of neonatal nurses on miracle baby stories in the media. Data were collected via a questionnaire to 760 Australian neonatal nurses with 414 returned, representing a response rate of 54.4%. Narrative was collected from semi-structured interviews with 24 experienced neonatal nurses in NSW, Australia. A qualitative approach utilising thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the data. The theme the myth of the miracle baby is seen as generating myths and unrealistic expectations on the part of vulnerable families and the public. Neonatal nurses, as the primary caregivers for tiny babies and their families, viewed popular media publications with suspicion, believing published reports to be incomplete, inaccurate and biased towards the positive.

  5. Market trends in baby skin care products and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Simpson, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Although the U.S. pediatric skin care market is a $1.7 billion industry, little is known regarding the usage pattern of skin care products in very young children. We have begun to recognize that common over-the-counter skin care products may have positive or negative effects on skin barrier function. Thus, knowing what and how skin care products are used early in life is important. The goal of the current study was to better understand skin care product use in the United States using market research data. We found that the prevalence of use was greater than 50% for all skin care product categories and age groups. Premoistened cleansing wipes and cloths were the most frequently used product, followed by baby oil and lotion and body and baby powder. Baby bath and shampoo products were used at least five times per week per household, and caregivers generally preferred products that were fragrance-free and made for sensitive skin. Lower-income households reported a higher frequency of product use and were less likely to purchase fragrance-free products or ones that were made for sensitive skin. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of pediatric skin care product use is high and conflicts with current recommended skin care guidelines. Product use and preferences may also vary according to race and ethnicity and household income level. PMID:25236850

  6. Market trends in baby skin care products and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Simpson, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Although the U.S. pediatric skin care market is a $1.7 billion industry, little is known regarding the usage pattern of skin care products in very young children. We have begun to recognize that common over-the-counter skin care products may have positive or negative effects on skin barrier function. Thus, knowing what and how skin care products are used early in life is important. The goal of the current study was to better understand skin care product use in the United States using market research data. We found that the prevalence of use was greater than 50% for all skin care product categories and age groups. Premoistened cleansing wipes and cloths were the most frequently used product, followed by baby oil and lotion and body and baby powder. Baby bath and shampoo products were used at least five times per week per household, and caregivers generally preferred products that were fragrance-free and made for sensitive skin. Lower-income households reported a higher frequency of product use and were less likely to purchase fragrance-free products or ones that were made for sensitive skin. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of pediatric skin care product use is high and conflicts with current recommended skin care guidelines. Product use and preferences may also vary according to race and ethnicity and household income level.

  7. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy.

  8. Retrospective exposure data for baby and children care products: an analysis of 48 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Gautier, Florian; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2013-07-01

    To conduct a reliable safety assessment, accurate exposure information for cosmetic products and ingredients is needed. The aim of the present retrospective study was to determine the amount per application and the daily exposure for some of the most commonly used baby cosmetic products. Consumption data from 48 clinical studies performed on 1481 babies and children (from 0 to 10 years old) were reviewed and used to conduct a probabilistic evaluation of dermal exposure. Six categories of products were reviewed: rinseoff products for hair and body; rinse-off products for the whole body; leave-on products for face and body; cleansers for face and body; diaper dermatitis treatment products; shampoos. Subjects were provided with products and recorded detailed daily usage information over a 1-4-week period, depending on the study. Products were weighed at the start and upon completion of each study in order to determine the total amount of product used. The mean, median, standard deviation and 95th percentile were calculated for daily consumption and exposure, for several age groups from 0 to 10 years old. This study provides current baby cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes. PMID:23562927

  9. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:26016557

  10. Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

    2009-06-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services. PMID:19247820

  11. Baby beautiful: adult attributions of infant competence as a function of infant attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Stephan, C W; Langlois, J H

    1984-04-01

    To determine at what age children first elicit differential expectations from adults as a function of their appearance, a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American adults rated photographs of a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American infants at 3 time periods in the first year of life. These adults first rated the infants on physical attractiveness and then rated the infants on 12 bipolar adjectives. The adjectives were reduced to 4 dimensions of infant behavior by factor analysis. A strong beauty-is-good stereotype was associated with 3 of the dimensions. On the measures of smart - likable baby, good baby, and causes parents problems, there was a beauty-is-good bias that prevailed across ethnic groups. In contrast, no such bias was found on the measure of active baby. The activity index was expected to reflect positive characteristics, but it appears to have implied overactivity and irritability. Strong and consistent expectations for behavior of attractive and unattractive individuals thus appear to be elicited soon after birth in Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations.

  12. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    PubMed

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research.

  13. Vegetable oil fortified feeds in the nutrition of very low birthweight babies.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, U V; Hegde, V M; Bhave, S A; Pandit, A N

    1992-12-01

    Two kinds of oils (i) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rich Safflower oil, and (ii) Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) rich Coconut oil were added to the feeds of 46 very low birthweight (VLBW) babies to see if such a supplementation is capable of enhancing their weight gain. Twenty two well matched babies who received no fortification served as controls. The oil fortification raised the energy density of the feeds from approximately 67 kcal/dl to 79 kcal/dl. Feed volumes were restricted to a maximum of 200 ml/kg/day. The mean weight gain was highest and significantly higher than the controls in the Coconut oil group (19.47 +/- 8.67 g/day or 13.91 g/day). Increase in the triceps skinfold thickness and serum triglycerides were also correspondingly higher in this group. The lead in the weight gain in this group continued in the follow up period (corrected age 3 months). As against this, higher weight gain in Safflower oil group (13.26 +/- 6.58 g/day) as compared to the controls (11.59 +/- 5.33 g/day), failed to reach statistically significant proportions, probably because of increased statistically significant proportions, probably because of increased steatorrhea (stool fat 4+ in 50% of the samples tested). The differences in the two oil groups are presumably because of better absorption of MCT rich coconut oil. However, individual variations in weight gain amongst the babies were wide so that some control babies had higher growth rates than oil fortified ones. The technique of oil fortification is fraught with dangers of intolerance, contamination and aspiration. Long term effects of such supplementation are largely unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in general practice.

    PubMed

    Morley, C J; Thornton, A J; Green, S J; Cole, T J

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen general practitioners (GPs) used the Baby Check score card to assess illness severity in 86 babies under 6 months old. Their reactions to Baby Check were positive: in 79 (92%) it gave an accurate assessment of the baby's illness and 16 (100%) said they would trust it. Fifteen (94%) found it useful, and most of those who did not said the baby was not ill or had an obvious diagnosis. Thirteen (81%) said they would use it and wanted their health visitors and midwives to use it and 15 (94%) wanted the mothers in their practice to use it. The majority (64%) of babies scored 0-7; 31% scored 8 to 19; and only 5% scored over 20. Well babies had low scores, while the two sickest babies, needing urgent hospital treatment, scored 29 and 33. The use of Baby Check by GPs would help them assess babies thoroughly and quantify illness severity objectively.

  15. Appropriately grown baby with multiple congenital abnormalities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Devangi; Aladangady, Narendra

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a full-term baby girl (Baby A) born with multiple congenital abnormalities that were suggested by prenatal scans. The mother had declined further antenatal diagnostic testing. Postnatal chromosomal analyses revealed the karyotype of the baby to be trisomy 18. After detailed, compassionate discussions with the parents, it was decided to provide palliative care in the best interest of the baby, who died on day 15 of life. This case illustrates ethical difficulties in the care of neonates with congenital anomalies with poor prognoses, such as trisomy 18. Recommending palliative care and "do not resuscitate" orders to optimistic parents is extremely difficult and needs to be done in the most sensitive manner possible.

  16. Collodion baby: a follow-up study of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, D; Lijnen, R L P; Moekti, S S; de Laat, P C J; Oranje, A P

    2002-09-01

    Seventeen cases of collodion baby are reported. Clinical aspects, complications, treatment, final outcome and family history were studied. We did not observe any clinical features in the collodion baby that could serve as a clue in predicting the final diagnosis. Infections were observed in nine, hypothermia in five and hypernatraemic dehydration in four cases. Skin infection mainly occurred in babies treated with emollients (petrolatum, lanolin and cetomacrogolis cream were used). We therefore recommend treating the collodion baby in a humidified incubator, if necessary with intravenous rehydration, but not to use emollients. The final outcome of these study patients was erythrodermic autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis in seven cases (41%), non-erythrodermic autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis in three cases (18%), Sjögren-Larsson in one case (6%), epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in one case (6%), acute neonatal variant of Gaucher disease in one case (6%) and normal skin in four cases (24%).

  17. Life-threatening hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed babies.

    PubMed

    Shroff, R; Hignett, R; Pierce, C; Marks, S; van't Hoff, W

    2006-12-01

    We describe five babies, who were exclusively breast fed, with life-threatening complications of hypernatraemic dehydration secondary to inadequate breast feeding. An increased awareness among health professionals is required so that this potentially devastating condition can be prevented.

  18. Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160694.html Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies Close to 6 percent who ... yet another example of the damage that maternal Zika infection can inflict on a fetus during the ...

  19. Every Day in The Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161778.html Every Day in the Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development: Study ... What this study shows us is that every day and every week of in utero development is ...

  20. 1st Baby Born with DNA from 3 Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161176.html 1st Baby Born With DNA From 3 Parents Technique designed to help couples ... be born using a controversial technique that combines DNA from three people -- two women and a man. ...

  1. Pregnancy Problems? Boost the Chance of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chance of Having a Baby For those who dream of being parents, pregnancy problems can be tremendously ... doesn’t work, doctors may recommend medication, surgery, artificial insemination (in which a woman is injected with ...

  2. Your Body After Baby: The First 6 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy. Eat healthy foods. Limit sweets and foods with a lot of fat. Drink lots of water. Do something active every day . Walking and swimming are great activities for new moms. Breastfeed your baby . Breastfeeding helps ...

  3. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  4. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... collapses as baby drinks, which helps prevent air bubbles. Liners save on cleanup, and are handy for ... have a venting system inside to prevent air bubbles. They are said to help prevent colic and ...

  5. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  7. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people. PMID:23789249

  8. Baby Boomers and Generation X: strategies to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Bertholf, L; Loveless, S

    2001-09-01

    Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.

  9. Neonatologists and bioethics after Baby Doe.

    PubMed

    Carter, B S

    1993-01-01

    The use of hospital ethics committees or infant care review committees has been recommended for difficult decision making. In a survey of military and civilian neonatologists, ethics committees had been established in 27 of their 28 hospitals and fewer than 50% had infant care review committees. Despite the frequently of potential cases for committee review, they were seldom consulted. Inquiry into the educational background of respondents revealed that at least 62% of neonatologists had received ethics education during their professional careers. Most made difficult decisions in conjunction with parents or used a multidisciplinary patient care conference. The use of these conferences antedated any federal regulations. Sixty-seven percent indicated that the Baby Doe regulations had affected neither their thinking about ethical issues nor their practice. In 13 different hypothetical cases in delivery room, intensive care nursery, and long-term care settings, the provision of comfort care, limited care, or withdrawal of support was noted by a sizable percentage of neonatologists; exceptions included meningomyelocele and trisomy 21. The need for ethics committee input in decision making for neonates is questionable. PMID:8515309

  10. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm.

    Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis.

    The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test.

    Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  12. The "Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis" as the basis for bilingual babies' phonetic processing advantage: new insights from fNIRS brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Petitto, L A; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Dubins, M H; Jasinska, K; Shalinsky, M

    2012-05-01

    In a neuroimaging study focusing on young bilinguals, we explored the brains of bilingual and monolingual babies across two age groups (younger 4-6 months, older 10-12 months), using fNIRS in a new event-related design, as babies processed linguistic phonetic (Native English, Non-Native Hindi) and non-linguistic Tone stimuli. We found that phonetic processing in bilingual and monolingual babies is accomplished with the same language-specific brain areas classically observed in adults, including the left superior temporal gyrus (associated with phonetic processing) and the left inferior frontal cortex (associated with the search and retrieval of information about meanings, and syntactic and phonological patterning), with intriguing developmental timing differences: left superior temporal gyrus activation was observed early and remained stably active over time, while left inferior frontal cortex showed greater increase in neural activation in older babies notably at the precise age when babies' enter the universal first-word milestone, thus revealing a first-time focal brain correlate that may mediate a universal behavioral milestone in early human language acquisition. A difference was observed in the older bilingual babies' resilient neural and behavioral sensitivity to Non-Native phonetic contrasts at a time when monolingual babies can no longer make such discriminations. We advance the "Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis" as one possible explanation for how exposure to greater than one language may alter neural and language processing in ways that we suggest are advantageous to language users. The brains of bilinguals and multilinguals may provide the most powerful window into the full neural "extent and variability" that our human species' language processing brain areas could potentially achieve.

  13. Zinc transferred through breast milk does not differ between appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age, predominantly breast-fed Bangladeshi infants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Munirul; Brown, Kenneth H

    2014-05-01

    Information is needed on breast milk zinc concentration and amount of zinc transferred to the infant in relation to the time since birth for both appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Breast milk zinc concentration and total milk volume were measured among mothers of AGA and SGA infants, using deuterium oxide "dose-to-mother" tracer technique and plasma zinc concentrations of mothers and infants. Forty-six mother-infant pairs (20 AGA and 26 SGA infants) were recruited from a low-income community in Bangladesh. Each mother-infant pair was studied 3 times: at 4, 12, and 24 wk postpartum. During each round, 2-wk studies of breast milk transfer were performed, using deuterium oxide dose-to-mother tracer technique. Breast milk samples were collected on days 1 and 5 of each round to determine milk zinc concentration. Mean ± SD birth weight and length were 3.02 ± 0.2 kg and 0.482 ± 0.012 m, respectively, for AGA and 2.34 ± 0.20 kg and 0.462 ± 0.011 m, respectively, for SGA infants, and both variables were different between groups (birth weight, P < 0.001; length, P < 0.001). Breast milk intake increased gradually with time postpartum in both groups. Breast milk zinc concentration decreased with increasing infant age (P < 0.001) but did not differ for mothers of AGA and SGA infants. Breast milk zinc transfer decreased significantly with age in both groups (P < 0.001) but did not differ by birth-weight category. Breast milk zinc concentration among Bangladeshi mothers and patterns of change at 24 wk were similar to those of wealthier countries, and there was no relation between infant birth-weight category and milk zinc concentration or transfer. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01728766.

  14. Tracking Your Baby's Weight and Measurements

    MedlinePlus

    ... chart. Growth charts examine length and weight in boys and girls, from birth to thirty-six months. They are ... by body mass index for age charts for boys and girls, ages two to twenty years. (Body mass index, ...

  15. A baby with congenital hypothyroidism born to a hypothyroid mother who expressed undiagnosed thyroid stimulation blocking antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    In adults, hypothyroidism caused by thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSB Ab) is rare, and confirmed cases are even fewer, as TSB Ab levels are rarely assayed. However, this may create problems in babies, as the transplacental passage of maternal TSB Ab can cause a rare type of hypothyroidism in the infant. Prompt levothyroxine replacement for the baby starting immediately after birth is important. We describe a congenital hypothyroid baby born to a hypothyroid mother who was not aware of the cause of her hypothyroid condition, which turned out to be associated with the expression of TSB Ab. This cause was confirmed in both the infant and mother using a series of thyroid function tests and measurements of autoantibody levels, including TSB Ab. During periodic follow-up, the TSB Ab and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers became negative in the baby at 8 months of age, but remained positive in the mother. Evaluation of hypothyroidism and its cause in mothers during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health. PMID:27777909

  16. Acute diarrhea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from June 1978 to June 1979.

    PubMed

    Soenarto, Y; Sebodo, T; Ridho, R; Alrasjid, H; Rohde, J E; Bugg, H C; Barnes, G L; Bishop, R F

    1981-08-01

    A longitudinal study of acute diarrhea in children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (June 1978 to June 1979), showed little variation throughout most months of the year in numbers of children admitted to hospital and in numbers infected with rotaviruses. Both decreased during November and December coincidentally with seasonal change from dry to wet conditions. Rotavirus particles were identified by electron microscopy in fecal specimens from 126 of 334 (38%) infants and children with acute diarrhea. Nosocomial rotavirus infections occurred in 11% of control children admitted to hospital for other reasons. Socioeconomic level and preexisting nutritional status did not influence the incidence of rotavirus excretion. Rotavirus infections were most common in children aged 6 to 24 months. There was a low incidence of infection in infants less than 6 months old. Rotavirus infection was seldom observed in newborn babies delivered in an urban hospital nursery, in a rural health center, or at home. One of 72 newborn babies with diarrhea excreted rotavirus. One of 53 healthy newborn babies excreted rotavirus. It is concluded that, in Indonesia, rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea throughout the year, but is an uncommon cause of diarrhea in newborn babies. PMID:6268656

  17. Mortality pattern in babies delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, N; Pal, S; Roy, A

    1989-03-01

    A total of 7077 cases of delivery were studied in a rural based hospital where most of the mothers come without any antenatal care, from November, 1979 to December, 1980 to observe the mortality pattern in different types of delivery. Only live born babies were included in the study in which the mortality rate in elective cesarean section was found to be nearly equal to that in vaginal delivery. The percentage of mortality was higher (5.4%) in emergency cesarean section-the chief causes being asphyxia neonatorum, low gestational age and low birth weight. PMID:2753552

  18. Maternal control of child feeding during the weaning period: differences between mothers following a baby-led or standard weaning approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2011-11-01

    A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.

  19. η Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Zulema; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.

    2014-08-01

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the "Baby Homunculus."

  20. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  1. Decorin expression is decreased in first trimester placental tissue from pregnancies with small for gestation age infants at birth.

    PubMed

    Murthi, P; van Zanten, D E; Eijsink, J J H; Borg, A J; Stevenson, J L; Kalionis, B; Chui, A K; Said, J M; Brennecke, S P; Erwich, J J H M

    2016-09-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR pregnancies are often associated with histological evidence of placental vascular thrombosis. The proteoglycans are important components and regulators of vascular homeostasis. Previous studies from our laboratory highlighted mRNA and protein expression differences in placental proteoglycan decorin (DCN), within a clinically well-characterised cohort of third-trimester idiopathic FGR compared with gestation-matched uncomplicated control pregnancies. We also showed that decorin contributes to abnormal angiogenesis and increased thrombin generation in vitro. These observations suggest that DCN gene expression may contribute to the etiology of FGR. Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used as a proxy for FGR and is defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of a birth weight curve. We therefore made use of a unique resource of first trimester tissues obtained via chorionic villus sampling during the first trimester to investigate the temporal relationship between altered DCN expression and any subsequent development of SGA. We hypothesized that placental DCN expression is decreased early in gestation in SGA pregnancies. Surplus chorionic villus specimens from 15 women subsequently diagnosed with FGR and 50 from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were collected. DCN mRNA and DCN protein were determined using real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Both DCN mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in placentae from first-trimester SGA-pregnancies compared with controls (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report a temporal relationship between altered placental DCN expression and subsequent development of SGA. PMID:27577711

  2. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  3. Bone metabolism compensates for the delayed growth in small for gestational age neonates.

    PubMed

    Tenta, Roxane; Bourgiezi, Ifigeneia; Aliferis, Evangelos; Papadopoulou, Magdalini; Gounaris, Antonis; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between anthropometric and bone metabolism markers in a sample of neonates and their mothers. A sample of 20 SGA (small for the gestational age), AGA (appropriate for the gestational age) and LGA (large for the gestational age) term neonates and their 20 mothers was analyzed at birth and at exit. Elisa method was used to measure the OPG (Osteoprotegerin), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB), RANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB Ligand), IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1), IGFBP3 (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3) and Leptin levels. Birth weight and length were positively correlated with RANKL, IGF-1 and IGFBP3 and negatively with the ratio OPG/RANKL. SGA neonates presented lower RANKL values and higher OPG/RANKL ratio while LGA neonates had higher RANK levels than AGA neonates. Positive association was shown between neonatal IGFBP3 and maternal IGF-1 values and between neonatal and maternal RANK values at birth and at exit. These results reveal a remarkable upregulation of OPG/RANKL ratio in SGA neonates, pointing out the role of bone turnover in compensating for the delayed neonatal growth.

  4. Are children's faces really more appealing than those of adults? Testing the baby schema hypothesis beyond infancy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li Zhu; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-09-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were asked to evaluate children's faces from early infancy to 6 years of age in terms of their likeability and attractiveness, and these judgments were compared with those of adult faces. It was revealed that adults judged faces of younger children as more likeable and attractive than faces of older children, which were in turn judged as more likeable and attractive than adult faces. However, after approximately 4.5 years of age, the baby schema no longer affected adults' judgments of children's facial likeability and attractiveness. These findings suggest that the baby schema affects adults' judgments of not only infant faces but also young children's faces. This influence beyond infancy is likely due to the fact that facial cranial growth is gradual during early childhood and certain crucial infantile facial cues remain readily available during this period. Future studies need to identify these specific cues to better understand why adults generally show positive responses to infantile faces and how such positive responses influence the establishment and maintenance of social relationships between young children and adults.

  5. Are children's faces really more appealing than those of adults? Testing the baby schema hypothesis beyond infancy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li Zhu; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-09-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were asked to evaluate children's faces from early infancy to 6 years of age in terms of their likeability and attractiveness, and these judgments were compared with those of adult faces. It was revealed that adults judged faces of younger children as more likeable and attractive than faces of older children, which were in turn judged as more likeable and attractive than adult faces. However, after approximately 4.5 years of age, the baby schema no longer affected adults' judgments of children's facial likeability and attractiveness. These findings suggest that the baby schema affects adults' judgments of not only infant faces but also young children's faces. This influence beyond infancy is likely due to the fact that facial cranial growth is gradual during early childhood and certain crucial infantile facial cues remain readily available during this period. Future studies need to identify these specific cues to better understand why adults generally show positive responses to infantile faces and how such positive responses influence the establishment and maintenance of social relationships between young children and adults. PMID:21536307

  6. Changes in maternal attitudes toward baby bottle tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Kanellis, M J; Logan, H L; Jakobsen, J

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant number of parents whose children have baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) admit prior knowledge regarding the harmful effects of putting their children to bed with a bottle. The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) offers a theoretical framework for better understanding why knowledge and attitude are often not predictive of behavior. The goal of this study was to use the ELM to analyze the manner in which information about BBTD is evaluated. One hundred twenty low-income women (either pregnant or with a child younger than 7 months of age) at a WIC clinic were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) 5-min audiotaped persuasive message about BBTD; 2) same audiotaped message with overheard audience response affirming the message; and 3) no intervention control group. Knowledge and attitudes about BBTD were measured before and after the experimental intervention. Participants hearing the audiotaped message also were asked to rate the expertise of the messenger and the quality of the message. Both groups hearing a taped message about BBTD showed a significant positive change in attitude and knowledge when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the attitude and knowledge of those who heard an audiotaped message accompanied by an audience response compared with those who heard the audiotaped message alone. No significant difference between the ratings of message quality or messenger expertise by group was found. It was concluded that the participants in this study processed the BBTD message primarily through the central route, that is, by careful evaluation of the issue-relevant information contained in the persuasive message.

  7. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  8. A pilot randomised controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme in mothers with postnatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Few interventions for Postnatal Depression (PND) have focused on parenting difficulties; the aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility and evaluate a parenting intervention (Baby Triple P) in women with PND. This was a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate and determine the feasibility of the newly developed Baby Triple P compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in women with PND. In all, 27 female participants aged from 18 to 45 years (mean age = 28.4 years, standard deviation (SD) = 6.1), with a primary diagnosis of major depression and an infant under 12 months (mean age = 6.2 months, SD = 3.2 months), were recruited from primary care trusts in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either eight Baby Triple P sessions in addition to TAU or TAU only. Outcomes were assessed at post-treatment (Time 2) and 3 months post-treatment (Time 3). Self-report outcomes were as follows: Beck Depression Inventory, Oxford Happiness Inventory, What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like, Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Brief Parenting Beliefs Scale–baby version. An assessor-rated observational measure of mother–infant interaction, the CARE Index and measure of intervention acceptability were also completed. Significant improvements from Time 1 to Time 2 and Time 1 to Time 3 were observed across both groups. Although women allocated to Baby Triple P showed more favourable improvements, the between-group differences were not significant. However, the intervention was highly acceptable to women with PND. A large-scale RCT is indicated. PMID:24778436

  9. A pilot randomised controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme in mothers with postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Few interventions for Postnatal Depression (PND) have focused on parenting difficulties; the aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility and evaluate a parenting intervention (Baby Triple P) in women with PND. This was a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate and determine the feasibility of the newly developed Baby Triple P compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in women with PND. In all, 27 female participants aged from 18 to 45 years (mean age = 28.4 years, standard deviation (SD) = 6.1), with a primary diagnosis of major depression and an infant under 12 months (mean age = 6.2 months, SD = 3.2 months), were recruited from primary care trusts in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either eight Baby Triple P sessions in addition to TAU or TAU only. Outcomes were assessed at post-treatment (Time 2) and 3 months post-treatment (Time 3). Self-report outcomes were as follows: Beck Depression Inventory, Oxford Happiness Inventory, What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like, Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Brief Parenting Beliefs Scale-baby version. An assessor-rated observational measure of mother-infant interaction, the CARE Index and measure of intervention acceptability were also completed. Significant improvements from Time 1 to Time 2 and Time 1 to Time 3 were observed across both groups. Although women allocated to Baby Triple P showed more favourable improvements, the between-group differences were not significant. However, the intervention was highly acceptable to women with PND. A large-scale RCT is indicated.

  10. Baby Talk. First Years Together. Project Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Linda, Ed.; Wilson, Val, Ed.

    This series of 19 newsletters is designed to be distributed monthly to parents of premature or high risk infants on their child's adjusted age birthday from birth through 18 months. Each newsletter describes activities and behaviors of infants and toddlers appropriate to the month of age and discusses issues of concern to the parents. Regular…

  11. Baby boomers in retirement: what are their prospects?

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P; Silverman, C

    1994-07-01

    This Issue Brief examines the baby boomers' retirement income prospects by analyzing trends in the elderly's income and pension participation among workers; examining saving behavior and critically evaluating studies of the adequacy of the boomers' saving; and looking at tenure trends, lump-sum distribution preservation, and changes in Social Security benefits. Since the mid 1970s, the real median income of individuals aged 65 and over has increased 18 percent. Sources of income have shifted, with employment-based pensions increasing and earnings and asset income decreasing as a proportion of income. The boomers' prospects are partly dependent on participation in employment-based retirement plans. After decreases in the sponsorship rates, participation rates, and vesting rates of workers during the 1980s, all three percentages increased during the early 1990s. Data do not support the perception that the U.S. work force is becoming increasingly mobile. Tenure levels for prime age workers in the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s were higher than those of previous decades. Still, in response to competitive pressures, employers may not offer the security of paternalistic benefit packages as in the past. Various studies have reached different conclusions regarding the adequacy of the boomers' financial preparation for retirement. Evidence indicates that boomers, in general, will enjoy a retirement standard of living exceeding that of their parents. It is less clear whether they will maintain a standard of living in retirement comparable to that of their working years. To the extent they are willing to tap housing wealth, they would appear at this early stage to be in good shape. Federal fiscal policy decisions will impact boomers by affecting their disposable income today, and thus their ability to save, as well as the benefits they will receive in retirement through Social Security and Medicare. The boomers are 17 to 35 years away from age 65. Given heterogeneity of the

  12. E835 Store Baby Sitting Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2002-01-01

    Control of the RF frequency: (1) 'RF Freq Check' on P85 (E835 Baby Sitter) should be turned OFF. (2) The RF frequency should be adjusted so that it is in the notch of the 4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup response. The RF frequency device to be controlled depends on which RF system is on. If ARF2 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS1. If ARF3 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS0. IMPORTANT NOTE: A:RLLFS0 and A:RLLFS1 have very different data base scaling (A:RLLFS0 is 4 bytes and A:RLLFS1 is 2 bytes). A:RLLFS0 can be safely knobbed with a mult factor of 1.0 (i.e. no multiplier is required). A:RLLFS1 requires a mult factor of 0.02 or smaller. The monitoring and adjustment of the RF frequency is accomplished by the following steps: (3) Set up SA1 so that it is connected to CP48-SCH (4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup). Set the SA center frequency to a harmonic of the RF frequency. This is most easily accomplished by doing one of the following: (a) If ARF3 is on, send P41 file 22 to SA1. (b) If ARF2 is on, set A:RLLFS0 to the set value of A:RLLFS1 then send P41 file 22 to SA1. (4) SA1 can be viewed on CATV channel pbar 20. If the notch in the momentum cooling pickup response is not at the center frequecy of SA1 adjust the RF. (On the low energy ramp, 1 division on the SA1 display at 5.5 GHz corresponds to 2.3 Hz in revolution frequency). Once you've made an adjustment to the RF frequency you should reset the SA1 display according to step 3 above.

  13. Most Sick, Aging Americans Live Far from In-Home Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160328.html Most Sick, Aging Americans Live Far From In-Home Care Study ... to swell. "The Baby Boomer generation, they're aging fast and they are living longer with multiple ...

  14. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Kain, Victoria J

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  15. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  16. Dexamethasone and infection in preterm babies: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P C; Thomson, M A; Dear, P R

    1990-01-01

    To find out if the use of steroids affected the incidence of infection in babies who were nursed in the neonatal intensive care unit for nine weeks or more, 24 preterm babies who had received a three weeks course of dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg/day, reducing to 0.3 mg/kg/day after a week, and 0.15 mg/kg/day after two weeks) were compared with 18 preterm babies who had not been so treated. No differences were found in the incidence or pattern of septicaemia or other bacteriologically proved infections between the groups. Of 57 episodes of septicaemia, 44 (77%) were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:2306135

  17. Evidence-based well-baby care. Part 1: Overview of the next generation of the Rourke Baby Record.

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, L.; Rourke, L. L.; Rourke, J. T.; Wakefield, J. G.; Winfield, D.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Well baby and child care in the primary care setting has not always been based on evidence that has been shown to be effective in preventing and detecting disease and injury. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM: To help physicians and nurses provide care that is more effective than a routine complete examination, the Rourke Baby Record has been revised to include evidence-based recommendations for preventive care for infants and young children. The revision incorporates the approach and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The updated record is now called the Rourke Baby Record: Evidence-Based Infant/Child Health Maintenance Guide (Rourke Baby Record: EB). MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Part 1 of this two-part article briefly describes the background for development and presents an overview of the revised record. Part 2 discusses in detail the evidence that exists for maneuvers included in the education and advice section of the revised record. CONCLUSION: Using the Rourke Baby Record: EB and incorporating it into their office record systems as a working guide will help increase the effectiveness of the primary preventive care physicians provide to infants and young children. PMID:9559196

  18. Australian baby boomers retiring 'early': understanding the benefits of retirement preparation for involuntary and voluntary retirees.

    PubMed

    Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal

    2013-08-01

    The first of the baby boomers have reached retirement age, but some have retired 'early' with varying degrees of personal choice. Preparation for retirement can lead to well-being in later life, but few studies have considered the preparations of involuntary retirees or the pathways that link their preparations with retirement outcomes. This research draws on a sample of 304 retirees from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study (2009) to examine how preparedness for retirement relates to voluntary and involuntary retirees' life satisfaction and how this relationship is explained by psychological, activity-based, and economic theories. Preparedness predicted life satisfaction for voluntary and involuntary retirees and each of theoretical pathways was supported. Although those retiring involuntarily were less prepared than voluntary retirees, their preparatory behaviours were still associated with life satisfaction. These results suggest that retirement policy and planning initiatives should aim to facilitate a holistic approach to retirement planning for future retirees, particularly those facing an early and unexpected retirement. PMID:23849418

  19. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers

    PubMed Central

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633

  20. What can be done to keep babies' skin healthy?

    PubMed

    Atherton, David; Mills, Kathryn

    2004-07-01

    Establishing a skincare routine that keeps babies' skin healthy remains a challenge for midwives and parents, since up to 50% of babies suffer from at least one episode of nappy rash at some time. Nappy rash is an irritant contact dermatitis caused by the interaction of several factors, particularly the prolonged contact of the skin with urine and faeces, which makes the skin more prone to disruption through friction with the nappy. Infection is not a primary cause of nappy rash, though secondary infection by Candida albicans can occur. Prevention of nappy rash is the ultimate goal, but if the condition does develop, treatment should aim to reverse the skin damage and prevent recurrence. We propose that routine baby skincare should comprise gentle cleansing whenever the nappy is soiled (using warm water or alcohol-free baby wipes), the use of good-quality super-absorbent nappies, and the application of a barrier preparation at every nappy change. Ideally, a barrier preparation should be clinically proven to be effective in babies and mimic the skin's natural function by forming a long-lasting barrier to maintain optimum moisture levels. It should not contain any unnecessary ingredients, including antiseptic, preservative or perfume (or other potential sensitisers), or any ingredients that are toxic or have undocumented safety. Treatment of nappy rash should comprise essentially the same actions as its prevention. Application of a barrier ointment at every nappy change can help to both prevent and treat this condition. Topical steroid therapy should be reserved for use where the condition has failed to respond to other approaches, and antifungal treatment should only be employed where Candida infection is established or suspected. Implementing these measures would form a simple skincare routine that could help keep babies' skin healthy.