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Sample records for age sga birth

  1. Congenital heart disease in low-birth-weight infants: effects of small for gestational age (SGA) status and maturity on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Daniel; Azen, Colleen; Bhombal, Shazia; Hastings, Laura; Paquette, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role that small for gestational age (SGA) status plays in postoperative outcomes for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to examine the effect of SGA status, gestational and chronologic age, and weight on differences in morbidities and mortalities during the immediate postoperative hospitalization period. The charts of infants with CHD weighing less than 2.5 kg who underwent operative repair during the neonatal period between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Infants with an isolated patent ductus arteriosus were excluded from the study. Data on hospital morbidities and mortality before discharge were collected. The study identified 136 LBW infants with a diagnosis of CHD. Among the 74 infants who underwent surgery and had complete chart records, the SGA infants had a higher gestational age at birth (36.8 vs. 32.3 weeks; p < 0.0001). The SGA and non-SGA infants did not differ in terms of survival to discharge or immediate postoperative outcomes. A lower weight at surgery was significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection. In contradistinction, an older postnatal age at surgery was associated with an increased risk of preoperative infection (p < 0.0001). Additionally, lower gestational age at birth was associated with home oxygen use, higher tracheostomy rates, and discharge with a gastrostomy tube. Small for gestational age status played no protective role in the outcome for LBW infants after primary surgery for CHD. A weight of 2.4 kg or greater at the time of surgery was associated with lower rates of postoperative infections. Greater duration of time between birth and surgery was associated with a greater risk of preoperative infection. A gestational age of 32 weeks or more at birth was associated with decreased morbidities, which could influence obstetric management. PMID:24997649

  2. Dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA) – A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Bakker, Rachel; Irving, Hyacinth; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Malini, Shobha; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA). Search Strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches. Selection Criteria Case control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included. Data collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birth weight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardized protocol. Meta-analyses on dose-response relationship were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data. Main Results Compared to abstainers, the overall dose-response relationships for low birth weight and SGA had no effect up to 10 g/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth had no effect up to 18 g/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day) of pure alcohol consumption; thereafter, the relationship had monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for both outcomes. Conclusions Dose-response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes while light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consults should be initiated. PMID:21729235

  3. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  4. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  5. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  6. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  7. Plasma clusterin increased prior to small for gestational age (SGA) associated with preeclampsia and decreased prior to SGA in normotensive pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Marion; McCowan, Lesley M E; Wu, Steven; Cooper, Garth J S; North, Robyn A

    2012-06-01

    In our search for early biomarkers for the pregnancy complicationssmall for gestational age (SGA) and preeclampsia (PE) we analysed plasma from 19-21 weeks gestation in women recruited into the SCOPE study, a prospective cohort of nulliparous women, by differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). DIGE revealed the differential expression of clusterin levels and its isoforms in top6-depleted plasma of women who delivered an SGA infant but remained normotensive (SGA-NT; N = 8) compared to healthy women with an uncomplicated pregnancy outcome (Controls, N = 8). Immunosorbent enzyme-linked assay (ELISA) showed that compared to plasma clusterin levels from healthy controls [71.1 (SD 12.4) µg/mL, n = 39], clusterin was decreased in SGA-NT [58.3 (SD 11.7), N = 20, P < 0.0001], increased in women with SGA and PE [81.5 (SD 14.8), N = 20, P < 0.01], but similar in PE alone [71.2 (SD 9.4)g/ml, P = 1.0]. Screening for clusterin levels and/or its different isoformsmay be useful in mid-pregnancy to identify women who subsequently develop SGA but remain normotensive or who develop preeclampsia with SGA.

  8. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  9. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Patrizia; Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Farris, Evelina; Bianco, Vincenzo; Sassi, Roberto; De Giovanni, Maria; Gallo, Valeria; D’Onofrio, Antonietta; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases).Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children. PMID:27583297

  10. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  11. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and small for gestational age (SGA): genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Jancevska, A; Gucev, Z S; Tasic, V; Pop-Jordanova, N

    2009-12-01

    Short stature associated with GH deficiency has been estimated to occur in about 1 in 4000 to 1 in 10,000 in various studies. In the last decade new genetic defects have been described in all the levels of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)-GH-IGF (insulin-like growth factor) axis. Genetic defects in the GHRH and in various parts of the Insulin-like growth factor system have been demonstrated. Genetic defects causing isolated GH deficiency (GHD), as well as multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies have been analysed in detail. Signalling molecules and transcription factors leading to the development of the pituitary gland have been discovered and their function recognized. In animal models and in humans the importance of the transcription factors HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, TBX19, SOX2 and SOX3 has been extensively studied. Genetic alterations of those transcription factors dictate the highly variable phenotype: from isolated hypopituitarism to multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies with or without malformations (e.g. septo-optic dysplasia or holoprosencephaly). Small for gestational age (SGA) children are increasingly recognized to be a heterogeneous group in which new mechanisms of growth retardation and metabolic disturbances have been proposed. Since SGA is considered to be the main reason for the short stature in 10% of short adults this is a large group with a great potential for novel insights into mechanisms of growth and metabolic disturbances. A group of signalling proteins are involved in prenatal (SGA) growth retardation: IRS-1, PDK1, AKT1, and S6K1. In addition, an attractive modern theory supposes that a disturbed mother-placenta-foetus relation results in the activation of the so-called "thrifty phenotype" of which the IGF system is a vital part. The mechanisms assure short-term postnatal survival in conditions of deficient nutritional supply. However, as a consequence, the abundant postnatal nutritional supply and the "thrifty

  12. Small-for-gestational-age term birth: the contribution of socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors to recurrence.

    PubMed

    Read, A W; Stanley, F J

    1993-04-01

    This paper follows a previous study comparing women who had repeatedly given birth to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) term infants ('repeater' mothers) with multiparous women who had had only one such infant ('non-repeater' mothers). The present investigation involves the individual matching of each woman in the above groups with a control mother whose offspring were all term non-SGA infants. The study was based on all Western Australian Caucasian women giving birth to singletons and the study population comprised 594 repeater cases with 594 matched controls and 935 non-repeater cases with 935 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses indicated that demographic and paternal factors were significant predictors for recurrent SGA term birth whereas obstetric conditions, particularly preeclampsia, were important for the prediction of isolated SGA term birth. Maternal smoking, low maternal birthweight and lack of higher educational qualifications were associated with both types of SGA birth. After multivariable analyses, a strong and significant association remained between having a first infant as a teenager and recurrent SGA term birth. The tendency to repeat SGA term birth appears to be associated with social, economic and behavioural disadvantage and is unlikely to be ameliorated without fundamental changes in society.

  13. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  14. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.

  15. Metabolic and energy balance in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age, very low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Picaud, J C; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Salle, B L; Senterre, J

    1994-12-01

    This study compared nutrient utilization and postnatal weight gain composition in eight appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight 1293 +/- 107 g; gestational age 28.8 +/- 1.4 weeks) and eight symmetrically growth-retarded (SGA: birth weight 1110 +/- 230 g; gestational age 32.7 +/- 1.9 weeks), very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. There was no significant difference in protein, mineral and energy intake between AGA and SGA infants. Nitrogen absorption (84 +/- 3 and 83 +/- 4%) and nitrogen retention (356 +/- 48 and 352 +/- 43 mg/kg/day) were similar in both groups. Fat absorption tended to be lower in AGA (78 +/- 15%) than in SGA (87 +/- 4%) infants. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorptions were similar in AGA and SGA infants. Metabolizable energy utilization was similar in both groups; about 55% was expended and 45% stored in new tissues. Energy expenditure was 58 +/- 4 kcal/kg/day in SGA infants and 61 +/- 9 kcal/kg/day in AGA infants. Weight gain and its composition were similar in both groups. We conclude that nutrient and energy utilization are similar in AGA and symmetrically growth-retarded, VLBW infants.

  16. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  17. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  18. Physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth among predominantly Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Gollenberg, Audra L; Pekow, Penelope; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Freedson, Patty S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the association between multiple domains of physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. We utilized data from 1,040 participants in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Physical activity was assessed by bilingual interviewers using a modified version of the Kaiser physical activity survey in early (mean = 15 weeks) and mid pregnancy (mean = 28 weeks). Physical activity (i.e., sports/exercise, household, occupational, and active living) in pre, early and mid pregnancy was categorized in quartiles. SGA was classified as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Pre- and early-pregnancy physical activity were not associated with SGA. In multivariable analyses, women with high total activity in mid-pregnancy had a decreased risk of SGA [risk ratio (RR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.82; p(trend) = 0.003] as compared to those with low total activity. Findings were similar for high household activity (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.34-1.40; p(trend) = 0.26), active living (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.13; p(trend) = 0.04), and occupational activity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.47-1.34; p(trend) = 0.26). High levels of sports/exercise were associated with an increased SGA risk without a significant dose-response association (RR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.39; p(trend) = 0.33). Results extend prior studies of physical activity and SGA to the Hispanic population.

  19. Low birth weight, preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age are not associated with dental caries in young Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to increase and is a major public health problem in Japan. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and the prevalence of dental caries in young Japanese children. Methods Study subjects were 2,055 children aged 3 years. Data on birth conditions were obtained through the transcription by parents or guardians of the information from their maternal and child health handbook, in which the data were recorded by staff at the birth hospital or clinic, to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having caries if one or more deciduous teeth were decayed, missing, or had been filled at the time of examination. Adjustments were made for sex, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, regular dental check-ups, between-meal snack frequency, breastfeeding duration, paternal and maternal educational levels, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 20.7%. The mean birth weight was 3018.3 g, and 8.3% were classified as LBW (<2,500 g), 4.5% as preterm birth (<37 weeks), and 7.1% as SGA (<10th percentile). Preterm birth was associated with a 40% decreased prevalence of dental caries (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.36–1.02, p = 0.06). There were no associations between LBW or SGA and the prevalence of dental caries. Conclusions The results of the study failed to detect significant associations between LBW, preterm birth or SGA and the prevalence of dental caries in Japan. Further study is needed in other populations to confirm the generalizability of these findings. PMID:24731399

  20. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  1. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Paul; Reiter, Edward

    2012-05-15

    The term small for gestational age (SGA) refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD) units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%-10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.

  2. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The term small for gestational age (SGA) refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD) units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%–10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder. PMID:22587301

  3. Association between prenatal care and small for gestational age birth: an ecological study in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Savard, N.; Levallois, P.; Rivest, LP.; Gingras, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In Quebec, women living on low income receive a number of additional prenatal care visits, determined by their area of residence, of both multi-component and food supplementation programs. We investigated whether increasing the number of visits reduces the odds of the main outcome of small for gestational age (SGA) birth (weight < 10th percentile on the Canadian scale). Methods: In this ecological study, births were identified from Quebec’s registry of demographic events between 2006 and 2008 (n  =  156 404; 134 areas). Individual characteristics were extracted from the registry, and portraits of the general population were deduced from data on multi-component and food supplement interventions, the Canadian census and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Mothers without a high school diploma were eligible for the programs. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation between individuals on the same territory. Potential confounders included sedentary behaviour and cigarette smoking. The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for mother’s age, marital status, parity, program coverage and mean income in the area. Results: Mothers eligible for the programs remain at a higher odds of SGA than non-eligible mothers (OR =  1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–1.51). Further, areas that provide more visits to eligible mothers (4–6 food supplementation visits) seem more successful at reducing the frequency of SGA birth than those that provide 1–2 or 3 visits (OR  =  0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99). Conclusions: Further studies that validate whether an increase in the number of prenatal care interventions reduces the odds of SGA birth in different populations and evaluate other potential benefits for the children should be done. PMID:27409987

  4. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  5. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  6. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  7. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  8. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  9. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  10. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  11. Associations between preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and neonatal morbidity and cognitive function among school-age children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early newborn morbidity on functional outcomes are not well described in low income settings. Methods In rural Nepal, we conducted neurocognitive assessment of children (n = 1927) at 7–9 y of age, for whom birth condition exposures were available. At follow-up they were tested on aspects of intellectual, executive, and motor function. Results The prevalence of LBW (39.6%), preterm birth (21.2%), and SGA (55.4%) was high, whereas symptoms of birth asphyxia and sepsis were reported in 6.7% and 9.1% of children. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, LBW was strongly associated with scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), tests of executive function, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Preterm was not associated with any of the test scores. Conversely, SGA was significantly (all p < 0.005) associated with lower UNIT scores (−2.04 SE = 0.39); higher proportion failure on Stroop test (0.06, SE = 0.02); and lower scores on the backward digit span test (−0.16, SE = 0.04), MABC (0.98, SE = 0.25), and finger tapping test (−0.66, SE = 0.22) after adjusting for confounders. Head circumference at birth was strongly and significantly associated with all test scores. Neither birth asphyxia nor sepsis symptoms were significantly associated with scores on cognitive or motor tests. Conclusion In this rural South Asian setting, intrauterine growth restriction is high and, may have a negative impact on long term cognitive, executive and motor function. PMID:24575933

  12. Decorin expression is decreased in first trimester placental tissue from pregnancies with small for gestation age infants at birth.

    PubMed

    Murthi, P; van Zanten, D E; Eijsink, J J H; Borg, A J; Stevenson, J L; Kalionis, B; Chui, A K; Said, J M; Brennecke, S P; Erwich, J J H M

    2016-09-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR pregnancies are often associated with histological evidence of placental vascular thrombosis. The proteoglycans are important components and regulators of vascular homeostasis. Previous studies from our laboratory highlighted mRNA and protein expression differences in placental proteoglycan decorin (DCN), within a clinically well-characterised cohort of third-trimester idiopathic FGR compared with gestation-matched uncomplicated control pregnancies. We also showed that decorin contributes to abnormal angiogenesis and increased thrombin generation in vitro. These observations suggest that DCN gene expression may contribute to the etiology of FGR. Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used as a proxy for FGR and is defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of a birth weight curve. We therefore made use of a unique resource of first trimester tissues obtained via chorionic villus sampling during the first trimester to investigate the temporal relationship between altered DCN expression and any subsequent development of SGA. We hypothesized that placental DCN expression is decreased early in gestation in SGA pregnancies. Surplus chorionic villus specimens from 15 women subsequently diagnosed with FGR and 50 from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were collected. DCN mRNA and DCN protein were determined using real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Both DCN mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in placentae from first-trimester SGA-pregnancies compared with controls (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report a temporal relationship between altered placental DCN expression and subsequent development of SGA. PMID:27577711

  13. A comparison of recurrent and isolated small-for-gestational-age term births.

    PubMed

    Read, A W; Stanley, F J

    1991-04-01

    In this study, based on total Western Australian singleton Caucasian births, women who had repeatedly given birth to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) term infants ('repeater' mothers) were compared with multiparous women who had had only one such infant ('non-repeater' mothers). Women with any preterm births were excluded. The study population comprised 678 repeater and 986 non-repeater mothers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that weight loss or static weight in the third trimester of pregnancy, paternal smoking, low maternal birthweight, short maternal height and unknown family disease history were independent risk factors for repeater status compared with non-repeaters. The risk associated with paternal smoking was confined to mothers who were non-smokers themselves. There may have been a direct association between paternal smoking and recurrent fetal growth retardation or paternal smoking may have acted as a 'marker' for certain behavioural, environmental, social and economic factors which were not measured. Neonatal outcome was worse for the SGA infants of non-repeater mothers than for those of repeater mothers, although the latter were significantly more likely to weight less than 2500 grams.

  14. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  15. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age.

    PubMed

    Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G; Dülger, Arzu; Dekker, Friedo W; Nauta, Jeroen; van der Heijden, Bert J

    2010-03-01

    Children born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (Spacelabs 90207 device) and renin concentration in 50 very premature individuals (<32 weeks of gestation), either small (SGA) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age (21 SGA, 29 AGA), and 30 full-term controls who all were aged 20 years at time of measurement. The mean (standard deviation) daytime systolic blood pressure in SGA and AGA prematurely born individuals, respectively, was 122.7 (8.7) and 123.1 (8.5) mmHg. These values were, respectively, 3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.9 to 8.0] and 4.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.4-8.0) higher than in controls [119.6 (7.6)]. Daytime diastolic blood pressure and nighttime blood pressure did not differ between groups. We conclude that individuals born very preterm have higher daytime systolic blood pressure and higher risk of hypertension at a young adult age. PMID:20012998

  16. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  17. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  18. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  19. Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational age, the mother’s race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for

  20. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  1. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  2. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat (ENT) Dental/Orthodontics Urology Orthopedics Child Development Psychology Special Education Services DO WE NEED TO IMPROVE ... body proportions and head circumference Improved psychological and cognitive function Possible Adverse Side Effects of GHT for ...

  3. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  4. Young maternal age and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Antônio A M; Simões, Vanda M F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Coimbra, Liberata C; Alves, Maria T S S B

    2003-10-01

    The association between young maternal age and preterm birth (PTB) remains controversial. In some studies the association disappeared after controlling for socio-economic and reproductive factors, thus indicating that social disadvantage rather than biological factors may be the explanation. However, in other studies the association persisted after adjustment. The relation between young maternal age and PTB was studied in a city located in Brazil, an underdeveloped country, where the prevalence of teenage pregnancy was high, 29%. A systematic sampling of 2541 hospital births, stratified by hospital, was performed in São Luís, Northeast Brazil, from March 1997 to February 1998. The risks of PTB for infants born to two groups of young mothers (<18 and 18-19 years) were calculated with and without adjustment for confounding factors (family income, marital status, mode of delivery, parity, health insurance, and short maternal stature) in a logistic regression model, using mothers 25-29 years of age as the reference group. In the unadjusted analysis, the risk of PTB was higher for mothers < 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64, 3.57]. Those aged 18 or 19 years were not at a higher risk of PTB (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.58, 1.38). After adjustment, the risk of PTB for mothers < 18 years was lower but remained significant after controlling for confounding (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.11, 2.60). After performing a stratified analysis according to parity, the risk of PTB among very young primiparae (<18 years) remained significant (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.02, 3.08), whereas the risk among non-primiparous adolescents was not significantly higher than the risk among mothers in the reference group. This suggests that the association between young maternal age and PTB may have a biological basis or an artifactual explanation (errors in gestational age estimation may be more common among very young mothers) or may be due to residual confounding. PMID:14629314

  5. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  6. Obesity and systolic blood pressure in young adult men born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premuzić, Vedran; Karanović, Sandra; Vrdoljak, Ana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-09-01

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are supposed to be at higher risk to develop cardiovascular disorders, and recent report showed that concurrent obesity influences blood pressure (BP) in SGA children. Our aim was to investigate the impact of obesity and birth weight on blood pressure values in young adult men born SGA and controls born after normal pregnancy, Normotensive, non-treated adult men were enrolled (N = 185; mean age 21.29 +/- 0.9 years). Birth parameters were obtained from medical records and SGA was defined as birth weight (BW) under 10th percentile for gestational age and obesity as BMI > 25 kg/m2. According to the presence or absence of obesity and BW the subjects were divided into four groups: (1) non-obese with normal BW (N = 50), (2) non-obese SGA (N = 67), (3) obese with normal BW (N = 40), (4) obese SGA (N = 28). BP was measured using Omron M6 and Spacelab 90207 device following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Systolic BP, 24-hour BP variability and pulse pressure were significantly higher in SGA subjects than in those with normal BW (p < 0.05). The highest 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values as well as 24-hour pulse pressure were found in the subgroup of obese SGA subjects (p < 0.001). Significant differences for the above parameters were observed between obese SGA group and non-obese SGA group (p < 0.05). Obese SGA subjects had higher 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values compared to obese normal BW group. No difference was found in BP between non-obese SGA and non-obese group with normal BW (p > 0.05). In addition to BW and shorter pregnancy duration, obesity concurrently and significantly determines systolic BP in young normotensive men and point to a need for more aggressive implementation of healthy lifestyle as early as possible.

  7. Outcomes of Small for Gestational Age Infants < 27 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Lilia C.; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Li, Lei; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Bara, Rebecca; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants <27 weeks gestation is associated with mortality, morbidity, growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ corrected age (CA). Study design This was a retrospective cohort study from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network’s Generic Database and Follow-up Studies. Infants born at <27 weeks’ gestation from January 2006 to July 2008 were included. SGA was defined as birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age by the Olsen growth curves. Infants with birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental data were compared between the groups. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as any of the following: cognitive score <70 on BSID III, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral hearing loss (+/− amplification) or blindness (vision <20/200). Logistic regression analysis evaluated the association between SGA status and death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Results There were 385 SGA and 2586 non-SGA infants. Compared with the non-SGA group, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have higher level of education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. SGA infants were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, a higher mortality and to have received prolonged mechanical ventilation and postnatal steroids. SGA status was associated with higher odds of death or neurodevelopmental impairment [OR 3.91 (95% CI: 2.91–5.25), P<0.001]. Conclusion SGA status among infants <27 weeks’ gestation was associated with an increased risk for postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ CA. PMID:23415614

  8. Maternal apolipoprotein E genotype as a potential risk factor for poor birth outcomes: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.; Kelly, Tanika N.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype and preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA). Study Design ApoE phenotyping was performed on 680 women linked to 1 065 births. Allele frequencies were compared and PTB and SGA risk was estimated using log-binomial regression. Results The ε2 allele was more common in SGA births (p < 0.01). SGA risk was increased among ε2 carriers compared to genotype ε3/ε3, though associations were attenuated following adjustment for maternal age, education, race, smoking, and prenatal visits. Stronger associations were observed for term SGA (first birth: aRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.06 – 2.98; any birth: aRR = 1.52, 95% CI 0.96 – 2.40) and among whites specifically (first: aRR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.69; any: aRR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.46 – 5.22). Conclusions Associations between maternal apoE genotype and SGA may represent decreased fetal growth in women with lower circulating cholesterol levels. PMID:26890557

  9. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  10. LBW and SGA Impact Longitudinal Growth and Nutritional Status of Filipino Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Palmera; Ayaso, Edna B.; Monterde, Donna Bella S.; Acosta, Luz P.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Tallo, Veronica; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    We performed this study to longitudinally compare rates of stunting, wasting and underweight among low birthweight (LBW), non-LBW, and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants in Leyte, The Philippines and factors that predicted catch up. Birthweights of 357 infants born in Leyte, The Philippines were obtained within 48 hours of delivery and infants were evaluated at one, six and 12 months. Newborns were classified as LBW, SGA, or both. We derived length-for-age, weight-for-length and weight-for-age Z-scores using WHOAnthro. Generalized estimating equations models were used to compare the differences in prevalence and mean Z-scores for these growth and nutritional outcomes, with separate models made with LBW and SGA as distinct primary predictors. We compared the longitudinal risk of stunting, wasting and underweight during infancy among LBW versus non-LBW and SGA versus non-SGA infants, while also evaluating key potential confounding, explanatory and modifying covariates. Overall, 9.0% of infants were born prematurely, 14.0% of infants were LBW and 22.9% were SGA. LBW infants had significantly increased odds of stunting, wasting and underweight persisting to 12 months of age, and SGA infants had significantly increased odds of stunting and underweight. LBW and SGA infants had higher rates of weight-for-length gain in the first month of life. Maternal educational attainment and exclusive breastfeeding decreased the risk of stunting and undernutrition. In this setting, LBW and SGA infants have higher rates of growth stunting and undernutrition during the first year of life and do not exhibit catch-up growth by 12 months of age. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00486863 PMID:27441564

  11. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  12. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  13. Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.
AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.
METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.
RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.

 PMID:10873174

  14. Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status, infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low-income, multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Rees, Gail A; Crawford, Michael A; Morton, R Hugh; Dorman, Edgar K

    2010-08-01

    Poor nutrient intake during pregnancy can adversely affect both infant and maternal health. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of multiple-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in a socially deprived population in the developed world. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of multiple-micronutrient supplementation including 20 mg Fe and 400 microg folic acid, from the first trimester of pregnancy in 402 mothers, in East London, UK. Nutrient status was measured at recruitment, and at 26 and 34 weeks of gestation. Infants were weighed at birth. At recruitment the prevalence of anaemia was 13 %, vitamin D insufficiency 72 %, thiamin deficiency 12 % and folate deficiency 5 %, with no differences between groups. Only 39 % of women completed the study; rates of non-compliance were similar in both groups. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants receiving treatment had higher mean Hb at 26 weeks of gestation (110 (sd 10) v.108 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.041) and 34 weeks of gestation (113 (sd 12) v.109 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.003) and packed cell volume concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation (0.330 (sd 0.025) v. 0.323 (sd 0.026) l/l; P = 0.011) and 34 weeks of gestation (0.338 (sd 0.029) v. 0.330 (sd 0.028) l/l; P = 0.014) compared with controls. Analysis of compliant women showed supplemented women had higher median concentrations of serum ferritin, erythrocyte folate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D later in gestation than controls. In the compliant subset (n 149), placebo mothers had more small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (eight SGA v. thirteen; P = 0.042) than treatment mothers. Baseline micronutrient deficiencies were common; the multiple-micronutrient supplement was well-tolerated and improved nutrient status. Multiple-micronutrient supplements from early pregnancy may be beneficial and larger studies are required to assess impact on birth outcomes and infant development.

  15. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S F; Vlug, R D; Smits-Wintjens, V E H J; Heckman, E J; Te Pas, A B; Fijnvandraat, K; Lopriore, E

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  16. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems. PMID:27625810

  17. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  18. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Angharad R.; Thompson, John M.D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Cornforth, Christine M.; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined – that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  19. Birth Status, Child Growth, and Adult Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries☆

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Hao, Wei; Horta, Bernardo L.; Lee, Nanette; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramji, Siddarth; Stein, Alan; Richter, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of being born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) on several adult outcomes. Study design We analyzed data for 4518 adult participants in 5 birth cohorts from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results In the study population, 12.8% of males and 11.9% of females were born preterm, and 26.8% of males and 22.4% of females were born term but SGA. Adults born preterm were 1.11 cm shorter (95% CI, 0.57-1.65 cm), and those born term but SGA were 2.35 cm shorter (95% CI, 1.93-2.77 cm) compared with those born at term and appropriate size for gestational age. Blood pressure and blood glucose level did not differ by birth category. Compared with those born term and at appropriate size for gestational age, schooling attainment was 0.44 years lower (95% CI, 0.17-0.71 years) in those born preterm and 0.41 years lower (95% CI, 0.20-0.62 years) in those born term but SGA. Conclusion Being born preterm or term but SGA is associated with persistent deficits in adult height and schooling, but is not related to blood pressure or blood glucose level in low- and middle-income settings. Increased postnatal growth is associated with gains in height and schooling regardless of birth status, but not with increases in blood pressure or blood glucose level. PMID:24064150

  20. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  1. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  2. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies.

  3. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  4. Growth and body composition of preterm, small-for-gestational-age infants at a postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks.

    PubMed

    Yau, K I; Chang, M H

    1993-06-01

    In order to understand the nutritional status of preterm, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in the early postnatal period, the growth and body composition of preterm, SGA infants was followed prospectively from birth to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks. The infants were stratified into different groups by gestational age, clinical condition and body proportionality. In each subgroup, the growth and changes in body composition of SGA infants were compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants of a comparable postmenstrual age. At birth, the SGA infants of both the 31-33 and 34-36 week gestational-age groups were smaller than AGA infants in all body measurements, including arm area (AA), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA). When the preterm SGA infants had grown to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks, the amount of fat they had accumulated was as much as, or more than that in term AGA infants. Yet, they had less muscle mass and their body weight, body length and head circumference were less than those in term AGA infants. This pattern of growth and the changes in body composition had been persistently observed in SGA infants of different gestational-age groups, different clinical status and different body proportionality. Differences between postnatal enteral nutrition and placental nutrition, or different energy utilization, in preterm SGA infants are hypothesized to account for these observations. The growth of less mature (31-33 weeks gestation) SGA infants and those preterm SGA infants with an eventful clinical course was suboptimal as compared with other SGA infants in the same subgroup. In this study, the weight to length ratio (WLR) was used to define the status of nutrition in preterm SGA infants: WLR < or = 2 S.D. or > 2 S.D. off the reference mean. Infants in both groups showed some catch-up growth in body weight. Yet, at near-term their body weight were still more than 2 S.D. below the mean of term AGA. In each gestational-age

  5. Combination Antiretroviral Use and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Watts, D. Heather; Williams, Paige L.; Kacanek, Deborah; Griner, Raymond; Rich, Kenneth; Hazra, Rohan; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Mendez, Hermann A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) during pregnancy has been associated with higher risk of preterm birth. Methods. The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study network's Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities study is a US-based cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed uninfected children. We evaluated maternal ARV use during pregnancy and the risk of any type of preterm birth (ie, birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation), the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (ie, preterm birth that occurred after preterm labor or membrane rupture, without other complications), and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight of <10th percentile for gestational age). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of ARVs and timing of exposure, while adjusting for maternal characteristics. Results. Among 1869 singleton births, 18.6% were preterm, 10.2% were spontaneous preterm, and 7.3% were SGA. A total of 89% used 3-drug combination ARV regimens during pregnancy. In adjusted models, the odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth were significantly greater among mothers who used protease inhibitors during the first trimester (adjusted odds ratios, 1.55 and 1.59, respectively) but not among mothers who used nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or triple-nucleoside regimens during the first trimester. Combination ARV exposure starting later in pregnancy was not associated with increased risk. No associations were observed between SGA and exposure to combination ARV regimens. Conclusions. Protease inhibitor use early in pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for prematurity. PMID:23204173

  6. Catch-up growth in very-low-birth-weight infants. Clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Merkatz, I R; McGrath, S K; Jones, P K; Fanaroff, A A

    1984-04-01

    Clinical correlates of catch-up growth were documented in 182 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (less than 1.5 kg) followed up prospectively until a corrected age of 33 months. At birth, 147 infants had weights appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and 35 were small for gestational age (SGA). The infants in each group were categorized as small if body weight was 2 SDs below the mean for age or appropriate if body weight was within 2 SDs of the mean at birth and at corrected ages of 40 weeks and 8, 21, and 33 months. Of the 147 AGA infants, 67 (46%) weighed less than 2 SDs of the mean for age at a corrected age of 40 weeks, 40 (27%) at 8 months, 28 (19%) at 21 months, and 25 (17%) at 33 months. Of the 35 SGA infants, 32 (91%) had subnormal weight at 40 weeks, 17 (49%) at 8 months and 21 months, and 16 (46%) at 33 months. Significant correlates of poor catch-up growth in the AGA group were birth weight, gestational age, severity of neonatal complications, poor neonatal head growth, and chronic physical and neurologic sequelae. In the infants in the SGA group, the correlates of poor catch-up growth were birth weight, multiple birth, and social class.

  7. Cord Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Fetal Growth in the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Tong, Shi-lu; Hu, Wen-biao; Hao, Jia-hu; Tao, Rui-xue; Huang, Kun; Mou, Zhe; Zhou, Qi-fan; Jiang, Xiao-min; Tao, Fang-biao

    2015-01-01

    We determined the association of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with birth weight and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort (C-ABC) study, we measured cord blood levels of 25(OH)D in 1491 neonates in Hefei, China. The data on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health status, lifestyle, birth outcomes were prospectively collected. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of 25(OH)D levels with birth weight and the risk of SGA. Compared with neonates in the lowest decile of cord blood 25(OH)D levels, neonates in four deciles (the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh deciles) had significantly increased birth weight and decreased risk of SGA. Multiple linear regression models showed that per 10 nmol/L increase in cord blood 25(OH)D, birth weight increased by 61.0 g (95% CI: 31.9, 89.9) at concentrations less than 40 nmol/L, and then decreased by 68.5 g (95% CI: -110.5, -26.6) at concentrations from 40 to 70 nmol/L. This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that there was an inverted U shaped relationship between neonatal vitamin D status and fetal growth, and the risk of SGA reduced at moderate concentration. PMID:26450157

  8. Ages of legal importance: Implications in relation to birth registration and age assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Jayakumar; Roberts, Graham J; Wong, Hai Ming; McDonald, Fraser; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of age is a common procedure routinely conducted in many countries following birth date disputes, particularly following asylum claims and criminal offenses. UNICEF reports that only 65% of children in the world were registered, and the numbers of children who possess an authentic birth certificate were significantly lower than those registered. Legally important ages can be categorized into defined age ranges that vary among different countries. Recently, following an increase in the number of age-specific crimes, many countries have revised their legally important ages. This article is intended to report the most recent data on the ages of legal importance in the major countries of the world and implicate its relevance to birth registration and age assessment practices. PMID:26101440

  9. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  10. Clinical stage of breast cancer by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a progressive effect of pregnancy hormones?

    PubMed

    Albrektsen, Grethe; Heuch, Ivar; Thoresen, Steinar; Kvåle, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or 1 to 2 years after birth often occurs at a late stage. Little is known about tumor characteristics in the high-risk period shortly after a childbirth. We here explore whether stage of disease differs according to timing of births. Results are based on 22,351 Norwegian breast cancer patients of parity 0 to 5, ages 20 to 74 years. The proportion of stage II to IV tumors was considerably higher among parous than nulliparous women at age <30 years (52.7% versus 36.8%, P=0.009), but similar or lower in other age groups (P(interaction)=0.029). In general, the largest proportion of stage II to IV tumors was found among women diagnosed during pregnancy or <2 years after birth. However, among women with late-age births (first or second birth >or=30 years, third birth >or=35 years), as well as women with an early second birth (<25 years), the proportion with advanced disease was rather similar or even higher among those diagnosed 2 to 6 years after birth (49.3-56.0%). The association between clinical stage and time since birth reached statistical significance among women with a late first or second birth and among all triparous women (P birth corresponded quite well to those previously found to have the most pronounced transient increase in risk after birth. Thus, pregnancy hormones may have a progressive effect on breast cancer tumors in addition to a possible promoting effect. A potential effect of prolactin is discussed.

  11. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  12. Thyroid Function in Small for Gestational Age Newborns: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagnoli, Franco; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes - disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23149390

  13. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bagnoli; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes--disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants.

  14. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 74 control subjects completed the Adult Self-Report (ASR) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term. PMID:23216805

  15. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  16. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  17. Relationship between age of dam with calving ease and birth weight of Simmental calves.

    PubMed

    Burfening, P J

    1988-04-01

    Records from 123,656 Simmental calves (75% and 88% Simmental) were used to study the effect of age of dam on calving ease and birth weight. Calving ease was scored from 1 to 4 (1 = unassisted, 2 to 4 = various levels of assistance). Scores were recorded so that the percentage of assisted births could be calculated. Mean percentage of assisted births and birth weights for each age of dam in months, sex and Simmental percentage subclass were subjected to statistical analysis. Although sex and Simmental percentage occasionally interacted with age of dam for percentage of assisted births, in general, as age of dam increased the percentage of assisted births decreased in dams normally classified as 2-yr-olds (21 mo to 33 mo of age), whereas birth weight remained fairly constant. These results suggest that including age of dam in months in the mixed-model equations for sire evaluation for calving ease could improve the accuracy of these procedures.

  18. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  19. Rising disparities in severe adverse birth outcomes among Haitians in Québec, Canada, 1981-2006.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Chery, Martine; Daniel, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Perinatal health data for Haitians are scant. We evaluated adverse birth outcomes for Haitians in Québec, Canada. We analyzed 2,124,909 live births from 1981 to 2006. Haitian ethnicity was assessed using maternal birth country (Haiti, other Caribbean country, other foreign country, Canada) and home language (Creole, French/English but Creole mother tongue, French/English, other). Associations between ethnicity and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were calculated. Adverse birth outcomes were more common among mothers with Haitian ethnicity. Relative to Canadian-born mothers, odds for Haitian-born mothers were 4 times greater for extreme PTB (≤27 weeks), twice greater for very PTB (28-31 weeks), and 25% higher for moderate PTB (32-36 weeks). Patterns were similar for SGA birth and severe cases of LBW. Despite overall decreases LBW and SGA birth, relative and absolute inequalities increased over time. Perinatal health inequalities are increasing for Haitian-born mothers.

  20. Bone age at birth; method and effect of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, M; Perheentupa, J

    1989-05-01

    Bone maturity at birth (or during the neonatal period) can be estimated from the ossified distal femoral epiphyses (FE). In congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) bone maturation is retarded and neonatal bone age reflects the severity of prenatal thyroid failure. In our reference group of 111 healthy infants, the size of these epiphyses depended not only on the age but also on body size. Thus, if bone age is estimated from the size of an epiphysis, the size of the infant is a potential confounder. This problem was avoided by estimating the maturation lag from the difference between the observed and predicted heights of FE (FEHs). Models for predicting FEH were constructed from data from the reference group by multiple linear regression and confirmed in a separate group of 37 healthy infants. In 52 hypothyroid newborns both FEH and FEH lag correlated with serum thyroxine concentration, indicating that FEH can be used as a measure of bone maturation in a population that is fairly homogeneous for (postmenstrual) age and size. Otherwise FEH lag is a better indicator.

  1. Maternal Exposure to Air Pollution and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Björk, Jonas; Stroh, Emilie; Jakobsson, Kristina; Rittner, Ralf; Rylander, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge about air pollution effects on birth weight, prematurity, and small for gestational age (SGA) in low-exposure areas is insufficient. Objectives The aim of this birth cohort study was to investigate whether low-level exposure to air pollution was associated with prematurity and fetal growth and whether there are sex-specific effects. Method We combined high-quality registry information on 81,110 births with individually modeled exposure data at residence for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and proximity to roads with differing traffic density. The data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression with and without potential confounders. Results We observed an increased risk for babies being SGA when we compared highest and lowest NOx quartiles, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, sex, and year of birth. After additional adjustment for maternal country of origin and parity (which were highly intercorrelated), the increase was no longer statistically significant. However, in subgroup analyses when we compared highest and lowest NOx quartiles we still observed an increased risk for SGA for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.24); we also observed increased risk among mothers who had not changed residency during pregnancy (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.18). The confounders with the greatest impact on SGA were parity and country of origin. Concerning prematurity, the prevalence was lower in the three higher NOx exposure quartiles compared with the lowest category. Conclusion For future studies on air pollution effects on birth outcomes, careful control of confounding is crucial. PMID:21212043

  2. Differential effects of intrauterine and postnatal brain growth failure in infants of very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Fanaroff, A A

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of brain growth failure to outcome in infants of very low birth weight (VLBW; less than 1.5 kg) who were appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 379) or small for gestational age (SGA; n = 102). Growth was assessed at birth, term, and 8 and 20 months' corrected age and results of a Bayley Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and neurologic examination were evaluated at 20 months of age. Both groups had similar 20-month MDI scores (93 vs 90) and similar rates of neurologic impairment (14% vs 10%). More SGA infants (25%) than AGA infants (14%) had a subnormal head circumference at 8 months' corrected age, indicating failure to catch up in head growth. Subnormal head size at 8 months predicted the 20-month MDI score for both groups. However, multivariate analysis indicated that, whereas subnormal 8-month head size was directly associated with the MDI score in AGA children, in SGA children 8-month head size was not significantly related to the MDI score when neonatal illness, neurologic impairment, socioeconomic status, and race were controlled for. We conclude that in AGA VLBW infants, subnormal head size at 8 months results from major neonatal illness and has adverse later effects. In SGA infants, subnormal head size at 8 months has many causes, including growth retardation in utero, which may not have an adverse effect on outcome; if subnormal head size is superimposed with neonatal illness, a poorer outcome is likely.

  3. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  4. Applying measures of discriminatory accuracy to revisit traditional risk factors for being small for gestational age in Sweden: a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Sol Pía; Wagner, Phillip; Merlo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Small for gestational age (SGA) is considered as an indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, and multiple maternal and newborn characteristics have been identified as risk factors for SGA. This knowledge is mainly based on measures of average association (ie, OR) that quantify differences in average risk between exposed and unexposed groups. Nevertheless, average associations do not assess the discriminatory accuracy of the risk factors (ie, its ability to discriminate the babies who will develop SGA from those that will not). Therefore, applying measures of discriminatory accuracy rather than measures of association only, our study revisits known risk factors of SGA and discusses their role from a public health perspective. Design Cross-sectional study. We measured maternal (ie, smoking, hypertension, age, marital status, education) and delivery (ie, sex, gestational age, birth order) characteristics and performed logistic regression models to estimate both ORs and measures of discriminatory accuracy, like the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) and the net reclassification improvement. Setting Data were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Participants Our sample included 731 989 babies born during 1987–1993. Results We replicated the expected associations. For instance, smoking (OR=2.57), having had a previous SGA baby (OR=5.48) and hypertension (OR=4.02) were strongly associated with SGA. However, they show a very small discriminatory accuracy (AU-ROC≈0.5). The discriminatory accuracy increased, but remained unsatisfactorily low (AU-ROC=0.6), when including all variables studied in the same model. Conclusions Traditional risk factors for SGA alone or in combination have a low accuracy for discriminating babies with SGA from those without SGA. A proper understanding of these findings is of fundamental relevance to address future research and to design policymaking recommendations in a more informed

  5. Current pattern of Ponderal Indices of term small-for-gestational age in a population of Nigerian babies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695

  6. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research

  7. Exposure to drinking water trihalomethanes and their association with low birth weight and small for gestational age in genetically susceptible women.

    PubMed

    Danileviciute, Asta; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Vencloviene, Jone; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2012-12-06

    Little is known about genetic susceptibility to individual trihalomethanes (THM) in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nested case-control study of 682 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania) and, using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, estimated an internal THM dose. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose, birth outcomes and individual and joint (modifying) effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms. THM exposure during entire pregnancy and specific trimesters slightly increased low birth weight (LBW) risk. When considering both THM exposure and maternal genotypes, the largest associations were found for third trimester among total THM (TTHM) and chloroform-exposed women with the GSTM1-0 genotype (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.36-14.08 and OR: 5.06; 95% CI: 1.50-17.05, respectively). A test of interaction between internal THM dose and GSTM1-0 genotype suggested a modifying effect of exposure to chloroform and bromodichloromethane on LBW risk. However, the effect on small for gestational age (SGA) was not statistically significant. These data suggest that THM internal dose may affect foetal growth and that maternal GSTM1 genotype modifies the THM exposure effects on LBW.

  8. Small and large size for gestational age and neighborhood deprivation measured within increasing proximity to homes

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Anna E.; Messer, Lynne C.; Nguyen, Thuan; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood deprivation is consistently associated with greater risk of low birthweight. However, large birth size is increasingly relevant but overlooked in neighborhood health research, and proximity within which neighborhood deprivation may affect birth outcomes is unknown. We estimated race/ethnic-specific effects of neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) within 1, 3, 5, and 8 km buffers around Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n=3,716; 2004-2007) respondents’ homes on small and large for gestational age (SGA, LGA). NDI was positively associated with LGA and SGA in most race/ethnic groups. The results varied little across the four buffer sizes. PMID:25240489

  9. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth. PMID:26831196

  10. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth.

  11. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R

    1992-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala.

  12. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age.

    PubMed

    Fox, S H; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R

    1994-05-15

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important, avoidable factor associated with low birth weight. Maternal age is also associated with variations in birth weight. Using birth certificate data from all 347,650 singleton births for which maternal age and birth weight were recorded during 1984-1988 in Washington State, this study investigated birth weight and smoking during pregnancy (yes/no) for mothers of different ages. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for race, marital status, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, and urban/rural residence, the decrement in mean birth weight associated with smoking grew steadily from 117 g for the youngest mothers (age less than 16 years) to 376 g for the oldest (age 40 years or more). Similarly, the adjusted relative risk of having a low weight birth (less than 2,500 g) for smokers compared with nonsmokers was lowest for mothers aged 16-17 years, at 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.68), and increased steadily to 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.90) for mothers aged 40 or more. This result suggests that the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy is modified by advancing maternal age. Further research using data that more precisely measure the exposure (cigarettes per day, years smoked) could help further clarify this issue and better address the public health question of whether smoking cessation programs ought to focus limited resources more selectively toward pregnant smokers in particular age groups. PMID:8178780

  13. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Women in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jennifer Y.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Souda, Sajini; Parekh, Natasha; Ogwu, Anthony; Lockman, Shahin; Powis, Kathleen; Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Creek, Tracy; Jimbo, William; Madidimalo, Tebogo; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy, particularly in resource-limited settings. Methods. We abstracted obstetrical records at 6 sites in Botswana for 24 months. Outcomes included stillbirths (SBs), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal death (NND). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women, comparisons were limited to HAART exposure status at conception, and those with similar opportunities for outcomes. Comparisons were adjusted for CD4+ lymphocyte cell count. Results. Of 33 148 women, 32 113 (97%) were tested for HIV, of whom 9504 (30%) were HIV infected. Maternal HIV was significantly associated with SB, PTD, SGA, and NND. Compared with all other HIV-infected women, those continuing HAART from before pregnancy had higher odds of PTD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 1.4), SGA (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6, 2.1) and SB (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8). Among women initiating antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, HAART use (vs zidovudine) was associated with higher odds of PTD (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8), SGA (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.9), and SB (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6, 3.9). Low CD4+ was independently associated with SB and SGA, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy with PTD, SGA, and SB. Conclusions. HAART receipt during pregnancy was associated with increased PTD, SGA, and SB. PMID:23066160

  14. Measures of placental growth in relation to birth weight and gestational age.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Carolyn M; Maas, Elizabeth; Thorp, John M; Eucker, Barbara; Pezzullo, John C; Savitz, David A

    2005-11-15

    Fetal growth depends in part on placental growth. The authors tested placental measures derived from digital images for reliability and to evaluate their association with birth weight and gestational age. A total of 628 women recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004, delivered singleton liveborn infants after 24 completed weeks' gestation. Novel chorionic plate morphometric parameters captured off digital images of the gross placenta were analyzed as estimators of gestational age and birth weight. Without acknowledgment to placental weight, digitally obtained lateral chorionic plate growth measures accounted for 17 percent of gestational age variance and 35 percent of birth weight variance, overall. Chorionic plate measures accounted for 10 percent of birth weight variance beyond that accounted for by placental weight alone. Among preterm births, 34 percent of gestational age variance and 63 percent of birth weight variance were accounted for by lateral chorionic plate growth measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the novel digital measures ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. Reliable digital measures of lateral chorionic plate growth estimate birth weight variance more strongly than gestational age, project variance that is not accounted for by placental weight, and project these outcomes to a greater degree in preterm births than at term.

  15. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  16. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  17. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  18. The Relationship Between Birth Weight, Gestational Age and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Lynda A.; Nolan, John M.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rodway, Nancy V.; Emmett, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have examined the associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in cord blood and maternal plasma with lowered birth weight and gestational age in humans; however, no study has examined these effects in a population of known high PFOA exposure. Residents drinking PFOA-contaminated water from the Little Hocking Water Association (LHWA) in Washington County, Ohio have serum PFOA levels approximately 80 times those in the general U.S. population. Objectives To compare birth weights and gestational ages of neonates born to mothers residing in zip codes with water service provided completely, partially or not at all by the LHWA. Methods Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on singleton neonatal birth weight data supplied by the Ohio Department of Health to examine the associations between LHWA water service category (used as a surrogate for PFOA exposure) with mean birth weight, mean gestational age, the likelihood of low birth weight (<2500 grams), and the likelihood of preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation). All models were adjusted for maternal age, gestational age, sex, race and population-level socioeconomic status. Results The incidence of low birth weight, preterm birth, mean birth weight and mean gestational age of neonates did not significantly differ among water service categories. Conclusion Markedly elevated PFOA exposure, as categorized by water service category, is not associated with increased risk of lowered birth weight or gestational age. This study does not confirm earlier findings of an association between PFOA and lowered birth weight observed at normal population levels. PMID:19049861

  19. Age at first birth and the length of the second birth interval: is a positive relationship universal in modern populations?

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-06-01

    "Age at first birth has been found to be positively associated with the length of the second birth interval in several studies. One researcher has hypothesized that such a relationship would be found in any population in which contraception is widespread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. However, in this study a positive relationship is not found for caucasian women in Hawaii, a population in which contraception is wide-spread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. The findings suggest a revision of the hypothesis to accommodate more complex relationships."

  20. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  1. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA. PMID:25946517

  2. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  3. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  4. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    PubMed

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports.

  5. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The “fetal origins” hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother’s characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N = 705) and Pennsylvania (N = 494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  6. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Marie; Bollen, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The "fetal origins" hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother's characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N=705) and Pennsylvania (N=494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  7. [Maternal mortality in Spain, 1980-1992. Relationship with birth distributions according to the mother's age].

    PubMed

    Valero Juan, L F; Sáenz González, M C

    1997-11-01

    The maternal mortality evolution in Spain during the 1980-1992 period is reported. The influence of birth distribution according to maternal age is analyzed. The information was gathered from vital statistics published by Instituto Nacional de Estadística. The mortality rates have stabilized since 1985 (4.8 per 10(5) for 1992) associated with the increase in the proportion of births in women aged > or = 30 years (40.6% for 1992). Birth distributions according to maternal age account for 13.1% of the deaths observed. The predictions point to an increase in maternal mortality for the year 2000.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  9. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments After"; (3) "Basic…

  10. The Demographic Promise of Expanded Female Education: Trends in the Age at First Birth in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of female education has been promoted as a way to postpone the age of first birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, the first cohorts to benefit from policies that expanded access to education are now reaching adulthood and beginning childbearing. I investigate whether the expansion of education in Malawi, which implemented a free primary education policy in 1994 and subsequently expanded secondary schooling, has led to a later age at first birth and whether the education gradient in fertility timing has remained stable over time. Despite increases in female grade attainment over the past twenty years, the age at first birth has not changed. Using instrumental variables analysis, I find a significant negative association between grade attainment and age at first birth, suggesting that the deterioration of school quality and shift in the age pattern of enrollment that accompanied educational expansion may have compromised the transformative potential of education. PMID:27158172

  11. The effect of disinfection by-products and mutagenic activity on birth weight and gestational duration.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products have traditionally focused on total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration as a surrogate for maternal exposure during pregnancy. We used birth certificate data on 196,000 infants to examine the effect of third-trimester exposures on various indices of fetal development. We examined the effect of town-average concentrations of TTHM and additional exposure metrics in relation to mean birth weight, mean gestational age, small for gestational age (SGA) infancy, and preterm delivery. Trihalomethane data (TTHM, chloroform, and bromodichloromethane) from 1995-1998 were available for 109 towns in Massachusetts. Data from 1997-1998 on haloacetic acid (total haloacetic acids, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5- hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), and mutagenicity were available for a limited number of towns. We observed reductions in mean birth weight (12-18 g) for maternal trihalomethane exposures > the 90th percentile compared with those < the 50th percentile. Birth weight reductions were detected for chloroform exposures > 20 microg/L and TTHM exposures > 40 microg/L. Elevated trihalomethanes were associated with increases in gestational duration and a reduced risk of preterm delivery. We found evidence of an exposure-response effect of trihalomethanes on risk of SGA, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.09 to 1.23 for bromodichloromethane exposures > 5 microg/L. Elevated mutagenic activity was associated with SGA [OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.51] and mean birth weight (-27 g; 95% CI, -54 to -1). Although smaller in magnitude, our findings are consistent with previous studies reporting associations between trihalomethanes and SGA. These data also suggest a relationship between fetal development indices and mutagenic activity independent of exposure to trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and MX. PMID:15175183

  12. Persistence of the effect of birth size on dysglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in old age: AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Muller, Majon; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rantanen, Taina; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara B

    2013-08-01

    We studied the effect of birth size on glucose and insulin metabolism among old non-diabetic individuals. We also explored the combined effect of birth size and midlife body mass index (BMI) on type 2 diabetes in old age. Our study comprised 1,682 Icelanders whose birth records included anthropometrical data. The same individuals had participated in the prospective population-based Reykjavik Study, where BMI was assessed at a mean age of 47 years, and in the AGES-Reykjavik Study during 2002 to 2006, where fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c were measured and homeostasis model assessment for the degree of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated at a mean age of 75.5 years. Type 2 diabetes was determined as having a history of diabetes, using glucose-modifying medication or fasting glucose of >7.0 mmol/l. Of the participants, 249 had prevalent type 2 diabetes in old age. Lower birth weight and body length were associated with higher fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c among old non-diabetic individuals. Higher birth weight and ponderal index at birth decreased the risk for type 2 diabetes in old age, odds ratio (OR), 0.61 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.48-0.79] and 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.00), respectively. Compared with those with high birth weight and low BMI in midlife, the odds of diabetes was almost five-fold for individuals with low birth weight and high BMI (OR, 4.93; 95 % CI, 2.14-11.37). Excessive weight gain in adulthood might be particularly detrimental to the health of old individuals with low birth weight.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality Attributable to Birth Defects by Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cheryl S.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Oster, Matthew; Petrini, Joann R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Previous reports have highlighted black-white differences in overall infant mortality and infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD). We evaluated the impact of gestational age on US racial/ethnic differences in IMBD. Methods We estimated the rate of IMBD (using ICD-10 codes for the underlying cause of death) using the period linked birth/infant death data for US residents for January 2003 to December 2006. We excluded infants with missing gestational age, implausible values based on Alexander’s index of birth weight for gestational age norms, or gestational ages <20 weeks or >44 weeks; we categorized gestational age into three groups: 20–33; 34–36; and 37–44 weeks. Using Poisson regression, we compared neonatal and postneonatal mortality attributable to birth defects for infants of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers with that for infants of non-Hispanic white mothers stratified by gestational age. Results IMBD occurred in 12.2 per 10,000 live births. Among infants delivered at 37–44 weeks, blacks (and Hispanics, to a lesser degree) had significantly higher neonatal and postneonatal mortality attributable to birth defects than whites. However, among infants delivered at 20–33 or 34–36 weeks, neonatal (but not postneonatal) mortality attributable to birth defects was significantly lower among blacks compared with whites. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in IMBD were not explained in these data by differences in gestational age. Further investigation should include an assessment of possible racial/ethnic differences in severity and/or access to timely diagnosis and management of birth defects. PMID:22908111

  14. Premature birth and insulin resistance in infancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Payal, Vikas; Jora, Rakesh; Sharma, Pramod; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine the role of prematurity and other variables to predict insulin sensitivity in infancy. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, 36 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and 17 term SGA included as study cohort and 36 term AGA as control cohort. Detailed anthropometry assessment was performed at birth, 3, 6, and 9 months and at 9 months, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin was done. Insulin resistance was determined by using homeostasis model assessment version 2. Results: It is found that preterm AGA (mean difference 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.43–0.80, P = 0.0001), preterm SGA (mean difference 0.764, 95% CI; 0.44–1.09, P = 0.0001), and term AGA (mean difference 0.725, 95% CI; 0.49–0.96, P = 0.0001) group had significantly higher insulin resistance than control. There was no significant difference in between preterm SGA and preterm AGA (mean difference 0.147 95% CI; −0.13–0.42, P = 0.927). In multiple regression models, SGA status (β =0.505) was more significant predictor of insulin resistance index than gestational age (β = −0.481), weight-for-length (β =0.315), and ponderal index (β = −0.194). Conclusion: Preterm birth is a risk factor for the future development of insulin resistance which may develop as early as infancy. PMID:27366716

  15. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  16. Comparison of SGA oral medications and a long-acting injectable SGA: the PROACTIVE study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M

    2015-03-01

    Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials. PMID:24870446

  17. A cross-cultural examination of the relationship between ages at menarche, marriage, and first birth.

    PubMed

    Udry, J R; Cliquet, R L

    1982-02-01

    Recent work with samples of black and white urban American women showed a clear behavioral sequence relating age at menarche to age at first intercourse to age at first birth. This paper shows that the linking of ages at menarche, intercourse, marriage, and first birth is a pattern which occurs in very diverse cultures. We present confirmatory data from the United States, Belgium, and Pakistan, and from Malay and Chinese women in Malaysia. We interpret our findings as indicating a biological process leading to (a) social interpretations of readiness for reproduction, and (b) persisting biological differences between early and late maturing women. PMID:7067870

  18. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  19. The importance of head growth patterns in predicting the cognitive abilities and literacy skills of small-for-gestational-age children.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Virginia; Amsel, Rhonda; Whyte, Hilary E A

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of head growth compromise beginning in utero and continuing, in some cases, through the first 9 months of life on the cognitive and literacy skills of school-age small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. Seventy-one SGA children, aged 7 to 9 years (gestational ages, 24-41 weeks) and 16 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age control children of comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and age at testing completed tests assessing intelligence, receptive language, working memory, problem solving, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling. SGA children were subdivided into head-growth pattern groups based on their head circumference at birth and at 9 months postterm. Analyses showed that SGA children with poor prenatal and postnatal head growth had the worst outcomes, followed by those with prenatal brain compromise, but good postnatal head growth. SGA children with preserved head growth in utero as well as good head growth after birth demonstrated the best outcomes, although spelling skills were deficient relative to full-term peers. The Verbal and Full Scale IQ ratings of the SGA children who had experienced brain compromise in utero declined significantly from 5 to 8 years of age. We conclude that mild intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) has a minimal effect on the development of cognitive or academic abilities, providing that brain growth in utero is not affected. IUGR that slows brain growth in utero impairs the acquisition of some cognitive and academic abilities, even when followed by good catch-up head growth after birth, whereas poor brain growth in utero followed by little or no catch-up head growth results in widespread impairments. Findings highlight the limits to brain plasticity and emphasize the importance of optimal prenatal and postnatal brain growth.

  20. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    dos REIS, Helena Lucia Barroso; ARAUJO, Karina da Silva; RIBEIRO, Lilian Paula; da ROCHA, Daniel Ribeiro; ROSATO, Drielli Petri; PASSOS, Mauro Romero Leal; de VARGAS, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Objective: To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage. Patients and Methods: Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal circumferences (HC, AC). The data were extracted from clinical and pathological records, and the outcomes summarized as proportions of preterm birth (PTB, < 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW, < 2500g) and small (SGA), adequate (AGA) and large (LGA) for GA, defined as having a value below, between or beyond the ±1.28 z/GA score, the usual clinical cut-off to demarcate the 10th and 90th percentiles. Results: PTB was observed in 17.5%, LBW in 20.2% and SGA FW, BL, HC and AC in 16.2%, 19.1%, 13.8%, and 17.4% respectively. The proportions in HIV-only and AIDS cases were: PTB: 5.9 versus 27.5%, LBW: 14.7% versus 25.0%, SGA BW: 17.6% versus 15.0%, BL: 6.0% versus 30.0%, HC: 9.0% versus 17.9%, and AC: 13.3% versus 21.2%; only SGA BL attained a significant difference. Out of 15 cases of LBW, eight (53.3%) were preterm only, four (26.7%) were SGA only, and three (20.0%) were both PTB and SGA cases. A concomitant presence of, at least, two SGA dimensions in the same fetus was frequent. Conclusions: The proportions of preterm

  1. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  2. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  3. A pint for a pound? Minimum drinking age laws and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Alan; Page, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws are known to reduce alcohol consumption among young adults. One additional benefit of higher MLDAs may be that they improve health outcomes among infants born to young mothers. We estimate the impact of MLDAs on infant health in the USA by comparing birth outcomes among 14-20 year old mothers who were exposed to different MLDAs because of when and where they gave birth. Infants born to mothers who were between the ages of 21 and 24 years are included as a control group. We find that low MLDAs are associated with very small birth weight reductions, but have a little relationship with other traditional measures of infant health. We find compelling evidence, however, that a low MLDA increases the probability of a female birth, which suggests that restricting alcohol access to young mothers may reduce fetal deaths. PMID:24375521

  4. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  5. Predictors of early school age outcomes in very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C; Hack, M

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of outcome in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) children. The very low birth weight sample consisted of 68 children weighing less than 750 g at birth and 65 children weighing 750 to 1499 g at birth who had been matched to the less than 750 g birth weight children in terms of hospital of birth, age, sex, and race. Mean ages for these two groups were 6.7 and 6.9 years, respectively. Outcomes were measured in terms of tests of cognitive function, neuropsychological abilities, and academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of child behavior and school performance. A weighted sum of the number of major neonatal medical complications (Neonatal Risk Index) provided a composite measure of biological risk. Social risks were also assessed. Results indicated that the Neonatal Risk Index was the most consistent predictor of outcomes. Even after taking social risks into account, neonatal risk predicted overall cognitive ability and other achievement, neuropsychological, and behavior outcomes. Individual neonatal complications that predicted outcomes included severe cerebral ultrasonographic abnormality, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and apnea of prematurity. Research and therapy to prevent or reduce neonatal complications and amelioration of social risks are of critical importance in improving outcomes of very low birth weight.

  6. Anthropometric findings from birth to adulthood and their relation with karyotpye distribution in Turkish girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sari, Erkan; Bereket, Abdullah; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Aydın, Banu Küçükemre; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Unuvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Fidancı, Kürşat; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Acıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric features of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) at birth and presentation and the effect of karyotype on these parameters. Data were collected from 842 patients with TS from 35 different centers, who were followed-up between 1984 and 2014 and whose diagnosis age ranged from birth to 18 years. Of the 842 patients, 122 girls who received growth hormone, estrogen or oxandrolone were excluded, and 720 girls were included in the study. In this cohort, the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) birth was 33%. The frequency of SGA birth was 4.2% (2/48) in preterm and 36% (174/483) in term neonates (P < 0.001). The mean birth length was 1.3 cm shorter and mean birth weight was 0.36 kg lower than that of the normal population. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.1 ± 4.4 years. Mean height, weight and body mass index standard deviation scores at presentation were -3.1 ± 1.7, -1.4 ± 1.5, and 0.4 ± 1.7, respectively. Patients with isochromosome Xq were significantly heavier than those with other karyotype groups (P = 0.007). Age at presentation was negatively correlated and mid-parental height was positively correlated with height at presentation. Mid-parental height and age at presentation were the only parameters that were associated with height of children with TS. The frequency of SGA birth was found higher in preterm than term neonates but the mechanism could not be clarified. We found no effect of karyotype on height of girls with TS, whereas weight was greater in 46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotype groups.

  7. Anthropometric findings from birth to adulthood and their relation with karyotpye distribution in Turkish girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sari, Erkan; Bereket, Abdullah; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Aydın, Banu Küçükemre; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Unuvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Fidancı, Kürşat; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Acıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric features of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) at birth and presentation and the effect of karyotype on these parameters. Data were collected from 842 patients with TS from 35 different centers, who were followed-up between 1984 and 2014 and whose diagnosis age ranged from birth to 18 years. Of the 842 patients, 122 girls who received growth hormone, estrogen or oxandrolone were excluded, and 720 girls were included in the study. In this cohort, the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) birth was 33%. The frequency of SGA birth was 4.2% (2/48) in preterm and 36% (174/483) in term neonates (P < 0.001). The mean birth length was 1.3 cm shorter and mean birth weight was 0.36 kg lower than that of the normal population. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.1 ± 4.4 years. Mean height, weight and body mass index standard deviation scores at presentation were -3.1 ± 1.7, -1.4 ± 1.5, and 0.4 ± 1.7, respectively. Patients with isochromosome Xq were significantly heavier than those with other karyotype groups (P = 0.007). Age at presentation was negatively correlated and mid-parental height was positively correlated with height at presentation. Mid-parental height and age at presentation were the only parameters that were associated with height of children with TS. The frequency of SGA birth was found higher in preterm than term neonates but the mechanism could not be clarified. We found no effect of karyotype on height of girls with TS, whereas weight was greater in 46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotype groups. PMID:26788866

  8. Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

  9. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  10. Low Birth Weight and Risk of Progression to End Stage Renal Disease in IgA Nephropathy—A Retrospective Registry-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svarstad, Einar; Leh, Sabine; Marti, Hans-Peter; Reisæther, Anna Varberg

    2016-01-01

    Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is a surrogate for fetal undernutrition and is associated with impaired nephron development in utero. In this study, we investigate whether having been born LBW and/or small for gestational age (SGA) predict progression to ESRD in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. Study Design Retrospective registry-based cohort study. Settings & Participants The Medical Birth Registry has recorded all births since 1967 and the Norwegian Renal Registry has recorded all patients with ESRD since 1980. Based on data from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry we included all patients diagnosed with IgAN in Norway from 1988–2013. These registries were linked and we analysed risk of progression to ESRD associated with LBW (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile) and/or SGA (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational week) by Cox regression statistics. Results We included 471 patients, of whom 74 developed ESRD. As compared to patients without LBW, patients with LBW had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.7) for the total cohort, 2.2 (1.1–4.4) for males and 1.3 (0.30–5.8) for females. Corresponding HRs for SGA were 2.2 (1.1–4.2), 2.7 (1.4–5.5) and 0.8 (0.10–5.9). Further analyses showed that as compared to patients with neither LBW nor SGA, patients with either SGA or LBW did not have significantly increased risks (HRs of 1.3–1.4) but patients who were both LBW and SGA had an increased risk (HR 3.2 (1.5–6.8). Limitation Mean duration of follow-up only 10 years and maximum age only 46 years. Conclusion Among IgAN patients, LBW and/or SGA was associated with increased risk for progression to ESRD, the association was stronger in males. PMID:27092556

  11. Labour and Neonatal Outcome in Small for Gestational Age Babies Delivered Beyond 36+0 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boers, K. E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. At present, evidence on whether these pregnancies should be managed expectantly or by induction is lacking. To get insight in current policy we analysed data of the National Dutch Perinatal Registry (PRN). Methods. We used data of all nulliparae between 2000 and 2005 with a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks, with a birth weight below the 10th percentile. We analysed two groups of pregnancies: (I) with isolated SGA and (II) with both SGA and hypertensive disorders. Onset of labour was related to route of delivery and neonatal outcome. Results. Induction was associated with a higher risk of emergency caesarean section (CS), without improvement in neonatal outcome. For women with isolated SGA the relative risk of emergency CS after induction was 2.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.1 to 2.5) and for women with both SGA and hypertensive disorders the relative risk was 2.7 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.1). Conclusion. Induction in pregnancies complicated by SGA at term is associated with a higher risk of instrumental deliveries without improvement of neonatal outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine the best strategy in suspected IUGR at term. PMID:21490789

  12. Vision and Intelligence at Age 83 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ross D.; Allerhand, Michael; Patton, Niall; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which visual function, measured as near and distant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, is correlated with concurrently measured cognitive function and prior intellectual ability was investigated in a narrow age range group known as the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 (LBC1921). Participants were aged approximately 83 years at the…

  13. Selection of General Growth Outcomes for Children between Birth and Age Eight. Technical Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark; Ysseldyke, James; Goldberg, Paula

    This document reports on development of a comprehensive system for measuring the ongoing development of children with disabilities from birth to age 8. A multi-step process was used to identify a set of general growth outcomes for children in this age range and to begin formulating individualized indicators of growth and development, as well as…

  14. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW<2500), very low birth weight (VLBW<1500), extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1500) infants are at high risk for growth failure that result in delayed development. Africa is a continent that presents high rates of children born with LBW, VLBW and ELBW particularly sub-Saharan Africa. To review the existing literature that explores the repercussions of LBW, VLBW and ELBW on growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality in African children aged 0-5 years old. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using Academic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  15. Balancing the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death in the early preterm small-for-gestational-age fetus

    PubMed Central

    TRUDELL, Amanda S.; TUULI, Methodius G.; CAHILL, Alison G.; MACONES, George A.; ODIBO, Anthony O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Timing of delivery for the early preterm small for gestational age (SGA) fetus remains unknown. Our aim was to estimate the risk of stillbirth in the early preterm SGA fetus compared to the risk of neonatal death. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies undergoing second trimester anatomy ultrasound excluding fetal anomalies, aneuploidy and pregnancies with incomplete neonatal follow-up. SGA was defined as birthweight < 10th percentile by the Alexander standard. Life-table analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risks of stillbirth/10,000 ongoing SGA pregnancies and risk of neonatal death/10,000 SGA live births for 2 week GA strata in the early preterm period (24-33 and 6/7 weeks). We further examined the composite risk of expectant management and then compared the risk of expectant management with the risk of immediate delivery. Results Of 76,453 singleton pregnancies, 7,036 SGA pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria were ongoing at 24 weeks with 64 stillbirths, 226 live births and 18 neonatal deaths between 24-33 and 6/7 weeks. As the risk of stillbirth increases with advancing GA, the risk of neonatal death falls, until the 32-33 and 6/7 week GA stratum. The relative risk of expectant management compared with immediate delivery remains <1 for each gestational age strata. Conclusion Our findings suggest the balance between the competing risks of stillbirth and neonatal death for the early preterm SGA fetus occurs at 32-33 and 6/7 weeks. These data can be useful when delivery timing remains uncertain. PMID:24746999

  16. The birth of attosecond physics and its coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausz, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    Classical electromagnetism allows the rapidity of light field oscillations to be inferred from measurement of the speed and wavelength of light. Quantum mechanics connects the rapidity of electronic motion with the energy spacing of the occupied quantum states, accessible by light absorption and emission. According to these indirect measurements, both dynamics, the oscillation of light waves as well as electron wavepackets, evolve within attoseconds. With the birth of attosecond metrology at the dawn of the new millennium, light waving and atomic-scale electronic motion, being mutually the cause of each other, became directly measurable. These elementary motions constitute the primary steps of any change in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials and living organisms. The capability of observing them is therefore relevant for the development of new materials and technologies, as well as understanding biological function and malfunction. Here, I look back at milestones along the rocky path to the emergence of this capability, with some details about those my group had the chance to make some contributions to. This is an attempt to show—from a personal perspective—how revolution in science or technology now relies on progress at a multitude of fronts, which—in turn—depend on the collaboration of researchers from disparate fields just as on their perseverance.

  17. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  18. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  19. Age at First Birth and Fathers' Subsequent Health: Evidence From Sibling and Twin Models

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 540 siblings and twins from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examines the relationship between the age at which men become biological fathers and their subsequent health. The analysis includes both between-family models that treat brothers as independent observations and within-family models that account for unobserved genetic and early-life environmental endowments shared by brothers within families. Findings indicate that age at first birth has a positive, linear effect on men's health, and this relationship is not explained by the confounding influences of unobserved early-life characteristics. However, the effect of age at first birth on fathers' health is explained by men's socioeconomic and family statuses. Whereas most research linking birth timing to specific diseases focuses narrowly on biological mechanisms among mothers, this study demonstrates the importance of reproductive decisions for men's health and well-being. PMID:19477723

  20. Somatic classification of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference: quantification of the effects of maternal BMI and smoking.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Manfred; Zels, Krisztina; Guthmann, Florian; Hesse, Volker; Görlich, Yvonne; Straube, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    We defined neonates as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. We analyzed the effects on the somatic classification of maternal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5-24.99, 25.0-29.99, ≥ 30) and smoking during pregnancy (0, 1-7, 8-14, ≥ 15 cigarettes daily). Data were from the German Perinatal Survey (1998-2000; 433,669 cases). The following refers to the classification by birth weight. In the normal maternal weight population SGA rates increased with cigarette consumption: 9.8%, 17.8%, 21.6%, and 25.4% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In non-smoking underweight women the SGA rate was 17.4%. In underweight smokers of ≥ 15 cigarettes daily the SGA rate was 38.5% [odds ratio 5.77, 95% confidence interval 5.10-6.53, compared with normal weight non-smokers]. In the normal maternal weight population, LGA rates were 9.9%, 5.3%, 4.6%, and 3.5% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In the obese, LGA rates were 20.9% (non-smokers) and 11.4% (≥ 15 cigarettes). Similar findings were obtained for the somatic classifications based on birth length and head circumference. Results for the various combinations of maternal BMI and smoking status in the three classification systems are described. Our findings may assist in individualized risk assessment for SGA and LGA births. PMID:21526885

  1. A kinetic theory for age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but they are structurally unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., carrying capacity) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a BBGKY-like hierarchy. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. NSF.

  2. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  3. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  4. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Chris D.; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  5. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. PMID:26871029

  6. The Effect of Fetal and Childhood Growth over Depression in Early Adulthood in a Southern Brazilian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor nutrition and growth during fetal life and childhood might be associated with depression in adulthood; however, studies evaluating these associations present controversial results, especially when comparing studies using different proxies for fetal growth. We evaluated the association of fetal and childhood growth/nutrition with depression, in adulthood, using different approaches and measurement methods. Method In 1982, hospital births (n = 5914) in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were examined and have been prospectively followed. At 30 years, the presence of major depression and depressive symptoms severity was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The present study assessed their association with birth weight, premature birth, small for gestational age (SGA), stunting and conditional growth during childhood. Results At 30 years, 3576 individuals were evaluated and 7.9% had major depression. Low birth weight (PR = 1.01 95%CI [0.64–1.60]), having been born SGA (PR = 0.87 95%CI [0.64–1.19]) and premature birth (PR = 1.22 95%CI [0.72–2.07]) were not associated with major depression in multivariable models. However, those born SGA who were also stunted in childhood had a higher prevalence of major depression (PR = 1.87 95%CI [1.06–3.29]) and greater odds of scoring a higher level of depression in the BDI-II (OR = 2.18 95%CI [1.34–3.53]). Conclusion In this Brazilian cohort of young adults, those born SGA who were also stunted during childhood had a higher risk of depression in adulthood. Our results show that the effect of growth impairment on depression is cumulative. PMID:26469192

  7. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  8. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  9. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  10. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  11. Health care utilization in the first year of life among small- and large- for-gestational age term infants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Rizzo, Joanne H; England, Lucinda J; Callaghan, William M; Vesco, Kimberly K; Bruce, F Carol; Bulkley, Joanna E; Sharma, Andrea J; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess if small- and large-for gestational age term infants have greater health care utilization during the first year of life. The sample included 28,215 singleton term infants (37-42 weeks) without major birth defects delivered from 1998 through 2007 and continuously enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northwest for 12 months after delivery. Birth weight for gestational age was categorized into 3 levels: <10th percentile (SGA), 10-90th percentile (AGA), >90th percentile (LGA). Length of delivery hospitalization, re-hospitalizations and sick/emergency room visits were obtained from electronic records. Logistic regression models estimated associations between birth weight category and re-hospitalization. Generalized linear models estimated adjusted mean number of sick/emergency visits. Among term infants, 6.2 % were SGA and 13.9 % were LGA. Of infants born by cesarean section, SGA infants had 2.7 higher odds [95 % 1.9, 3.8] than AGA infants of staying ≥5 nights during the delivery hospitalization; of those born vaginally, SGA infants had 1.5 higher adjusted odds [95 % 1.1, 2.1] of staying ≥4 nights. LGA compared to AGA infants had higher odds of re-hospitalization within 2 weeks of delivery [OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.58] and of a length of stay ≥4 days during that hospitalization [OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3, 5.0]. The adjusted mean number of sick/emergency room visits was slightly higher in SGA (7.8) than AGA (7.5) infants (P < .05). Term infants born SGA or LGA had greater health care utilization than their counterparts, although the increase in utilization beyond the initial delivery hospitalization was small. PMID:22855007

  12. Zinc transferred through breast milk does not differ between appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age, predominantly breast-fed Bangladeshi infants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Munirul; Brown, Kenneth H

    2014-05-01

    Information is needed on breast milk zinc concentration and amount of zinc transferred to the infant in relation to the time since birth for both appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Breast milk zinc concentration and total milk volume were measured among mothers of AGA and SGA infants, using deuterium oxide "dose-to-mother" tracer technique and plasma zinc concentrations of mothers and infants. Forty-six mother-infant pairs (20 AGA and 26 SGA infants) were recruited from a low-income community in Bangladesh. Each mother-infant pair was studied 3 times: at 4, 12, and 24 wk postpartum. During each round, 2-wk studies of breast milk transfer were performed, using deuterium oxide dose-to-mother tracer technique. Breast milk samples were collected on days 1 and 5 of each round to determine milk zinc concentration. Mean ± SD birth weight and length were 3.02 ± 0.2 kg and 0.482 ± 0.012 m, respectively, for AGA and 2.34 ± 0.20 kg and 0.462 ± 0.011 m, respectively, for SGA infants, and both variables were different between groups (birth weight, P < 0.001; length, P < 0.001). Breast milk intake increased gradually with time postpartum in both groups. Breast milk zinc concentration decreased with increasing infant age (P < 0.001) but did not differ for mothers of AGA and SGA infants. Breast milk zinc transfer decreased significantly with age in both groups (P < 0.001) but did not differ by birth-weight category. Breast milk zinc concentration among Bangladeshi mothers and patterns of change at 24 wk were similar to those of wealthier countries, and there was no relation between infant birth-weight category and milk zinc concentration or transfer. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01728766.

  13. School-age consequences of birth weight less than 750 g: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Hack, M

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in perinatal care have led to the survival of increasing numbers of children born at the lower limits of viability. Children with very low birth weight (LBW; less than 1,500 g, 3 lb 5 oz) have been studied extensively. Findings document poorer outcomes relative to normal birth weight term-born controls in neurologic and health status, cognitive-neuropsychological skills, school performance, academic achievement, and behavior. This report reviews current knowledge regarding LBW children, with special emphasis on outcomes for children with birth weight less than 750 g (1 lb 10 oz). Results from an ongoing longitudinal study suggest a gradient of sequelae, with poorer outcomes in less than 750 g birth weight children compared to both 750 g to 1,499 g birth weight children and term-born controls. Children with less than 750 g birth weight fail to catch up with their peers over time and may even be at risk for age-related increases in sequelae. Outcomes are highly variable but related to neonatal medical complications of prematurity and social risk factors. Further research is needed to understand the etiology and neuropathological basis of sequelae, the long-term developmental implications of LBW, and treatment needs.

  14. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Learning to eat: birth to age 2 y.

    PubMed

    Birch, Leann L; Doub, Allison E

    2014-03-01

    During the first 2 y of life, development is rapid and includes dramatic changes in eating behavior. Individual patterns of food preferences and eating behaviors emerge and differ depending on the foods offered and on the contexts of feeding during this early period of dietary transition. In this review, we discuss evidence on ways in which early learning influences food preferences and eating behavior, which, in turn, shape differences in dietary patterns, growth, and health. Although the evidence reviewed indicates that this early period of transition provides opportunities to influence children's developing intake patterns, there is no consistent, evidence-based guidance for caregivers who are feeding infants and toddlers; the current Dietary Guidelines are intended to apply to Americans over the age of 2 y. At present, the evidence base with regard to how and what children learn about food and eating behavior during these first years is limited. Before developing guidance for parents and caregivers, more scholarship and research is necessary to understand how infants and toddlers develop the food preferences and self-regulatory processes necessary to promote healthy growth, particularly in today's environment. By the time they reach 2 y of age, children have essentially completed the transition to "table foods" and are consuming diets similar to those of other family members. This article discusses parenting and feeding approaches that may facilitate or impede the development of self-regulation of intake and the acceptance of a variety of foods and flavors necessary for a healthy diet. We review the limited evidence on how traditional feeding practices, familiarization, associative learning, and observational learning affect the development of eating behavior in the context of the current food environment. Areas for future research that could inform the development of anticipatory guidance for parents and caregivers responsible for the care and feeding of young

  16. Age at first birth and melanoma risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyong; Gu, Mingjin; Cen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Age at first birth has been shown to be correlated with melanoma risk, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between age at first birth and melanoma risk. Studies published up to September 6, 2014 were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model was used to pool the study-specific risk estimates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three case-control, three nested case-control, and five cohort studies were found to be eligible. In a comparison of the oldest versus youngest age at first birth, the pooled RR for melanoma risk was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.07-2.02) in all studies, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.47-4.02) in population-based case-control studies, 2.69 (95% CI: 1.56-4.64) in hospital case-control studies, 1.38 (95% CI: 0.66-2.88) in nested case-control studies, and 1.39 (95% CI: 0.89-2.17) in cohort studies. In the subgroup analysis according to sites where studies were performed, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.99-2.08), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.30-4.60), and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.42-3.93) for Europe, Americas, and Australia, respectively. In the subgroup stratified by whether the included study provided adjustment for specific potential confounders or important risk factors, the relationship between age at first birth and melanoma risk was significantly modified by age, naevi/pigmentation, sunlight exposure, and hair colour. This meta-analysis based on available observational data reveals that age at first birth is positively associated with melanoma risk. However, this finding should be interpreted cautiously, as residual confounding cannot be excluded. More investigations with well-designed are warranted to extend this finding. PMID:25664022

  17. Return migration to region of birth among retirement-age persons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A

    1990-05-01

    This study addresses some of the methodological difficulties one encounters in assessing the question of whether older persons display an increasing tendency to return to their state of birth after reaching retirement age. It reanalyzes previously studied data on the question and concludes that there is no indication that elderly people are more prone than nonelderly to "return home" to their native state.

  18. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  19. Genotype × Cohort Interaction on Completed Fertility and Age at First Birth

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920 to 1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936 to 1955 birth cohort. For the 1956 to 1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur. PMID:25491394

  20. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  1. The significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Cho, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Han Sung; Sohn, In Sook

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the placental weight, volume, and density, and investigate the significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age (SGA), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Two hundred and fifty-four pregnant women were enrolled from August 2005 through July 2013. Participants were divided into four groups: control (n=82), SGA (n=37), PE (n=102), and GDM (n=33). The PE group was classified as PE without intrauterine growth restriction (n=65) and PE with intrauterine growth restriction (n=37). Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and placental ratios including birth weight/placental weight ratio (BPW) and birth weight/placental volume ratio (BPV) were compared between groups. Results Birth weight, placental weight, and placental volume were lower in the SGA group than in the control group. However, the BPW and BPV did not differ between the two groups. Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, BPW, and BPV were all significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, birth weight, BPW, and BPV were higher in the GDM group, whereas placental weight and volume did not differ in the two groups. Placental density was not significantly different among the four groups. Conclusion Placental ratios based on placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and birth weight are helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of complicated pregnancies. Moreover, they can be used as predictors of pregnancy complications. PMID:25264525

  2. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  3. Breast cancer and ages at first marriage and first birth: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kinlen, Leo J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine available data on breast cancer and age at first marriage from a new perspective: that is, marriage involves the closest contact and contact effects are relevant to the question of infection, a possibility long considered in this disorder. The large Seven Country Study, carried out in 1964-1968, investigated age at first marriage; its reports were examined carefully for details of possible relevance. Intriguing gaps were noted in the grounds for the conclusion by this study that late age at first birth explained an earlier reported association with late age at marriage, with risks presented by age at first marriage for nulliparous, but not for parous, married women. Only in one centre, Glamorgan Wales, and only for two age groups could risks by combined ages at first marriage and first birth be derived. When both events occurred at age 30 or older, the risk estimate was 7.0 (95% confidence interval: 5.2, 9.1) relative to when both events occurred younger than age 20, whereas the corresponding risk was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8) when age at first birth was 30 or older but marriage was younger than age 30. The above findings are consistent with an effect of age at first marriage, and a basis in contacts or infection is considered plausible. However, other explanations may exist, and this report primarily aims to encourage examination of the subject in other datasets, particularly where intersexual contrasts in infective exposures have probably existed.

  4. [Influence of the season of birth of male rats on some parameters of biological age].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, Iu P; Lotosh, T A; Iunash, V D; Vinogradova, I A

    2013-11-01

    The influence of the duration of daylight in the condition of natural lightning in the North-West part of Russia on the dynamics of parameters of biological age in male rats according to the season of birth had been studied during two years. It was found out that alteration of the duration of daylight regardless of the male rats season of birth modified rate of sexual maturation, growth, weight, food and water consumption, daily urine output and blood glucose compared with the analogous parameters in the condition of standard light and dark interchange.

  5. [Influence of the season of birth of male rats on some parameters of biological age].

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    The influence of the duration of daylight in the condition of natural lightning in the North-West part of Russia on the dynamics of parameters of biological age in male rats according to the season of birth had been studied during two years. It was found out that alteration of the duration of daylight regardless of the male rats season of birth modified rate of sexual maturation, growth, weight, food and water consumption, daily urine output and blood glucose compared with the analogous parameters in the condition of standard light and dark interchange. PMID:25507636

  6. [Influence of the season of birth of male rats on some parameters of biological age].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, Iu P; Lotosh, T A; Iunash, V D; Vinogradova, I A

    2013-11-01

    The influence of the duration of daylight in the condition of natural lightning in the North-West part of Russia on the dynamics of parameters of biological age in male rats according to the season of birth had been studied during two years. It was found out that alteration of the duration of daylight regardless of the male rats season of birth modified rate of sexual maturation, growth, weight, food and water consumption, daily urine output and blood glucose compared with the analogous parameters in the condition of standard light and dark interchange. PMID:25427386

  7. Immigrants’ duration of residence and adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, ML; Frank, JW; Moineddin, R; Glazier, RH

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Urquia M, Frank J, Moineddin R, Glazier R. Immigrants’ duration of residence and adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study. BJOG 2010;117:591–601. Objective This study aimed to examine preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births among immigrants, by duration of residence, and to compare them with the Canadian-born population. Design Population-based cross-sectional study with retrospective assessment of immigration. Setting Metropolitan areas of Ontario, Canada. Population A total of 83 233 singleton newborns born to immigrant mothers and 314 237 newborns born to non-immigrant mothers. Methods We linked a database of immigrants acquiring permanent residence in Ontario, Canada, in the period 1985–2000 with mother–infant hospital records (2002–2007). Duration of residence was measured as completed years from arrival to Canada to delivery/birth. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of duration of residence with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In analyses restricted to immigrants only, hierarchical models were used to account for the clustering of births into maternal countries of birth. Main outcome measures Preterm birth (PTB) and SGA birth. Results Recent immigrants (<5 years) had a lower risk of PTB (4.7%) than non-immigrants (6.2%), but those with ≥15 years of stay were at higher risk (7.4%). Among immigrants, a 5-year increase in Canadian residence was associated with an increase in PTB (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.19), but not in SGA birth (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96–1.02). Conclusions Time since migration was associated with increases in the risk of PTB, but was not associated with an increase in SGA births. Ignoring duration of residence may mask important disparities in preterm delivery between immigrants and non-immigrants, and between immigrant subgroups categorised by their duration of residence. PMID:20374596

  8. The prognostic significance of postnatal growth in very low--birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Merkatz, I R; Gordon, D; Jones, P K; Fanaroff, A A

    1982-07-15

    To examine the relative importance of intrauterine growth failure, extrauterine growth failure before or after term, and the prognostic significance of catch-up growth, 192 very low--birth weight infants (less than 1.5 kg) were followed prospectively to 8 months corrected age. One hundred fifty-four appropriate--for--gestational age (AGA) and 38 small--for--gestational age (SGA) infants were categorized into normal and subnormal (less than -2 SD) weight for age groups at term (40 weeks) and at 8 months corrected age. By term, 71 AGA infants had subnormal weight; 41 of these caught up by 8 months, and an additional 13 AGA infants failed to thrive between term and 8 months. Of the SGA infants, three caught up in weight by term, and an additional 16 caught up by 8 months. Significant correlates of subnormal weight included neonatal risk score, incidence of chronic disease, and extended hospitalization. The AGA and SGA infants who failed to thrive or failed to catch up in weight by 8 months had lower mean Bayley developmental quotients (p less than 0.005), smaller head circumferences (p less than 0.005), and a higher rate of neurosensory impairment (p less than 0.01) than the AGA infants with normal fetal and postnatal growth. Intrauterine and/or postnatal growth failure prior to term was not of sinister prognostic significance if catch up occurred thereafter.

  9. Association of size at birth with adolescent hormone levels, body size and age at menarche: relevance for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, S; Nilsen, T I L; Romundstad, P R; Vanky, E; Carlsen, S M; Vatten, L J

    2008-07-01

    Birth size has been positively associated with age at menarche and height in adolescence and adulthood, but the relevant biological mechanisms remain unclear. Among 262 Norwegian term-born singleton girls, birth size measures (weight, length, ponderal index, head circumference and subscapular skin-fold thickness) were analysed in relation to adolescent hormone levels (oestradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and free testosterone index), age at menarche and adolescent (ages 12.7-15.5 years) and body size (height, weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) using survival analysis and general linear modelling. The results were adjusted for gestational age at birth, age and menarcheal status at measurement in adolescence and maternal age at menarche. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were positively associated with adolescent weight and height, and small birth size was associated with earlier age at menarche. Subscapular skin-fold thickness at birth was not associated with adolescent body size, but low fold-thickness was associated with earlier age at menarche. Measures of birth size were inversely related to circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in adolescence, but there was no clear association with other hormones. These results suggest that physical and sexual development in puberty and adolescence is influenced by prenatal factors, and in combination, these factors may influence health and disease later in life. PMID:18594544

  10. The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2013-12-01

    As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90.

  11. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  12. The trend in age at menarche in Indonesia: birth cohorts 1944–1988.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-05-01

    Employing the Indonesian Family Life Survey, this paper depicts the trend in age at menarche in Indonesia for women born in 1944–1988. Mean age at menarche decreased from 14.39 years for birth year 1944 to 13.18 years for birth year 1988. Subsequently, this trend is related to the improvement in material conditions, measured by GDP per capita in childhood. The OLS results indicate that this decrease is largely explained by the improvement in material conditions. If age at menarche is considered an indicator of biological standard of living, these results suggest that the improvement in material conditions during the period converted to an improvement in biological standard of living.

  13. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  14. Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age

    PubMed Central

    Rozzi, Fernando V. Ramirez; Koudou, Yves; Froment, Alain; Le Bouc, Yves; Botton, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution. PMID:26218408

  15. The effect of very low birth weight and social risk on neurocognitive abilities at school age.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Aram, D; Weissman, B; Klein, N; Borawski-Clark, E

    1992-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that very low birth weight (VLBW < 1.5 kg) children would have significantly poorer neurocognitive abilities at school age than would normal birth weight full-term age mates, that differences would persist after control for neurologic impairment and social risk, and that VLBW would interact with social risk. Two hundred forty-nine VLBW children and a randomly selected sample of 363 normal birth weight age mates born 1977 through 1979 were tested at 8 years. A neurologic examination and tests of intelligence, language, speech, reading, mathematics, spelling, visual and fine motor abilities, and behavior were performed. Twenty-four (10%) VLBW had a major neurologic abnormality compared with none of the controls. VLBW had significantly poorer scores on all tests, with the exception of speech and the total behavior score. These differences persisted among VLBW children without major neurologic abnormality, with the exception of social competence, reading, and spelling. Even normal IQ, neurologically normal VLBW had significantly poorer scores than did controls in expressive language, memory, visuomotor, and fine motor function, and measures of hyperactivity. When social risk was controlled in multiple regression analyses, VLBW still had an adverse effect on all outcome measures with the exception of speech. Social risk was, however, the major determinant of outcome. We found an interaction between VLBW and social risk only in verbal IQ and in the opposite direction than hypothesized.

  16. Athletic performance and birth month: is the relative age effect more than just selection bias?

    PubMed

    Sandercock, G R H; Ogunleye, A A; Parry, D A; Cohen, D D; Taylor, M J D; Voss, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if month of birth affects performance in 3 tests of physical function in children and adolescents. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength and lower-body power expressed them relative to (whole year) age then compared scores between calendar year birth-months. We also expressed test performance as the likelihood of achieving criterion-referenced fitness standards. There were significant main effects of birth-month for cardiorespiratory fitness (F=4.54, p<0.001), strength (F=6.81, p<0.001) and power (F=3.67, p<0.001). Children born in November were fitter and more powerful than those born at other times, particularly the summer months (April, May and June). October-born children were stronger than those born in all months except September and November. This relationship was evident despite controlling for decimal age and despite no significant inter-month differences in anthropometric characteristics.There is a clear physical advantage for those born in the autumn and this may explain some of the bias in sports selection attributed to the relative age effect, particularly when the British school-year (September) cut-off is used.

  17. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  18. Fontanel Size from Birth to 24 Months of Age in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    ESMAEILI, Mohammad; ESMAEILI, Marjan; GHANE SHARBAF, Fatemeh; BOKHARAIE, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of abnormal fontanel size, a potential clue to recognition of different disorders, requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal fontanel size. The anterior fontanel is the largest, prominent and most important for clinical evaluation. The aim of this study was to establish and define normal range of fontanel size from birth to 24 months of age in healthy Iranian children that might be generalized to other populations. Materials & Methods Totally, 550 subjects enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. They were apparently normal healthy children, from birth to 24 months of age, including 208-term newborn and 342 infant from birth to 2 yr old. Fontanel size was measured and recorded as the mean of the length (anterior- posterior dimension) and width (transverse dimension). Mean anterior fontanel sizes in our samples were classified for periods of 3 months. Nomograms and statistical analyses were performed and depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007 and two-tailed t-test respectively. Results The mean ±2SD of anterior fontanel size was 2.55±1.92 cm in newborns, 3.37±2.48 (largest size) in 3 months of age. It was closed in all cases in 15-18 months of age. The mean posterior fontanel size was 0.8 cm in newborns and closed in all infants in 2 months of age. There was no significant difference in anterior fontanel size between two genders except in newborn and 6-9 months old (P>0.05). Conclusion Abnormal fontanel can indicate a serious medical condition. Therefore, it is important to understand normal variations, to utilize standardized techniques for measurement and appropriate standards of normal range in different age groups and populations. This study provides a normal range of mean fontanel size in Iranian infants as a local reference. It might be generalized to other populations. PMID:26664437

  19. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva; and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  20. Parity, age at first birth, and risk of death from asthma: evidence from a cohort in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-06-11

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death.

  1. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  2. UNIVERSAL VERSUS ECONOMICALLY POLARIZED CHANGE IN AGE AT FIRST BIRTH: A FRENCH-BRITISH COMPARISON

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Michael S.; Ekert-Jaffé, Olivia; Joshi, Heather; Lynch, Kevin; Mougin, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    France and the United Kingdom represent two contrasting institutional models for the integration of employment and motherhood, respectively the ‘universalistic’ regime type that offers subsidized child-care and maternity-leave benefits to women at all income levels, and the ‘means-testing’ regime type that mainly offers income-tested benefits for single mothers. Using the two countries as comparative case studies, we develop and test the hypothesis that the socio-economic gradient of fertility timing has become increasingly mediated by family policy. We hypothesize and find increasing polarization in age at first birth by pre-childbearing occupation between the 1980s and 1990s in the U.K. but not in France. Early first childbearing persisted in the U.K. only among women in low-skill occupations, while shifts towards increasingly late first births occurred in clerical/secretarial occupations and above. Increases in age at first birth occurred across all occupations in France, but this was still much earlier on average than for all but low-skill British mothers. PMID:22740723

  3. Effects of Smoking and Preeclampsia on Birth Weight for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Harland, Kari K.; Saftlas, Audrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A counterintuitive interaction between smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia on birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) outcomes was recently reported. In this report, we examine the relationship between these factors in a well-documented study population with exposure data on trimester of maternal smoking. Methods Preeclamptic (n=238), gestational hypertensive (n=219), and normotensive women (n=342) were selected from live-births to nulliparous Iowa women. Disease status was verified by medical chart review, and smoking exposure was assessed by self-report. Fetal growth was assessed as z-score of birth weight for gestational age (BWGA). Multiple linear regression was used to test for the association of maternal smoking and preeclampsia with BWGA z-score. Results There was no interaction between smoking with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension on fetal growth. BWGA z-scores were significantly lower among women with preeclampsia and those who smoked any time during pregnancy (β=−0.33, p=<0.0001 and β=−0.25, p=0.05) compared to normotensive and non-smoking women, respectively. Infants of women with gestational hypertension were comparable in size to infants born to normotensive women. Conclusions Women who developed preeclampsia and those who smoked during pregnancy delivered infants that were significantly smaller than infants of women who did not develop preeclampsia and non-smoking women, respectively. PMID:24893615

  4. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  5. A survey of China's birth control among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S

    1983-12-01

    To further implement China's family planning policy of "prevention first, birth control first," a study of the current family planning situation was conducted. A survey of the birth control methods employed by women of childbearing age and by men was based on a nationwide randomized sampling of 1/1000. In the different age groups, ranging from 15-49 years old, IUD users accounted for over 50%, tubal sterilization 25%, and vasectomy 10%. The main IUD users were women in the 20-24 age group. Tubal sterilization was more prevalent among the women in the 35-39 age group. The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) was more common among younger women but accounted for less than 10% of the total. The survey was based on the replies to questionnaires from 172,788 married women of childbearing age; 120,022 of them practiced contraceptive methods for a birth control rate of 69.46%. The breakdown was as follows: IUD, 34.84%; tubal sterilization, 17.63%; vasectomy, 6.94%; OCs, 5.86%; condom users, 1.39%; and other methods (including chemical suppositories, rhythm, or safe period method and withdrawal before ejaculation), 2.78%. There was a higher percentage of OC users in urban areas, and a marked preference for IUDs in the rural communities. The rural birth control rate was 68.58%; the urban rate was 74.17%. The use of the IUD has priority in all the areas; its percentage approaches the national average level. The use of vasectomy as a birth control method varies considerably according to area as does the use of OCs, condom, and tubal sterilization. Rural minority groups prefer the IUD and OCs; tubal sterilization, the condom, and vasectomy are preferred by the Han nationality. The birth control rate differed according to the different occoupation groups: 77.85%, workers; 76.01%, farmers; 85.15%, cadres; 59.52%, housewives; and 66.67%, others. The birth control rate was higher among those who received a college education than the illiterates, but statistics did not show a

  6. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  7. Age at Last Birth in Relation to Risk of Endometrial Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C.; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L.; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A.; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Lacey, James V.; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K.; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Strom, Brian L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M.; Weiss, Noel S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P.; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (Ptrend < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  8. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  9. Trends in maternal age distribution and the live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales: 1938-2010.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-09-01

    There have been concerns about the effects of increases in maternal age since the 1980s on the prevalence of Down's syndrome. This study examined changes in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales from 1938 to 2010. The live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in the absence of screening and subsequent termination was estimated using the numbers of babies born in England and Wales according to maternal age and the maternal age-related risk of a birth with Down's syndrome. The proportion of women age 35 years or older at the time of giving birth reached a peak of 20% in 1945, declined to 5.5% in 1977 and rose to 20% in 2007. In the absence of screening and subsequent termination, the estimated live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome would have mirrored these changes (2.3 per 1000 births in 1945, 1.2 per 1000 in 1976 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2007). The observed live birth prevalence (recorded by the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register) was1.0 per 1000 from 1989 to 2010, due to screening and subsequent termination. In conclusion since the 1980s there has been an increase in the mean maternal age and in the expected prevalence of Down's syndrome. When put in a longer historical context the current expected live birth prevalence is similar to that in the 1940s and the observed live birth prevalence is about 54% less than expected, due to screening and subsequent termination, and has remained reasonably constant since 1989 at 1.0 per 1000 births.

  10. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  11. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB.

  12. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB. PMID:25773355

  13. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ.

  14. Gestational age at prior preterm birth does not affect cerclage efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Deborah A.; Szychowski, Jeff; Owen, John; Hankins, Gary; Iams, Jay D.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Perez-Delboy, Annette; Berghella, Vincenzo; Guzman, Edwin R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effect of earliest prior spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) gestational age (GA) on cervical length (CL), pregnancy duration, and ultrasound-indicated cerclage efficacy in a subsequent gestation. STUDY DESIGN Planned secondary analysis of the NICHD- trial of cerclage for CL < 25 mm. Women with at least one prior SPTB between 17-33 6/7 weeks underwent serial vaginal ultrasound screening between 16 and 23 6/7 weeks; CL at qualifying randomization evaluation was utilized. RESULTS We observed a significant correlation (p=0.0008) between prior SPTB GA and qualifying CL. In a linear regression model when controlling for CL and cerclage, neither prior SPTB GA nor the interaction between cerclage and prior birth GA was significant predictor of subsequent birth GA. CONCLUSION While there is an association between prior SPTB GA and CL in women with mid-trimester CL < 25 mm, there does not appear to be a disproportionate benefit of cerclage in women with earlier prior SPTB. PMID:20579957

  15. A Hierarchical Kinetic Theory of Birth, Death and Fission in Age-Structured Interacting Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris D.

    2016-07-01

    We develop mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we formulate a complete kinetic framework for age-structured interacting populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes in spatially dependent environments. We define the full probability density for the population-size age chart and find results under specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field deterministic behavior. Our approach utilizes mixed-type, multidimensional probability distributions similar to those employed in the study of gas kinetics and with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like equation hierarchies.

  16. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  17. Should we adjust for gestational age when analysing birth weights? The use of z-scores revisited.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Ilse; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Bacquer, Dirk; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-08-01

    Birth weight is the single most important risk indicator for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, which has led to the idiom that 'every ounce counts'. Birth weight in turn, however, tends to vary widely across populations as a result of differential fetal growth velocity with such demographic factors as ethnicity, maternal and paternal height and altitude of residence. Accordingly, it has been acknowledged that the appraisal of birth weight should rely on its position relative to the birth weight distribution of the background population. This is commonly done by standardizing birth weight through its deviation from the population mean in the given gestational age stratum, as can be obtained from population-customized birth weight nomograms. This issue was recently revisited in 'Human Reproduction' through a plea for reporting birth weight as z-scores. In this article, we argue that adjustment for factors, such as gestational age, which may lie on the causal pathway from exposures present at the time of conception [e.g. single-embryo transfer (SET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET)] to birth weight, may induce bias, regardless of whether the adjustment happens via stratification, regression or through the use of z-scores.

  18. Maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among immigrant women to the United States from Eastern Europe: a test of the healthy migrant hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Savitz, D A; Janevic, M

    2011-08-01

    Immigrant women to the U.S. often have more favorable birth outcomes than their native-born counterparts, including lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight, a phenomenon commonly attributed to a healthy migrant effect. However, this effect varies by ethnicity and country of origin. No previous study has examined birth outcomes among immigrants from the post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe, a group which includes both economic migrants and conflict refugees. Using data on 253,363 singletons births from New York City during 1995-2003 we examined the risk of preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks) or delivering a term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant among immigrants from Russia and Ukraine (RU), Poland, and former Yugoslavia Republics (FYR) relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Women in all three Eastern European groups had significantly later entry into prenatal care, were more likely to be Medicaid recipients, and had lower educational attainment than US-born NHW. In binomial regression analyses adjusting for age, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy weight, women from RU and FYR had lower risk of PTB than US-born NHW, whereas women from Poland had similar risk. Lower SGA risk was found among women from Poland and FYR, but not RU. When stratified by education, women with <12 years of education from all Eastern European groups had a reduced risk of PTB relative to US-born NHW. An educational gradient in PTB and SGA risk was less pronounced in all Eastern European groups compared to US-born NHW. The healthy migrant effect is present among immigrants from Eastern Europe to the U.S., especially among women with less education and those from the former Yugoslavia, a group that included many conflict refugees.

  19. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M; Stettler, Nicolas; Smith, Kimberly M; Reiss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01); another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001) and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined) or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined), respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for small for gestational age birth, and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased birth weight among women from highly developed countries was identified. Among women in less developed countries, limited inconclusive evidence suggests that increased consumption of vegetables or fruits may be

  20. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  1. Bone metabolism compensates for the delayed growth in small for gestational age neonates.

    PubMed

    Tenta, Roxane; Bourgiezi, Ifigeneia; Aliferis, Evangelos; Papadopoulou, Magdalini; Gounaris, Antonis; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between anthropometric and bone metabolism markers in a sample of neonates and their mothers. A sample of 20 SGA (small for the gestational age), AGA (appropriate for the gestational age) and LGA (large for the gestational age) term neonates and their 20 mothers was analyzed at birth and at exit. Elisa method was used to measure the OPG (Osteoprotegerin), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB), RANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB Ligand), IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1), IGFBP3 (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3) and Leptin levels. Birth weight and length were positively correlated with RANKL, IGF-1 and IGFBP3 and negatively with the ratio OPG/RANKL. SGA neonates presented lower RANKL values and higher OPG/RANKL ratio while LGA neonates had higher RANK levels than AGA neonates. Positive association was shown between neonatal IGFBP3 and maternal IGF-1 values and between neonatal and maternal RANK values at birth and at exit. These results reveal a remarkable upregulation of OPG/RANKL ratio in SGA neonates, pointing out the role of bone turnover in compensating for the delayed neonatal growth.

  2. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  3. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  4. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  5. Free Thyroxine Levels After Very Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Hunt, Rodney W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the preschool period. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between free thyroxine (fT4) levels over the first 6 weeks after very preterm (VPT) birth with cognitive functioning and brain development at age 7 years. METHODS: A total of 83 infants born VPT (<30 weeks’ gestation) had fT4 concentrations measured postnatally and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Follow-up at age 7 years included a neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was used where AUC for fT4 was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. RESULTS: Multivariable modeling revealed that higher, not lower, postnatal fT4 levels (2-week AUC) were associated with poorer cognitive performances at age 7 years on tasks of verbal learning (P = .02), verbal memory (P = .03), and simple reaction time (P < .001). A similar pattern of results was found when the 6-week AUC was examined. No significant associations between postnatal fT4 levels and brain volumes at age 7 years were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results are contradictory to previous observations and suggest that after adjustment for confounders, higher postnatal fT4 levels in VPT infants, rather than lower levels, may be a marker of adverse neuropsychological development in childhood. PMID:24685955

  6. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  7. Evolution of longevity, age at last birth and sexual conflict with grandmothering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Matthew H; Hawkes, Kristen; Kim, Peter S

    2016-03-21

    We use a two-sex partial differential equation (PDE) model based on the Grandmother hypothesis. We build on an earlier model by Kim et al. (2014) by allowing for evolution in both longevity and age at last birth, and also assuming that post-fertile females support only their daughters' fertility. Similarly to Kim et al. (2014), we find that only two locally stable equilibria exist: one corresponding to great ape-like longevities and the other corresponding to hunter-gatherer longevities. Our results show that grandmothering enables the transition between these two equilibria, without extending the end of fertility. Moreover, sensitivity analyses of the model show that male competition, arising from a skew in the mating sex ratio towards males, plays a significant role in determining whether the transition from great ape-like longevities to higher longevities is possible and the equilibrium value of the average adult lifespan. Whereas grandmothering effects have a significant impact on the equilibrium value of the average age at last birth and enable the transition to higher longevities, they have an insignificant impact on the equilibrium value of the average adult lifespan. PMID:26796225

  8. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  9. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  10. 76 FR 14694 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) AGENCY: Employment and Training... operating the National Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment...

  11. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  12. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  13. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  14. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  15. Early Childhood Developmental Screening: A Compendium of Measures for Children Ages Birth to Five. OPRE Report 2014-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Shannon; Daneri, Paula; Goldhagen, Samantha; Halle, Tamara; Green, Katie; LaMonte, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    For children age birth to five, physical, cognitive, linguistic, and social-emotional growth and development occur at a rapid pace. While all children in this age range may not reach developmental milestones (e.g., smiling, saying first words, taking first steps) at the same time, development that does not happen within an expected timeframe can…

  16. Birth Dates and Death Dates: An Examination of Two Baseline Procedures and Age at Time of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Albert A.; Kroll, Neal E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined birth and death dates of males listed in "Who Was Who in America." Found that, compared to men aged 71 and younger, men aged 72 and older were more likely to die on the eve of their birthdays or on their birthdays themselves. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects' death dip began at earlier point in time. (Author/NB)

  17. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  18. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  19. Parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters: a prospective study among US women.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Hennekens, C H; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P = 0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre- and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.

  20. Serum creatinine concentration in very-low-birth-weight infants from birth to 34–36 wk postmenstrual age

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, David A.; Thomas, William; Parravicini, Elvira; Polesana, Elena; Locatelli, Chiara; Lorenz, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum creatinine (s[Cr]) reference ranges for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants must account for physiologic changes in the first months of life. Methods: We retrospectively identified a sample of 218 appropriate-for-gestational age (GA) VLBW infants without risk factors for renal impairment, and classified into one of three GA groups: 25–27, 28–29, and 30–33 wk. We observed three phases of s[Cr] change (initial, decline, and equilibrium), whose characteristics varied by GA group. We used mixed-effects regression models to estimate mean and upper 95th prediction interval of s[Cr] for each GA group from birth to 34–36 wk post menstrual age (PMA). Results: In phase I, s[Cr] increased after birth, then returned slowly to baseline. The duration of phase I and the magnitude of s[Cr] rise decreased with increasing GA. In phase II, s[Cr] declined abruptly at a rate that increased with GA. A gradual transition to phase III, a steady-state equilibrium with similar s[Cr] among GA groups, began at approximately 34–36 wk PMA. We constructed GA group-specific nomograms depicting s[Cr] behaviour across the three phases. Conclusion: The reference ranges derived from a sample of infants without risk factors for renal impairment provide a context for quantitative interpretation of s[Cr] trends in VLBW infants. PMID:25675426

  1. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  2. The influence of maternal age, birth order and socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, R

    1980-01-01

    In Chile between 1969 and 1974 the birth rate declined by 10 per cent and the infant mortality rate by 18.6 per cent. In 1974 there were proportionately fewer births at high birth order than in 1969. Such births carry significantly higher risk to the infant in both the neonatal and postneonatal period of life. Comparison of data from urban areas of high and low socioeconomic status yield similar findings. PMID:7352614

  3. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  4. 76 FR 7880 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Ex Offenders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... or on http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application information, eligibility requirements... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY...

  5. 76 FR 31366 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... performance. The complete SGA and any subsequent SGA amendments are described in further detail on ETA's Web site at http:// ] www.doleta.gov/grants or on http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant...

  6. Respiratory water loss in relation to gestational age in infants on their first day after birth.

    PubMed

    Riesenfeld, T; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1995-09-01

    Respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in 32 infants on their first day after birth. Gestational age was between 27 and 41 weeks. All infants were studied in incubators with 50% ambient relative humidity and an ambient temperature that allowed the infant to maintain a normal and stable body temperature. During the measurements the infants were usually asleep. Respiratory water loss was found to be highest in the most preterm infants and lower in more mature infants. Respiratory water loss per breath (mg/kg) was almost the same at all gestational ages and the higher respiratory water loss found in the most preterm as compared with the more mature infants is thus and increased with increasing gestational age. Thus, in full-term infants respiratory water loss and transepidermal water loss are of approximately equal magnitude at an ambient humidity of 50%, while respiratory water loss constitutes a smaller proportion than transepidermal water loss in very preterm infants. Respiratory water loss increases with the rate of breathing.

  7. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Darren C; Thatcher, Natalie J; Ye, Jin; Garrard, Lucy; Keogh, Georgina; King, Laura G; Cade, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, crosses the placenta, with fetal serum concentrations similar to the mother's, but studies of birth outcome show conflicting findings. We systematically searched Medline and Embase for relevant publications. We conducted meta-analysis of dose-response curves for associations between caffeine intake and spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm delivery, low birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Meta-analyses included 60 unique publications from 53 cohort and case-control studies. An increment of 100 g caffeine was associated with a 14 % (95 % CI 10-19 %) increase in risk of spontaneous abortion, 19 % (5-35 %) stillbirth, 2 % (-2 to 6 %) preterm delivery, 7 % (1-12 %) low birth weight, and 10 % (95 % CI 6-14 %) SGA. There was substantial heterogeneity in all models, partly explained by adjustment for smoking and previous obstetric history, but not by prospective assessment of caffeine intake. There was evidence of small-study effects such as publication bias. Greater caffeine intake is associated with an increase in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and SGA, but not preterm delivery. There is no identifiable threshold below which the associations are not apparent, but the size of the associations are generally modest within the range of usual intake and are potentially explained by bias in study design or publication. There is therefore insufficient evidence to support further reductions in the maximum recommended intake of caffeine, but maintenance of current recommendations is a wise precaution.

  8. Maternal fever at birth and non-verbal intelligence at age 9 years in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Olaf; Drescher, Johannes; Veelken, Norbert

    2003-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that characteristics of perinatal infection are associated with long-term cognitive limitations among preterm infants, we analyzed data from 294 infants (142 females, 152 males) < or = 1500 g birthweight and <37 completed weeks of gestation who were examined at age 9 years. We identified 47 children (20 females, 27 males) who had a non-verbal Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) scale standard value below 70, i.e. more than 2 SDs below the age-adjusted mean. The 247 children (122 females, 125 males) with a score > or = 70 served as control participants. Maternal nationality and education, and low gestational age were significantly associated with a K-ABC non-verbal standard value <70. Both neonatal brain damage (intraventricular hemorrhage) and long-term sequelae (cerebral palsy [CP], diagnosed at age 6 years) were significantly associated with a below-normal non-verbal K-ABC score. Maternal fever at birth was present in five cases (11%) and eight controls (3%; odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 11.4). Clinical chorioamnionitis and preterm labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (as opposed to toxemia and other initiators of preterm delivery) were also more common among cases than control participants. When adjusting for potential confounders such as gestational age, maternal education and nationality, and CP, the risk estimate for maternal fever remained unchanged (3.8, 0.97 to 14.6). We conclude that perinatal infection might indeed contribute to an increased risk for long-term cognitive deficits in preterm infants. PMID:12613769

  9. Comparison of two measures of gestational age among low income births. The potential impact on health studies, New York, 2005.

    PubMed

    Lazariu, Victoria; Davis, Christopher F; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems considered changing the definition of gestational age from the current definition based on mother's last normal menstrual period (LMP) to the clinical/obstetric estimate determined by the physician (CE).They determined additional information was needed. This study provides additional insight into the comparability of the LMP and CE measures currently used on vital records among births at risk for poor outcomes. The data consisted of all New York State (NYS) (excluding New York City) singleton births in 2005 among mothers enrolled in the NYS Women Infants and Children (WIC) program during pregnancy. Prenatal WIC records were matched to NYS' Statewide Perinatal Data System. The analysis investigates differences between LMP and CE recorded gestations. Relative risks between risk factors and preterm birth were compared for LMP and CE. Exact agreement between gestation measures exists in 49.6% of births. Overall, 6.4% of records indicate discordance in full term/preterm classifications; CE is full term and LMP preterm in 4.9%, with the converse true for 1.5%. Associations between risk factor and preterm birth differed in magnitude based on gestational age measurement. Infants born to mothers with high risk indicators were more likely to have a CE of preterm and LMP full term. Changing the measure of gestational age to CE universally likely would result in overestimation of the importance of some risk factors for preterm birth. Potential overestimation of clinical outcomes associated with preterm birth may occur and should be studied.

  10. Growth and adrenal androgen status at 7 years in very low birth weight survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, P; Hyodynmaa, E; Lenko, H; Tammela, O

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether 7 year old VLBW (very low birth weight, <1500 g) survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) evince similar growth status and higher adrenal androgen (AA) levels than term controls, and whether AA levels are higher in VLBW children born small for gestational age (SGA) than in non-SGA cases. Methods: Assessment of height standard deviation score (SDs), body mass index (BMI), and serum androstenedione and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels in 31 VLBW children with BPD, 33 without BPD (no-BPD group), and 33 term controls. Results: Lower median (range) height SDs was found in BPD (-1.0 (-3.4 to 1.4) SD) and no-BPD (-0.9 (-2.9 to 2.2) SD) children than in term controls (0.3 (-1.5 to 1.9) SD). Low BMI (below 10th centile) was more common in both the BPD (18 (58%)) and no-BPD (16 (49%)) children compared to term cases (3 (9%)). The median (range) androstenedione levels tended to be higher in the BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.8) nmol/l) and no-BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.3) nmol/l) groups than in term controls (0.6 (0 to 1.8)). Higher median (range) dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels were detected in the no-BPD compared to the term group (0.9 (0 to 4.1) v 0.3 (0 to 2.3) µmol/l). VLBW children born SGA had higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. Conclusions: At 7 years of age, VLBW children are shorter and tend to have higher AA levels than term controls, but VLBW children with and without BPD do not differ from each other in growth or AA status. Those born SGA have higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. The consequences of these findings to final height and to later metabolic and vascular health remain to be determined. PMID:15033838

  11. The Relationship between Age at First Birth and Mother's Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from Danish Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Having children creates career interruptions and reductions in labor income for women. This study documents the relation between the age at first birth (AFB) and women’s labor income. We study these dynamics in the short run (i.e. ratio between labor income at AFB and two years prior to AFB) and long run (i.e., positive/negative differences in total lifetime labor income). Methods Using unique Danish administrative register data for the entire Danish population, we estimate the age-income profiles separately for college and non-college women conditional on marital status, and mothers’ age at first birth (AFB). We compute the lifetime labor income differentials by taking the differences between the labor income of women with and without children at each AFB. Results The short-run loss in labor income, defined as the difference in percentages between the income earned two years prior to AFB and income earned at AFB, ranges from 37% to 65% for college women and from 40% to 53% for non-college women. These losses decrease monotonically with respect to AFB for both education groups. Our results on the lifetime labor income differentials between mothers and women without children also show a net effect that is monotonic (from negative to positive) in AFB. With AFB<25, the lifetime labor income loss for college women is -204% of their average annual labor income and this figure is -252% for non-college women. There are lifetime labor income gains with AFB>31. The largest gains for college women are 13% of their average annual income and this figure is 50% for non-college women. Conclusion Women have a large and unambiguous short-run reduction in labor income at their AFB. In terms of lifetime labor income, both college and non-college women, compared to childless women, are associated with lower income of more than twice their respective average annual income when bearing a child at AFB<25. In other words, women with AFB<25 are associated with a lower

  12. EEG Functional Connectivity in Term Age Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, Philip G.; Isler, Joseph R.; Izraelit, Asya; Peterson, Bradley S.; Fifer, William P.; Myers, Michael M.; Stark, Raymond I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The hypothesis is tested that electrocortical functional connectivity (quantified by coherence) of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, measured at term post menstrual age, has regional differences from that of full term infants. Methods 128 lead EEG data were collected during sleep from 8 ELBW infants with normal head ultrasound exams and 8 typically developing full term infants. Regional spectral power and coherence were calculated. Results No significant regional differences in EEG power were found between infant groups. However, compared to term infants, ELBW infants had significantly reduced interhemispheric coherence (in frontal polar and parietal regions) and intrahemispheric coherence (between frontal polar and parieto-occipital regions) in the 1–12 Hz band but increased interhemispheric coherence between occipital regions in the 24–50 Hz band. Conclusions ELBW infants at term post menstrual age manifest regional differences in EEG functional connectivity as compared to term infants. Significance Distinctive spatial patterns of electrocortical synchrony are found in ELBW infants. These regional patterns may presage regional alterations in the structure of the cortex. PMID:18986834

  13. Learning disability in 10- to 16-year-old adolescents with very low birth weight in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Keiko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Kikuchi, Saya; Murotsuki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, i.e., weight less than 1,500 g) in Japan. However, the effect of VLBW on subsequent behavioral development and mental health remains unknown. Subjects enrolled were 57 individuals (13.4 ± 1.9 years old) with VLBW (VLBW group), including 23 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (i.e., the SGA/VLBW group) and 34 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (the AGA/VLBW group). The control group was 29 individuals born AGA at term. We used the questionnaires, the Pupil Rating Scale Revised (PRS) to screen for learning disabilities and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to examine the presence of depression. The PRS score in the VLBW group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). Suspected learning disabilities (LD, defined by a score below 65 points on the PRS) were found in 6 out of the 56 subjects in the VLBW group (10.7%), whereas none were found in the 29 control subjects (p = 0.074). The frequency of suspected LD children was higher in the SGA/VLBW group (4 out of 22 evaluated infants, 18.2%) than that in the AGA/VLBW group (2/34, 5.9%). The frequency of suspected LD in the non-verbal field was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the SGA/VLBW group (18.2%) than in the AGA/VLBW group (0%). However, CDI score did not significantly differ between groups. These findings suggest that VLBW and fetal growth restriction may pose a risk for LD among adolescents with VLBW. PMID:24477102

  14. Maternal serum dioxin levels and birth outcomes in women of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Chee, Wan-Ying; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Samuels, Steven; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2003-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)para(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is associated with increased fetal loss and reduced birth weight in animal studies. In 1976, an explosion at a trichlorophenol plant near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest TCDD exposure known in human residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of women who resided in the most contaminated areas, zones A and B. We examined the relation of pregnancy outcome in 510 women (888 total pregnancies) to maternal TCDD levels measured in serum collected shortly after the explosion. Ninety-seven pregnancies (10.9%) ended as spontaneous abortions (SABs). There was no association of log(subscript)10(/subscript) TCDD with SAB [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1.2], with birth weight (adjusted beta = -4 g; 95% CI, -68 to 60), or with births that were small for gestational age (SGA) (adjusted OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). However, associations with birth weight (adjusted beta = -92 g; 95% CI, -204 to 19) and with SGA (adjusted OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.6-2.9) were stronger for pregnancies within the first 8 years after exposure. TCDD was associated with a 1.0-1.3 day nonsignificant adjusted decrease in gestational age and a 20-50% nonsignificant increase in the odds of preterm delivery. It remains possible that the effects of TCDD on birth outcomes are yet to be observed, because the most heavily exposed women in Seveso were the youngest and the least likely to have yet had a pregnancy. PMID:12782497

  15. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  16. The Long-Term Outcome of Children by Birth Weight and Gestational Age. High-Risk Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    This report is comprised of three separate studies conducted at the University of Colorado Medical Center. In the first study, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) What kinds of late morbidity occur at different birth weights and gestational ages? and (2) Has a vigorous approach to metabolic support in the newborn period changed the…

  17. Research and Development of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for Children between Birth to Age Eight. Technical Report #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This document provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of, individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs) for children birth to age 8 and their families. Development of such indicators is part of a 5-year project by the Early Childhood Research Institute Measuring Growth and Development to conduct research on, develop,…

  18. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes. PMID:26186239

  19. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2) with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age. PMID:20354568

  20. The movement assessment battery in Greek preschoolers: the impact of age, gender, birth order, and physical activity on motor outcome.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of differences in motor performance with regards to age, gender, participation in sports and order of birth in the family. Performance profiles on the movement ABC were used to classify 412 Greek children aged 4-6 years old. It appears from the results that the occurrence rate of probable developmental coordination disorders (DCD) was 5.4%. Significant differences were observed in all independent variables except the order of birth in the family. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of motor performance in preschool-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting early intervention programs.

  1. Length velocity acceleration at 9 months of age in a representative birth cohort of Dutch infants.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Brand, R; Massa, G; Herngreen, W P; Wit, J M

    2000-01-01

    According to the ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) growth model, statural growth can be divided into three partially superimposed components assumed to represent different physiologic mechanisms. This model predicts a sudden acceleration of length velocity (LV) at the onset of the childhood component around 9 months. The existence of such an infancy-childhood growth spurt has not yet been firmly corroborated by epidemiological studies. In the present study length measurements were made at the target ages of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months in a birth cohort of 2034 infants. In order to check whether length growth showed a continuous smooth pattern, different mathematical models were fitted to the individual growth curves. The models included Count and Guo functions, 5th order polynomial and combinations of 5th order polynomial with the logarithmic term of the Count function and the square root term of the Guo function. We showed that in boys and girls there is a small but systematic lack of fit of the mathematical modeling, due to a sudden acceleration of LV around 9 months. In addition there was an increase in variation of attained length at this age. Comparison of unbalanced ANOVA models with and without addition of dummy variables for the target ages confirmed that there was an acceleration around 9 months that, if corrected for, leads to a significantly improved model fit (likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). In absolute terms of LV, the misfit at 9 months was not greater than 0.5 cm/year on average. We conclude that the results of this study support the existence of a late infancy growth spurt. In our opinion, however, the magnitude of the phenomenon does not legitimate construction and use of discontinuous growth references such as the ICP reference.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  3. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight age births (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile at term) and 58 control adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  4. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  5. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Background Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not ‘skip’ a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. Design A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or term (37–42 weeks)). The primary outcome was a low score at the Key Stage 4 (KS4) educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Results After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33–1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14–1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17–1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97–1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). Conclusions This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities

  6. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women consume caffeine daily. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake from different sources and (a) gestational length, particularly the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD), and (b) birth weight (BW) and the baby being small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 59,123 women with uncomplicated pregnancies giving birth to a live singleton were identified. Caffeine intake from different sources was self-reported at gestational weeks 17, 22 and 30. Spontaneous PTD was defined as spontaneous onset of delivery between 22+0 and 36+6 weeks (n = 1,451). As there is no consensus, SGA was defined according to ultrasound-based (Marsal, n = 856), population-based (Skjaerven, n = 4,503) and customized (Gardosi, n = 4,733) growth curves. Results The main caffeine source was coffee, but tea and chocolate were the main sources in women with low caffeine intake. Median pre-pregnancy caffeine intake was 126 mg/day (IQR 40 to 254), 44 mg/day (13 to 104) at gestational week 17 and 62 mg/day (21 to 130) at gestational week 30. Coffee caffeine, but not caffeine from other sources, was associated with prolonged gestation (8 h/100 mg/day, P <10-7). Neither total nor coffee caffeine was associated with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake from different sources, measured repeatedly during pregnancy, was associated with lower BW (Marsal-28 g, Skjaerven-25 g, Gardosi-21 g per 100 mg/day additional total caffeine for a baby with expected BW 3,600 g, P <10-25). Caffeine intake of 200 to 300 mg/day increased the odds for SGA (OR Marsal 1.62, Skjaerven 1.44, Gardosi 1.27, P <0.05), compared to 0 to 50 mg/day. Conclusions Coffee, but not caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake was consistently

  7. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  8. The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Nathalie; Giraud, Julie; Daniel, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background The association between area characteristics and birth outcomes is modified by race. Whether such associations vary according to social class indicators beyond race has not been assessed. Methods This study evaluated effect modification by maternal birthplace and education of the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and birth outcomes of newborns from 1999–2003 in the province of Québec, Canada (N = 353,120 births). Areas (N = 143) were defined as administrative local health service delivery districts. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the association between three area characteristics (median household income, immigrant density and income inequality) and the two outcomes preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth. Effect modification by social class indicators was evaluated in analyses stratified according to maternal birthplace and education. Results Relative to the lowest tertile, high median household income was associated with SGA birth among Canadian-born mothers (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.20) and mothers with high school education or less (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02, 1.24). Associations between median household income and PTB were weaker. Relative to the highest tertile, low immigrant density was associated with a lower odds of PTB among foreign-born mothers (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 1.00) but a higher odds of PTB among Canadian-born mothers (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21). Associations with income inequality were weak or absent. Conclusion The association between area factors and birth outcomes is modified by maternal birthplace and education. Studies have found that race interacts in a similar manner. Public health policies focussed on perinatal health must consider the interaction between individual and area characteristics. PMID:19602256

  9. The Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Pregnant Women in Lao PDR, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Sonja J.; Mirza, Sara A.; Vonglokham, Phouvanh; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Chitry, Bounlap; Pholsena, Vathsana; Chitranonh, Visith; Omer, Saad B.; Moen, Ann; Bresee, Joseph S.; Corwin, Andrew; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies suggest that maternal influenza vaccination can improve birth outcomes. However, there are limited data from tropical settings, particularly Southeast Asia. We conducted an observational study in Laos to assess the effect of influenza vaccination in pregnant women on birth outcomes. Methods We consented and enrolled a cohort of pregnant woman who delivered babies at 3 hospitals during April 2014–February 2015. We collected demographic and clinical information on mother and child. Influenza vaccination status was ascertained by vaccine card. Primary outcomes were the proportion of live births born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and mean birth weight. Multivariate models controlled for differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women and influenza virus circulation. Results We enrolled 5103 women (2172 [43%] were vaccinated). Among the 4854 who had a live birth, vaccinated women were statistically significantly less likely than unvaccinated women to have an infant born preterm during the period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .45–.70), and the effect remained after adjusting for covariates (adjusted RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .55–.87). There was no effect of vaccine on SGA or mean birth weight. The population-prevented fraction was 18.0%. Conclusions In this observational study, we found indirect evidence of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy, and women who received vaccine had a reduced risk of delivering a preterm infant during times of high influenza virus circulation. Vaccination may prevent 1 in 5 preterm births that occur during periods of high influenza circulation. PMID:27143672

  10. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  11. Preterm Birth Affects Dorsal-Stream Functioning Even after Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, A.; Duret, M.; Mancini, J.; Gire, C.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving, the impact of preterm birth on later cognitive development presents a major interest. This study investigates the impact of preterm birth on later dorsal- and ventral-stream functioning. An atypical pattern of performance was found for preterm children relative to full-term controls, but in the…

  12. Identifying the limitations for growth in low performing piglets from birth until 10 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; den Hartog, L A; van Hees, H M J; Bolhuis, J E; van Kempen, T A T G; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of hyper-prolific pig breeds has led to a higher within-litter variation in birth weight and in BW gain during the nursery phase. Based on an algorithm developed in previous research, two populations from a pool of 368 clinically healthy piglets at 6 weeks of age were selected: a low (LP) and a high (HP) performing population and their development was monitored until the end of the nursery phase (10 weeks of age). To understand the cause of the variation in growth between these populations we characterized the LP and HP piglets in terms of body morphology, behaviour, voluntary feed intake, BW gain, and apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibility. Piglets were housed individually and were fed a highly digestible diet. At selection, 6 weeks of age, the BW of LP and HP piglets were 6.8±0.1 and 12.2±0.1 kg, respectively. Compared with the LP piglets the HP piglets grew faster (203 g/day), ate more (275 g/day) from 6 to 10 weeks of age and were heavier at 10 weeks (30.0 v. 18.8 kg, all P<0.01). Yet, the differences in average daily gain and average daily feed intake disappeared when compared per kg BW0.75. Assuming similar maintenance requirements per kg BW0.75 the efficiency of feed utilization above maintenance was 0.1 g/g lower for the LP piglets (P=0.09).The gain : feed ratio was similar for both groups. LP piglets tended to take more time to touch a novel object (P=0.10), and spent more time eating (P<0.05). At 10 weeks, LP piglets had a higher body length and head circumference relative to BW (P<0.01). Relative to BW, LP had a 21% higher small intestine weight; 36% longer length, and relative to average FI, the small intestinal weight was 4 g/kg higher (both P=<0.01). Apparent total tract and ileal dry matter, N and gross energy digestibility were similar between groups (P>0.10). We concluded that the low performance of the LP piglets was due to their inability to engage compensatory gain or compensatory feed intake as efficiency of

  13. Very low birth weight infants: effects of brain growth during infancy on intelligence quotient at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1986-02-01

    To evaluate the role of postnatal growth on IQ at 3 years of age, 139 appropriate for gestational age, very low birth weight infants (less than 1.5 kg) born in 1977 and 1978 were studied at 40 weeks (term), and at 8, 20, and 33 months (corrected) of age. Weight, height, and head circumference were measured at each age, neurologic status was measured at 20 months, and Stanford Binet IQ at 33 months. Multiple regression analysis revealed that head circumference at 8 months of age is the best growth predictor of IQ at 3 years of age. Path analysis was performed to measure the effects of biologic and social factors measured earlier in life on IQ at 3 years. These factors explained 43% of the variance in IQ at 3 years of age. Head circumference at 8 months had a direct effect on IQ at 3 years, controlling for all other variables in the model. Neonatal risk had an indirect effect via head circumference. Neurologic impairment had direct and indirect (via head circumference) effects; race and socioeconomic status had direct effects on IQ but no effects on growth at 8 months of age. Thus, brain growth at 8 months significantly influenced 3 year IQ at 3 years of age among very low birth weight infants, even when medical and sociodemographic variables were controlled.

  14. Ultrasonic recognition of the small-for-gestational-age fetus.

    PubMed

    Brown, H L; Miller, J M; Gabert, H A; Kissling, G

    1987-04-01

    Sonar biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, and estimated fetal weight were obtained within ten days of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (N = 102) and non-SGA (N = 204) newborns. The effectiveness of each ultrasound variable in the antenatal recognition of the SGA fetus was assessed. An abnormal abdominal circumference was the best predictor, confirming SGA in 98% of cases. Other variables (biparietal diameter, femur length, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, or estimated fetal weight) were less accurate for predicting SGA. When we determined expected results based on a 10% prevalence of SGA, negative predictive value was greater than 92% for all variables studied; however, with the exception of estimated fetal weight and femur length, positive predictive values were disappointing, including abdominal circumference (21%). This report establishes the limits of ultrasound-derived growth variables in the antenatal identification of the SGA fetus.

  15. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-05-01

    Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay.

  16. 76 FR 14695 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) Housing Assistance AGENCY: Employment and... Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), 29...

  17. 76 FR 11815 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (SGA) for the Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration (ETJD) AGENCY: Employment and Training... jobs (ETJ) programs, as well as other activities and services, to increase the workforce participation... beyond transitional jobs (TJ) programs currently operating or tested previously. ETA seeks...

  18. 77 FR 9703 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Young...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... (SGA) for Serving Young Adult Ex-Offenders Through Training and Service-Learning AGENCY: Employment and... have never been convicted as an adult under Federal or State Law. ETA expects to award a minimum of...

  19. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (<2000 g) birth cohort. A total of 1105 newborns were enrolled, 901 (81.5%) survived to age 2, and 86% (n = 777) were followed up. Of the 113 cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.

  20. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  1. Growth of very low birth weight infants at 12 months corrected age in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana G; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this article is to describe growth of very low birth weight infants born in southern Brazil. All infants weighing < or =1500 g were followed up until 12 months corrected age (CA). Growth was recorded at 40 weeks, 6 and 12 months CA. Catch up was considered if the measures were > or =-2 SD of World Health Organization growth charts for weight and length; and of National Center for Health Statistics for head circumference. One hundred and ninety three infants born were followed up for the study. At 40 weeks CA, 57.8% patients achieved catch-up in weight and 50.9% in length. At 6 months CA, 82.2% achieved catch-up for weight and length and at 1 year CA, 92% achieved catch-up in weight and 86.9% in length. Catch-up in head circumference was achieved for 93.4%, 85.9% and 85% patients at 40 weeks, 6 months and 12 months CA, respectively. At 12 months CA, no catch-up in weight, length and head circumference was related to higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0.046) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (P = 0.003); longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (P = 0.037), lower maternal education (P = 0.018) and PVL (P = 0,003); higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0,004), PVL (P = 0.005) and longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the NICU (P = 0.044), respectively. In conclusion, PVL and higher SNAPPE-II were important factors to catch-up delay. Catch-up growth was high at 12 months CA.

  2. Quantitative Tract-Based White Matter Development from Birth to Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gouttard, Sylvain; Sharma, Anuja; Gu, Hongbin; Styner, Martin; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Gilmore, John H

    2012-01-01

    Few large-scale studies have been done to characterize the normal human brain white matter growth in the first years of life. We investigated white matter maturation patterns in major fiber pathways in a large cohort of healthy young children from birth to age two using diffusion parameters fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (RD). Ten fiber pathways, including commissural, association and projection tracts, were examined with tract-based analysis, providing more detailed and continuous spatial developmental patterns compared to conventional ROI based methods. All DTI data sets were transformed to a population specific atlas with a group-wise longitudinal large deformation diffeomorphic registration approach. Diffusion measurements were analyzed along the major fiber tracts obtained in the atlas space. All fiber bundles show increasing FA values and decreasing radial and axial diffusivities during the development in the first two years of life. The changing rates of the diffusion indices are faster in the first year than the second year for all tracts. RD and FA show larger percentage changes in the first and second years than AD. The gender effects on the diffusion measures are small. Along different spatial locations of fiber tracts, maturation does not always follow the same speed. Temporal and spatial diffusion changes near cortical regions are in general smaller than changes in central regions. Overall developmental patterns revealed in our study confirm the general rules of white matter maturation. This work shows a promising framework to study and analyze white matter maturation in a tract-based fashion. Compared to most previous studies that are ROI-based, our approach has the potential to discover localized development patterns associated with fiber tracts of interest. PMID:22510254

  3. Birth history, age structure, and post World War II fertility in ten developed countries: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, M A; Easterlin, R A

    1982-01-01

    A post World War 2 swing in fertility occurred in many industrialized countries. Research focusing chiefly on the US has suggested that a country's prior birth history has, through its effects on age structure, been an important cause of this fertility swing. The reasoning is that the pre-World War 2 depression in fertility and post World War 2 baby boom produced after 1945 1st a scarcity and then an abundance of those in family-forming ages relative to older adults. The relative scarcity of young adults, in turn, created favorable economic and psychological conditions among those in child bearing ages and promoted marriage and child bearing; the relative abundance had the opposite effect. This paper examines the relation between birth history and fertility from 1951-76 in England, Wales, France, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, and the US and explores the implications of the analysis for experience in the remainder of this century. The analysis builds on the well-known proposition that age structure is primarily determined by a country's birth history. Birth data can be thought of as yielding an imputed age ratio, that which would prevail in the absence of mortality and migration. Analysis of data indicates that the pattern of change in the imputed ratio usually approximates fairly closely that in the actual ratio. A ratio of old to young can be thought of as consisting of an upper age limit, lower age limit, and an intermediate age that divides the population into young and old. With all 3 of these ages free to vary, a computer program then determines within certain constraints which of all possible imputed ratios of old to young has the highest (positive or negative) correlation with the total fertility rate from 1951-76. In all countries except Italy the results support the hypothesis that a scarcity of adults in the younger adult ages relative to those in older ages leads to a relatively high total fertility rate; a relative

  4. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  5. The Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Ken; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Murabayashi, Nao; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Kai, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kono, Yumi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on short- and long-term outcomes in small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. Methods: A retrospective database analysis was performed. A total of 1,931 single infants (birth weight <1,500 g) born at a gestational age between 22 weeks and 33 weeks 6 days who were determined to be SGA registered in the Neonatal Research Network Database in Japan between 2003 and 2007 were evaluated for short-term outcome and long-term outcome. Results: ANS was administered to a total of 719 infants (37%) in the short-term outcome evaluation group and 344 infants (36%) in the long-term outcome evaluation group. There were no significant differences between the ANS group and the no-ANS group for primary short-term outcome (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.20; P-value 0.22) or primary long-term outcome (adjusted OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.40-1.17; P-value 0.17). Conclusions: Our results show that ANS does not affect short- or long-term outcome in SGA infants when the birth weight is less than 1500 g. This study strongly suggests that administration of ANS resulted in few benefits for preterm FGR fetuses. PMID:25897289

  6. Infants born large-for-gestational-age display slower growth in early infancy, but no epigenetic changes at birth

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G. B.; Pan, Zengxiang; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan; Craigie, Susan; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the growth patterns of infants born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) from birth to age 1 year compared to those born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). In addition, we investigated possible epigenetic changes associated with being born LGA. Seventy-one newborns were classified by birth weight as AGA (10th–90th percentile; n = 42) or LGA (>90th percentile; n = 29). Post-natal follow-up until age 1 year was performed with clinical assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analysed on umbilical tissue in 19 AGA and 27 LGA infants. At birth, LGA infants had greater weight (p < 0.0001), length (p < 0.0001), ponderal index (p = 0.020), as well as greater head (p < 0.0001), chest (p = 0.044), and abdominal (p = 0.007) circumferences than AGA newborns. LGA infants were still larger at the age of 3 months, but by age 6 months there were no more differences between groups, due to higher length and weight increments in AGA infants between 0 and 6 months (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Genome-wide analysis showed no epigenetic differences between LGA and AGA infants. Overall, LGA infants had slower growth in early infancy, being anthropometrically similar to AGA infants by 6 months of age. In addition, differences between AGA and LGA newborns were not associated with epigenetic changes. PMID:26419812

  7. Three Decades of Nonmarital First Births among Fathers Aged 15-44 in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. Number 204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gladys M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmarital childbearing in the United States increased from the 1940s to the 1990s, peaked in 2007-2008, and declined in 2013 (1-3). In 2013, the nonmarital birth rate was 44.8 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44. Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this study examines nonmarital first births reported by fathers…

  8. The Heritability of Gestational Age in a Two-million Member Cohort: Implications for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wilfred; Witherspoon, David J.; Fraser, Alison; Clark, Erin A. S.; Rogers, Alan; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Manuck, Tracy A.; Chen, Karin; Esplin, M. Sean; Smith, Ken R.; Varner, Michael W.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth prior to a gestational age (GA) of 37 completed weeks, affects more than 10% of births worldwide. PTB is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and is associated with a broad spectrum of lifelong morbidity in survivors. The etiology of spontaneous PTB (SPTB) is complex and has an important genetic component. Previous studies have compared monozygotic and dizygotic twin mothers and their families to estimate the heritability of SPTB, but these approaches cannot separate the relative contributions of the maternal and the fetal genomes to GA or SPTB. Using the Utah Population Database, we assessed the heritability of GA in more than 2 million post-1945 Utah births, the largest familial GA dataset ever assembled. We estimated a narrow-sense heritability of 13.3% for GA and a broad-sense heritability of 24.5%. A maternal effect (which includes the effect of the maternal genome) accounts for 15.2% of the variance of GA, and the remaining 60.3% is contributed by individual environmental effects. Given the relatively low heritability of GA and SPTB in the general population, multiplex SPTB pedigrees are likely to provide more power for gene detection than will samples of unrelated individuals. Furthermore, nongenetic factors provide important targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25920518

  9. The risk of prematurity and small-for-gestational-age birth in Mexico City: the effects of working conditions and antenatal leave.

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Mireles, P; Harlow, S D; Sánchez-Carrillo, C I

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of working conditions, occupational stress, and antenatal leave on risk of small-for-gestational age and premature births in Mexico City. METHODS: Over a 3-month period, 2663 (96.2%) of 2767 women who gave birth at three major hospitals and worked at least 3 months during pregnancy were interviewed shortly after delivery. After the exclusion of multiple gestations and birth defects, 261 (10.0%) small-for-gestational-age and 288 (11.0%) preterm births were identified. RESULTS: For small-for-gestational-age births, working more than 50 hours a week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59), standing more than 7 hours a day (OR = 1.40), and no antenatal leave (OR = 1.55) were associated with an increased risk. Women with no antenatal leave were also much more likely to give birth prematurely (OR = 3.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, arduous working conditions and lack of antenatal leave benefits were found to increase the risk of poor birth outcome in Mexican women. Enforcement of existing antenatal leave laws and provision of comparable benefits for the uninsured may reduce the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births and prematurity. PMID:8659657

  10. Are fetal growth impairment and preterm birth causally related to child attention problems and ADHD? Evidence from a comparison between high-income and middle-income cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Elizabeth; Pearson, Rebecca; Fernandes, Michelle; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Stein, Alan; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-cohort comparison is an established method for improving causal inference. This study compared 2 cohorts, 1 from a high-income country and another from a middle-income country, to (1) establish whether birth exposures may play a causal role in the development of childhood attention problems; and (2) identify whether confounding structures play a different role in parent-reported attention difficulties compared with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. Methods Birth exposures included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), small head circumference (HC) and preterm birth (PTB)). Outcomes of interest were attention difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) and ADHD (Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA). Associations between exposures and outcomes were compared between 7-year-old children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK (N=6849) and the 2004 Pelotas cohort in Brazil (N=3509). Results For attention difficulties (SDQ), the pattern of association with birth exposures was similar between cohorts: following adjustment, attention difficulties were associated with SGA (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) and small HC (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.41) in ALSPAC and SGA (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.75) in Pelotas. For ADHD, however, the pattern of association following adjustment differed markedly between cohorts. In ALSPAC, ADHD was associated with LBW (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.80) and PTB (OR=2.33, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.42). In the Pelotas cohort, however, ADHD was associated with SGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.82). Conclusions The findings suggest that fetal growth impairment may play a causal role in the development of attention difficulties in childhood, as similar associations were identified across both cohorts. Confounding structures, however, appear to play a greater role in determining whether a child meets the full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. PMID

  11. Gestational age at birth and morbidity, mortality, and growth in the first 4 years of life: findings from three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed anthropometric status, breastfeeding duration, morbidity, and mortality outcomes during the first four years of life according to gestational age, in three population-based birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Methods Total breastfeeding duration, neonatal mortality, infant morbidity and mortality, and anthropometric measures taken at 12 and 48 months were evaluated in children of different gestational ages born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Results Babies born <34 weeks of gestation and those born between 34–36 weeks presented increased morbidity and mortality, were breastfed for shorter periods, and were more likely to be undernourished at 12 months of life, in comparison with the 39–41 weeks group. Children born with 37 weeks were more than twice as likely to die in the first year of life, and were also at increased risk of hospitalization and underweight at 12 months of life. Post-term infants presented an increased risk of neonatal mortality. Conclusion The increased risks of morbidity and mortality among preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) and post-term (>41 weeks) are well known. In our population babies born at 37 also present increased risk. As the proportion of preterm and early term babies has increased markedly in recent years, this is a cause for great concern. PMID:23114098

  12. Is there any difference between high-risk infants with different birth weight and gestational age in neurodevelopmental characters?

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Özgün Kaya; Günel, Mintaze Kerem; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Yiğit, Şule; Arslan, Mutluay

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study is aimed to investigate differences between cognitive, language and motor development of high-risk infants related to birth weight and gestational age. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty high-risk infants who were born 32 weeks, 1 500 gr and below included in this study. According to corrected age, 58 infants were 1 month, 72 were at 4 months, 82 were at 8 months and 65 were 12 months old. Infants were seperated two groups according to gestational age <30 weeks and 30–32 weeks and birth weight ≤1 000 gr and 1 001–1 500 gr. Infants motor development were assessed with Bayley-III Infant and Toddler Development Motor Scale (Bayley-III) and Neuro Sensory Motor Developmental Scale (NSMDA), cognitif and lanuage development were Bayley-III cognitive and Language scales. Assessments were applied by the same physiotherapist at 1 month, 4 months, 8 months and 12 months old infants in corrected age. Mann-Whitney U Test, 2 x 2 Chi-Square test ve Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare group data. Statistical significance was determined p<0.05. Results: Cognitive, motor and language developments were in normal ranges in all infants. There were no statistical differences in cognitive, language and motor development between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the motor, cognitive and language development were normal in all high risk infants and power gestational age and birth weight did not affect these parametes. PMID:26568690

  13. Effect of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program for Low Birth Weight Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This paper describes an external evaluation study of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program (formerly known as the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children), an educational intervention program for "high risk" (low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in Clovis, New Mexico. Major goals of the program are:…

  14. Building Literacy with Love: A Guide for Teachers and Caregivers of Children Birth through Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Betty S.; Segal, Marilyn M.

    2005-01-01

    This book is written for teachers, caregivers, and family child care providers who are working with children from birth to five. It presents research on child development and on effective teaching practices to foster very young children's ability to become literate. The book also provides practical suggestions for implementing research-informed…

  15. What Young Children Need To Succeed: Working Together To Build Assets from Birth to Age 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehlkepartain, Jolene L.; Leffert, Nancy

    Providing children developmental assets such as family support, a caring neighborhood, positive values, and social skills will help them to grow up healthy, well-adjusted, and strong. This book spells out more than 1,000 practical, creative ways to build 40 key assets in children from birth to 11 years. The book describes developmental assets as…

  16. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades. Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification. Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES). The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age. Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not necessarily evident

  17. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22826206

  18. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of "wheeze ever" in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of "severe asthma" in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of "wheeze ever," "asthma ever," and "night cough in the past 12 months" were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of "severe asthma" was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between "wheeze ever" and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of "severe asthma" and birth weight more than 3.5 kg.

  20. Perinatal and sociodemographic factors at birth predicting conduct problems and violence to age 18 years: comparison of Brazilian and British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rates of conduct problems and violence in Brazil. Methods Prospective population-based birth cohort studies were conducted in Pelotas, Brazil (N = 3,618) and Avon, Britain (N = 4,103). Eleven perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers during the perinatal period. Conduct problems were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers at age 11, and violence in self-report questionnaires completed by adolescents at age 18. Results Conduct problems were predicted by similar risk factors in Brazil and Britain. Female violence was predicted by several of the same risk factors in both countries. However, male violence in Brazil was associated with only one risk factor, and several risk factor associations were weaker in Brazil than in Britain for both females and males. Almost 20% of the higher risk for conduct problems in Brazil compared to Britain was explained by differential exposure to risk factors. The percentage of the cross-national difference in violence explained by early risk factors was 15% for females and 8% for males. Conclusions A nontrivial proportion of cross-national differences in antisocial behaviour are related to perinatal and sociodemographic conditions at the start of life. However, risk factor associations are weaker in Brazil than in Britain, and influences in other developmental periods are probably of particular importance for understanding male youth violence in Brazil. PMID:25471542

  1. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  2. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  3. Birth Weight, Growth and Feeding Pattern in Early Infancy Predict Overweight/Obesity Status at Two Years of Age: A Birth Cohort Study of Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H.; Guo, Yuan; Jiang, Jingxiong; Yang, Liu; Lu, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Haiyan; Shi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. Methods A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight). Results Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. Conclusion Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies. PMID:23755127

  4. Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison L; Lipkind, Heather; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; McCarthy, Natalie L; Omer, Saad B; Qian, Lei; Xu, Stanley; Jackson, Michael L; Vijayadev, Vinutha; Klein, Nicola P; Nordin, James D

    2016-08-01

    Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus, postmarketing vaccine safety assessments are necessary. However, analysis of observational data requires detailed assessment of potential biases. Using data from 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites in the United States, we analyzed the association of monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine (MIV) during pregnancy with preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age birth (birth weight < 10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases. PMID:27449414

  5. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birth weight: A multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20–45 from Chicago, USA in 1997–2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 grams to an increase of 10 grams per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4 percent of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  6. Breast cancer risk associations with birth order and maternal age according to breast-feeding status in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and/or genetic hypotheses. Recently, studies of potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk have been considered. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of female Wisconsin residents. Cases (N=2,016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002−2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (N=1,960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. Results In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breastfed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72−0.96). In analyses restricted to breastfed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (p-value=0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breastfed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82−1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breastfed women (OR=0.58; 95% CI 0.39−0.86 for women with ≥3 older siblings compared to first-born women) but not among non-breastfed women (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.81−1.57). Conclusion These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breastfeeding status in infancy. PMID:18379425

  7. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  8. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  9. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children. PMID:25952145

  10. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very‐low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non‐VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26307940

  11. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-08-05

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan's national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ≤23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13-1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55-0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53-0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death.

  12. 75 FR 61180 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for YouthBuild Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Applications (SGA) for YouthBuild Grants AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Announcement Type: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA... date for receipt of applications under this announcement is December 3, 2010. Applications must...

  13. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  14. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  15. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445

  16. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  17. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  18. 75 FR 47827 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... promise for improving employment outcomes and wages for individuals with significant disabilities and... minimum, applicants must identify at least two of the following seven strategic components as significant... minimum of four local WIBs that have the capacity to carry-out the State's proposal under this SGA...

  19. 77 FR 2092 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Reintegration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders (RExO) Adult Generation 5 AGENCY: Employment and...

  20. 76 FR 10400 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Green Jobs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (SGA) for Green Jobs Innovation Fund AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Investment Act of 1998, Title I, Subtitle D, Section 171(d), Public Law 105-220 for the Green Jobs Innovation... in green jobs. ETA proposes to fund approximately five to eight grants to national and...

  1. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... (SGA) for Serving Juvenile Offenders in High-Poverty, High-Crime Communities AGENCY: Employment and...-poverty, high-crime communities. The purpose of these grants is to improve the long-term labor market... competitively select local sub- grantees to operate the program in a minimum of five high-poverty,...

  2. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Workforce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). SUMMARY: Through this notice, the Department... employment and training services that generate long-term improvements in the performance of the...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications... Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number.... Applicants may submit only one proposal of up to $1.5 million to cover a 30-month period of performance...

  4. 76 FR 3926 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... (SGA) for Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY...) from the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants funding source to... improve their ability to deliver education and career training programs that can be completed in two...

  5. 77 FR 11592 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... (SGA) for the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY... Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grants program. The TAACCCT grants program... career training programs that can be completed in two years or less, and are suited for workers who...

  6. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Career...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (SGA) for the Career Pathways Innovation Fund Grants Program AGENCY: Employment and Training... Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Public Law 105-220 to develop and implement career pathway programs in... system in career pathway programs. ETA proposes to fund approximately 40 to 50 grants ranging from...

  7. The Effects of Influenza Vaccination during Pregnancy on Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marta C; Aqil, Anushka R; Omer, Saad B; Madhi, Shabir A

    2016-09-01

    Objective Numerous observational studies have evaluated the relationship between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and birth outcomes. The number of studies on this subject has increased, especially after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic (A/H1N1pdm09). This meta-analysis aims to determine the impact of maternal vaccination with either seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) or A/H1N1pdm09 monovalent vaccines on the rates of preterm (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), and low birth weight (LBW) births. Methods English language randomized controlled trials and observational studies assessing the proposed outcomes after administration of influenza vaccine during pregnancy were screened. Observational studies were included if they presented adjusted measures and if the total number of women evaluated reached predefined thresholds. Sensitivity analyses were performed, including all published observational studies irrespectively of the sample size. Results A total of 5 and 13 publications that assessed the impact of IIV and monovalent A/H1N1pdm09 vaccines, respectively, fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the main analyses. The rate of PTB and LBW was lower in women who received IIV during pregnancy compared with nonvaccinated women (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 0.98 for PTB and OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.88 for LBW); and in women vaccinated with monovalent A/H1N1pdm09 versus nonvaccinated women (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99 for PTB and OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 for LBW). No significant impact of vaccination on SGA birth rates was detected in the main analyses independently of the vaccine group. Conclusion Receipt of influenza vaccine during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of PTB and LBW. PMID:27603545

  8. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern

  9. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  10. Conditional grandmother effects on age at marriage, age at first birth, and completed fertility of daughters and daughters-in-law in historical Krummhörn.

    PubMed

    Johow, Johannes; Voland, Eckart

    2012-09-01

    Based on historical data pertaining to the Krummhörn population (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Germany), we compared reproductive histories of mothers according to whether the maternal grandmother (MGM) or the paternal grandmother (PGM) or neither of them was resident in the parents' parish at the time of the mother's first birth. In contrast to effects of PGMs, we discovered conditional differences in the MGM's effects between landless people and wealthier, commercial farmers. Our data indicate that the presence of the MGM only lowers the woman's age at marriage (AAM) and her age at the birth of her first child (AFB) in the case of landless families. However, among commercial farmers, who can generally be characterized by a lower AAM and AFB, we found opposite tendencies for the MGM's effect leading to a relatively small delay in AAM and AFB. Moreover, we also analyzed differences in the completed fertility (i.e., children ever born: CEB). Results indicate that landless families in general do have fewer CEB compared with commercial farmers except for those families in which the MGM has been present. Emphasizing that the adaptiveness of investment decisions should depend on the interaction of genetic, lineage-specific (intrinsic) and ecologically imposed (extrinsic) constraints, we conclude that kin strategies consequently address different fitness components under different conditions.

  11. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  12. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  13. Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages Birth to 3: Nurturing the Development and Learning of Infants and Toddlers through Responsive Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This resource provides information to assist parents, family members, early childhood teachers, caregivers, and other adults in promoting the learning and development of young children ages birth to three. It is a companion to the Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages 3 to 5, and uses the same format and domains of development. This…

  14. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  15. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children’s Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    JABBARI, Hossein; BAKHSHIAN, Fariba; ASGARI, Mohammad; SATTARI, Mohammadreza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. Methods: This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Results: Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children’s weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children’s height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Conclusions: Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary. PMID:23967431

  16. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  17. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  18. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  19. Age and sex differences for anxiety in relation to family size, birth order, and religiosity among Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2002-06-01

    Differences in rated anxiety among 2,453 boys (n= 1,229) and girls (n = 1,224), Kuwaiti secondary school students, were reported for five age groups from 14 to 18 years. For girls at all ages but 14 years, mean rated anxiety was significantly higher than the means for the boys. Mean anxiety scores increased across age groups from 14 to 18 years. Not all comparisons between age groups with the same sex, however, were significant. Analysis showed nonsignificant correlations for anxiety with both family size and number of siblings, but significant and positive correlations for anxiety with birth order were found for boys (r=.10, p<.01) and girls (r=.06, p<.05). The predictive and practical values of these very small correlations are negligible, being significant merely because N is so large. Pearson correlations between anxiety and self-rating of religiosity were -.22 and -.22 (p<.01) for boys and girls, respectively. This result was interpreted in the light of high intrinsic religious orientation among Kuwaitis. In the Islam proper, multiple practices are said to relieve anxiety.

  20. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  1. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of “wheeze ever” in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of “severe asthma” in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of “wheeze ever,” “asthma ever,” and “night cough in the past 12 months” were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of “severe asthma” was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between “wheeze ever” and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of “severe asthma” and birth weight more than 3.5 kg. PMID:27379196

  2. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  3. Does area deprivation modify the association between exposure to a nitrate and low-dose atrazine metabolite mixture in drinking water and small for gestational age? A historic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Limousi, F; Albouy-Llaty, M; Carles, C; Dupuis, A; Rabouan, S; Migeot, V

    2014-04-01

    Birth weight may be influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors that could interact. The main objective of our research was to investigate whether area deprivation may modify the association between drinking water exposure to a mixture of atrazine metabolites and nitrates during the second trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We conducted a historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France between 2005 and 2010, using birth records, population census and regularly performed drinking water withdrawals at community water systems. Exposure to an atrazine metabolite/nitrate mixture in drinking water was divided into six classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to the terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. We used a logistic regression to model the association between SGA and mixture exposure at the second trimester while taking into account the area deprivation measured by the Townsend index as an effect modifier and controlling for the usual confounders. We included 10,784 woman-neonate couples. The risk of SGA when exposed to second tercile of nitrate without atrazine metabolites was significantly greater in women living in less deprived areas (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI (1.14, 7.89)), whereas it was not significant in moderately and more deprived areas. One of the arguments used to explain this result is the presence of competing risk factors in poorer districts.

  4. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  5. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  6. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  7. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  8. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  9. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years) and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years). The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children. PMID:26417461

  10. Births: Final Data for 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... women aged 30–44. The total fertility rate (estimated number of births over a woman’s lifetime) declined ... place of residence. Birth rates per 1,000 estimated female population aged 15–19. Population estimated as ...

  11. Effects of Maternal Cervical Incompetence on Morbidity and Mortality of Preterm Neonates with Birth weight Less than 2000g

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wang; Wei, Zhang; Ling, Fan; Song, Yu; Jian-Rong, Ma; Ping, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal cervical incompetence (with or without McDonald cerclage) on mortality and morbidity of preterm infant with birth weight <2000g. Methods: 581 neonates were eligible for this study, 79 with cervical incompetence and 502 without it (control). Incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), severe asphyxia, small for gestational age (SGA), early-onset sepsis (EOS), and mortality were compared between the two groups. Findings: Mean gestational age was earlier in cervical incompetence group than in control (30.2±2.1 vs 30.7±1.9, P<0.05). Except lower frequency of SGA, there were no significant differences in the incidences of RDS, BPD, ROP, PVL, IVH, NEC, EOS, severe asphyxia and mortality between the two groups. Infants with no cerclage had a higher prevalence of RDS (21/66 vs 9/13, P<0.05) compared to cerclage group due to lower mean gestational age (30.68±2.1 vs 28.6±1.4, P<0.01) and birth weight (1519.5±274.6 vs 1205.8±204.4, P<0.001), and clinical neonatal outcomes of the elective cerclage were similar to emergency cerclage in cervical incompetence groups. Conclusion: Maternal cervical incompetence was not associated with postnatal adverse neonatal outcomes. Lower mean gestational age was a major risk associated with higher prevalence of RDS in preterm neonates with no McDonald cerclage, and emergency cerclage did not predict poor clinical neonatal outcomes. PMID:26019783

  12. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  13. IMPORTANCE OF BIRTH WEIGHT AS A RISK FACTOR FOR SEVERE RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY WHEN GESTATIONAL AGE IS 30 OR MORE WEEKS

    PubMed Central

    Holzman, Ian R.; Ginsburg, Robin N.; Brodie, Scott E.; Stroustrup, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether birth weight less than1,500 grams is a relevant guideline indicating the need for examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when gestational age at birth is 30 or more completed weeks. Design A retrospective observational cohort study. Methods 266 infants in a single institutional neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), whose gestational age at birth was 30 or more weeks but whose birth weight was less than 1,500 grams, were examined according to published guidelines. Infants with lethal congenital anomalies or major ocular abnormalities were excluded. Outcomes were vascularization in retinal zone III without a prior need for treatment, or ROP warranting treatment. Results A study outcome was reached by 212 infants. Two hundred and eleven (99.5%) became vascularized through zone III without needing treatment. Only 1 (0.5%) required treatment for ROP. The 95% confidence interval for the occurrence rate of ROP requiring treatment in this cohort was 0.01 to 2.60%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the occurrence rates of ROP requiring treatment in infants with gestational age 30 or more weeks and birth weight less than 1,500 grams is very low, and could indicate the need to revise examination guidelines for this subgroup of infants. PMID:24582994

  14. Dynamic Changes of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and Ductus Arteriosus in Human Newborns From Birth to 72 Hours of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chunmiao; Zhao, Enfa; Zhou, Yinghua; Zhao, Huayun; Liu, Yunyao; Gao, Ningning; Huang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Baomin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Normal pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary hypertension assessment of newborns is rarely reported. The aim of the study is to explore dynamic changes of pulmonary arterial pressure and ductus arteriosus in human newborns from birth to 72 h of age with echocardiography. A total of 76 cases of normal newborns were prospectively detected by echocardiography after birth of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. Ductus arteriosus diameter, blood shunt direction, blood flow velocity, and pressure gradient were recorded. The brachial artery blood pressure were measured to estimate the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) using patent ductus arteriosus pressure gradient method. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAMP) were calculated by equation of PAMP = PADP + 1/3(PASP-PADP). (1) There were 76 cases of normal newborns. Among them, 29 cases (38%) ductus arteriosus closed within 24 h, 59 cases (78%) closed within 48 h, 72 cases (95%) closed within 72 h, and 4 cases (5%) ductus arteriosus not closed within 72 h. (2) The ductus arteriosus diameter of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after birth was 4.60 ± 0.59 mm, 3.37 ± 0.59 mm, 2.47 ± 0.49 mm, 1.89 ± 0.41 mm, 1.61 ± 0.35 mm, and 1.20 ± 0.24 mm, respectively. Compared all of the ductus arteriosus diameter of the above time periods, there were statistically differences with P < 0.05, respectively. (3) The mean PASP in 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after birth were 76.58 ± 7.28 mm Hg, 65.53 ± 9.25mm Hg, 52.51 ± 9.07 mm Hg, 43.83 ± 7.90 mm Hg, 38.07 ± 8.26 mm Hg, and 36 ± 6.48 mm Hg, respectively. The PADP of the above time period were 37.88 ± 5.56 mm Hg, 29.93 ± 7.91 mm Hg, 23.43 ± 7.37 mm Hg, 19.70 ± 8.51 mm Hg, 13.85 ± 5.58 mm Hg, 13.25 ± 6.18 mm Hg, respectively. The PAMP of the

  15. New Korean reference for birth weight by gestational age and sex: data from the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Sub; Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Song, Bong Sub; Shim, Kye Shik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To construct new Korean reference curves for birth weight by sex and gestational age using contemporary Korean birth weight data and to compare them with the Lubchenco and the 2010 United States (US) intrauterine growth curves. Methods Data of 2,336,727 newborns by the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012) were used. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma method using subsample of singleton. The new Korean reference curves were compared with the Lubchenco and the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. Results Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles birth weight by gestational age were made using 2,249,804 (male, 1,159,070) singleton newborns with gestational age 23-43 weeks. Separate birth weight curves were constructed for male and female. The Korean reference curves are similar to the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. However, the cutoff values for small for gestational age (<10th percentile) of the new Korean curves differed from those of the Lubchenco curves for each gestational age. The Lubchenco curves underestimated the percentage of infants who were born small for gestational age. Conclusion The new Korean reference curves for birth weight show a different pattern from the Lubchenco curves, which were made from white neonates more than 60 years ago. Further research on short-term and long-term health outcomes of small for gestational age babies based on the new Korean reference data is needed. PMID:25346919

  16. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  17. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  18. Pregnancy prevention among American Indian men ages 18 to 24: the role of mental health and intention to use birth control.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kris; Medicine Elk, Jarrett; Dick, Rebecca; Jewett, Lacey; Gesink, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    The Fort Peck Sexual Health Project: A Contextual Analysis of Native American Men is a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that explores the extent to which knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sex, intimate relationships, and mental health influence sexual and reproductive health. For the purpose of this study, the influence of age, fatherhood, and mental health factors related to historical trauma and loss on young American Indian (AI) men's intention to use birth control was examined. In-depth interviews were conducted with 112 Native American men between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The mean age reported was 21 years. Thirty-eight percent of the young men reported having children. The young men reported experiences of historical trauma during their lifetime as well as emotional responses due to historical losses. Ninety-five percent reported that it was very important that they use some form of birth control to prevent their partner from getting pregnant within the next year. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, as age increased, young men were less likely to use birth control to prevent pregnancy. The young men who reported feelings of loss due to experiences related to historical trauma and loss were more likely to use birth control. Findings from this study suggest that public health efforts to educate AI men about planned pregnancies and the use of birth control may be most effective in adolescence. Public health programs that address mental health concerns such as the emotional responses due to historical losses may assist young AI men in their decision to use birth control.

  19. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies.

  20. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) by paediatricians, general practitioners, youth health care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  1. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  2. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  3. Risky Situations: Vulnerable Children. Working with Families Who Have Children, Ages Birth to 5, Who Are at Risk of Maltreatment with a Focus on Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deb; And Others

    Information on the prevention of child maltreatment is provided, as well as methods and programs to respond to the maltreatment of children with disabilities, ages birth to 5 years. Challenges to providing effective service delivery are addressed, along with the family perspective and total family needs. Risk factors that affect family functioning…

  4. Brain Development and the Education of Children from Birth to Age Three. West Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book: 1997 County Profiles of Child Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Kids Count Fund, Charleston.

    This sixth annual edition of the West Virginia Kids Count data book examines county and statewide trends in the well-being of West Virginia's children, focusing on brain development and educational initiatives for children from birth to 3 years of age. The statistical portrait is based on 11 well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight…

  5. A Core Curriculum & Training Program To Prepare Paraeducators To Work in Center & Home Based Programs for Young Children with Disabilities from Birth to Age Five. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Anna Lou; Semrau, Barbara; Faison, Karen; Formanek, John

    These instructional materials are designed to provide personnel developers and trainers with resources that can be used to improve the performance of paraeducators working in center-based and home visitor programs for young children with disabilities from birth to age 5. The modules cover: (1) strengthening the instructional team, the roles of…

  6. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  7. Menopause, Reproductive Life, Hormone Replacement Therapy, and Bone Phenotype at Age 60–64 Years: A British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, S.; Cooper, R.; Moore, A.; Mackinnon, K.; Cooper, C.; Adams, J. E.; Hardy, R.; Ward, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Previous studies of menopausal age and length of reproductive life on bone are limited by retrospective reproductive histories, being cross-sectional, or lacking gold standard bone technologies or information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or surgical treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate age at menopause, length of reproductive life, and HRT use in relation to volumetric and areal bone mineral density (vBMD, aBMD), bone size, and strength in women aged 60–64 years. Design: This was a birth cohort study that followed up for 64 years with prospective measures of age at menarche and menopause and monthly HRT histories. Setting: The study was conducted in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants: Participants included 848 women with a known type of menopause and bone measures at 60–64 years. Main Outcome Measures: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements of the distal radius total and trabecular vBMD were measured. Diaphyseal radius total and medullary cross-sectional area, cortical vBMD, and polar strength strain index (SSI); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of aBMD at the lumbar spine and total hip were also measured. Results: A 10-year increase in age at natural (but not surgical) menopause was associated with 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%–15.1%, P = .02) greater trabecular vBMD and a 6.0% (95% CI 0.51%–11.5%, P = .03) greater total vBMD; findings were similar for length of reproductive life. A 10-year difference in HRT use was associated with a 6.0% (95% CI 2.6%–9.3%, P < .001) greater polar SSI and a 0.9% (95% CI 0.4%–1.5%, P = .001) greater cortical vBMD. These estimates changed little on adjustment. Estimates for aBMD were consistent with those for peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Conclusions: The positive effects on trabecular vBMD of later natural menopause and longer reproductive life persisted into early old age. HRT use was associated with greater

  8. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  9. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid before birth and until aging decreases kainate-induced seizures in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Saleta; Alfaro, Juan M; Sánchez, Sonia; Burgos, Javier S

    2012-08-01

    Docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) is the final compound in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthetic pathway and the most abundant PUFA found in the brain. DHA plays an essential role in the development of the brain, and the intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. Recently, it has been proposed that dietary intake of DHA could be a non-pharmacological interventional strategy for the treatment of seizures in humans. However, to date, the experimental approaches to study the antiepileptic effect of DHA have been exclusively restricted to rodent models during short-to-medium periods of treatment. The purpose of the present study was to test the chronic anticonvulsivant effects of DHA supplementation in zebrafish from the pre-spawning stage to aging, taking advantage of our recently described kainate-induced seizure model using this animal. To that end, two groups of adult female zebrafish were fed with standard or 200mg/kg DHA-enriched diets during 1 month previous to the spawning, and offspring subdivided in two categories, and subsequently fed with standard or DHA diets, generating 4 groups of animals that were aged until 20 months. Afterward, KA was intraperitoneally administered and epileptic score determined. All the DHA-enriched groups presented antiepileptic effects compared to the control group, showing that DHA presents an anticonvulsant potential. Among the studied groups, zebrafish fed with DHA from the pre-spawning stage to aging presented the best antiepileptic profile. These results show a neuroprotective benefit in zebrafish fed with DHA-enriched diet before birth and during the whole life.

  10. METHODS OF PROJECTING BIRTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OKADA, TETSUO

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES AND CRITICIZES THE VARIOUS METHODS CURRENTLY IN USE FOR PROJECTING BIRTHS--(1) COHORT-FERTILITY, (2) AGE-SPECIFIC, (3) COHORT-FERTILITY (SCRIPPS), AND (4) MARRIAGE-PARITY-PROGRESSION. VARIABLES USED IN THE VARIOUS METHODS ARE AGE OF MOTHER, COMPLETED FERTILITY, MARRIAGE STATUS, TIME SINCE MARRIAGE, PARITY, AND BIRTH INTERVAL.…

  11. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  12. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  13. An investigation of factors identified at birth in relation to anxiety and depression in old age: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although life course influences have long been recognised in affective disorder, little is known about the influence of early life factors on late life anxiety and depression. The aim was to investigate the extent to which birth measures, maternal health and family circumstances were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in late life. Methods A retrospective cohort study was constructed from a cross-sectional survey sample of community residents aged 72–74 years, 406 of whom had traceable birth records. Cases and controls for late life anxiety and depression were defined applying standard cut-offs to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A range of measures and circumstances were extracted from birth records blind to survey data and compared in age- and gender-adjusted models. Results There were no differences in any anthropometric measure in either case control comparison. Case-level anxiety and depression were both associated with significantly lower maternal age. Late-life anxiety was additionally associated with smaller maternal pelvic size and the mother’s condition being rated as poor at birth/discharge. Late-life depression was associated with a lower status paternal occupation. Conclusions There was no evidence for a substantial influence of early life size on late life affective disorder. However, there was some evidence in secondary analyses for an enduring influence of the family’s socioeconomic environment and maternal health. PMID:23663224

  14. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  15. Patterns of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation in a British Birth Cohort at Early Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60–64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index. PMID:24911018

  16. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  17. Birth Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... but your partner. previous continue More Birthing Options Atmosphere during labor and delivery. Many hospitals and birthing ... allow women to make some choices about the atmosphere in which they give birth. Do you want ...

  18. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present ...

  19. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) increased gradually with age, but no birth-weight-related differences were observed. LBW piglets had significantly (P = 0.03) more ITF immunoreactive positive cells per villus area compared to NBW piglets, whereas no age (P = 0.82) or region-related (P = 0.13) differences could be observed. The activity of IAP in the small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P < 0.01). In conclusion, birth weight did not affect the parameters related to intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function

  20. Variations and Determinants of Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Low for Gestational Age Infants in Seven European Countries.

    PubMed

    Fatttore, Giovanni; Numerato, Dino; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Graziani, Rebecca; Heijink, Richard; Over, Eelco; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Mihalicza, Péter; Sveréus, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The EuroHOPE very low birth weight and very low for gestational age infants study aimed to measure and explain variation in mortality and length of stay (LoS) in the populations of seven European nations (Finland, Hungary, Italy (only the province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden). Data were linked from birth, hospital discharge and mortality registries. For each infant basic clinical and demographic information, infant mortality and LoS at 1 year were retrieved. In addition, socio-economic variables at the regional level were used. Results based on 16,087 infants confirm that gestational age and Apgar score at 5 min are important determinants of both mortality and LoS. In most countries, infants admitted or transferred to third-level hospitals showed lower probability of death and longer LoS. In the meta-analyses, the combined estimates show that being male, multiple births, presence of malformations, per capita income and low population density are significant risk factors for death. It is essential that national policies improve the quality of administrative datasets and address systemic problems in assigning identification numbers at birth. European policy should aim at improving the comparability of data across jurisdictions. PMID:26633869

  1. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort. PMID:24581337

  2. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  3. The natural course of eczema from birth to age 7 years and the association with asthma and allergic rhinitis: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chian-Yin; Lin, Ming-Chih; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Lin-Shien; Fu, Yun-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Although "atopic march" is a popular concept, the relationship between eczema and subsequent asthma is far from clear. However, some cohort studies have shown the possibility of two different allergic phenotypes in those who present with early eczema in terms of their persistency. We checked the cohort data from 308,849 children born in 2000 in Taiwan, to evaluate the different courses of eczema and their relationships to subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) at age 7 years. We examined the age prevalence of eczema, asthma, and AR up to 7 years of age. We grouped all cases according to their course of eczema, as well as wheezing, and determined the rates of asthma and AR at age 7 years. We checked the adjusted risk factors by multiple logistic regression model. We also examined the distributions of wheezing types in different eczema groups. We found the "atopic march" pattern of allergic diseases based on their age prevalence. Early eczema was associated with asthma and AR at the age of 7 years. Those with eczema symptoms persisting after 36 months of age had a higher risk than those with transient eczema. Early wheeze also contributed to asthma and AR later in childhood. In addition, late-onset eczema had a completely different wheeze distribution compared with other groups and also had a higher risk for asthma and AR than transient eczema. In conclusion, different eczema phenotypes could be found in this population-based cohort. This article emphasizes the special attention to the persistency and late-onset eczema in clinical practice.

  4. Socioeconomic inequality in birth weight and gestational age in Denmark 1996-2007: using a family-based approach to explore alternative explanations.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Laust H

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported associations between socioeconomic position and adverse pregnancy outcomes even in affluent egalitarian welfare states. This study explored the nature of this relationship by examining women who changed socioeconomic position between pregnancies and women who were siblings but were different in terms of socioeconomic position. Data consisted of 471,215 live born singletons born in Denmark 1997-2007 with at least one sibling or one first cousin. We examined parental educational attainment and household income in relation to preterm birth and small for gestational age using Cox regression. Household income was only weakly related to these outcomes. Paternal education was strongly associated with the outcomes only in the cohort analyses. Maternal education was inversely associated with preterm birth only in the cohort analyses, where the least educated women had the highest risk. Maternal education was inversely associated with the risk of small for gestational age in cohort analyses, attenuated between mothers who were siblings, and not present between children who were siblings. For example, the hazard ratio of preterm birth of women with a college/university degree when compared to women with only mandatory education was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.67) in the cohort analysis, 0.90 (0.78-1.04) between mothers who were siblings, and 1.01 (0.82-1.24) between children who were siblings. The corresponding hazard ratios of small for gestational age were 0.54 (0.52-0.56), 0.72 (0.63-0.83), and 1.02 (0.84-1.24). This suggests that the associations were partly explained by factors shared between mothers who are siblings. In conclusion, the early life circumstances of mothers appear to be important in understanding the association between education, preterm birth and small for gestational age.

  5. Combination therapy with acipimox enhances the effect of growth hormone treatment on linear body growth in the normal and small-for-gestational-age rat.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M H; Hofman, P L; Gluckman, P D; Lobie, P E; Cutfield, W S

    2006-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) therapy is often associated with adverse side effects, including impaired insulin sensitivity. GH treatment of children with idiopathic short stature does not lead to an optimized final adult height. It has been demonstrated that FFA reduction induced by pharmacological antilipolysis can stimulate GH secretion per se in both normal subjects and those with GH deficiency. However, to date, no investigation has been undertaken to establish efficacy of combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators on linear body growth. Using a model of maternal undernutrition in the rat to induce growth-restricted offspring, we investigated the hypothesis that combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators can enhance linear body growth above that of GH alone. At postnatal day 28, male offspring of normally nourished mothers (controls) and offspring born with low birth weight [small for gestational age (SGA)] were treated with saline, GH, or GH (5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in combination with acipimox (GH + acipimox, 20 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or fenofibrate (GH + fenofibrate, 30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 40 days. GH plus acipimox treatment significantly enhanced linear body growth in the control and SGA animals above that of GH, as quantified by tibial and total body length. Treatment with GH significantly increased fasting plasma insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, and plasma volumes in control and SGA animals but was not significantly different between saline and GH-plus-acipimox-treated animals. GH-induced lipolysis was blocked by GH plus acipimox treatment in both control and SGA animals, concomitant with a significant reduction in fasting plasma FFA and insulin concentrations. This is the first study to show that GH plus acipimox combination therapy, via pharmacological blocking of lipolysis during GH exposure, can significantly enhance the efficacy of GH in linear growth promotion and ameliorate unwanted metabolic side effects.

  6. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  7. Sleep State Indices of Risk for Small-for-Gestional-Age Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    Full-term neonates from 37 pairs of same-sex twins, either small or appropriate for gestational age (SGA/AGA), were observed during the first sleep cycle after feeding to determine if behavioral indices of central nervous system (CNS) functioning were related to risk for the SGA infants. No differences were observed between groups for time spent…

  8. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  9. On birth single dose live attenuated OPV and BCG vaccination induces gut cathelicidin LL37 responses at 6 week of age: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Jahangir; Rashid, Md Mamunur; Kabir, Yearul; Raqib, Rubhana; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin

    2015-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, we show that infants who received single dose of live attenuated OPV and BCG vaccines within 48h of birth, have higher excretion of human cathelicidin LL37 (p<0.05) in stool at 6wk of age. This response remained unchanged in multivariate analysis after adjusting for sex, mode of delivery, infant age, mother age birth weight and breast milk feeding pattern. This analysis also reveals that irrespective of vaccination, girl infants have higher human-beta-defencin2 (HBD2) and exclusively breastfed infants have higher total and anti-polio specific IgA to all three subtypes in stool (p<0.05). However, vaccination induces anti-polio IgA responses only to infants who are exclusively breastfed. Thus on-birth live attenuated vaccination may provide non-specific beneficial effect against infections while exclusive breastfeeding enhance protection by boosting vaccine induced IgA. The result also suggests that in polio endemic area, exclusive breastfeeding may be sufficient for mucosal anti-polio responses during early infancy. PMID:25444792

  10. Advancing paternal age at birth is associated with poorer social functioning earlier and later in life of schizophrenia patients in a founder population.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Rudolf; van Heerden, Brigitte; Ehlers, René; Du Plessis, Anna M E; Roos, J Louw

    2016-09-30

    Consistent associations have been found between advanced paternal age and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, in their offspring. This increase appears to be linear as paternal age increases. The present study investigates the relationship between early deviant behaviour in the first 10 years of life of patients as well as longer term functional outcome and paternal age in sporadic Afrikaner founder population cases of schizophrenia. This might improve our understanding of Paternal Age-Related Schizophrenia (PARS). Follow-up psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). An early deviant childhood behaviour semi-structured questionnaire and the Specific Level of Functioning Assessment (SLOF) were completed. From the logistic regression models fitted, a significant negative relationship was found between paternal age at birth and social dysfunction as early deviant behaviour. Additionally, regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between paternal age at birth and the SLOF for interpersonal relationships later in life. Early social dysfunction may represent a phenotypic trait for PARS. Further research is required to understand the relationship between early social dysfunction and deficits in interpersonal relationships later in life. PMID:27416538

  11. On the mediating effects of pregnancy and birth stress events on the relation between lateral preferences and cognitive functioning in healthy school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Wassenberg, Renske; Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-06-01

    If the pathological left-handedness theory is valid, left-handed people who also experienced pregnancy and birth stress events (PBSEs) would especially be expected to deviate from the cognitive norm (rather than left-handers in general). This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of healthy children (aged 6.6-15.9 years). Multiple cognitive abilities were assessed, including verbal fluency and working memory. Children with a left lateral preference who also experienced a PBSE did not deviate from the cognitive norm. Age was positively associated with all cognitive measures, and mean level of parental education strongly affected verbal fluency functioning.

  12. Status homogamy in the preindustrial marriage market: partner selection according to age, social origin, and place of birth in nineteenth-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2009-10-01

    This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.

  13. On the mediating effects of pregnancy and birth stress events on the relation between lateral preferences and cognitive functioning in healthy school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Wassenberg, Renske; Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-06-01

    If the pathological left-handedness theory is valid, left-handed people who also experienced pregnancy and birth stress events (PBSEs) would especially be expected to deviate from the cognitive norm (rather than left-handers in general). This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of healthy children (aged 6.6-15.9 years). Multiple cognitive abilities were assessed, including verbal fluency and working memory. Children with a left lateral preference who also experienced a PBSE did not deviate from the cognitive norm. Age was positively associated with all cognitive measures, and mean level of parental education strongly affected verbal fluency functioning. PMID:21347946

  14. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  15. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. V. Social background and recruitment to the school system.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The basis of the present study is a cohort of 1570 persons, all live births in 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen. This birth-control was followed up in the compulsory school system at the age of 14 years. Information from the "parsons' lists" (birth registers) was gathered concerning the parents' social background, while facts about the students' recruitment to the compulsory school system in Bergen were obtained from the local files of the various schools and the files of The National Services for the Mentally Retarded. For the purpose of collecting more detailed information, a sample was taken from the birthcohort. This sample was formed on the basis of a stratification of the cohort according to type of school attended at 14 years of age. By supplementing the group comprising persons attending Special Schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded and the group including persons cared for by the National Services for the Mentally Retarded, a total sample of 262 persons was reached. It is found that recruitment to the school system varies considerably with socio-economic background. Children of higher officials were highly over-represented in Junior High School, while children of workers were noticeably under-represented at this type of school. Children of workers were over-represented in Continuation School, Elementary School classes for slow learners and Special Schools for the educable mentally retarded. However, a proportionally very similar representation of the social groups in the services for the mentally retarded was found.

  16. The Multi-Literacy Development of a Young Trilingual Child: Four Leading Literacy Activities from Birth to Age Six

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the multiplicity of literacies while incorporating multiple modes of meaning to understand a young trilingual child's meaning-making processes. This qualitative study reports the results of a combination of ethnographic observations and a longitudinal case study of one child's multi-literacy development from birth to…

  17. Hot Executive Function Following Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: Altered Delay Discounting at 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Morris, Alyssa R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm…

  18. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  19. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  20. Cord blood vitamin D status and neonatal outcomes in a birth cohort in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Catherine; Dodds, Linda; Langille, Donald B.; Weiler, Hope A.; Armson, B. Anthony; Forest, Jean-Claude; Giguère, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Some evidence suggests that low maternal vitamin D status adversely affects perinatal health but few studies have examined cord blood vitamin D status. This project aimed to determine the association between the cord blood concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and neonatal outcomes. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted in Quebec City, Canada from 2005 to 2010. Included were 83 cases of low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g), 301 cases of small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile), 223 cases of preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks’ gestation), and 1027 controls. Levels of 25(OH)D were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression. Results Cord blood [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L was associated with a lower risk of LBW compared to [25(OH)D] ≥75 nmol/L (OR 0.47 95 % CI 0.23–0.97). For 25(OH)D levels 50–75 nmol/L, a significant association was not demonstrated (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.34–1.01). No significant associations were observed between [25(OH)D] and either SGA or PTB after adjustment. Conclusions Although our findings suggest that [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L is associated with reduced risk of having a LBW infant, prenatal vitamin D recommendations require an examination of the literature that considers the full spectrum of maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26404451

  1. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  2. Birth outcomes by birth order and maternal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Maitra, N; Patel, B; Hazra, M

    1995-01-01

    Birth weights were studied of infants born to 432 women who delivered at SSG Hospital and Medical College in Baroda, India, in 1993 to determine whether birth order and maternal age have effects on birth weight independent of social disadvantages, as measured by maternal height, weight, and hemoglobin level. The weight-height product index (WHPI) (kg x cm x 100/45 kg x 150 cm) was used as one of the indicators for maternal nutrition. Mean WHPI was 101.83. Mean maternal weight and height were 46.56 kg and 147.49 cm, respectively. The hemoglobin level stood at 9.5 g/dl. Mean gestational age was 38.02 weeks. Even though the birth weight of newborns of women in the C nutritional status group (i.e., WHPI = 101.83) were significantly smaller than those born to mothers in the next higher nutritional status group (WHPI = 133.49) (2283 vs. 2381 g; Z = 1.99), the proportion of low birth weight ( 2.5 k) infants in the C group was not significantly different from those in the B group (54.54% vs. 53.08%). The proportion of low birth weight newborns was higher in the birth order 1 group than higher birth order groups (61.04% vs. 50.23% for birth order 2-3 and 37.7% for birth order =or 4). Yet, there was no significant difference in mean birth weight by birth order. When comparing birth weights within the same age group, mean birth weight was significantly greater after birth order 1 regardless of maternal age. Among 16.5-34.5 year old mothers, the percentage of low birth weight newborns was much higher in birth order 1 than higher birth orders (60.45% vs. 48.79%; p 0.02). Thus, within the same age group, first order births have a lower birth weight and a higher incidence of low birth weight than higher order births.

  3. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  4. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life. PMID:26499818

  5. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ≥35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ≥3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ≥3/≥35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child

  6. The emergence of grammar in very-low-birth-weight Finnish children at two years of age.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-03-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.

  7. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth control Could I get pregnant ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ask about keeping the information ...

  8. 76 FR 24917 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for H-1B Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... http://www.grants.gov . The Web sites provide application information, eligibility requirements, review... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications.... ACTION: Notice of Solicitation for Grant Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY...

  9. Relationship between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Frontoinsular Gray Matter and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Children at the Age of 4

    PubMed Central

    Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Urbanik, Andrzej; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Nitecka, Magdalena; Kwinta, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight is associated with long term neurodevelopmental complications. Macroscopic brain abnormalities in prematurity survivors have been investigated in several studies. However, there is limited data regarding local cerebral metabolic status and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectra in basal ganglia, frontal white matter and frontoinsular gray matter, neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed with the Leiter scale and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and selected socioeconomic variables in a cohort of very low birth weight children at the age of four. Children were divided in three groups based on the severity of neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no differences in spectroscopy in basal ganglia and frontal white matter between the groups. Lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and myoinositol (mI) were observed in the frontoinsular cortex of the left hemisphere in children with neurodevelopmental impairment compared to children with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Higher parental education, daycare attendance and breastfeeding after birth were associated with more favorable neurodevelopmental prognosis, whereas rural residence was more prevalent in children with moderate and severe impairment. Our study demonstrates the role of long term neurometabolic disruption in the left frontoinsular cortex and selected socioeconomic variables in determination of neurodevelopmental prognosis in prematurity survivors. PMID:27223474

  10. Sex- and Age-Specific Incidence of Healthcare-Register-Recorded Eating Disorders in the Complete Swedish 1979–2001 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Javaras, Kristin N.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Thornton, Laura M.; Agerbo, Esben; Birgegård, Andreas; Norring, Claes; Yao, Shuyang; Råstam, Maria; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sex- and age-specific incidence of healthcare-register-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and other eating disorders (OED) in a complete birth cohort, and assess whether incidence varies by diagnostic period and (sub-) birth cohort. Method We used the actuarial method and Poisson models to examine the incidence of AN and OED from 1987–2009 (when individuals were 8–30 years) for a cohort of 2.3 million individuals (48.7% female) born from 1979–2001 in Sweden, identified using Swedish registers. Results For both sexes, incidences of AN and OED increased considerably for diagnostic periods after 2000, but differed little by birth cohort. In 2009, AN incidence in the peak age category was 205.9 cases/100,000 persons (95% CI: 178.2, 233.5) for females (14–15 years), versus 12.8 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 5.6, 20.1) for males (12–13 years). OED incidence in the peak age category was 372.1 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 336.4, 407.9) for females (16–17 years), versus 22.2 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 13.3, 31.1) for males (14–15 years). Discussion Our finding of an increase in healthcare register-recorded eating disorders for diagnostic periods after 2000 likely reflects improved detection and expanded register coverage in Sweden. The peak of eating disorder incidence in adolescence, which began unexpectedly early for AN in males, suggests the importance of vigilance for signs of AN in young boys and early primary prevention efforts. Waiting until later could miss critical windows for intervention that could prevent disorders from taking root. PMID:26769444

  11. Echoes from birth--mutual benefits for physical and forensic anthropology by applying increment counts in enamel of deciduous teeth for aging.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to compare metrical and morphological features of skeletal and dental development in two skeletons of very young infants from different archeological sites in Syria with the results of the microscopic approach of age-at-death estimation based on the neonatal line (NNL). Here, the presence ofa NNL is used as an indicator of birth survival and the duration of the lifespan post partum is assessed by counting prism cross-striations (PCS) external to the NNL. In the literature, PCS have been determined to represent a circadian rhythm in human enamel formation. For both individuals, consistent results in terms of the presence of a NNL and the counts of prism cross-striations could have been obtained. In the younger individual evidence of a postnatal age at death of less than two weeks was documented. This study demonstrates that the use of the NNL as an individual landmark without the need for the reference to growth standards enables an estimation of age at death on skeletal remains of infants within much narrower ranges compared with metrical and morphological analyses. To date, presence of a NNL is the only way of documenting birth survival in skeletons of perinatal individuals. This method can be applied to forensic and bioarcheological skeletal material.

  12. Mid- and long-term outcome of 166 premature infants weighing less than 1,000 g at birth, all small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Monset-Couchard, M; de Bethmann, O; Kastler, B

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study reported the mid- and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of 166 premature infants born with an extremely low birth weight (<1,000 g), all small for gestational age (<10th percentile birth weight for gestational age). Nine girls were lost to follow-up before 3 years of age, and 6 children were excluded a posteriori because of specific conditions diagnosed in the 1st year of life (severe abnormalities in 5). Of the remaining 151 children, 2% had cerebral palsy, 15% had lesser motor disturbances (reduced to 2% after psychomotor training), 8% had early severe developmental delays, and added mild and moderate delays and increasing cognitive gaps amounted to 28% in the 14th year. Visual deficits increased with age up to 63% of the older children. Seven children had deafness and 13 had hearing losses after otitis media. Language delays were observed at some stage in 31% of cases, as well as behavioral disturbances in 42% (severe problems in 12%). At last evaluation, 34% of the children were normal (12% of the older ones), 51% had minor deficiencies, 18% had moderate and 3% had major disabilities. Children entered the first grade in the 7th year in only 84% of cases, which dropped to 63% at proper level in the second grade; 47% entered high school at the proper age, 7/15 obtained the 'baccalauréat' in the 19th/20th year. The school performance was heavily dependent on the socioeconomic and cultural level of the family. PMID:12011568

  13. Preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic treatment, bed rest, beta-mimetics, calcium channel blockers, elective caesarean, enhanced antenatal care programmes, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban), progesterone

  14. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus

  15. Breastfeeding and Bone Mass at the Ages of 18 and 30: Prospective Analysis of Live Births from the Pelotas (Brazil) 1982 and 1993 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Gonçalves, Helen; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of total breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration and type of breastfeeding at 3 months of age on bone mass at 18 and 30 years. Study Design A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with two birth cohorts (1982 and 1993) in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 18 and 30 years of age were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Information on breastfeeding was collected during the first 4 years of life. Analyses were performed by linear regression and stratified by sex. Results A total of 1109 and 3226 participants provided complete information on breastfeeding in early life and bone mass at 18 and 30 years, respectively. No association between breastfeeding and bone mass was observed in women at both ages nor among men at age 30. Among men at the age of 18, BMC and BMD were higher among those breastfed regardless of duration (p=0.032 and p=0.043, respectively). Conclusions Despite a very weak positive effect of breastfeeding (yes/no) on BMC and BMD at age 18 in men, most findings pointed to a lack of association between breastfeeding and bone mass until young adulthood. PMID:25880483

  16. Short Sleep Duration in the First Years of Life and Obesity/Overweight at Age 4 Years: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halal, Camila S.E.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nunes, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short sleep duration from the first year of life influenced weight at an early age. Study design During 2004, children born in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. Sleeping habits during the previous 2 weeks were assessed, and the children were weighed and measured at 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups. Overweight and obesity at 4 years were defined according to World Health Organization z-scores for body mass index for age. Short sleep duration was defined as fewer than 10 hours of sleep per night at any follow-up. Results Out of the 4263 live births, 4231 were recruited. The prevalence of short sleep duration at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age was 10.1%. At 4 years of age, 201 children were obese (5.3%), and 302 (8%) were overweight. Among short sleepers, the prevalence ratio for overweight/obesity after adjusting for maternal and children's characteristics was 1.32 (1.03; 1.70). Conclusions Children who slept for fewer than 10 hours per night at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age were more likely to be overweight or obese at 4 years of age, despite their sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. PMID:26541426

  17. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. VI. Education, intellectual ability and occupation.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between occupation, education and intellectual ability at 30 years of age are analysed with particular reference to type of school attended at the age of 14 years. Data utilized are derived from interviews, psychological tests, local files of various schools, and journals of the National Services for Mentally Retarded. The study comprises all live births in the year 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen, a total of 1570 persons. A sample was taken from this cohort after stratification according to type of school attended at age 14 years. The sample was supplemented with persons who had either attended Special Schools for the educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) or received care from the Services for the Mentally Retarded (SMR). The final sample consisted of 262 persons. A relationship was found for both sexes between type of school attended at the age of 14 years and level of general education at the age of 30. For men, both occupational training acquired and intellecutal ability at 30 years were also clearly related to type of school attended at age 14 years. The test performance of the male group was superior to that of the female group. Differing careers in the two sexes may provide a clue as to the reason underlying this finding. PMID:524079

  18. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  19. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  20. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding, autumn birth and increased gestational age are associated with lower risk of fever in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Li, Y; Li, N; Han, Q; Liu, Z; Li, Z; Qiu, J; Zhang, G; Li, F; Tian, N

    2012-09-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been emerging and reemerging in recent years. This study aims to investigate whether breastfeeding and other factors may affect the profile of fever and disease course in children with HFMD. Three hundred seventy-two preschool children with HFMD were included. The demographics, environmental factors, and delivery- and feeding-associated factors in the children were obtained and their effects on the profile of fever and disease course were analyzed. Of the 372 children, 139 (37.37%) had fever during the disease course. Gender, breastfeeding pattern, birth season and gestational age were significantly different between the children with and without fever (p = 0.034, p < 0.0001, p = 0.035 and p = 0.013, respectively). After multivariate-adjusted analysis, prolonged exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.001, OR 0.401, 95% CI 0.229-0.704), autumn birth (p = 0.007, OR 0.409, 95% CI 0.214-0.784) and higher gestational age (p = 0.029, OR 0.089, 95% CI 0.010-0.781) were protective factors for the incidence of fever.

  1. Education and Cognitive Ability as Direct, Mediating, or Spurious Influences on Female Age at First Birth: Behavior Genetic Models Fit to Danish Twin Data1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McGue, Matt; Behrman, Jere R.; Petersen, Inge; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The authors study education and cognitive ability as predictors of female age at first birth (AFB), using monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs from the Middle-Aged Danish Twin survey. Using mediated regression, they replicate findings linking education (and not cognitive ability) to AFB. But in a behavior genetic model, both relationships are absorbed within a latent variable measuring the shared family environment. Two interpretations are relevant. First, variance in AFB emerges from differences between families, not differences between sisters within the same family. Second, even in a natural laboratory sensitive to genetic variance in female fertility—during demographic transition—the variance in AFB was non-genetic, located instead within the shared environment. PMID:19569405

  2. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Birth. 3.209 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.209 Birth. Age or... abstract of the public record of birth. Such a record established more than 4 years after the birth will...

  3. Placental and fetal growth restriction, size at birth and neonatal growth alter cognitive function and behaviour in sheep in an age- and sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Damien S; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Giles, Lynne C; De Blasio, Miles J; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and slow neonatal growth in humans are each associated with poorer learning, memory and cognitive flexibility in childhood and adulthood. The relative contributions of pre- and post-natal growth to cognitive outcomes are unclear, however. We therefore compared performance in learning, memory and reversal tasks using a modified Y-maze at 18 and 40 weeks of age in offspring of placentally-restricted (PR: 10 M, 13 F) and control (23 M, 17 F) ovine pregnancies. We also investigated relationships between size at birth, neonatal growth rates and cognitive outcomes. PR had limited effects on cognitive outcomes, with PR males requiring more trials to solve the initial learning task than controls (P=0.037) but faster completion of reversal tasks in both sexes at 18 weeks of age. In males, neonatal growth rate correlated inversely with numbers of trials and total time required to solve memory tasks at 40 weeks of age. In females, bleat frequency in the first reversal task at 18 weeks of age correlated positively with birth weight (r=0.734, P<0.05) and neonatal growth rate (r=0.563, P<0.05). We conclude that PR induces limited effects on cognitive outcomes in sheep, with some evidence of impaired learning in males, but little effect on memory or cognitive flexibility in either sex. Rapid neonatal growth predicted improved memory task performance in males, suggesting that strategies to optimize neonatal growth may have long-term cognitive benefits but that these may be sex-specific.

  4. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE

  5. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  6. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  7. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  8. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  9. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  10. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  11. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  12. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  13. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    PubMed

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal infections in very preterm and/or VLBW children, while developmental effects beyond 24 months are unknown. We determined the cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes at school age of a cohort of sixty-four very preterm and/or VLBW children (aged 7·5 (sd 0·4) years) who participated in a randomised placebo-controlled trial using enteral glutamine between day 3 and day 30 of life. Cognitive and motor outcomes were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Attention Network Test and a visual working memory task. Behavioural outcomes were evaluated using parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. Intelligence quotient, processing speed, attentional functioning, working memory and parent- and teacher-rated behavioural outcomes were not different between children treated with glutamine or placebo; only visuomotor abilities as measured by the Ball Skills scale of the MABC (P = 0·002; d = 0·67) were poorer in the glutamine group. This effect persisted after taking into account the beneficial effects of lower serious neonatal infections rates in children treated with glutamine (P = 0·005). In conclusion, glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  14. Redemptive birth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  15. Urinary nephrin: A new predictive marker for pregnancies with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ga Young; Lee, Kyung A; Park, Mi Hye; Park, Hye Sook; Ha, Eun Hee; Chun, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the differences in urinary nephrin among controls, gravidas with preeclampsia (PE), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. We also determined whether or not maternal urinary concentrations of nephrin are associated with the subsequent development of PE and SGA infants. Methods We analyzed maternal urinary levels of nephrin in women who were normal controls (n=50), women who were delivered SGA infants (n=40), and gravidas with PE (n=33) in the first, second and third trimesters. Urinary nephrin concentrations were measured with nephrin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results The levels of urinary nephrin were higher in gravida developing preeclampsia or SGA than in controls after adjusting serum creatinine (P<0.05 for both). Maternal urine concentrations of nephrin were higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA and PE in the third trimester (P<0.05), and also higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA in the first trimester (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting SGA from normal pregnancies were 67% and 89% in the first trimester, 60% and 79% in the second trimester, and 80% and 84% in the third trimester, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting PE from normal pregnancies were 67% and 83% in the first trimester and 73% and 79% in the third trimester, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that urinary nephrin can be used as an early marker in pregnancies at risk for developing PE and SGA infants. PMID:24327976

  16. 76 FR 22147 - Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA); Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... number, date and place of birth, mother's maiden name, or biometric records, or any other information... copy.'' The Department is working with OMB to meet the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  17. Heart morphology differences induced by intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth measured on the ECG at preadolescent age.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Rodriguez-Lopez, Merida; Bailón, Raquel; Sarvari, Sebastian Imre; Sitges, Marta; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart; Crispi, Fatima; Laguna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) and premature birth are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases throughout adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these factors in ventricular electrical remodeling in preadolescents. Electrocardiography was performed in a cohort of 33-IUGR, 32-preterm with appropriate weight and 60 controls. Depolarization and repolarization processes were studied by means of the surface ECG, including loops and angles corresponding to QRS and T-waves. The angles between the dominant vector of QRS and the frontal plane XY were different among the study groups: controls [20.03°(10.11°-28.64°)], preterm [25.48°(19.79°-33.56°)], and IUGR [27.77°(16.59°-33.23°)]. When compared to controls, IUGR subjects also presented wider angles between the difference of QRS and T-wave dominant vectors and the XY-plane [5.28°±12.15° vs 0.49°±14.15°, p<0.05] while preterm ones showed smaller frontal QRS-T angle [4.68°(2.20°-12.89°) vs 6.57°(2.72°-11.31°), p<0.05]. Thus, electrical remodeling is present in IUGR and preterm preadolescents, and might predispose them to cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:27036371

  18. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  19. Impact of country of birth on hospital admission for women of childbearing age in Sweden: a five year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E; Malmstrom, M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This study examines whether morbidity, defined as the first psychiatric hospital admission and the first somatic hospital admission, differs among subgroups of foreign born and second generation (that is, native born with at least one parent born abroad) women compared with Swedish born women (that is, with both parents native born) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Design Setting: In this follow up study the population consisted of 1 452 944 women, of whom 369 771 have an immigrant background (including second generation immigrants), aged 20–45 years. The population of 31 December 1993 was followed up to 31 December 1998. Differences in risk (hazard ratio) between different groups of immigrant women were estimated, adjusting for age, marital status, number of children, and disposable income. Main results: All four groups of foreign born women had higher age adjusted risks (HRs varied from 1.44 to 1.67) for a first psychiatric hospital admission than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only marginally when the sociodemographic factors were taken into consideration. Additionally, second generation women also had a higher age adjusted risk (HR = 1.42; CI = 1.37 to 1.48) than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only slightly in the main effect model. However, on analysing country of birth and first somatic hospital admissions, only non-European refugee women showed an increased age adjusted risk (HR = 1.26; CI = 1.24 to 1.29), which remained after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Conclusions: Foreign born and second generation women of childbearing age had a higher risk than Swedish born women for a first psychiatric hospital admission. However, only non-European refugees were at higher risk of somatic hospital admissions. PMID:14600113

  20. Mammographic density, parity and age at first birth, and risk of breast cancer: an analysis of four case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Woolcott, Christy G; Koga, Karin; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M; Yaffe, Martin J; Pagano, Ian; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Mammographic density is strongly and consistently associated with breast cancer risk. To determine if this association was modified by reproductive factors (parity and age at first birth), data were combined from four case-control studies conducted in the United States and Japan. To overcome the issue of variation in mammographic density assessment among the studies, a single observer re-read all the mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for other known breast cancer risk factors. Included were 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, 74% of whom were postmenopausal. A positive association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk was evident in every group defined by parity and age at first birth (OR per doubling of percent mammographic density ranged between 1.20 and 1.39). Nonetheless, the association appeared to be stronger among nulliparous than parous women (OR per doubling of percent mammographic density = 1.39 vs. 1.24; P interaction = 0.054). However, when examined by study location, the effect modification by parity was apparent only in women from Hawaii and when examined by menopausal status, it was apparent in postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, women. Effect modification by parity was not significant in subgroups defined by body mass index or ethnicity. Adjusting for mammographic density did not attenuate the OR for the association between parity and breast cancer risk by more than 16.4%, suggesting that mammographic density explains only a small proportion of the reduction in breast cancer risk associated with parity. In conclusion, this study did not support the hypothesis that parity modifies the breast cancer risk attributed to mammographic density. Even though an effect modification was found in Hawaiian women, no such thing was found in women from the other three locations.

  1. Placental lesions as predictors of cerebral palsy and abnormal neurocognitive function at school age in extremely low birth weight infants (<1 kg).

    PubMed

    Redline, Raymond W; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Hack, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1 kg) have high rates of neurodisability. Although previous studies have implicated placental lesions in adverse short-term neurologic outcomes in this population, none have assessed their effects in these children once they reach school age. We conducted a secondary analysis of placental pathology in a cohort study of inborn singleton ELBW infants born between 1992 and 1995 and evaluated for cerebral palsy (CP) and abnormal neurocognitive testing at 8 years of age (N = 129). The neurocognitive tests were the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and 6 subtests of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. We found that placental lesions associated with maternal vascular underperfusion (increased syncytial knots and acute atherosis) were risk factors for CP, while villous edema was associated with low scores on both neurocognitive tests. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) was not predictive of outcome in the population as a whole, but a severe fetal vascular response was associated with a lower NEPSY score in the subpopulation with HCA (N = 69). Placentas with increased syncytial knots, villous edema, and those with neither finding constituted nonoverlapping subgroups with distinct pathologic and perinatal characteristics. Among infants with villous edema (N = 25), those with neurologic impairment had lower gestational ages and more severe degrees of HCA. However, by logistic regression these other factors were not independent risk factors for abnormal neurocognitive testing, and only HCA with a severe fetal vascular response decreased the association of villous edema with low test scores for NEPSY, but not K-ABC.

  2. Birth cohort differences in fluid cognition in old age: comparisons of trends in levels and change trajectories over 30 years in three population-based samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Peter; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Gudmundsson, Pia; Johansson, Boo

    2015-03-01

    Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  3. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…

  4. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  5. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND ULTRASOUND DURING THE FIRST TRIMESTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trime...

  6. Preterm birth and behaviour problems in infants and preschool-age children: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Arpi, Elena; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The behaviour problems of children born preterm at school age are well known, but there have been few studies on the behaviour problems of preterm-born infants during infancy and at preschool age. Fourteen cohort studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed with a focus on the type, occurrence, comorbidity, stability, prediction, perinatal, social, and relational risk factors for behaviour problems of preterm-born children in infancy (0-2y) and at preschool age (3-5y). The relational risk factor was considered in an additional four papers. Very-preterm, very-low-birthweight, and moderately-preterm children, in both age groups, show more behaviour problems than term-born comparison children even after perinatal and social risk factors and cognitive performance have been controlled for. Poor social/interactive skills, poor behavioural and emotional self-regulation, emotional difficulties, and reduced attention are the most common behaviour problems. Behaviour problems in infancy are predictive of later behaviour problems and they should be included in follow-up programmes.

  7. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  8. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the ... abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Infections during pregnancy can also result in birth defects. For most ...

  9. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources In This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) First Few Days After Birth (Video) Meconium ... Tap here for the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge The decision to have a ...

  10. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species.

  11. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  12. Births: Final Data for 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Park, Melissa M.; Sutton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); pregnant women's medical care utilization (prenatal care, obstetric procedures,…

  13. Births: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Matthews, T. J.; Park, Melissa M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents 1998 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics, including: (1) age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; (2) maternal lifestyle and health characteristics, such as medical risk factors, weight…

  14. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903

  15. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  16. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  17. Postnatal weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and 5 y and body composition in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara; Maccario, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid weight gain in the first years of life is associated with adult obesity. Whether there are critical windows for this long term effect is unclear. Objective To study anthropometry in adolescence by gender according to weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and five years. Design Anthropometric parameters, including fat and fat-free mass by bipodal impedancemetry, were measured in 468 8–17 year old adolescents. We retrospectively collected early infancy data and individually estimated weight and height growth velocities in 69.4% of them using a mathematical model. Associations between birth parameters, growth velocities and anthropometric parameters in adolescence were studied. Results Weight growth velocity at three months was associated with overweight (OR for a 1 SD increase [95% CI]=1.52[1.04–2.22]), fat mass and waist circumference in adolescence in both genders, and with fat-free mass only in boys (r=0.29, P<0.001 versus r=−0.01, ns in girls). Weight growth velocities after 2 years were associated with all anthropometric parameters in adolescence, in both genders. Between 6 months and 2 years, weight growth velocities were significantly associated only with adolescent height in boys; in girls, associations with fat mass in adolescence were weaker. Discussion Our results support the hypothesis of two critical windows in early childhood associated with the later risk of obesity: up to 6 months and from 2 years onwards. The study of the determinants of growth during these two periods is of major importance for the prevention of obesity in adolescence. PMID:18541566

  18. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Power, Chris; Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Li, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates. Results Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low ORadjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71) at 7y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24) at 50y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low ORadjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84) at 7y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10) at 50y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences. PMID:25811782

  19. Unsanctioned births in China.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  20. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and mental and motor function of very low birth weight children at six years of age.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J S; Vik, T; Nilsen, G; Smevik, O; Andersson, H W; Brubakk, A M

    1997-06-01

    In this follow-up study, 20 of a geographically based year cohort of 31 surviving non-disabled VLBW (birthweight < 1500 g) children were examined at six years of age. The aim of the study was to relate cerebral MRI findings to neuro-development in these non-disabled children at six years of age. All MRI scans were evaluated for myelination pattern, periventricular gliosis, ventricular dilation and cortical atrophy. The Peabody motor test and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) were used in the evaluation of motor, mental and perceptual function. A diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity was made based on the examiner's impression of the child during the examination and based on the parent's history. We found that ten (50%) of the children had periventricular gliosis, mainly in centrum semiovale (CS) (nine children) and in central occipital white matter (COW) (six children). Gliosis in CS was related to lower scores on the Peabody gross motor test for locomotion, indicating involvement of corticospinal tracts. Additional gliosis in COW was related to both fine motor and gross motor impairments. We speculate that this indicates damage to both motor and visual pathways, affecting eye-hand coordination and balance function. No relationship between MRI deviations at six years and mental function based on performance, verbal and total IQ scores was found. However, there was a significant relationship between periventricular gliosis in COW and C5 and low scores on the WPPSI performance subtests: Picture completion test and Block design test. This may indicate visual and spatial perception problems, caused by damage to posterior visual pathways and occipito-thalamic tracts dealing with visuo-motor integration.

  1. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life. PMID:24482849

  2. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life.

  3. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  4. Birth Outcomes by Infertility Diagnosis: Analyses of the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (MOSART)

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E.; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene R.; Cohen, Bruce; Diop, Hafsatou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate ART pregnancy outcomes by infertility diagnosis. Study Design ART data on women who were treated and gave birth in Massachusetts were linked to vital records and hospital utilization data. Live births were categorized by eight mutually-exclusive ART diagnoses. Risks of prematurity, low birthweight (LBW), small-for-gestation (SGA), large-for-gestation (LGA), pregnancy hypertension, gestational diabetes, prenatal hospitalizations, and primary cesarean delivery were modeled using logistic regression, adjusted for parental characteristics, treatment parameters, and plurality (adjusted odds ratios, AORs, and 95% confidence intervals); the reference group were pregnancies with the diagnosis of male factor. Results Among the 7,354 singleton and twin pregnancies, there were nonsignificant differences in the risks for LBW, SGA, or LGA. Significantly increased risks included gestational diabetes (ovulation disorders, AOR 1.80, 1.35–2.41); prematurity (ovulation disorders, AOR 1.36, 1.08–1.71; other factors, AOR 1.33, 1.05, 1.67); prenatal hospital admissions (endometriosis, tubal and other factors, ovulation disorders, and uterine factors, AORs ranging from 1.66 to 2.68); primary cesarean section (uterine factors, AOR 1.96, 1.15, 3.36). Conclusions Although the infant outcomes of LBW, SGA, and LGA were generally similar across diagnosis groups, specific diagnoses had greater risks for prematurity, gestational diabetes, prenatal hospital utilization, and primary cesarean delivery. PMID:26775455

  5. Traffic density and stationary sources of air pollution associated with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin E from birth to age 5 years among New York City children.

    PubMed

    Patel, Molini M; Quinn, James W; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Kinney, Patrick L; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2011-11-01

    Exposures to ambient air traffic-related pollutants and their sources have been associated with respiratory and asthma morbidity in children. However, longitudinal investigation of the effects of traffic-related exposures during early childhood is limited. We examined associations of residential proximity and density of traffic and stationary sources of air pollution with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E among New York City children between birth and age 5 years. Subjects included 593 Dominican and African American participants from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health cohort. Prenatally, through age 5 years, residential and respiratory health data were collected every 3-6 months. At ages 2, 3, and 5 years, serum IgE was measured. Spatial data on the proximity and density of roadways and built environment were collected for a 250 m buffer around subjects' homes. Associations of wheeze, asthma, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE with prenatal, earlier childhood, and concurrent exposures to air pollution sources were analyzed using generalized estimating equations or logistic regression. In repeated measures analyses, concurrent residential density of four-way intersections was associated significantly with wheeze (odds ratio: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.57). Age 1 exposures also were associated with wheeze at subsequent ages. Concurrent proximity to highway was associated more strongly with total IgE (ratio of the geometric mean levels: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) than were prenatal or earlier childhood exposures. Positive associations also were observed between percent commercial building area and asthma, wheeze, and IgE and between proximity to stationary sources of air pollution and asthma. Longitudinal investigation suggests that among Dominican and African American children living in Northern Manhattan and South Bronx during ages 0-5 years, residence in neighborhoods with high density of traffic and industrial

  6. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  7. Chronic physical illness in early life and risk of chronic widespread and regional pain at age 68: evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Muthuri, Stella G; Kuh, Diana; Bendayan, Rebecca; Macfarlane, Gary J; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between serious illness in earlier life and risk of pain in old age using data from a large nationally representative British birth cohort, the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). Serious illness was defined as any experience of illness before age 25 requiring hospital admission of ≥28 days. Pain was self-reported at age 68, with chronic widespread pain (CWP) defined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations of serious illness in early life with CWP, chronic regional pain (CRP), and other pain, with no pain as the referent category. Adjustment was made for sex, socioeconomic position, adult health status, health behaviours, and psychosocial factors. Of 2401 NSHD participants with complete data, 10.5% reported CWP (13.2% of women and 7.7% of men), 30.2% reported CRP, and 14.8% other pain. Compared with those with no history of serious illness, those who experienced serious illness in early life had a higher likelihood of CWP (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.62 [95% CI: 1.21-2.17]) and of CRP (RRR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.01-1.54]) after adjusting for sex. In fully adjusted models, serious illness in early life remained associated with CWP (RRR = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.05-1.95]), but associations with CRP were attenuated (RRR = 1.19 [95% CI: 0.96-1.48]). There were no associations with other pain. These findings suggest that those who have experienced serious illness in earlier life may require more support than others to minimise their risk of CWP in later life.

  8. Chronic physical illness in early life and risk of chronic widespread and regional pain at age 68: evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella G.; Kuh, Diana; Bendayan, Rebecca; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to examine the associations between serious illness in earlier life and risk of pain in old age using data from a large nationally representative British birth cohort, the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). Serious illness was defined as any experience of illness before age 25 requiring hospital admission of ≥28 days. Pain was self-reported at age 68, with chronic widespread pain (CWP) defined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations of serious illness in early life with CWP, chronic regional pain (CRP), and other pain, with no pain as the referent category. Adjustment was made for sex, socioeconomic position, adult health status, health behaviours, and psychosocial factors. Of 2401 NSHD participants with complete data, 10.5% reported CWP (13.2% of women and 7.7% of men), 30.2% reported CRP, and 14.8% other pain. Compared with those with no history of serious illness, those who experienced serious illness in early life had a higher likelihood of CWP (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.62 [95% CI: 1.21-2.17]) and of CRP (RRR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.01-1.54]) after adjusting for sex. In fully adjusted models, serious illness in early life remained associated with CWP (RRR = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.05-1.95]), but associations with CRP were attenuated (RRR = 1.19 [95% CI: 0.96-1.48]). There were no associations with other pain. These findings suggest that those who have experienced serious illness in earlier life may require more support than others to minimise their risk of CWP in later life. PMID:27547897

  9. Antenatal blood pressure for prediction of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age babies: development and validation in two general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; de Stavola, Bianca L; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M; Crozier, Sarah; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can routine antenatal blood pressure measurements between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation contribute to the prediction of pre-eclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes? Methods This study used repeated antenatal measurements of blood pressure from 12 996 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to develop prediction models and validated these in 3005 women from the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). A model based on maternal early pregnancy characteristics only (BMI, height, age, parity, smoking, existing and previous gestational hypertension and diabetes, and ethnicity) plus initial mean arterial pressure was compared with a model additionally including current mean arterial pressure, a model including the deviation of current mean arterial pressure from a stratified normogram, and a model including both at different gestational ages from 20-36 weeks. Study answer and limitations The addition of blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improved prediction models compared with use of early pregnancy risk factors alone, but they contributed little to the prediction of preterm birth or small for gestational age. Though multiple imputation of missing data was used to increase the sample size and minimise selection bias, the validation sample might have been slightly underpowered as the number of cases of pre-eclampsia was just below the recommended 100. Several risk factors were self reported, potentially introducing measurement error, but this reflects how information would be obtained in clinical practice. What this study adds The addition of routinely collected blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improves predictive models for pre-eclampsia based on blood pressure in early pregnancy and other characteristics, facilitating a reduction in scheduled antenatal care. Funding, competing interests, data sharing UK Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, and UK Medical Research Council. Other

  10. Chronic physical illness in early life and risk of chronic widespread and regional pain at age 68: evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Muthuri, Stella G; Kuh, Diana; Bendayan, Rebecca; Macfarlane, Gary J; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between serious illness in earlier life and risk of pain in old age using data from a large nationally representative British birth cohort, the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). Serious illness was defined as any experience of illness before age 25 requiring hospital admission of ≥28 days. Pain was self-reported at age 68, with chronic widespread pain (CWP) defined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations of serious illness in early life with CWP, chronic regional pain (CRP), and other pain, with no pain as the referent category. Adjustment was made for sex, socioeconomic position, adult health status, health behaviours, and psychosocial factors. Of 2401 NSHD participants with complete data, 10.5% reported CWP (13.2% of women and 7.7% of men), 30.2% reported CRP, and 14.8% other pain. Compared with those with no history of serious illness, those who experienced serious illness in early life had a higher likelihood of CWP (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.62 [95% CI: 1.21-2.17]) and of CRP (RRR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.01-1.54]) after adjusting for sex. In fully adjusted models, serious illness in early life remained associated with CWP (RRR = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.05-1.95]), but associations with CRP were attenuated (RRR = 1.19 [95% CI: 0.96-1.48]). There were no associations with other pain. These findings suggest that those who have experienced serious illness in earlier life may require more support than others to minimise their risk of CWP in later life. PMID:27547897

  11. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  12. Birth Weight Reference Percentiles for Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Jun; Mu, Yi; Deng, Ying; Mao, Meng; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Ma, Shuangge; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese. Methods Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006–2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves. Results Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants. Conclusion There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25127131

  13. Nitrogen balance and protein turnover during the growth failure in newly born low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kandil, H; Darwish, O; Hammad, S; Zagloul, N; Halliday, D; Millward, J

    1991-06-01

    Weight gain, nitrogen balance, protein turnover, and energy and protein intakes were measured during the first week of life of 14 low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, 5 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 9 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants enterally fed at rates determined by the infants ability to assimilate feed. Mean gross intakes were 334 KJ and 1.75 g/kg protein; 4 infants were increasing and 10 were losing weight at rates proportional to gross energy and protein intakes and to nitrogen balance (0.031 g protein balance/g wt gain). Rates of protein synthesis and degradation measured by an intragastric infusion of [1-13C]leucine, averaged 14.5 and 15.9 g protein.kg-1.d-1, some 50% higher than previously reported in older preterm infants and not correlated with nitrogen balance. The growth failure of these infants was not associated with inadequate overall rates of protein turnover, but appeared to reflect an influence of the insufficient energy and protein intakes on the high rates of protein turnover, inducing changes in protein balance in either direction through relatively small changes in protein synthesis and/or degradation. PMID:2035469

  14. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D During Pregnancy & Small-for-Gestational Age in Black and White Infants

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Huh, Susanna Y.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In a prospective prenatal cohort study, we examined associations of second trimester and cord plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) with small-for-gestational age (SGA), and the extent to which vitamin D might explain black/white differences in SGA. Methods We studied 1067 white and 236 black mother-infant pairs recruited from 8 obstetrical offices early in pregnancy in Massachusetts. We analyzed 25(OH)D levels using an immunoassay and performed multivariable logistic models to estimate the odds of SGA by category of 25(OH)D level. Results Mean (standard deviation [SD]) second trimester 25(OH)D level was 60 nmol/L (21) and was lower for black (46 nmol/L [22]) than white (62 nmol/L [20]) women. 59 infants were SGA (4.5%) and more black than white infants were SGA (8.5% vs. 3.7%). The odds of SGA were higher with maternal 25(OH)D levels <25 vs. ≥25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.16, 8.63). The increased odds of SGA among black vs. white participants decreased from an OR of 2.04(1.04, 4.04) to 1.68(0.82, 3.46) after adjusting for 25(OH)D. Conclusions Second trimester 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L were associated with higher odds of SGA. Our data raise the possibility that Vitamin D status may contribute to racial disparities in SGA. PMID:22658824

  15. QuickStats: Percentage* of Preterm Births(†) Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007-2014(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-05

    During 2007-2014, the percentage of births among teens aged 15-19 years that were preterm declined for each racial/ethnic group, except for non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander teens, where the change was not significant. In 2014, the percentage of births that were preterm was higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander teens (10.6% for both) than non-Hispanic white (8.6%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (8.2%), and Hispanic (7.9%) teens.

  16. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  17. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  18. Heart rate variability and cardiac reflexes in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Taylor, Barry J; Bolton, David P G; Sayers, Rachel M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the influence of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac reflexes, we studied 27 healthy small for gestational age (SGA) and 23 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants during a nap study. Resting HRV was assessed by point dispersion of Poincaré plots for overall (SDRR) and instantaneous beat-to-beat variability (SDDeltaRR) and the ratio (SDRR/SDDeltaRR). Heart rate reflex and arousal responses to a 60 degrees head-up tilt were determined. All tests/measures were repeated twice in quiet and active sleep and in prone and supine sleep positions at 1 and 3 mo of age. SGA infants exhibited higher resting sympathetic tone [SDRR/SDDeltaRR: 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.0) and 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.8) in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.046] and a tendency for a smaller tachycardic reflex response to the tilt [Deltaheart rate: 24 beats/min (95% confidence interval: 20, 28) and 30 (95% confidence interval: 25, 34)] in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.06]. HRV indexes were reduced in the prone compared with supine position (P<0.0001), but reflex tilt responses were unchanged with position. SGA/AGA differences were independent of sleep position. Gestational age weight status did not influence the likelihood of arousal, but prone sleeping per se reduced the odds 2.5-fold. The findings suggest reduced autonomic activity and cardiac reflexes in SGA infants. The finding that the sympathetic component of the control of HRV was higher in SGA infants could link with findings in adulthood of an association between being born SGA and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16306252

  19. Neighborhood deprivation and small-for-gestaional-age term births among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential context has received increased attention as a possible contributing factor to race/ethnic and socio-economic disparities in birth outcomes in the United States. Utilising vital statistics birth record data, this study examined the association between neighbourhood dep...

  20. My life is a longing: child abuse and its adult sequelae. Results of the Brody longitudinal study from birth to age 30.

    PubMed

    Massie, Henry; Szajnberg, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    The psychoanalytically oriented Brody longitudinal study has followed the psychological development of 76 individuals from birth to age 30. Ten suffered severe maltreatment in childhood in the form of rejection and/or physical abuse at the hands of one or both parents. This report describes the effects of child abuse on the emerging personalities of the children, as well as on their adult personalities and mental health. Specifically, as adults the maltreated children had significantly more psychiatric illness (typically depressions and anxiety disorders), less mature psychological defense mechanisms, more insecure mental representations of attachment to their parents as indicated by the adult attachment interview, and a lower Global Assessment of Functioning than their well-treated counterparts. Additionally, their prevailing moods were joyless. Case examples show the emergence of symptoms, personality disorders, and defenses over time, as well as the workings of ameliorating influences. Several of the maltreated children made relatively successful adaptations as adults, indicating children's potential for resilience. Resilience, however, may be a superficial concept, for, in this series of cases, seemingly adequate coping in formerly mistreated children always came at the price of emotional vulnerability and compromised potential.

  1. Understanding optimal nutrition among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico: employing formative research to lay the foundation for national birth defects prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Lisa L Massi; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Valencia, Diana; Correa-Sierra, Elia; Kopfman, Jenifer E

    2007-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%-70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the number of childbearing-aged women who take a vitamin containing folic acid every day. As the first stage of formative research in campaign planning, two exploratory, qualitative studies were conducted in order to (a) understand the complexity of vitamin use among women in the United States and Puerto Rico and (b) serve as a foundation on which to develop national communication and education interventions. Also, this information shed light on theories that might be used to guide campaign development. Results indicated that campaign messages designed to increase folic acid use through multivitamin supplementation in the United States must address women's barriers to vitamin use (e.g., cost, time), increase women's perceived need for multivitamins (e.g., identify immediate, tangible results from taking a daily multivitamin), and address the relationship between daily food choices and the need for supplementation. Future campaign messages in Puerto Rico must focus on many of these same issues, in addition to increasing women's knowledge about when folic acid should be taken in relation to pregnancy and addressing women's perceptions that vitamins cause weight gain (an undesirable outcome for most participants). The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the development of a creative new approach to increase multivitamin consumption among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico.

  2. Understanding optimal nutrition among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico: employing formative research to lay the foundation for national birth defects prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Lisa L Massi; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Valencia, Diana; Correa-Sierra, Elia; Kopfman, Jenifer E

    2007-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious