Science.gov

Sample records for age sga methods

  1. Small for gestational age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002302.htm Small for gestational age (SGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small for gestational age means that a fetus or an infant is ...

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  3. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Patrizia; Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Farris, Evelina; Bianco, Vincenzo; Sassi, Roberto; De Giovanni, Maria; Gallo, Valeria; D’Onofrio, Antonietta; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases).Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children. PMID:27583297

  4. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  5. The Difference of Lymphocyte Subsets Including Regulatory T-Cells in Umbilical Cord Blood between AGA Neonates and SGA Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Hee; Hur, Mina; Hwang, Han Sung; Kwon, Han Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the regulatory T cells in cord blood of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates with those of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Materials and Methods Umbilical cord blood was collected upon labor in 108 healthy full-term (between 37 and 41 gestational weeks) neonates, who were born between November 2010 and April 2012. Among them, 77 samples were obtained from AGA neonates, and 31 samples were obtained from SGA neonates. Regulatory T cells and lymphocyte subsets were determined using a flow cytometer. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to compare differences between AGA and SGA neonates. Results Regulatory T cells in cord blood were increased in the SGA group compared with normal controls (p=0.041). However, cytotoxic T cells in cord blood were significantly decreased in the SGA group compared with normal controls (p=0.007). Conclusion This is the first study to compare the distribution of lymphocyte subsets including regulatory T cells in cord blood between AGA neonates and SGA neonates. PMID:25837188

  6. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat (ENT) Dental/Orthodontics Urology Orthopedics Child Development Psychology Special Education Services DO WE NEED TO IMPROVE ... body proportions and head circumference Improved psychological and cognitive function Possible Adverse Side Effects of GHT for ...

  7. Dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA) – A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Bakker, Rachel; Irving, Hyacinth; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Malini, Shobha; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA). Search Strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches. Selection Criteria Case control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included. Data collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birth weight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardized protocol. Meta-analyses on dose-response relationship were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data. Main Results Compared to abstainers, the overall dose-response relationships for low birth weight and SGA had no effect up to 10 g/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth had no effect up to 18 g/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day) of pure alcohol consumption; thereafter, the relationship had monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for both outcomes. Conclusions Dose-response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes while light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consults should be initiated. PMID:21729235

  8. Increase of Long-Term ‘Diabesity’ Risk, Hyperphagia, and Altered Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Expression in Neonatally Overnourished ‘Small-For-Gestational-Age’ (SGA) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schellong, Karen; Neumann, Uta; Rancourt, Rebecca C.; Plagemann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have shown long-term health adversity in low birth weight subjects, especially concerning the metabolic syndrome and ‘diabesity’ risk. Alterations in adult food intake have been suggested to be causally involved. Responsible mechanisms remain unclear. Methods and Findings By rearing in normal (NL) vs. small litters (SL), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) rats were neonatally exposed to either normal (SGA-in-NL) or over-feeding (SGA-in-SL), and followed up into late adult age as compared to normally reared appropriate-for-gestational-age control rats (AGA-in-NL). SGA-in-SL rats displayed rapid neonatal weight gain within one week after birth, while SGA-in-NL growth caught up only at juvenile age (day 60), as compared to AGA-in-NL controls. In adulthood, an increase in lipids, leptin, insulin, insulin/glucose-ratio (all p<0.05), and hyperphagia under normal chow as well as high-energy/high-fat diet, modelling modern ‘westernized’ lifestyle, were observed only in SGA-in-SL as compared to both SGA-in-NL and AGA-in-NL rats (p<0.05). Lasercapture microdissection (LMD)-based neuropeptide expression analyses in single neuron pools of the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC) revealed a significant shift towards down-regulation of the anorexigenic melanocortinergic system (proopiomelanocortin, Pomc) in SGA-in-SL rats (p<0.05). Neuropeptide expression within the orexigenic system (neuropeptide Y (Npy), agouti-related-peptide (Agrp) and galanin (Gal)) was not significantly altered. In essence, the ‘orexigenic index’, proposed here as a neuroendocrine ‘net-indicator’, was increased in SGA-in-SL regarding Npy/Pomc expression (p<0.01), correlated to food intake (p<0.05). Conclusion Adult SGA rats developed increased ‘diabesity’ risk only if exposed to neonatal overfeeding. Hypothalamic malprogramming towards decreased anorexigenic activity was involved into the pathophysiology of this neonatally acquired adverse phenotype. Neonatal

  9. LBW and SGA Impact Longitudinal Growth and Nutritional Status of Filipino Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Palmera; Ayaso, Edna B.; Monterde, Donna Bella S.; Acosta, Luz P.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Tallo, Veronica; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    We performed this study to longitudinally compare rates of stunting, wasting and underweight among low birthweight (LBW), non-LBW, and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants in Leyte, The Philippines and factors that predicted catch up. Birthweights of 357 infants born in Leyte, The Philippines were obtained within 48 hours of delivery and infants were evaluated at one, six and 12 months. Newborns were classified as LBW, SGA, or both. We derived length-for-age, weight-for-length and weight-for-age Z-scores using WHOAnthro. Generalized estimating equations models were used to compare the differences in prevalence and mean Z-scores for these growth and nutritional outcomes, with separate models made with LBW and SGA as distinct primary predictors. We compared the longitudinal risk of stunting, wasting and underweight during infancy among LBW versus non-LBW and SGA versus non-SGA infants, while also evaluating key potential confounding, explanatory and modifying covariates. Overall, 9.0% of infants were born prematurely, 14.0% of infants were LBW and 22.9% were SGA. LBW infants had significantly increased odds of stunting, wasting and underweight persisting to 12 months of age, and SGA infants had significantly increased odds of stunting and underweight. LBW and SGA infants had higher rates of weight-for-length gain in the first month of life. Maternal educational attainment and exclusive breastfeeding decreased the risk of stunting and undernutrition. In this setting, LBW and SGA infants have higher rates of growth stunting and undernutrition during the first year of life and do not exhibit catch-up growth by 12 months of age. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00486863 PMID:27441564

  10. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  11. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  12. Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; Fichorova, Raina N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl; Paneth, Nigel; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to disentangle the contributions of perinatal systemic inflammation and small for gestational age (SGA) to the occurrence of low Bayley Mental Development Indices (MDIs) at age 2 years. Method We measured the concentration of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained during the first 2 postnatal weeks from 805 infants who were born before the 28th week of gestation and who had MDI measurements at age 2 years and were able to walk independently. Results SGA newborns who did not have systemic inflammation (a concentration of an inflammation-related protein in the top quartile for gestational age on 2 days a week apart) were at greater risk of an MDI < 55, but not 55–69, than their peers who had neither SGA nor systemic inflammation. SGA infants who had elevated blood concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-8 during the first two postnatal weeks were at even higher risk of an MDI < 55 than their SGA peers without systemic inflammation and of their non-SGA peers with systemic inflammation. Conclusion SGA appears to place very preterm newborns at increased risk of a very low MDI. Systemic inflammation adds considerably to the increased risk. PMID:23364171

  13. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  14. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  15. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  16. 75 FR 17957 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Grants Serving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... and Budget (OMB) Notice of Final Policy Issuance, 68 FR 38402, Jun. 27, 2003. The lead applicant, the... Applications (SGA) for Grants Serving Young Adult Offenders and High School Dropouts in High-Poverty, High... to serve young adult (ages 18 to 24) offenders and high school dropouts in high- poverty,...

  17. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  18. Comparison of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers with small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age newborns in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Amiri Moghadam, Tayebeh; Arasteh, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes but its relationship with fetal growth is unknown. Objective: We compared the 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers and their small for gestational age (SGA) newborns with mothers and their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns. Materials and Methods: The study population included pregnant women that referred to Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman from 2012 to 2013. The case and control group consisted of 40 pregnant mothers with SGA and AGA newborns, respectively. The maternal and infants 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in the two groups. Results: 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was statistically higher in women with SGA newborns in comparison to women with AGA newborns (p=0.003).Vitamin D deficiency was higher among the SGA newborns in comparison to AGA newborns (25% vs. 17.5%), although this finding was not statistically meaningful (p=0.379). The relationship of vitamin D deficiency levels between mothers and infants in both the SGA group and the AGA group was significant. Conclusion: Our study reveals a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women with SGA infants in comparison to women with AGA children. In addition, maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with its deficiency in newborns. PMID:26131008

  19. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  20. Preoperative Nutritional Assessment in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery: MNA or PG-SGA?

    PubMed

    Dubhashi, S P; Kayal, Akshat

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the use of patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) as a preoperative nutritional assessment tool in elderly cancer patients. This was a prospective study carried out on 47 patients, 45 years and above suffering from cancer and admitted to Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune. The patients were evaluated with PG-SGA and MNA tools at the time of admission and baseline data were collected. All patients had undergone surgeries as per indications. Postoperatively, the surgical outcomes and adverse events were noted and statistically evaluated. The average age of the study sample was 61.46 years and 29 patients were females. The patients classified by PG-SGA were ten in group A and 37 in group B and C. The patients classified by MNA were five in no risk group and 42 in group with patients at risk and malnourished. When evaluated with PG-SGA in group B and C, wound infections and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 86.4 % patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 14.2 days and their average duration of stay was 29 days. On the other hand, the evaluation of patients with MNA, at risk and malnourished patients, wound infections, and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 81 % of patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 13.8 days and their average duration of stay was 27 days. The results were statistically significant. The mini nutritional assessment is more exhaustive in identifying patients at risk and is useful in screening populations to identify frail elderly persons allowing us to intervene earlier, thereby improving the patient prognosis. The patient-generated subjective global assessment is a more comprehensive tool for elderly cancer

  1. 76 FR 14694 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) AGENCY: Employment and Training... operating the National Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment...

  2. Validation of nutritional risk index method against patient-generated subjective global assessment in screening malnutrition in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578

  3. Movin' on Up: Socioeconomic Mobility and the Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational Age Infant.

    PubMed

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Holzman, Claudia; Calloway, Danuelle; Tian, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Objective Poor fetal growth is associated with increased rates of adverse health outcomes in children and adults. The social determinants of poor fetal growth are not well understood. Using multiple socioeconomic indicators measured at the individual level, this study examined changes in maternal socioeconomic position (SEP) from childhood to adulthood (socioeconomic mobility) in relation to poor fetal growth in offspring. Methods Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (September 1998-June 2004) that enrolled women in mid-pregnancy from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (2463 women: 1824 non-Hispanic White, 639 non-Hispanic Black). Fetal growth was defined by birthweight-for-gestational age percentiles; infants with birthweight-for-gestational age <10th percentile were referred to as small-for-gestational age (SGA). In logistic regression models, mothers whose SEP changed from childhood to adulthood were compared to two reference groups, the socioeconomic group they left and the group they joined. Results Approximately, 8.2 % of women (non-Hispanic White: 6.3 %, non-Hispanic Black: 13.9 %) delivered an SGA infant. Upward mobility was associated with decreased risk of delivering an SGA infant. Overall, the SGA adjusted-odds ratio was 0.34 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.69] for women who moved from lower to middle/upper versus static lower class, and 0.44 (CI 0.28-1.04) for women who moved from middle to upper versus static middle class. There were no significant differences in SGA risk when women were compared to the SEP group they joined. Conclusions Our findings support a link between mother's socioeconomic mobility and SGA offspring. Policies that allow for the redistribution or reinvestment of resources may reduce disparities in rates of SGA births. PMID:26541591

  4. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-11-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using /sup 153/Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation.

  5. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  6. The association of cerebral palsy and death with small-for-gestational age birth weight in preterm neonates by individualized and population-based percentiles

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, William A.; Lai, Yinglei; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Thorp, John M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Malone, Fergal D.; O'sullivan, Mary J.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether an individualized growth standard (IS) improves identification of preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates at risk of developing moderate/severe cerebral palsy (CP) or death. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of MgSO4 for prevention of CP or death among anticipated preterm births. Singleton non-anomalous liveborns delivered before 34 weeks’ were classified as SGA (< 10th % for their GA) by a population standard (PS) or an IS (incorporating maternal age, height, weight, parity, race/ethnicity, and neonatal gender). The primary outcome was prediction of moderate or severe CP or death by age 2. RESULTS Of 1588 eligible newborns, 143 (9.4%) experienced CP (N=33) or death (N=110). Forty-four (2.8%) were SGA by the PS and 364 (22.9%) by the IS. All PS-SGA newborns also were identified as IS-SGA. SGA newborns by either standard had a similarly increased risk of CP or death (PS: RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.3 vs. IS: RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5, respectively). The similarity of RRs remained after stratification by MgSO4 treatment group. The IS was more sensitive (36% vs. 6%, p <.001), but less specific (78% vs. 98%, p <.001) for CP or death. ROC curve analysis revealed a statistically lower AUC for the PS, although the ability of either method to predict which neonates would subsequently develop CP or death was poor (PS: 0.55, 95% CI 0.49–0.60 vs. IS: 0.59, 95% CI 0.54–0.64, p<.001). CONCLUSION An individualized SGA growth standard does not improve the association with, or prediction of, CP or death by age 2. PMID:23770470

  7. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  8. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  9. 76 FR 14695 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (SGA) for National Farmworker Jobs Training Program (NFJP) Housing Assistance AGENCY: Employment and... Farmworker Jobs Program (NFJP), under section 167 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), 29...

  10. 76 FR 11815 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (SGA) for the Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration (ETJD) AGENCY: Employment and Training... jobs (ETJ) programs, as well as other activities and services, to increase the workforce participation... beyond transitional jobs (TJ) programs currently operating or tested previously. ETA seeks...

  11. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Career...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Career Pathways Innovation Fund Grants Program AGENCY: Employment and...

  12. Dietary intake in young adults born small or appropriate for gestational age: data from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Compare the dietary intake of young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) versus those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Data at the 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France). Data from 229 AGA-born adults and 172 SGA-born adults with available dietary information are presented. Methods Dietary intake was based on a food questionnaire including 19 items. The χ2 test was run to compare intake between SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. An a priori score was calculated based on the adherence to recommendations from the French Nutrition and Health Program and included 8 components with the lowest value indicating a lower adherence to recommendations. The score was then divided into quartiles. Relative risks and 95% CIs, controlling for age and sex in multivariate analysis, were calculated in order to determine the risk of belonging to the first versus the second to the fourth quartiles in SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. Results Intakes of SGA-born adults indicated that they consumed more meat, sugar and less fish than AGA-born individuals (all p<0.05). Multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and sex showed that the relative risk of belonging to the first quartile versus the other three quartiles did not disclose any significant difference in SGA-born versus AGA-born participants: RR=0.92 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.30). Conclusions Aside from the differences found by univariate analyses, no significant differences were obtained in multivariate analyses. Findings suggest that parameters of fetal programming are more associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood rather than dietary patterns. PMID:27473954

  13. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  14. 76 FR 17970 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Young Parents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... (SGA) for the Young Parents Demonstration AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... applicants in providing intensive mentoring services to low- income young parents (both mothers and...

  15. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1/Insulin Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-3 Axis and on Early Weight Gain in Small for Gestational Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl; Büyükocak, Özlem Murat; Tarancı, Selda Mohan; Çoban, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) axis and insulin resistance (IR) and the relationship of these parameters with growth in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants at birth and in early infancy. Methods: Postnatal blood samples for measurement of glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 were taken from 60 infants (30 AGA and 30 SGA) at birth and at one, three, and six months of age. Both SGA and AGA infants were divided into two groups: growing well and not growing well. Blood glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 values were assessed in all infants. Results: Homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) values in well-growing SGA infants in the third and sixth months were found to be higher than in not well-growing SGA infants (3.9±0.8 vs. 1.0±0.3 at 3 months and 3.3±0.9 vs. 2.4±0.9 at 6 months, p<0.05). IGF-1 levels in well-growing SGA infants at 3 and 6 months were found to be higher than those in not well-growing SGA infants (83.80±44.50 vs. 73.50±17.60 ng/mL at 3 months and 95.12±50.74 vs. 87.67±22.91 ng/mL at 6 months, p<0.05). The IGF-1 values were significantly lower in well-growing SGA infants than in well-growing AGA infants (83.80±44.50 vs. 103.31±30.81 ng/mL at 3 months and 95.12±50.74 vs. 110.87±26.44 ng/mL at 6 months, p<0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effects of accelerated early infant growth on IGF-1/IGFBP-3 axis in SGA-born infants. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748063

  16. Long-Term Stability of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Wu, Meiping; Huang, Yangming

    2012-01-01

    Accelerometers are one of the most important sensors in a strapdown airborne gravimeter. The accelerometer's drift determines the long-term accuracy of the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), which is the primary and most critical component of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. A long-term stability test lasting 104 days was conducted to determine the characteristics of the strapdown airborne gravimeter's long-term drift. This stability test was based on the first set of strapdown airborne gravimeters built in China, the SGA-WZ. The test results reveal a quadratic drift in the strapdown airborne gravimeter data. A drift model was developed using the static data in the two end sections, and then this model was used to correct the test data. After compensating for the drift, the drift effect improved from 70 mGal to 3.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 0.63 mGal. The quadratic curve better reflects the drift's real characteristics. In comparison with other methodologies, modelling the drift as a quadratic curve was shown to be more appropriate. Furthermore, this method allows the drift to be adjusted throughout the course of the entire campaign. PMID:23112647

  17. Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Diameter in Small for Gestational Age and Growth Restricted Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roig, M. Dolores; Mazarico, Edurne; Valladares, Esther; Guirado, Laura; Fernandez-Arias, Mireia; Vela, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and aortic diameter (AD) in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Methods Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks. Results Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm]), than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447–0.485 mm]), and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm]) (p = 0.023). Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258–4.655 mm]), than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm]) (p = 0.028). Conclusions Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease. PMID:26017141

  18. 76 FR 10400 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Green Jobs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (SGA) for Green Jobs Innovation Fund AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Investment Act of 1998, Title I, Subtitle D, Section 171(d), Public Law 105-220 for the Green Jobs Innovation... in green jobs. ETA proposes to fund approximately five to eight grants to national and...

  19. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (SGA) for Serving Juvenile Offenders in High-Poverty, High-Crime Communities AGENCY: Employment and...-poverty, high-crime communities. The purpose of these grants is to improve the long-term labor market... competitively select local sub- grantees to operate the program in a minimum of five high-poverty,...

  20. 77 FR 9703 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Young...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Serving Young Adult Ex-Offenders Through Training and Service-Learning AGENCY: Employment...

  1. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  2. A Flight Test of the Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter SGA-WZ in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Forsberg, René; Wu, Meiping; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang

    2015-01-01

    An airborne gravimeter is one of the most important tools for gravity data collection over large areas with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of several kilometers. In August 2012, a flight test was carried out to determine the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of the new Chinese SGA-WZ strapdown airborne gravimeter in Greenland, in an area with good gravity coverage from earlier marine and airborne surveys. An overview of this new system SGA-WZ is given, including system design, sensor performance and data processing. The processing of the SGA-WZ includes a 160 s length finite impulse response filter, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 6 km. For the primary repeated line, a mean r.m.s. deviation of the differences was less than 1.5 mGal, with the error estimate confirmed from ground truth data. This implies that the SGA-WZ could meet standard geophysical survey requirements at the 1 mGal level. PMID:26057039

  3. 76 FR 3926 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... (SGA) for Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY...) from the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants funding source to... improve their ability to deliver education and career training programs that can be completed in two...

  4. 77 FR 11592 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... (SGA) for the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants Program AGENCY... Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grants program. The TAACCCT grants program... career training programs that can be completed in two years or less, and are suited for workers who...

  5. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research. PMID:26311800

  6. How to feed small for gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Feeding small for gestational age (SGA) newborns is extremely challenging and the neonatologist should be brave and cautious at the same time. Although these babies have a high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, enteral feeding guidelines are not well established and practice varies widely among different neonatal units. Currently available studies on this topic include extremely and very low birth weight neonates, but are not focused specifically on small for gestational age infants. This review analyzes papers focused on feeding interventions in order to provide the best available evidences about the optimum timing for introduction of enteral feeding, how fast feed volume can be advanced, which milk and which feeding method is more appropriate in SGA infants. PMID:23663313

  7. Outcomes of Small for Gestational Age Infants < 27 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Lilia C.; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Li, Lei; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Bara, Rebecca; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants <27 weeks gestation is associated with mortality, morbidity, growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ corrected age (CA). Study design This was a retrospective cohort study from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network’s Generic Database and Follow-up Studies. Infants born at <27 weeks’ gestation from January 2006 to July 2008 were included. SGA was defined as birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age by the Olsen growth curves. Infants with birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental data were compared between the groups. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as any of the following: cognitive score <70 on BSID III, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral hearing loss (+/− amplification) or blindness (vision <20/200). Logistic regression analysis evaluated the association between SGA status and death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Results There were 385 SGA and 2586 non-SGA infants. Compared with the non-SGA group, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have higher level of education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. SGA infants were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, a higher mortality and to have received prolonged mechanical ventilation and postnatal steroids. SGA status was associated with higher odds of death or neurodevelopmental impairment [OR 3.91 (95% CI: 2.91–5.25), P<0.001]. Conclusion SGA status among infants <27 weeks’ gestation was associated with an increased risk for postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ CA. PMID:23415614

  8. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  9. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth. PMID:26754660

  10. Efficacy and safety of second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections (SGA LAIs) in maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Asta R; Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder requires long-term treatment but non-adherence is a common problem. Antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) have been suggested to improve adherence but none are licensed in the UK for bipolar. However, the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) LAIs in bipolar is not uncommon albeit there is a lack of systematic review in this area. This study aims to systematically review safety and efficacy of SGA LAIs in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Methods and analysis The protocol is based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and will include only randomised controlled trials comparing SGA LAIs in bipolar. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), PsychINFO, LiLACS, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov will be searched, with no language restriction, from 2000 to January 2016 as first SGA LAIs came to the market after 2000. Manufacturers of SGA LAIs will also be contacted. Primary efficacy outcome is relapse rate or delayed time to relapse or reduction in hospitalisation and primary safety outcomes are drop-out rates, all-cause discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events. Qualitative reporting of evidence will be based on 21 items listed on standards for reporting qualitative research (SRQR) focusing on study quality (assessed using the Jadad score, allocation concealment and data analysis), risk of bias and effect size. Publication bias will be assessed using funnel plots. If sufficient data are available meta-analysis will be performed with primary effect size as relative risk presented with 95% CI. Sensitivity analysis, conditional on number of studies and sample size, will be carried out on manic versus depressive symptoms and monotherapy versus adjunctive therapy. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentation and

  11. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  12. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  13. Association Between Ambient Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Small for Gestational Age Hispanic Infants Born Along the United States-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Maypole-Keenan, Coty M; Symanski, Elaine; Stock, Thomas H; Waller, D Kim

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and birth outcomes, and no studies have been conducted in El Paso County Texas, along the United States-Mexico border. Infants born from 2005-2007 to Hispanic mothers with a birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex were classified as small for gestational age (SGA). PAH exposures were estimated for the entire period of gestation and for each trimester of pregnancy using ambient air monitoring data from 2004-2007. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for the association between PAH levels and SGA infants. There was marked seasonal variation in the carcinogenic PAHs. Established risk factors for SGA were observed to be associated with SGA births in this population. No associations were detected between PAH levels and SGA births. These findings provide no evidence of an association between PAHs and SGA infants. PMID:24585213

  14. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  15. Sleep State Indices of Risk for Small-for-Gestional-Age Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    Full-term neonates from 37 pairs of same-sex twins, either small or appropriate for gestational age (SGA/AGA), were observed during the first sleep cycle after feeding to determine if behavioral indices of central nervous system (CNS) functioning were related to risk for the SGA infants. No differences were observed between groups for time spent…

  16. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  17. Quantifying Low Birth Weight, Preterm Birth and Small-for-Gestational-Age Effects of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rijken, Marcus J.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Lee, Sue J.; Boel, Machteld E.; Rungwilailaekhiri, Suthatsana; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Simpson, Julie A.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between malaria during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) is well described. This manuscript aims to quantify the relative contribution of malaria to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and preterm birth (PTB) in pregnancies accurately dated by ultrasound on the Thai-Myanmar border at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit. Methods and Findings From 2001 to 2010 in a population cohort of prospectively followed pregnancies, we analyzed all singleton newborns who were live born, normal, weighed in the first hour of life and with a gestational age (GA) between 28+0 and 41+6 weeks. Fractional polynomial regression was used to determine the mean birthweight and standard deviation as functions of GA. Risk differences and factors of LBW and SGA were studied across the range of GA for malaria and non-malaria pregnancies. From 10,264 newborns records, population centiles were created. Women were screened for malaria by microscopy a median of 22 [range 1–38] times and it was detected and treated in 12.6% (1,292) of pregnancies. Malaria was associated with LBW, PTB, and SGA compared to those without malaria. Nearly two-thirds of PTB were classified as LBW (68% (539/789)), most of which 83% (447/539) were not SGA. After GA 39 weeks, 5% (298/5,966) of non-LBW births were identified as SGA. Low body mass index, primigravida, hypertension, smoking and female sex of the newborn were also significantly and independently associated with LBW and SGA consistent with previous publications. Conclusions Treated malaria in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for LBW, PTB, and SGA, of which the latter are most important for infant survival. Using LBW as an endpoint without adjusting for GA incorrectly estimated the effects of malaria in pregnancy. Ultrasound should be used for dating pregnancies and birth weights should be expressed as a function (or adjusted for GA) of GA in future malaria in pregnancy studies. PMID:24983755

  18. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Angharad R.; Thompson, John M.D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Cornforth, Christine M.; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined – that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  19. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  20. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  1. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  2. 75 FR 12272 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Community-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...) Notice of Final Policy Issuance, 68 FR 38402, Jun. 27, 2003. The D-U-N-S Number is a non-indicative, nine... Applications (SGA) for Community-Based Job Training Grants AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, U.S... approximately $125 million in grant funds for Community-Based Job Training Grants (CBJTGs). Community-Based...

  3. Bayes Method Plant Aging Risk Analysis

    1992-03-13

    DORIAN is an integrated package for performing Bayesian aging analysis of reliability data; e.g. for identifying trends in component failure rates and/or outage durations as a function of time. The user must specify several alternatives hypothesized aging models (i.e. possible trends) along with prior probabilities indicating the subjective probability that each trend is actually the correct one. DORIAN then uses component failure and/or repair data over time to update these prior probabilities and develop amore » posterior probability for each aging model, representing the probability that each model is the correct one in light of the observed data rather than a priori. Mean, median, and 5th and 95th percentile trends are also compiled from the posterior probabilities.« less

  4. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  5. The Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Ken; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Murabayashi, Nao; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Kai, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kono, Yumi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on short- and long-term outcomes in small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. Methods: A retrospective database analysis was performed. A total of 1,931 single infants (birth weight <1,500 g) born at a gestational age between 22 weeks and 33 weeks 6 days who were determined to be SGA registered in the Neonatal Research Network Database in Japan between 2003 and 2007 were evaluated for short-term outcome and long-term outcome. Results: ANS was administered to a total of 719 infants (37%) in the short-term outcome evaluation group and 344 infants (36%) in the long-term outcome evaluation group. There were no significant differences between the ANS group and the no-ANS group for primary short-term outcome (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.20; P-value 0.22) or primary long-term outcome (adjusted OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.40-1.17; P-value 0.17). Conclusions: Our results show that ANS does not affect short- or long-term outcome in SGA infants when the birth weight is less than 1500 g. This study strongly suggests that administration of ANS resulted in few benefits for preterm FGR fetuses. PMID:25897289

  6. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  7. Is Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Associated with Being Born Small and Large for Gestational Age?

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Diesse, Laura; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Giannini, Cosimo; Marcovecchio, Maria Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Low and high birth weights have been linked to increased susceptibility to cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. However, the natural history of cardiometabolic disturbances in children born small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age is still unclear and no reliable biomarker of cardiovascular risk has definitively been identified in these subjects. Interestingly, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), antagonist of nitric oxide (NO) production, has been recognized as novel cardiovascular marker able to identify subjects at higher risk of health disturbances. Despite the well-described role of ADMA as a predictor of degenerative disease in adults, its potential application in pediatrics, and specifically in SGA and LGA children, has not been explored as only few data in preterm infants and SGA newborns are available. Therefore, we investigated potential alterations in circulating ADMA and NO levels in SGA and LGA children compared with those born appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. Of note, ADMA was significantly higher in SGA and LGA children than AGA peers. Intriguingly, SGA and LGA categories as well as insulin resistance were independently related to ADMA. Our observations lead to the intriguing hypothesis that ADMA could be involved in the development of cardiometabolic alterations in SGA and LGA children already during the prepubertal age. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2317–2322. PMID:24350633

  8. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  9. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  10. Precision of two methods for estimating age from burbot otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, W.H.; Stapanian, M.A.; Stoneman, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Lower reproductive success and older age structure are associated with many burbot (Lota lota L.) populations that are declining or of conservation concern. Therefore, reliable methods for estimating the age of burbot are critical for effective assessment and management. In Lake Erie, burbot populations have declined in recent years due to the combined effects of an aging population (&xmacr; = 10 years in 2007) and extremely low recruitment since 2002. We examined otoliths from burbot (N = 91) collected in Lake Erie in 2007 and compared the estimates of burbot age by two agers, each using two established methods (cracked-and-burned and thin-section) of estimating ages from burbot otoliths. One ager was experienced at estimating age from otoliths, the other was a novice. Agreement (precision) between the two agers was higher for the thin-section method, particularly at ages 6–11 years, based on linear regression analyses and 95% confidence intervals. As expected, precision between the two methods was higher for the more experienced ager. Both agers reported that the thin sections offered clearer views of the annuli, particularly near the margins on otoliths from burbot ages ≥8. Slides for the thin sections required some costly equipment and more than 2 days to prepare. In contrast, preparing the cracked-and-burned samples was comparatively inexpensive and quick. We suggest use of the thin-section method for estimating the age structure of older burbot populations.

  11. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Study Design 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Results Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ’s within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. Conclusions This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on. PMID:26132815

  12. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  13. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  14. Micro-computed tomography: an alternative method for shark ageing.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, P T; Jones, A S; Stewart, J; Macbeth, W G

    2012-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (microCT) produced 3D reconstructions of shark Carcharhinus brevipinna vertebrae that could be virtually sectioned along any desired plane, and upon which growth bands were readily visible. When compared to manual sectioning, it proved to be a valid and repeatable means of ageing and offers several distinct advantages over other ageing methods. PMID:22497384

  15. Atrazine in municipal drinking water and risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age status

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, C; Durand, G; Coutte, M; Chevrier, C; Cordier, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Atrazine is a herbicide used extensively worldwide. Bioassays have shown that it is embryotoxic and embryolethal. Evidence of adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure in the general population is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the association between atrazine levels in municipal drinking water and the following adverse reproductive outcomes: increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Methods: A total of 3510 births that took place from 1 October 1997, to 30 September 1998 were analysed. Atrazine measurements were available for 2661 samples from water treatment plants over the past decade. A seasonal pattern was identified, with atrazine peaking from May to September. The geometric mean of the atrazine level for this period was calculated for each water distribution unit and merged with the individual data by municipality of residence. Results: Atrazine levels in water were not associated with an increased risk of LBW or SGA status and were slightly associated with prematurity. There was an increased risk of SGA status in cases in which the third trimester overlapped in whole or in part with the May–September period, compared with those in which the third trimester occurred totally from October to April (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.81). If the entire third trimester took place from May to September, the OR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.13). Conclusions: Low levels of atrazine, a narrow exposure range, and limitations in the exposure assessment partly explain the lack of associations with atrazine. Findings point to the third trimester of pregnancy as the potential vulnerable period for an increased risk of SGA birth. Exposures other than atrazine and also seasonal factors may explain the increased risk. PMID:15901888

  16. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research

  17. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S F; Vlug, R D; Smits-Wintjens, V E H J; Heckman, E J; Te Pas, A B; Fijnvandraat, K; Lopriore, E

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  18. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vlug, R. D.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E. H. J.; Heckman, E. J.; te Pas, A. B.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Lopriore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  19. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  20. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  1. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  2. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.L.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.

    1993-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the nuclear power plant aging research (NPAR) program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to survey the work conducted to address the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), as well as the associated data bases. The review takes a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. A preliminary framework is identified for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA, including the identification of needed data for such an integration.

  3. Associations between preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and neonatal morbidity and cognitive function among school-age children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early newborn morbidity on functional outcomes are not well described in low income settings. Methods In rural Nepal, we conducted neurocognitive assessment of children (n = 1927) at 7–9 y of age, for whom birth condition exposures were available. At follow-up they were tested on aspects of intellectual, executive, and motor function. Results The prevalence of LBW (39.6%), preterm birth (21.2%), and SGA (55.4%) was high, whereas symptoms of birth asphyxia and sepsis were reported in 6.7% and 9.1% of children. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, LBW was strongly associated with scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), tests of executive function, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Preterm was not associated with any of the test scores. Conversely, SGA was significantly (all p < 0.005) associated with lower UNIT scores (−2.04 SE = 0.39); higher proportion failure on Stroop test (0.06, SE = 0.02); and lower scores on the backward digit span test (−0.16, SE = 0.04), MABC (0.98, SE = 0.25), and finger tapping test (−0.66, SE = 0.22) after adjusting for confounders. Head circumference at birth was strongly and significantly associated with all test scores. Neither birth asphyxia nor sepsis symptoms were significantly associated with scores on cognitive or motor tests. Conclusion In this rural South Asian setting, intrauterine growth restriction is high and, may have a negative impact on long term cognitive, executive and motor function. PMID:24575933

  4. Accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods using developing teeth.

    PubMed

    Maber, M; Liversidge, H M; Hector, M P

    2006-05-15

    Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in a number of disciplines, however the accuracy of different methods has not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of several methods. Tooth formation was assessed from radiographs of healthy children attending a dental teaching hospital. The sample was 946 children (491 boys, 455 girls, aged 3-16.99 years) with similar number of children from Bangladeshi and British Caucasian ethnic origin. Panoramic radiographs were examined and seven mandibular teeth staged according to Demirjian's dental maturity scale [A. Demirjian, Dental development, CD-ROM, Silver Platter Education, University of Montreal, Montreal, 1993-1994; A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, J.M. Tanner, A new system of dental age assessment, Hum. Biol. 45 (1973) 211-227; A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, New systems for dental maturity based on seven and four teeth, Ann. Hum. Biol. 3 (1976) 411-421], Nolla [C.M. Nolla, The development of the permanent teeth, J. Dent. Child. 27 (1960) 254-266] and Haavikko [K. Haavikko, The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth. An orthopantomographic study. Proc. Finn. Dent. Soc. 66 (1970) 103-170]. Dental age was calculated for each method, including an adaptation of Demirjian's method with updated scoring [G. Willems, A. Van Olmen, B. Spiessens, C. Carels, Dental age estimation in Belgian children: Demirjian's technique revisited, J. Forensic Sci. 46 (2001) 893-895]. The mean difference (+/-S.D. in years) between dental and real age was calculated for each method and in the case of Haavikko, each tooth type; and tested using t-test. Mean difference was also calculated for the age group 3-13.99 years for Haavikko (mean and individual teeth). Results show that the most accurate method was by Willems [G. Willems, A. Van Olmen, B. Spiessens, C. Carels, Dental age estimation in Belgian children: Demirjian's technique revisited, J. Forensic Sci

  5. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ≥35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ≥3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ≥3/≥35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child

  6. A non-destructive dental method for age estimation.

    PubMed

    Kvaal, S; Solheim, T

    1994-06-01

    Dental radiographs have rarely been used in dental age estimation methods for adults and the aim of this investigation was to derive formulae for age calculation based on measurements of teeth and their radiographs. Age-related changes were studied in 452 extracted, unsectioned incisors, canines and premolars. The length of the apical translucent zone and extent of the periodontal retraction were measured on the teeth while the pulp length and width as well as root length and width were measured on the radiographs and the ratios between the root and pulp measurements calculated. For all types of teeth significant, negative Pearson's correlation coefficients were found between age and the ratios between the pulp and the root width. In this study also, the correlation between age and the length of the apical translucent zone was weaker than expected. The periodontal retraction was significantly correlated with age in maxillary premolars alone. Multiple regression analyses showed inclusion of the ratio between the measurements of the pulp and the root on the radiographs for all teeth; the length of the apical translucency in five types; and periodontal retraction in only three types of teeth. The correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.48 to r = 0.90 between the chronological and the calculated age using the formulae from this multiple regression study. The strongest coefficients were for premolars. These formulae may be recommended for use in odontological age estimations in forensic and archaeological cases where teeth are loose or can be extracted and where it is important that the teeth are not sectioned. PMID:9227083

  7. Statistical estimation of mineral age by K-Ar method

    SciTech Connect

    Vistelius, A.B.; Drubetzkoy, E.R.; Faas, A.V. )

    1989-11-01

    Statistical estimation of age of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 40}K ratios may be considered a result of convolution of uniform and normal distributions with different weights for different minerals. Data from Gul'shad Massif (Nearbalkhash, Kazakhstan, USSR) indicate that {sup 40}Ar/{sup 40}K ratios reflecting the intensity of geochemical processes can be resolved using convolutions. Loss of {sup 40}Ar in biotites is shown whereas hornblende retained the original content of {sup 40}Ar throughout the geological history of the massif. Results demonstrate that different estimation methods must be used for different minerals and different rocks when radiometric ages are employed for dating.

  8. Global and Regional Differences in Brain Anatomy of Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    De Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Barkhof, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    In children who are born small for gestational age (SGA), an adverse intrauterine environment has led to underdevelopment of both the body and the brain. The delay in body growth is (partially) restored during the first two years in a majority of these children. In addition to a negative influence on these physical parameters, decreased levels of intelligence and cognitive impairments have been described in children born SGA. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain anatomy in 4- to 7-year-old SGA children with and without complete bodily catch-up growth and compared them to healthy children born appropriate for gestational age. Our findings demonstrate that these children strongly differ on brain organisation when compared with healthy controls relating to both global and regional anatomical differences. Children born SGA displayed reduced cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, smaller volumes of subcortical structures and reduced cortical surface area. Regional differences in prefrontal cortical thickness suggest a different development of the cerebral cortex. SGA children with bodily catch-up growth constitute an intermediate between those children without catch-up growth and healthy controls. Therefore, bodily catch-up growth in children born SGA does not implicate full catch-up growth of the brain. PMID:21931650

  9. CPV solar receiver ageing tests: The enhanced electroluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabille, Loïc; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2013-09-01

    For two years now, CEA INES is involved in the development of insulated metal substrates (IMS) for CPV receivers. In an effort for establishing the reliability of such a new design compared to state-of-the-art direct bonded copper (DBC) design, accelerated ageing test have been carried out. During these tests, several characterization tools were used including current voltage measurements, X-ray tomography and electroluminescence. A new method for the characterization of thermal inhomogeneities has been developed, the so-called Enhanced Electroluminescence (EEL) which is described in this paper.

  10. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  11. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training. PMID:24781787

  12. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  13. 76 FR 6634 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Civic Justice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...Through this notice, the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration (ETA) announces the availability of approximately $20 million in grant funds authorized by the Workforce Investment Act for Civic Justice Corps Grants to serve juvenile offenders ages 18 to 24 who have been involved with the juvenile justice system within 12 months before entry into the program. Civic Justice......

  14. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  15. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  16. The evaluation of two radiographic methods for age determination of children in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Rai, B

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the methods proposed by Nolla and Nicodemo for estimation of dental age and its correction with chronological age. Orthopantograms of 413 patients, aged 6-16 year (70-195 months) were selected to estimate the correlation between dental and chronological age. With both the Nolla and Nicodemo methods, the estimated age was lower than compared to chronological age except for the Nolla method in girls. There were significant correlations between chronological and estimated dental age (by Nolla and Nicodemo methods) in both genders. PMID:22717786

  17. Application of the Bang and Ramm age at death estimation method to two known-age archaeological assemblages.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nancy; Antoine, Daniel; Hillson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    The Bang and Ramm method uses root dentine translucency (RDT) length in sectioned or unsectioned teeth as a sole indicator of chronological age at death in adult human remains. The formulae have been tested on modern remains of known age and on modern and archaeological remains of unknown age. This is the first published study of the method on known-age archaeological specimens and tests whether RDT is a good indicator of chronological age in buried human remains. We applied the Bang and Ramm equations to two 18th and 19th century assemblages excavated from the crypt of Christ Church, Spitalfields, and the cemetery of All Hallows by the Tower. Translucency was defined by shining a light through the external unsectioned root surface and was measured from digital images of 583 and 83 nonmolar roots from 126 Spitalfields and 12 All Hallows individuals, respectively, aged 21-81 years. Average absolute difference between real age and estimated age was 10.7 years and 8.4 years for Spitalfields and All Hallows individuals, respectively, with 58% and 75% estimated within 10 years of known age, and 29% and 33% estimated within five years of known age. These estimations are comparable to results from other ageing methods applied to the Spitalfields collection. Ages from both populations were estimated largely to the middle ranges, with younger individuals overestimated and older individuals underestimated. This is a common occurrence when using inverse calibration, where age is treated as the dependent variable and the ageing feature as the independent variable. PMID:25043454

  18. The effect of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on small for gestational age and stillbirth: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Victoria M; Joseph, KS; Murphy, Kellie E; Magee, Laura A; Ohlsson, Arne

    2004-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are leading causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, studies attempting to quantify the effect of hypertension on adverse perinatal outcomes have been mostly conducted in tertiary centres. This population-based study explored the frequency of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the associated increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and stillbirth. METHODS: We used information on all pregnant women and births, in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, between 1988 and 2000. Pregnancies were excluded if delivery occurred < 20 weeks, if birthweight was < 500 grams, if there was a high-order multiple pregnancy (greater than twin gestation), or a major fetal anomaly. RESULTS: The study population included 135,466 pregnancies. Of these, 7.7% had mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), 1.3% had severe PIH, 0.2% had HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), 0.02% had eclampsia, 0.6% had chronic hypertension, and 0.4% had chronic hypertension with superimposed PIH. Women with any hypertension in pregnancy were 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.6) times more likely to have a live birth with SGA and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) times more likely to have a stillbirth as compared with normotensive women. Adjusted analyses showed that women with gestational hypertension without proteinuria (mild PIH) and with proteinuria (severe PIH, HELLP, or eclampsia) were more likely to have infants with SGA (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6 and RR 3.2, 95% CI 2.8-3.6, respectively). Women with pre-existing hypertension were also more likely to give birth to an infant with SGA (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-3.0) or to have a stillbirth (RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.4). CONCLUSIONS: This large, population-based study confirms and quantifies the magnitude of the excess risk of small for gestational age and stillbirth among births to women with hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:15298717

  19. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  20. Validity of demirjian and nolla methods for dental age estimation for Northeastern Turkish children aged 5–16 years old

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge; Kusgoz, Adem; Bayram, Mehmet; Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Yildirim, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian and Nolla methods for northeastern Turkish population. Material and Method: A retrospective study was performed on panoramic radiographs of 673 subjects aged 5–15.9 years. The mean dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were compared to the mean chronological age (CA). Results: The mean CA of the study sample was 10.37±2.90 and 10.03±2.81 years for females and males, respectively. Using the Demirjian method, the mean estimated DA was 11.26±3.02 years for females and 10.87±2.96 years for males. For Nolla method, the mean estimated DA was 9.80±3.41 and 9.53±3.14 years for females and males, respectively. The mean differences between the CA and DA according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were 0.86 and -0.54 years for total study sample. Conclusion: Nolla method was found to be a more accurate method for estimating DA in northeastern Turkish population. Key words:Dental age, demirjian method, nolla method, chronological age. PMID:22549686

  1. Nutritional requirements and feeding recommendations for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, David; Vento, Maximo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Pachi, Paulo

    2013-03-01

    We define the small for gestational age (SGA) infant as an infant born ≥ 35 weeks' gestation and <10th percentile on the Fenton Growth Chart. Policy statements from many organizations recommend mother's own milk for SGA infants because it meets most of their nutritional requirements and provides short- and long-term benefits. Several distinct patterns of intrauterine growth restriction are identified among the heterogeneous grouping of SGA infants; each varies with regard to neonatal morbidities, requirements for neonatal management, postnatal growth velocities, neurodevelopmental progress, and adult health outcomes. There is much we do not know about nutritional management of the SGA infant. We need to identify and define: infants who have "true" growth restriction and are at high risk for adverse metabolic outcomes in later life; optimal growth velocity and "catch-up" growth rates that are conducive with life-long health and well being; global approaches to management of hypoglycemia; and an optimal model for postdischarge care. Large, rigorously conducted trials are required to determine whether aggressive feeding of SGA infants results in improved nutritional rehabilitation, growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Before birth, maternal supplementation with specific nutrients reduces the rate and severity of growth restriction and may prevent nutrient deficiency states if infants are born SGA. After birth, the generally accepted goal is to provide enough nutrients to achieve postnatal growth similar to that of a normal fetus. In addition, we recommend SGA infants be allowed to "room in" with their mothers to promote breastfeeding, mother-infant attachment, and skin-to-skin contact to assist with thermoregulation. PMID:23445853

  2. Evaluating the Reliability of Three Different Dental Age Estimation Methods in Visakhapatnam Children

    PubMed Central

    Vabbalareddy, Raja Sekhar; V Vanga, Narasimha Rao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Dental age is important for treatment planning in the specialities of pedodontics and orthodontics. Although, Demirjian's method was considered standard for dental age estimation, it may not be reliable for all population. Aim: The goal of the study was to evaluate the reliability of Demir-jian's, Haavikko's and Willems method of dental age estimation methods in Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, India) children. Study design: One hundred and two children of 6 to 14 years old who underwent panaromic digital radiography for routine diagnostic purposes were included. Dental age was calculated using Demirjian's, Haavikko's and Willems methods and compared with chronologic age for each patient. Results: Dental age showed a significant overestimation by Demirjian's method with a mean difference of 0.55 year and underestimation by Haavikko's and Willems methods with a mean difference of 1.95 and 0.20 year respectively when compared with chronologic age. The mean difference between dental age and chronologic age was not significant in Willems method which shows a close relation between dental and chronologic ages. Conclusion: The dental age estimation by Willems method is found to be more accurate than Demirjian's and Haavikko's methods in Visakhapatnam children. How to cite this article: Patnana AK, Vabbalareddy RS, Vanga NRV. Evaluating the Reliability of Three Different Dental Age Estimation Methods in Visakhapatnam Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):186-191. PMID:25709299

  3. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  4. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice. PMID:26934764

  5. Spatial contrast sensitivity - Effects of age, test-retest, and psychophysical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Kent E.; Jaffe, Myles J.; Caruso, Rafael C.; Demonasterio, Francisco M.

    1988-01-01

    Two different psychophysical methods were used to test the spatial contrast sensitivity in normal subjects from five age groups. The method of adjustment showed a decline in sensitivity with increasing age at all spatial frequencies, while the forced-choice procedure showed an age-related decline predominantly at high spatial frequencies. It is suggested that a neural component is responsible for this decline.

  6. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  7. Mother's education and the risk of preterm and small for gestational age birth: a DRIVERS meta-analysis of 12 European cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Kukla, Lubomír; Švancara, Jan; Riitta-Järvelin, Marjo; Taanila, Anja; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Lioret, Sandrine; Bakoula, Chryssa; Veltsista, Alexandra; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Eggesbø, Merete; White, Richard A; Barros, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Rebagliato, Marisa; Larrañaga, Isabel; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Olsen Faresjö, Åshild; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Antipkin, Youriy; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Background A healthy start to life is a major priority in efforts to reduce health inequalities across Europe, with important implications for the health of future generations. There is limited combined evidence on inequalities in health among newborns across a range of European countries. Methods Prospective cohort data of 75 296 newborns from 12 European countries were used. Maternal education, preterm and small for gestational age births were determined at baseline along with covariate data. Regression models were estimated within each cohort and meta-analyses were conducted to compare and measure heterogeneity between cohorts. Results Mother's education was linked to an appreciable risk of preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births across 12 European countries. The excess risk of preterm births associated with low maternal education was 1.48 (1.29 to 1.69) and 1.84 (0.99 to 2.69) in relative and absolute terms (Relative/Slope Index of Inequality, RII/SII) for all cohorts combined. Similar effects were found for SGA births, but absolute inequalities were greater, with an SII score of 3.64 (1.74 to 5.54). Inequalities at birth were strong in the Netherlands, the UK, Sweden and Spain and marginal in other countries studied. Conclusions This study highlights the value of comparative cohort analysis to better understand the relationship between maternal education and markers of fetal growth in different settings across Europe. PMID:25911693

  8. Accuracy of Four Dental Age Estimation Methods in Southern Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Praveen; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Srinivasaraju, D.; Srinivas, Jami; Kalyan, U. Siva; Rasool, SK. Md. Iftekhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For various forensic investigations of both living and dead individuals, the knowledge of the actual age or date of birth of the subject is of utmost importance. In recent years, age estimation has gained importance for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in number of disciplines; however the accuracy of different methods has not been assessed systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of four dental age estimation methods. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomographs (OPGS) of South Indian children between the ages of 6 and 16 y who visited the department of Department of Oral medicine and Radiology of GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India with similar ethnic origin were assessed. Dental age was calculated using Demirjian, Willems, Nolla, and adopted Haavikko methods and the difference between estimated dental age and chronological age were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: An overestimation of the dental age was observed by using Demirjian and Nolla methods (0.1±1.63, 0.47±0.83 years in total sample respectively) and an underestimation of dental age was observed by using Willems and Haavikko methods (-0.4±1.53, -2.9±1.41 years respectively in total sample). Conclusion: Nolla’s method was more accurate in estimating dental age compared to other methods. Moreover, all the four methods were found to be reliable in estimating age of individuals of unknown chronological age in South Indian children. PMID:25738008

  9. Aging commuter aeroplanes: Fatigue evaluation and control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerson, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of reliability in aircraft is caused by two broad classes of problems. There are those problems which are self evident and hazardous rather than catastrophic. These are the problem areas where characteristically there have been multiple overhauls, repairs, and replacements, and where aging really means the results of repair ineffectiveness that accumulates. The other class of the problem is the insidious and potentially catastrophic class. It includes the progressive deterioration of items that are not maintained, and often cannot be maintained because the deterioration cannot be seen. It includes the loss of physical properties in adhesives and other organic compounds, corrosion, and the response of repeated loads. Dealt with here is a currently unnecessarily troublesome aspect of that response. Although we must remain concerned about those types of aircraft which have been certified under a design standard or operational rule which embodies the elementary fail-safe concept and which have not been subjected to a subsequent structural audit, the focus here is on types of aircraft for which fatigue and damage tolerance evaluation was not required as a condition of certification.

  10. Gestational age assessment by nurses in a developing country using the Ballard method, external criteria only.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, F H; Milligan, P; Brabin, B J; Mlanga, S; Nakoma, V

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postnatal examination of the newborn by nurses in a developing country, using a modified Ballard method, scoring for the six external criteria only (Ballard-ext). Applicability of gestational age estimates with the Ballard-ext. was assessed by calculating its agreement with gestational age derived from the last menstrual period (LMP), fundal height and the Dubowitz method. The smallest difference in gestational age and the most narrow limits of agreement were found between the Ballard-ext. and the Dubowitz method. No reliable gestational age could be obtained from LMP or fundal height. At low gestational ages, Ballard-ext. tended to give lower gestational ages compared with the Dubowitz method. At an average gestational age of more than 251 days, Ballard-ext. gave higher values compared with Dubowitz. Both Ballard-ext. and the Dubowitz method identified 48% of low birthweight babies as growth-retarded (gestational age > or = 37 weeks). No significant difference in gestational age assessment of newborns between nurses was observed. The Ballard method, scoring for external criteria alone, compared favourably with the Dubowitz method. The test is simple to perform and can be reliably used routinely by nurses. PMID:9578793

  11. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  14. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  15. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stansfield, Fiona J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  16. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  17. Racial disparities in cord blood vitamin D levels and its association with small-for-gestational-age infants

    PubMed Central

    Seto, T L; Tabangin, M E; Langdon, G; Mangeot, C; Dawodu, A; Steinhoff, M; Narendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of race and maternal characteristics and their association with cord blood vitamin D levels and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Study Design: Cord blood vitamin D levels were measured in 438 infants (276 black and 162 white). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between maternal characteristics, vitamin D status and SGA. Results: Black race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants. Conclusion: Identification of risk factors (black race, Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status. PMID:27101387

  18. A test of the Lamendin method of age estimation in South African canines.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Anja; Steyn, Maryna

    2014-03-01

    Age estimation in unknown adult skeletons remains a considerable problem in forensic anthropology. In 1992, Lamendin et al. published a non-destructive method of age estimation on single rooted teeth. With this method, periodontosis and root transparency are judged against root height, and these are then used in regression formulae to estimate age. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the Lamendin method on a large sample of canines of South Africans, and if necessary to adapt the formulae for this population. A sample of known sex, age and population group was used. This included 537 upper and lower canines from 498 skulls, and included black males, black females, white males and white females. The age of the individuals ranged from 20 to 90 years. The original formulae gave relatively poor results, and in an attempt to obtain better accuracy the formulae were adapted with the current data. Even after adaptation of the formulae, the highest correlation between estimated age and actual age remained low (R(2)=0.41), with mean errors ranging between 12 and 15 years. Periodontosis was better correlated with age than root transparency. The accuracy of the method was found to be much lower than what was originally published, but probably reflects biological reality and is on a par with other methods of adult age estimation. PMID:24445081

  19. Reliability and validity of eight dental age estimation methods for adults.

    PubMed

    Soomer, Helena; Ranta, Helena; Lincoln, Michael J; Penttilä, Antti; Leibur, Edvitar

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of eight published dental age estimation methods for adults that may aid in victim identification. Age was calculated on 20 Caucasian teeth of known age according to the methods of Kvaal (for in situ and extracted teeth), Solheim (for in situ and sectioned teeth), Lamendin (for extracted teeth), Johanson (for sectioned teeth) and Bang (for extracted and sectioned teeth) by one independent observer. For each method, mean age error and standard error were assessed as the measures of accuracy and precision. In addition, method simplicity, requirements for tooth preparation and the equipment necessary were assessed and recommendations given for forensic use in various situations. Methods for sectioned teeth gave more reliable results when compared to methods for intact teeth. PMID:12570217

  20. Lattice Boltzmann method for the age concentration equation in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifei; Ding, Yu; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Water age is a critical parameter in reflecting the extent of water exchange. It represents the time that water parcels or contaminants are transported from source to current positions. In this study, an equilibrium distribution function for water age concentration is proposed within the Eulerian framework based on the existing theory of water age, and it can recover the age concentration equation. In addition, the lattice Boltzmann method for water age in the Lagrangian procedures is developed. This method also enables the Lagrangian age to be fundamentally simulated under computationally expensive conditions. In numerical tests, cubic and circular reservoirs with narrow inflow-outflow boundaries are used to verify the applicability of the model. Finally, the proposed approaches are applied to the Baiyangdian Lake, the biggest freshwater lake in northern China. The result is compared with that acquired by the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) as well.

  1. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for those with very marked growth retardation, as these patients require rapid catch-up growth. Factors associated with response to GH treatment during the initial 2-3 years of therapy include age and height standard deviation scores at the start of therapy, midparental height, and GH dose. Adverse events due to GH treatment are no more common in the SGA population than in other conditions treated with GH. Early surveillance in growth clinics is strongly recommended for children born SGA who have not caught up. Although high dose of up to 0.067 mg/kg/day are relatively safe for short children with growth failure, clinicians need to remain aware of long-term mortality and morbidity after GH treatment. PMID:25324863

  2. New Method of Age Estimation from Maxillary Sutures Closure in a Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Sinthubua, A; Theera-Umpon, N; Auephanwiriyakul, S; Ruengdit, S; Das, S; Mahakkanukrauh, P

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the major components of forensic identification. Cranial suture closure has long been used as indicator for age estimation. Maxillary sutures have been less studied for estimation of age at death because they vary in their timing of closure with age. The purpose of this study was to estimate age by examining 190 Thai skulls with age ranging between 15-93 years from Forensic Osteology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, and Chiang Mai University. Four parts of maxillary suture (incisive, anterior, transverse, and posterior sutures) were investigated the suture obliteration of each suture by computerizing from photograph. The suture were measured by pixel counting.The prediction model which based on the support vector machine (SVM) for regression or support vector regression (SVR) was utilized for data analysis. The results showed high correlation (R2 = 0.9086) between the predicted age and actual age. Plot between actual age group and predicted age in seven groups also revealed high correlation (R2 = 0.9434). These can be implied that we are able to use this SVR model to predict age at death using maxillary suture information.The interesting issue is to further apply this model in more cases to ensure the generalization of the finding. This study is the first attempt to estimate age at death using a new method based on novel analysis which considers a characteristic of relationship between maxillary suture closures with age that are not in linear form. The present study may contribute as a basis knowledge and method for further study of age estimation in archaeological and forensic anthropological contexts, especially when only skull or base of skull are found. PMID:27212570

  3. Validity of Demirjian's and modified Demirjian's methods in age estimation for Korean juveniles and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Seob; Kim, Dongjae; Lee, Saebomi; Lee, U-Young; Seo, Joong Seok; Ahn, Yong Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2011-09-10

    In estimating age of juveniles and adolescents, the teeth are employed primarily because of its low variability and less affection by endocrine and nutritional status in development. Demirjian established criteria for evaluating maturity of teeth and his method has been used throughout the world. However, several studies showed the inappropriateness of Demirjian's method on populations other than the one it is based on. Consequently some researchers modified Demirjian's method using data of several different populations. Demirjian himself also published a revised method to overcome other shortcomings of his original method. The aim of this study was to test the validity of Demirjian's and the modified methods (Demirjian's revised, Willems', Chaillet's and new Korean methods) for Korean juveniles and adolescents. 1483 digital orthopantomograms which consist of 754 males and 729 females in the age range of 3-16 years were collected. New age estimation method based on Korean population data was calculated. Dental age was estimated according to each method and the validity was evaluated using the differences between chronological and dental age. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was evaluated to be excellent. Statistically significant difference was observed between chronological and dental age in all the methods for both sexes except new Korean method for both sexes and Demirjian's revised method for males. However, when analyzing absolute and squared value of difference, Willems' method was found to be most accurate followed by new Korean method with slight difference for Korean population for both sexes. In conclusion, both Willems' method and new Korean method conducted by present study were proven to be suitable for Korean population. PMID:21561728

  4. A method for estimating the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji Ice Core using a sequential Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shinya; Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Parrenin, Frederic; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship and its uncertainty in ice cores has been developed. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of an ice layer. However, both the accumulation process and the thinning process are not fully known. In order to appropriately estimate the age as a function of depth, it is crucial to incorporate observational information into a model describing the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and time series of δ18O data. The estimation is achieved using a method combining a sequential Monte Carlo method and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method as proposed by Andrieu et al. (2010). In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are basically computed using a way of the standard Metropolis-Hastings method. Meanwhile, sampling from the posterior distribution for the age-depth relationship is achieved by using a sequential Monte Carlo approach at each iteration of the Metropolis-Hastings method. A sequential Monte Carlo method normally suffers from the degeneracy problem, especially in cases that the number of steps is large. However, when it is combined with the Metropolis-Hastings method, the degeneracy problem can be overcome by collecting a large number of samples obtained by many iterations of the Metropolis-Hastings method. We will demonstrate the result obtained by applying the proposed technique to the ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  5. Effects of blade tenderization, aging method and aging time on meat quality characteristics of Longissimus lumborum steaks from cull Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Obuz, Ersel; Akkaya, Levent; Gök, Veli; Dikeman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of blade tenderization (BT), two aging methods (dry (D) and wet (W)), and aging time (2 and 23 d) on tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 12 cull Holstein cows were evaluated. Dry-aged loins had higher combined trim and aging losses than control (C) for both D- and W-aging, mostly because of excess trim losses. BT steaks had WBSF of 33.13 N while C steaks had WBSF of 41.46 N (P=0.09). Aging decreased WBSF. Blade tenderized steaks had higher cook loss than C steaks. Aging, W-aging, and BT×W-aging improved myofibrillar (sensory) tenderness scores. Aging and/or BT improves sensory panel tenderness cull cow Longissimus lumborum steaks. Aging and blade tenderization combined can increase tenderness and value of Longissimus steaks from cull Holstein cows. PMID:24334044

  6. Applicability of Greulich and Pyle and Demirijan aging methods to a sample of Italian population.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; De Donno, Antonio; Fiandaca, Chiara; Pinto, Giorgia; Tafuri, Silvio; Introna, Francesco

    2012-09-10

    Age estimation in forensics is essential in cases involving both living and dead subjects. For living subjects, age estimation may be used to establish an individual's status as a minor in cases involving adoption, criminal responsibility, child pornography, and those seeking asylum. Criteria for age estimation in the living have recently been put forth by The Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. The group has proposed guidelines with a three-step procedure: a physical examination and anthropometrical analysis; dental analysis by orthopantomogram (OPG); and X-ray study of the left hand and wrist. The board of FASE highlighted advantages and limits of each method, and suggested practical solutions concerning the age estimation process for adults and subadults. The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of the Greulich and Pyle, and Demirjian techniques on a sample group of Italians, whose ages were known, in determining the skeletal and dental age, in addition to evaluating the reliability of these techniques. 535 subjects between the ages of 7 and 15years were examined, each one undergoing both an orthopantomography (OPG) and radiography of the left wrist and hand. The data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The analyses have shown that a correlation exists between skeletal and dental age, and real age. Age estimation carried out using the Greulich and Pyle method has shown itself to be especially accurate on the Italian sample, particularly in the age ranges of 7-9years and 10.4-11.5years. The Greulich and Pyle method has shown itself to be reliable for the sample analyzed notwithstanding the ethnic differences between the original sample of reference and those analyzed in this study. Application of the Demirjian technique resulted in an overestimation of dental age. This difference is shown to be more highly significant in the higher age ranges. The combination of the Greulich and Pyle, and Demirjian methods have revealed a difference

  7. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age; 150 non-SGA controls: 50th percentile age). Between March 2006 and April 2007, project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (<25th percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (<150 cm; aOR=2.05; 95% CI: 0.92-4.54). This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. PMID:23020780

  8. Skeletal age estimation in a contemporary Western Australian population using the Tanner-Whitehouse method.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Ariane; Flavel, Ambika; Hart, Rob; Franklin, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Various age estimation techniques have been utilised in Australia to evaluate the age of individuals who do not have documentation to determine legal majority/culpability. These age estimation techniques rely on the assessment of skeletal development as visualised in radiographs, CT scans, MRI or ultrasound modalities, and subsequent comparison to reference standards. These standards are not always population specific and are thus known to be less accurate when applied outside of the original reference sample, leading to potential ethical implications. Therefore, the present study aims to: (i) explore the variation in developmental trajectories between the established Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) age estimation standards and a Western Australian population; and (ii) develop specific hand-wrist age estimation standards for the latter population. The present study examines digital anterior-posterior hand-wrist radiographs of 360 individuals 0 to 24.9 years of age, equally represented by sex. Each radiograph was assessed using the RUS, Carpal and 20-bone methods of Tanner et al. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was calculated for each method (range: ♀ SEE ±0.4-11.5 years; ♂ SEE ±0.9-10.1 years). The most accurate method was TW3 RUS for females and the TW2 Carpal system for males. The 50th centile skeletal maturity scores for each year age group were plotted against average chronological age to produce polynomial regression standards with a demonstrated accuracy of (♀ SEE ±0.09-3.46 years; ♂ SEE ±0.02-3.42 years) for females and males, respectively. The standards presented here can be used in future forensic investigations that require age estimation of hand-wrist bones in a Western Australian population, however, they are not appropriate for establishing age of majority (18 years), as skeletal maturity was attained on average earlier than 15 years of age in both sexes for all three systems examined. PMID:27080619

  9. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Miao; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Yue; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the "intrinsic edges" to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV) method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27057155

  10. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Miao; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Yue; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the “intrinsic edges” to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV) method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27057155

  11. THE IMPACT OF ENHANCED He AND CNONa ABUNDANCES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER RELATIVE AGE-DATING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    MarIn-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.i

    2010-05-10

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as {approx}0.5 (or {approx}6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates-taken from the literature-of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  12. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  13. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  14. The p53 family member p73 modulates the proproliferative role of IGFBP3 in short children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Francesco Caratozzolo, Mariano; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Brunetti, Giacomina; Cavallo, Luciano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Tullo, Apollonia

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) gene expression is complex, because it can be induced by agents that both stimulate and inhibit the proliferation. The principal aim of this study was to investigate whether p73, a member of the p53 gene family, has a role in the regulation of the IGFBP3 expression and whether this regulation occurs in a context of cell survival or death. We demonstrate that IGFBP3 is a direct TAp73α (the p73 isoform that contains the trans-activation domain) target gene and activates the expression of IGFBP3 in actively proliferating cells. As IGFBP3 plays a key role in regulating the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor type 1 (GH/IGF1) axis, whose alterations in gene expression appear to have a role in the growth failure of children born small for gestational age (SGA), we measured the mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 in a group of SGA children. We found that mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 are significantly lower in SGA children compared with controls and, in particular, p73 mRNA expression is significantly lower in SGA children with respect to height. Our results shed light on the intricate GH/IGF pathway, suggesting p73 as a good biomarker of the clinical risk for SGA children to remain short in adulthood. PMID:26063735

  15. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  16. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  17. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length.

    PubMed

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined, aged from approximately six years to twenty-one years. The samples were aged according to two dental methods: Haavikko and Ubelaker. Regression formulae were constructed for aging according to their diaphyseal lengths both for individual long bones and combinations of upper and lower long bones. This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower age compared to this sample which increased until reaching a maximum of nearly five years and six months. When comparing the archaeological data to this study, the growth profile crossed over at 12.5 years with a maximum age difference before the cross point of two years and three months lower for the archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it has presented a possible solution for Danish sub-adult material when dental material is not available. PMID:22928354

  18. Suicide mortality trends by sex, age and method in Taiwan, 1971–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2008-01-01

    Background Method-specific suicide trends varied across countries, and studies of the trends in different countries can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in suicide trends by sex, age and method in the years 1971 to 2005 in Taiwan. Methods Mortality data files of suicide and undetermined deaths for the years 1971–2005 were obtained for analyses. Age-, sex- and method-specific suicide rates were calculated by four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–64 and 65 and above) and five suicide methods (solids/liquids poisoning, other gases poisoning, hanging, jumping, and others). Results Both sexes experienced downward trends from 1971 to 1993, and then an upward trend since 1993. People aged 65 years and above had the highest suicide rates throughout the study periods. However, males aged 25–64 years experienced the steepest increasing trends. As to suicide methods, an annual increase, since 1991, of people jumping from heights to commit suicide, and a marked increase, since 1998, of people completing suicide by poisoning with other gases (mainly charcoal-burning) were observed. Conclusion Suicide by means of charcoal-burning and jumping from heights has become a serious public health problem in Taiwan. Preventive measures to curb these increasing trends are urgently needed. PMID:18179723

  19. Is the fetoplacental ratio a differential marker of fetal growth restriction in small for gestational age infants?

    PubMed

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Ananth, Cande V; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy; Albert, Paul S; Schomaker, Michael; McElduff, Patrick; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-04-01

    Higher placental weight relative to birthweight has been described as an adaptive mechanism to fetal hypoxia in small for gestational age (SGA) infants. However, placental weight alone may not be a good marker reflecting intrauterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that fetoplacental ratio (FPR)-the ratio between birthweight and placental weight-may serve as a good marker of SGA after adjustment for surrogates of fetal hypoxemia (maternal iron deficiency anemia, smoking and choriodecidual necrosis). We conducted a within-sibling analysis using data from the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966) of 1,803 women who delivered their first two (or more) consecutive infants at term (n = 3,494). We used variance-component fixed-effect linear regression models to explore the effect of observed time-varying factors on placental weight and conditional logistic regression to estimate the effects of the tertiles of FPRs (1st small, 2nd normal and 3rd large) on the odds of SGA infants. We found placental weights to be 15 g [95 % confidence interval (CI) 8, 23] higher and -7 g (95 % CI -13, -2) lower among women that had anemia and choriodecidual necrosis, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, newborns with a small FPR (1st-tertile ≤7) had twofold higher odds of being SGA (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.5) than their siblings with a large FPR (3nd-tertile ≥9). A small FPR was associated with higher odds of SGA, suggesting that small FPR may serve as an indicator suggestive of adverse intrauterine environment. This observation may help to distinguish pathological from constitutional SGA. PMID:25630563

  20. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  1. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys. PMID:26698388

  2. A quantitative method for estimation of volume changes in arachnoid foveae with age.

    PubMed

    Duray, Stephen M; Martel, Stacie S

    2006-03-01

    Age-related changes of arachnoid foveae have been described, but objective, quantitative analyses are lacking. A new quantitative method is presented for estimation of change in total volume of arachnoid foveae with age. The pilot sample consisted of nine skulls from the Palmer Anatomy Laboratory. Arachnoid foveae were filled with sand, which was extracted using a vacuum pump. Mass was determined with an analytical balance and converted to volume. A reliability analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficients. The method was found to be highly reliable (intraobserver ICC = 0.9935, interobserver ICC = 0.9878). The relationship between total volume and age was then examined in a sample of 63 males of accurately known age from the Hamann-Todd collection. Linear regression analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between total volume and age, or foveae frequency and age (alpha = 0.05). Development of arachnoid foveae may be influenced by health factors, which could limit its usefulness in aging. PMID:16566755

  3. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method. PMID:26334282

  4. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method. PMID:26334282

  5. Methods for diagnosing perceived age on the basis of an ensemble of phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Mas, José Manuel; Pujol, Albert; Herranz, Miquel Angel; Alonso, Vicente; Naval, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceived age has been defined as the age that a person is visually estimated to be on the basis of physical appearance. In a society where a youthful appearance are an object of desire for consumers, and a source of commercial profit for cosmetic companies, this concept has a prominent role. In addition, perceived age is also an indicator of overall health status in elderly people, since old-looking people tend to show higher rates of morbidity and mortality. However, there is a lack of objective methods for quantifying perceived age. Methods In order to satisfy the need of objective approaches for estimating perceived age, a novel algorithm was created. The novel algorithm uses supervised mathematical learning techniques and error retropropagation for the creation of an artificial neural network able to learn biophysical and clinically assessed parameters of subjects. The algorithm provides a consistent estimation of an individual’s perceived age, taking into account a defined set of facial skin phenotypic traits, such as wrinkles and roughness, number of wrinkles, depth of wrinkles, and pigmentation. A nonintervention, epidemiological cross-sectional study of cases and controls was conducted in 120 female volunteers for the diagnosis of perceived age using this novel algorithm. Data collection was performed by clinical assessment of an expert panel and biophysical assessment using the ANTERA 3D® device. Results and discussion Employing phenotype data as variables and expert assignments as objective data, the algorithm was found to correctly classify the samples with an accuracy of 92.04%. Therefore, we have developed a method for determining the perceived age of a subject in a standardized, consistent manner. Further application of this algorithm is thus a promising approach for the testing and validation of cosmetic treatments and aesthetic surgery, and it also could be used as a screening method for general health status in the population. PMID

  6. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  7. Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

    2007-03-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

  8. Demirjian's method in the estimation of age: A study on human third molars

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amitha J.; Boaz, Karen; Nagesh, K. R; Srikant, N; Gupta, Neha; Nandita, K. P; Manaktala, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to estimate the chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A to H) method of Demirjian et al. (along with two modifications-Orhan) and secondary aim is to compare third molar development with sex and age. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 115 orthopantomograms from South Indian subjects with known chronological age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed with chronological age as the dependable variable and third molar root development as independent variable. All the statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.0 package (IBM ® Corporation). Results: Statistically no significant differences were found in third molar development between males and females. Depending on the available number of wisdom teeth in an individual, R2 varied for males from 0.21 to 0.48 and for females from 0.16 to 0.38. New equations were derived for estimating the chronological age. Conclusion: The chronological age of a South Indian individual between 14 and 22 years may be estimated based on the regression formulae. However, additional studies with a larger study population must be conducted to meet the need for population-based information on third molar development. PMID:26005306

  9. Accuracy of two dental and one skeletal age estimation methods in 6-16 year old Gujarati children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purv S.; Chaudhary, Anjani Ramachandra; Dudhia, Bhavin B.; Bhatia, Parul V.; Soni, Naresh C.; Jani, Yesha V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is of immense importance not only for personal identification but also for treatment planning in medicine and dentistry. Chronologic age conveys only a rough approximation of the maturational status of a person, hence dental and skeletal ages have been explored as maturity indicators since decades. The tooth maturation provides a valuable indicator of dental age and serves as a better index of the maturation of a child as compared to other maturity indicators. Aims and Objectives: To test the applicability of Demirjian's and Willem's dental age assessment methods as well as Greulich and Pyle skeletal age assessment method in children residing in Gandhinagar district. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of randomly selected 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females) ranging from 6 to 16 years age and residing in Gandhinagar district. Dental age estimation was performed from radiovisuograph (RVG) images of mandibular teeth of left quadrant by both Demirjian's and Willem's methods. Skeletal age estimation was done from right hand wrist radiograph by Greulich and Pyle method. The differences between the chronological age and the estimated dental and skeletal ages were statistically tested using paired ‘t’ test. The correlation between chronological age, dental and skeletal age estimation methods was confirmed statistically by Pearson's correlation. The reproducibility of the estimations was statistically tested using the Pearson's Chi-square test. Results: Amongst the age estimation methods used in this study, the Willem's dental age estimation method proved to be the most accurate and consistent. Conclusion: Although various age estimation methods do exist, the results are varied in different populations due to ethnic differences. However, till new tables are formulated, the Willem's method (Modified Demirjian method) can be accurately applied to estimate chronological age for the population residing in Gandhinagar district. PMID

  10. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Huho, Bernadette J; Ng'habi, Kija R; Killeen, Gerry F; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Knols, Bart GJ; Ferguson, Heather M

    2006-01-01

    Background Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days) and old (> 4 days) with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes. PMID:16872516

  11. Precise age determinations and petrogenetic studies using the K-Ca method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. D.; Depaolo, D. J.

    1982-12-01

    New mass spectrometric techniques are used to reassess the capabilities of the K-40 to Ca-40 radioactive decay for yielding precise ages of various geological materials. A brief discussion of the principles underlying the system's use is presented as a preliminary, and the analytical procedures are described. To test the method, a mineral isochron has been obtained on a sample of Pikes Peak granite which has been shown to have concordant K-Ar, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb ages. Plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, and whole rock yield an age of 1041 + or 32 m.y., in agreement with previous age determinations. The initial Ca-40/Ca-42 indicates that assimilation of high K/Ca crust was insufficient to affect calcium isotopes. The results show that the K-Ca system can be used as a precise geochronometer for common felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, and may prove applicable to sedimentary rocks containing authigenic K minerals.

  12. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification. PMID:24726662

  13. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  14. Development of a forensically useful age prediction method based on DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Żanetta; Pałeczka, Anna; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-07-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping needs to be supplemented with age prediction to become a relevant source of information on human appearance. Recent progress in analysis of the human methylome has enabled selection of multiple candidate loci showing linear correlation with chronological age. Practical application in forensic science depends on successful validation of these potential age predictors. In this study, eight DNA methylation candidate loci were analysed using convenient and reliable pyrosequencing technology. A total number of 41 CpG sites was investigated in 420 samples collected from men and women aged from 2 to 75 years. The study confirmed correlation of all the investigated markers with human age. The five most significantly correlated CpG sites in ELOVL2 on 6p24.2, C1orf132 on 1q32.2, TRIM59 on 3q25.33, KLF14 on 7q32.3 and FHL2 on 2q12.2 were chosen to build a prediction model. This restriction allowed the technical analysis to be simplified without lowering the prediction accuracy significantly. Model parameters for a discovery set of 300 samples were R(2)=0.94 and the standard error of the estimate=4.5 years. An independent set of 120 samples was used to test the model performance. Mean absolute deviation for this testing set was 3.9 years. The number of correct predictions ±5 years achieved a very high level of 86.7% in the age category 2-19 and gradually decreased to 50% in the age category 60-75. The prediction model was deterministic for individuals belonging to these two extreme age categories. The developed method was implemented in a freely available online age prediction calculator. PMID:26026729

  15. A Comparison of the Accuracy of Four Age Estimation Methods Based on Panoramic Radiography of Developing Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Javadinejad, Shahrzad; Sekhavati, Hajar; Ghafari, Roshanak

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Tooth development is widely used in determining age and state of maturity. Dental age is of high importance in forensic and pediatric dentistry and also orthodontic treatment planning .The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four radiographic age estimation methods. Materials and methods. Orthopantomographic images of 537 healthy children (age: 3.9-14.5 years old) were evaluated. Dental age of the subjects was determined through Demirjian’s, Willem’s, Cameriere’s, and Smith’s methods. Differences and correlations between chronological and dental ages were assessed by paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlation analysis, respectively. Results. The mean chronological age of the subjects was 8.93 ± 2.04 years. Overestimations of age were observed following the use of Demirjian’s method (0.87 ± 1.00 years), Willem’s method (0.36 ± 0.87 years), and Smith’s method (0.06 ± 0.63 years). However, Cameriere’s method underestimated age by 0.19 ± 0.86 years. While paired t-tests revealed significant differences between the mean chronological age and ages determined by Demirjian’s, Willem’s, and Cameriere’s methods (P < 0.001), such a significant difference was absent between chronological age and dental age based on Smith’s method (P = 0.079). Pearson’s correlation analysis suggested linear correlations between chronological age and dental age determined by all four methods. Conclusion. Our findings indicated Smith’s method to have the highest accuracy among the four assessed methods. How-ever, all four methods can be used with acceptable accuracy. PMID:26236431

  16. Segmentation of bone pixels from EROI Image using clustering method for bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakthula, Rajitha; Agarwal, Suneeta

    2016-03-01

    The bone age of a human can be identified using carpal and epiphysis bones ossification, which is limited to teen age. The accurate age estimation depends on best separation of bone pixels and soft tissue pixels in the ROI image. The traditional approaches like canny, sobel, clustering, region growing and watershed can be applied, but these methods requires proper pre-processing and accurate initial seed point estimation to provide accurate results. Therefore this paper proposes new approach to segment the bone from soft tissue and background pixels. First pixels are enhanced using BPE and the edges are identified by HIPI. Later a K-Means clustering is applied for segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated and compared with the existing methods.

  17. Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian’s Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

  18. Effect of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality. One hundred-fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial processing line prior to chilling and transported to the laboratory. Half of the carcasses we...

  19. Informational Theory of Aging: The Life Extension Method Based on the Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Karnaukhov, Alexey V.; Karnaukhova, Elena V.; Sergievich, Larisa A.; Karnaukhova, Natalia A.; Bogdanenko, Elena V.; Manokhina, Irina A.; Karnaukhov, Valery N.

    2015-01-01

    The method of lifespan extension that is a practical application of the informational theory of aging is proposed. In this theory, the degradation (error accumulation) of the genetic information in cells is considered a main cause of aging. According to it, our method is based on the transplantation of genetically identical (or similar) stem cells with the lower number of genomic errors to the old recipients. For humans and large mammals, this method can be realized by cryopreservation of their own stem cells, taken in a young age, for the later autologous transplantation in old age. To test this method experimentally, we chose laboratory animals of relatively short lifespan (mouse). Because it is difficult to isolate the required amount of the stem cells (e.g., bone marrow) without significant damage for animals, we used the bone marrow transplantation from sacrificed inbred young donors. It is shown that the lifespan extension of recipients depends on level of their genetic similarity (syngeneity) with donors. We have achieved the lifespan increase of the experimental mice by 34% when the transplantation of the bone marrow with high level of genetic similarity was used. PMID:26491435

  20. Effect of Chilling Method and Post-Mortem Aging Time on Broiler Breast Fillet Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method (dry air or immersion) and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality (raw fillet color, raw fillet pH, cook yield and Allo-Kramer shear). One hundred fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial p...

  1. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  2. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  3. Methods of suicide by age: sex and race differences among the young and old.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J L; Santos, J F

    The elderly have the highest suicide rate in the United States. In partial explanation of this finding, a common statement in the suicide literature is that older persons tend to use more drastic and effective methods of suicide. However, little, if any, data have been presented in defense of this explanation. In order to investigate the validity of this contention, annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (whites, blacks, nonwhites excluding black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. For white males, blacks of both sexes, and nonwhites excluding black females, the findings confirmed the use of more violent methods by the elderly than by the young in terms of the proportion of suicides by firearms and/or hanging. Less support and, in fact, opposite results for method-related age differences were obtained for white females and nonwhites excluding black males. Another general finding was an increase in the use of firearms for most of the groups studied. The need for data for specific groups within the nonwhite category excluding blacks is apparent both from the available literature and from the present findings. Possible explanations and implications of the observed results are discussed. PMID:3830918

  4. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25804765

  5. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  6. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-02-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  7. Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lampi, Katja M.; Lehtonen, Liisa; Tran, Phuong Lien; Suominen, Auli; Lehti, Venla; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between birth weight, gestational age, small for gestational age (SGA), and three most common autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subtypes. Study design In this population-based case-control study conducted in Finland, 4713 cases born between 1987 and 2005 with ICD-diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD, were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Four controls, individually matched on sex, date of birth, and place of birth, were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for each case. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether birth weight and gestational age information predicted ASD after controlling for maternal age, parity, smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric history, as well as for infant’s major congenital anomalies. Results Very low (<1500g) and moderately low (<2500g) birth weight, very low gestational age (less than 32 weeks), and SGA increased risk of childhood autism (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.4–6.5; 1.57, 1.1–2.3; 2.51, 1.3–5.0 and 1.72, 1.1–2.6, respectively). Very low and moderately low birth weight, very low gestational age, and SGA were also associated with increase in PDD risk (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.9–6.3; 1.81, 1.4–2.4; 2.46, 1.4–2.3 and 2.24, 1.7–3.0, respectively). No associations were found between the perinatal characteristics and Asperger syndrome. The increased risks persisted after controlling for selected potential confounders. Conclusions The finding that low birth weight, prematurity and SGA were related to childhood autism and PDD but not to Asperger syndrome suggests that prenatal factors related to these exposures may differ for these ASD subtypes, which may have preventive implications. PMID:22677565

  8. Application of a New Method for Lunar Crater Age Dating to Copernican Impact Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrouei, S.; Ghent, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon's surface, without any substantial atmosphere, weather, or tectonic activity, is a genuine time capsule for events taking place in our region of the Solar System. Previously, geological maps and crater counting methods were used for age determination for terrains and individual features, such as large craters and basins; however, those methods are extremely time consuming, are limited by image quality and availability and the need to identify small craters over datable regions, and are subject to systematic errors derived from uncertainty in the cratering function and small number statistics. We have recently shown that the rockiness of large craters' ejecta, derived from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Diviner thermal radiometer data, provides a new method for determining the ages of Copernican craters (younger than roughly one billion years old). This method is not subject to the constraints of traditional crater counting methods using visible images. Here, we apply this new method to search for variations in the impact flux over the Copernican period. We investigate the size-frequency distributions and ejecta rock abundances of rocky craters five kilometers and larger, and compare the results to canonical relationships for Copernican craters. Because the lunar impact cratering rate is directly related to interactions among near-Earth objects and main belt asteroids, our results will provide a new platform for testing various dynamical hypotheses about the evolution of the asteroid belt and interactions within it.

  9. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  10. A method for estimating gestational age of fetal remains based on long bone lengths.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Cristiana; Curate, Francisco; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of gestational age (GA) in fetal human remains is important in forensic settings, particularly to assess fetal viability, in addition to often being the only biological profile parameter that can be assessed with some accuracy for non-adults. The length of long bone diaphysis is one of the most frequently used methods for fetal age estimation. The main objective of this study was to present a simple and objective method for estimating GA based on the measurements of the diaphysis of the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, and radius. Conventional least squares regression equations (classical and inverse calibration approaches) and quick reference tables were generated. A supplementary objective was to compare the performance of the new formulae against previously published models. The sample comprised 257 fetuses (136 females and 121 males) with known GA (between 12 and 40 weeks) and was selected based on clinical and pathological information. All measurements were performed on radiographic images acquired in anonymous clinical autopsy records from spontaneous and therapeutic abortions in two Portuguese hospitals. The proposed technique is straightforward and reproducible. The models for the GA estimation are exceedingly accurate and unbiased. Comparisons between inverse and classical calibration show that both perform exceptionally well, with high accuracy and low bias. Also, the newly developed equations generally outperform earlier methods of GA estimation in forensic contexts. Quick reference tables for each long bone are now available. The obtained models for the estimation of gestational age are of great applicability in forensic contexts. PMID:27251047

  11. Is the assessment of dental age by the Nolla method valid for eastern Turkish children?

    PubMed

    Miloglu, Ozkan; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Dane, Asim; Cantekin, Kenan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Berhan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the Nolla method is appropriate for Turkish children for the determination of the dental age (DA). A group of 719 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years were included in the study. DAs from orthopantograms by the Nolla method were estimated. The results obtained were compared with chronologic age (CA). Paired t and the Wilcoxon tests were performed. Both genders were underestimated in dental maturity when compared with the reference samples in total (-0.3 years) (p<0.01). The differences in girls were statistically significant in total and in all groups except for 7-7.9. The differences in boys between the CAs and DAs were not statistically significant in total and in all groups except for 7-7.9 and 8-8.9. Although the accuracy of this method was suitable for boys, according to our findings, it was not suitable for girls. PMID:21418219

  12. Mapping post-disturbance stand age distribution in Siberian larch forest based on a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Siberian larch forest, which accounts for nearly 20% of the global boreal forest biome, is unique, important, yet significantly understudied. These deciduous needleleaf forests with a single species dominance over a large continuous area are not found anywhere except the extreme continental zones of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Most of these forests are located in remote and sparsely populated areas and, therefore, little is known about spatial variability of their structure and dynamics. Wall-to-wall repeated observations of this area are available only since the 2000s. Previously, we developed methods for reconstruction of stand-age distribution from a sample of 1980-2000 disturbances in Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. However, availability of those images in Siberian larch forests is particularly limited. Built upon the hypothesis that the spectral characteristics of the disturbed forest in the region change with time consistently, this paper proposes a novel method utilizing the newly released Global Forest Change (GFC) 2000-2012 dataset. We exploit the data-rich era of annual forest disturbance samples identified between 2000 and 2012 in the Siberian larch forest by the GFC dataset to build a robust training set of spectral signatures from regrowing larch forests as they appear in Landsat imagery in 2012. The extracted statistics are ingested into a random forest, which predicts the approximate stand age for every forested pixel in the circa 2000 composite. After merging the estimated stand age distribution for 1989-2000 with the observed disturbance records for 2001-2012, a gap-free 30 m resolution 24-year long record of stand age distribution is obtained. A preliminary accuracy assessment against the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) burned area product suggested satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  13. Calibrating a method for simulated long-term ageing of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohi, Saran; Cross, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We recently established a procedure that imposes oxidatiave ageing to biochar and charcoal samples over a short time-frame, that provided carbon mass loss in the range projected for wild-fire charcoal in soil over a period of approximately 100 years. The stability of biochar samples in soil (relative to charcoal) range from 45-98% could be determined repeatably with high precision. Initial tests to understand the kinetics of the accelerated ageing method showed progressive increase in surface O concentration when examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that slowly reached equilibrium. These trends resembled patterns observed in climate-for-time studies elsewhere, on centennial time-frame. We have extended this work to a preliminary direct calibration by matching progressive oxidation achieved in the laboratory to the surface composition of charcoal fragments recovered from the environment after periods of hundred to thousands of years. We have also applied artificial ageing to the same sets of naturally pre-aged charcoal fragments, and to recreated fresh charcoal. In this presentation of the first approach to quantifiably relate a laboratory test for biochar carbon stability to field data covering multiple time scales, we report on both the process and the implications for the stability of carbon stored in biochar under different climates and diverse agro-ecosystems.

  14. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. PMID:26944962

  15. Low-Dose Aspirin in Early Gestation for Prevention of Preeclampsia and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: Meta-analysis of Large Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Sibai, Baha; McCaw-Binns, Affette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Meta-analyses of small to moderate size randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggested that aspirin started before 17 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. We evaluated data from large randomized trials originally excluded from meta-analyses. Methods We performed meta-analyses of RCTs including more than 350 participants that compared aspirin to placebo during pregnancy. Corresponding authors were contacted to obtain data according to gestational age. Outcomes included preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and SGA. Relative risks (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Data for women recruited before 17 weeks' gestation were obtained for three (50%) of the six eligible trials for a total of 11,949 participants including 3,293 recruited before 17 weeks' gestation with available data. We observed no impact of low-dose aspirin (60 mg) started before 17 weeks' gestation on the risk of preeclampsia (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.75-1.15), severe preeclampsia (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.71-1.28), or SGA (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.56-1.26) and it was not statistically different than when started at or after 17 weeks' gestation. Conclusion Data from large randomized trials do not support greater benefits of low-dose aspirin (at 60 mg daily) when started before 17 weeks' gestation for the prevention of preeclampsia or SGA. PMID:26906184

  16. Rapid springback compensation for age forming based on quasi Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong; Xiong, Shipeng; Xia, Yushan

    2014-05-01

    Iterative methods based on finite element simulation are effective approaches to design mold shape to compensate springback in sheet metal forming. However, convergence rate of iterative methods is difficult to improve greatly. To increase the springback compensate speed of designing age forming mold, process of calculating springback for a certain mold with finite element method is analyzed. Springback compensation is abstracted as finding a solution for a set of nonlinear functions and a springback compensation algorithm is presented on the basis of quasi Newton method. The accuracy of algorithm is verified by developing an ABAQUS secondary development program with MATLAB. Three rectangular integrated panels of dimensions 710 mm ×750 mm integrated panels with intersected ribs of 10 mm are selected to perform case studies. The algorithm is used to compute mold contours for the panels with cylinder, sphere and saddle contours respectively and it takes 57%, 22% and 33% iterations as compared to that of displacement adjustment (DA) method. At the end of iterations, maximum deviations on the three panels are 0.618 4 mm, 0.624 1 mm and 0.342 0 mm that are smaller than the deviations determined by DA method (0.740 8 mm, 0.740 8 mm and 0.713 7 mm respectively). In following experimental verification, mold contour for another integrated panel with 400 mm×380 mm size is designed by the algorithm. Then the panel is age formed in an autoclave and measured by a three dimensional digital measurement devise. Deviation between measuring results and the panel's design contour is less than 1 mm. Finally, the iterations with different mesh sizes (40 mm, 35 mm, 30 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm) in finite element models are compared and found no considerable difference. Another possible compensation method, Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method, is also presented based on the solving nonlinear functions idea. The Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method is employed to compute mold contour for the second panel

  17. Prevalence of hypospadias in Italy according to severity, gestational age and birthweight: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ghirri, Paolo; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Bertelloni, Silvano; Pardi, Daniela; Celandroni, Amerigo; Cocchi, Guido; Danieli, Roberto; De Santis, Luisa; Di Stefano, Maria C; Gerola, Orietta; Giuffrè, Mario; Gragnani, Giuseppe S; Magnani, Cinzia; Meossi, Cristiano; Merusi, Ilaria; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tumini, Stefano; Corsello, Giovanni; Boldrini, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a congenital displacement of the urethral meatus in male newborns, being either an isolated defect at birth or a sign of sexual development disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rate of hypospadias in different Districts of Italy, in order to make a comparison with other countries all over the world. Methods We reviewed all the newborns file records (years 2001–2004) in 15 Italian Hospitals. Results We found an overall hypospadias prevalence rate of 3.066 ± 0.99 per 1000 live births (82.48% mild hypospadias, 17.52% moderate-severe). In newborns Small for Gestational Age (birthweight < 10th percentile) of any gestational age the prevalence rate of hypospadias was 6.25 per 1000 live births. Performing multivariate logistic regression analysis for different degrees of hypospadias according to severity, being born SGA remained the only risk factor for moderate-severe hypospadias (p = 0.00898) but not for mild forms (p > 0.1). Conclusion In our sample the prevalence of hypospadias results as high as reported in previous European and American studies (3–4 per 1000 live births). Pathogenesis of isolated hypospadias is multifactorial (genetic, endocrine and environmental factors): however, the prevalence rate of hypospadias is higher in infants born small for gestational age than in newborns with normal birth weight. PMID:19558700

  18. Comparison of AGE and Spectral Methods for the Simulation of Far-Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, D. K.; Rogers, M. M.; Kega, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Turbulent flow simulation methods based on finite differences are attractive for their simplicity, flexibility and efficiency, but not always for accuracy or stability. This report demonstrates that a good compromise is possible with the Advected Grid Explicit (AGE) method. AGE has proven to be both efficient and accurate for simulating turbulent free-shear flows, including planar mixing layers and planar jets. Its efficiency results from its localized fully explicit finite difference formulation (Bisset 1998a,b) that is very straightforward to compute, outweighing the need for a fairly small timestep. Also, most of the successful simulations were slightly under-resolved, and therefore they were, in effect, large-eddy simulations (LES) without a sub-grid-scale (SGS) model, rather than direct numerical simulations (DNS). The principle is that the role of the smallest scales of turbulent motion (when the Reynolds number is not too low) is to dissipate turbulent energy, and therefore they do not have to be simulated when the numerical method is inherently dissipative at its resolution limits. Such simulations are termed 'auto-LES' (LES with automatic SGS modeling) in this report.

  19. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons. PMID:27560175

  20. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. PMID:23991687

  1. Decorin expression is decreased in first trimester placental tissue from pregnancies with small for gestation age infants at birth.

    PubMed

    Murthi, P; van Zanten, D E; Eijsink, J J H; Borg, A J; Stevenson, J L; Kalionis, B; Chui, A K; Said, J M; Brennecke, S P; Erwich, J J H M

    2016-09-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR pregnancies are often associated with histological evidence of placental vascular thrombosis. The proteoglycans are important components and regulators of vascular homeostasis. Previous studies from our laboratory highlighted mRNA and protein expression differences in placental proteoglycan decorin (DCN), within a clinically well-characterised cohort of third-trimester idiopathic FGR compared with gestation-matched uncomplicated control pregnancies. We also showed that decorin contributes to abnormal angiogenesis and increased thrombin generation in vitro. These observations suggest that DCN gene expression may contribute to the etiology of FGR. Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used as a proxy for FGR and is defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of a birth weight curve. We therefore made use of a unique resource of first trimester tissues obtained via chorionic villus sampling during the first trimester to investigate the temporal relationship between altered DCN expression and any subsequent development of SGA. We hypothesized that placental DCN expression is decreased early in gestation in SGA pregnancies. Surplus chorionic villus specimens from 15 women subsequently diagnosed with FGR and 50 from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were collected. DCN mRNA and DCN protein were determined using real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Both DCN mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in placentae from first-trimester SGA-pregnancies compared with controls (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report a temporal relationship between altered placental DCN expression and subsequent development of SGA. PMID:27577711

  2. Contribution of Quantitative Methods of Estimating Mortality Dynamics to Explaining Mechanisms of Aging.

    PubMed

    Shilovsky, G A; Putyatina, T S; Markov, A V; Skulachev, V P

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of various types of unrepaired damage of the genome because of increasing production of reactive oxygen species and decreasing efficiency of the antioxidant defense system and repair systems can cause age-related diseases and emergence of phenotypic signs of senescence. This should lead to increasing vulnerability and to mortality monotonously increasing with age independently of the position of the species on the evolutionary tree. In this light, the survival, mortality, and fertility curves for 45 animal and plant species and one alga published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany/Denmark) are of special interest (Jones, O. R., et al. (2014) Nature, 505, 169-173). We divided all species treated in that study into four groups according to the ratio of mortality at the terminal age (which corresponds to 5% survival) and average mortality during the entire studied period. For animals of group IV (long-lived and senescent), including humans, the Jones method makes it possible to trace mortality during the entire life cycle. The same applies to short-lived animals (e.g. nematodes or the tundra vole), whether they display the Gompertz type of senescence or not. However, in long-lived species with a less pronounced increase in mortality with age (e.g. the freshwater crocodile, hermit crab, or Scots pine), as well as in animals of average lifespan that reach the terminal age earlier than they could have enough time to become senescent, the Jones method is capable of characterizing only a small part of the life cycle and does not allow judging how senescence manifests itself at late stages of the life cycle. Thus, it is known that old trees display signs of biological senescence rather clearly; although Jones et al. consider them non-senescent organisms because less than 5% of sexually mature individuals survive to display the first manifestations of these characters. We have concluded that the classification proposed by Jones et al

  3. Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-invasive biomarkers of brain oxidative stress, iron accumulation estimated in vivo may serve as its proxy indicator. Hence, developing reliable in vivo measurements of brain iron content via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of significant interest in human neuroscience. To date, by estimating brain iron content through various MRI methods, significant age differences and age-related increases in iron content of the basal ganglia have been revealed across multiple samples. Less consistent are the findings that pertain to the relationship between elevated brain iron content and systemic indices of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. Only a handful of cross-sectional investigations have linked high iron content in various brain regions and poor performance on assorted cognitive tests. The even fewer longitudinal studies indicate that iron accumulation may precede shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thus predict poor maintenance of cognitive functions. This rapidly developing field will benefit from introduction of higher-field MRI scanners, improvement in iron-sensitive and -specific acquisition sequences and post-processing analytic and computational methods, as well as accumulation of data from long-term longitudinal investigations. This review describes the potential advantages and promises of MRI-based assessment of brain iron, summarizes recent findings and highlights the limitations of the current methodology. PMID:26248580

  4. A Rapid Radiocarbon Method for Age Surveys of Southern Ocean Deep-sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A.; Robinson, L. F.; Gerlach, D. S.; Jenkins, W. J.; McNichol, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    Deep-sea corals provide a unique archive of past ocean radiocarbon because they are sessile and can be dated independently using U-series nuclides. One difficulty, however, is that using current techniques it is impractical to date large numbers of corals in order to determine which specimens have the appropriate ages for radiocarbon reconstructions. Here we present results from a quick method of making graphite for radiocarbon dating that reduces the amount of sample preparation time, thus allowing us to date a greater number of corals. In addition, these rapid age surveys provide important information on coral age populations, allowing us to examine coral distributions through time. The corals used in this study come from a sample set of about 6,000 specimens of Flabellum, Balanophyllia and Desmophyllum spp. collected from the Drake Passage area (50S -70S, 120 m-1700 m depth). Replicate samples from a single coral yielded a standard deviation of 81 years (n=9). Variations in sample mass (3 to 85 mg) have no clear effect on the Fm and furthermore, a simple cleaning using methanol yields the same results as a more involved cleaning procedure that includes an oxidizing solution and perchloric acid rinse. To improve the efficiency of the method, we assumed a delta13C = 0 per mil. This assumption is likely our largest source of uncertainty, resulting in offsets of up to 200 radiocarbon years over a reasonable range of delta13C. This level of uncertainty is sufficiently low to allow distinction between corals from different time periods over the past 35 ky (e.g. Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas, etc.). To date, we have found corals from Burdwood Bank dating from the modern to the Younger Dryas and corals from the Drake Passage dating from the modern to Heinrich Event 1, which will be used in future paleo-climatic reconstructions in this important part of the ocean.

  5. Optimal charging method for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol accommodating aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhen; Liaw, Bor Yann; Qiu, Xinping; Gao, Lanlan; Zhang, Changshui

    2015-01-01

    An effective optimum charging technique for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol (UVP) that can accommodate cell aging is presented here. This charging method demands less learning to varying state-of-health (SOH) conditions with potential to improve charging efficiency and cycle life. The simplicity of UVP makes the implementation easier than the conventional constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV)-based methods. Here, the mathematical formulation, optimization targets (e.g. minimal time) and constraints (terminal voltages and other instrumental and cell electrochemistry-limited ones) are explained from the protocol design considerations. An equivalent circuit model was used and its parameters derived from the analysis of test data, which could yield a nonlinear varying current profile (VCP) by simulation and a genetic algorithm-based optimization. Both UVP and VCP were used in the validation to illustrate better charging efficiency and capacity retention, which showed a much improved cycle life.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  7. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  8. Standard Extraction Methods May Underestimate Nitrate Stocks Captured by Field-Aged Biochar.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ghulam; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Kammann, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    Biochar (BC) has been shown to increase the potential for N retention in agricultural soils. However, the form of N retained and its strength of retention are poorly understood. Here, we examined if the N retained could be readily extractable by standard methods and if the amount of N retained varied with BC field ageing. We investigated soil and field-aged BC (BC) particles of a field experiment (sandy soil amended with BC at 0, 15, and 30 t ha) under two watering regimes (irrigated and rain-fed). Throughout the study, greater nitrate than ammonium retention was observed with BC addition in topsoil (0-15 cm). Subsoil (15-30 cm) nitrate concentrations were reduced in BC treatments, indicating reduced nitrate leaching (standard 2 mol L KCl method). The mineral-N release of picked BC particles was examined with different methods: standard 2 mol L KCl extraction; repeated (10×) extraction in 2 mol L KCl at 22 ± 2°C and 80°C (M); electro-ultrafiltration (M); repeated water + KCl long-term shaking (M); and M plus one repeated shaking at 80°C (M). Nitrate amounts captured by BC particles were several-fold greater than those in the BC-amended soil. Compared with M, standard 2 mol L KCl or electro-ultrafiltration extractions retrieved only 13 and 30% of the total extractable nitrates, respectively. Our results suggest that "nitrate capture" by BC may reduce nitrate leaching in the field and that the inefficiency of standard extraction methods deserves closer research attention to decipher mechanisms for reactive N management. PMID:27380067

  9. Modeling Bone Surface Morphology: A Fully Quantitative Method for Age-at-Death Estimation Using the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Slice, Dennis E; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2015-07-01

    The pubic symphysis is widely used in age estimation for the adult skeleton. Standard practice requires the visual comparison of surface morphology against criteria representing predefined phases and the estimation of case-specific age from an age range associated with the chosen phase. Known problems of method and observer error necessitate alternative tools to quantify age-related change in pubic morphology. This paper presents an objective, fully quantitative method for estimating age-at-death from the skeleton, which exploits a variance-based score of surface complexity computed from vertices obtained from a scanner sampling the pubic symphysis. For laser scans from 41 modern American male skeletons, this method produces results that are significantly associated with known age-at-death (RMSE = 17.15 years). Chronological age is predicted, therefore, equally well, if not, better, with this robust, objective, and fully quantitative method than with prevailing phase-aging systems. This method contributes to forensic casework by responding to medico-legal expectations for evidence standards. PMID:25929827

  10. DNA Methylation and Expression Patterns of Selected Genes in First-Trimester Placental Tissue from Pregnancies with Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants at Birth.

    PubMed

    Leeuwerke, Mariëtte; Eilander, Michelle S; Pruis, Maurien G M; Lendvai, Ágnes; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Plösch, Torsten; Eijsink, Jasper J H

    2016-02-01

    Variations in DNA methylation levels in the placenta are thought to influence gene expression and are associated with complications of pregnancy, like fetal growth restriction (FGR). The most important cause for FGR is placental dysfunction. Here, we examined whether changes in DNA methylation, followed by gene expression changes, are mechanistically involved in the etiology of FGR. In this retrospective case-control study, we examined the association between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children and both DNA methylation and gene expression levels of the genes WNT2, IGF2/H19, SERPINA3, HERVWE1, and PPARG in first-trimester placental tissue. We also examined the repetitive element LINE-1. These candidate genes have been reported in the literature to be associated with SGA. We used first-trimester placental tissue from chorionic villus biopsies. A total of 35 SGA children (with a birth weight below the 10th percentile) were matched to 70 controls based on their gestational age. DNA methylation levels were analyzed by pyrosequencing and mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time PCR. None of the average DNA methylation levels, measured for each gene, showed a significant difference between SGA placental tissue compared to control tissue. However, hypermethylation of WNT2 was detected on two CpG positions in SGA. This was not associated with changes in gene expression. Apart from two CpG positions of the WNT2 gene, in early placenta samples, no evident changes in DNA methylation or expression were found. This indicates that the already reported changes in term placenta are not present in the early placenta, and therefore must arise after the first trimester. PMID:26740591

  11. Assessment of Dental Maturity of Children Aged 7-15 Years Using Demirjian Method in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abesi, F; Haghanifar, S; Sajadi, P; Valizadeh, A; Khafri, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Dental age can be estimated on the basis of the tooth mineralization level during the developmental process of the teeth. Among various radiological methods reported for the dental age determination in children, Demirjian method is widely used. Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method in age estimation of the children aged 7-15 years in Babol, a northern city of Iran. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was performed on the panoramic radiographs of 168 individuals with 7-15 years old. Maturation of the seven permanent teeth on the left side of the mandible was determined according to the crown and root development stages; described by Demirjian method. The mean of the dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian was compared to the mean of chronological age (CA). Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS, V18. P-values<0.05 were considered significance. Results: The mean and the SD of CA was 11.06±2.29 (boys: 11.08±2.31, girls: 11.03±2.28). The mean and the SD of DA was 11.44±2.85 (boys: 11.81±2.93, girls: 11.08±2.73) and the mean and the SD of DA minus CA for all of the children were 0.38±1.24 (boys: 0.72±1.2, girls: 0.05±1.21). Also, t-Test analysis showed the differences of the mean value of the estimated - chronological age difference was statistically significant between the boys and the girls group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the determined differences between estimated dental age and chronological age in this study; Demirjian method can be applicable for estimation of dental age in girls and boys before their puberty in northern of Iran. PMID:24724140

  12. Six Forms of Variety in Students' Moral Reasoning: An Age-Old Distinction Enabling New Methods and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Ylva; Gardelli, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the age-old distinction between decision method and criterion of rightness, commonly employed in normative ethics, was used to attain a detailed understanding of inter- and intrapersonal variety in students' moral reasoning. A total of 24 Swedish students, 12-15 years of age, were interviewed. Inter- and intrapersonal varieties in…

  13. Successful Aging with Sickle Cell Disease: Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Theory

    PubMed Central

    Jenerette, Coretta M.; Lauderdale, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the lives of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This article reports findings from a qualitative pilot study, which used life review as a method to explore influences on health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with SCD, Six females with SCD, recruited from two urban sickle cell clinics in the U.S., engaged in semi-structured, in-depth life review interviews. MaxQDA2 software was used for qualitative data coding and analysis. Three major themes were identified: vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes. These themes are consistent with the Theory of Self-Care Management for Sickle Cell Disease. Identifying vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes in adults with SCD may aid in developing theory-based interventions to meet health care needs of younger individuals with SCD. The life review process is a useful means to gain insight into successful aging with SCD and other chronic illnesses. PMID:19838320

  14. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  15. Age estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: Cameriere's method assessed in an Indian sample using radiovisiography.

    PubMed

    Jeevan, M B; Kale, Alka D; Angadi, Punnya V; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2011-01-30

    Age estimation of an individual whether living or dead is an intimidating task in forensic investigations. Since teeth are more resistant to most peri- and post-mortem changes, they are frequently used for identification and age estimation when skeletal remains are in poor condition. However, most methods are destructive and warrant extraction of teeth which is not feasible in living individuals. Cameriere's et al. put forth a radiographic method of age estimation by pulp to tooth area ratio (AR) in canines and revealed a linear regression between age and the AR. In the present study, we estimated the AR in 456 canines (upper, lower and both) in an Indian sample (114 males and 114 females) using radiovisiography technique. Linear regression equations were derived for upper canine, lower canine and both using the AR to estimate chronological age. Additionally, the efficacy of these equations was also evaluated in younger age group (<45 years). The formulas derived, i.e., age=96.795-513.561x(1) (Eq. (1)) for upper canine, age=88.308-458.137x(2) (Eq. (2)) for lower canine and age=99.190-283.537x(1)-306.902x(2)+400.873x(1)x(2) (Eq. (3)) for both the canines were applied to predict the chronological age. The mean value of residuals using these regression equations ranged from 4.28 to 6.39 years with upper canine equation generally giving a precise result. When these equations were applied for younger ages (<45 years), the regression equation derived from both canines gave a better result (mean residual 2.70 years). Overall these equations were better able to predict the age in younger ages, i.e., up to 45 years. PMID:20869824

  16. Dental age estimation and different predictive ability of various tooth types in the Czech population: data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Velemínská, Jana; Pilný, Ales; Cepek, Miroslav; Kot'ová, Magdaléna; Kubelková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Dental development is frequently used to estimate age in many anthropological specializations. The aim of this study was to extract an accurate predictive age system for the Czech population and to discover any different predictive ability of various tooth types and their ontogenetic stability during infancy and adolescence. A cross-sectional panoramic X-ray study was based on developmental stages assessment of mandibular teeth (Moorrees et al. 1963) using 1393 individuals aged from 3 to 17 years. Data mining methods were used for dental age estimation. These are based on nonlinear relationships between the predicted age and data sets. Compared with other tested predictive models, the GAME method predicted age with the highest accuracy. Age-interval estimations between the 10th and 90th percentiles ranged from -1.06 to +1.01 years in girls and from -1.13 to +1.20 in boys. Accuracy was expressed by RMS error, which is the average deviation between estimated and chronological age. The predictive value of individual teeth changed during the investigated period from 3 to 17 years. When we evaluated the whole period, the second molars exhibited the best predictive ability. When evaluating partial age periods, we found that the accuracy of biological age prediction declines with increasing age (from 0.52 to 1.20 years in girls and from 0.62 to 1.22 years in boys) and that the predictive importance of tooth types changes, depending on variability and the number of developmental stages in the age interval. GAME is a promising tool for age-interval estimation studies as they can provide reliable predictive models. PMID:24466642

  17. Methods for the quantitative comparison of molecular estimates of clade age and the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Boyd, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Approaches quantifying the relative congruence, or incongruence, of molecular divergence estimates and the fossil record have been limited. Previously proposed methods are largely node specific, assessing incongruence at particular nodes for which both fossil data and molecular divergence estimates are available. These existing metrics, and other methods that quantify incongruence across topologies including entirely extinct clades, have so far not taken into account uncertainty surrounding both the divergence estimates and the ages of fossils. They have also treated molecular divergence estimates younger than previously assessed fossil minimum estimates of clade age as if they were the same as cases in which they were older. However, these cases are not the same. Recovered divergence dates younger than compared oldest known occurrences require prior hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of the compared fossil record and standard assumptions about the relative timing of morphological and molecular change to be incorrect. Older molecular dates, by contrast, are consistent with an incomplete fossil record and do not require prior assessments of the fossil record to be unreliable in some way. Here, we compare previous approaches and introduce two new descriptive metrics. Both metrics explicitly incorporate information on uncertainty by utilizing the 95% confidence intervals on estimated divergence dates and data on stratigraphic uncertainty concerning the age of the compared fossils. Metric scores are maximized when these ranges are overlapping. MDI (minimum divergence incongruence) discriminates between situations where molecular estimates are younger or older than known fossils reporting both absolute fit values and a number score for incompatible nodes. DIG range (divergence implied gap range) allows quantification of the minimum increase in implied missing fossil record induced by enforcing a given set of molecular-based estimates. These metrics are used

  18. A comparative assessment of the Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks pubic aging methods on a North American sample, .

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Julie M

    2013-03-01

    Accurately estimating the age-at-death of adult human skeletons is fundamental in forensic anthropology. This study evaluates the accuracy of two pubic bone age estimation methods-Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks. Specimens were obtained from a known collection of modern pubic bones curated at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. A sample of 296 left male pubic bones of European ancestry was statistically evaluated via bias, absolute mean error, and intra- and inter-observer error. Results indicate that the two methods are similar; the Suchey-Brooks method is the most accurate for aging young adults (error c. 7 years), while the Revised Chen et al. method is most accurate for aging middle-age adults (error c. 6 years). Thus, the Chen et al. method is an important contribution to forensic anthropology for aging older adult skeletal remains. There are, however, some limitations such as subjectivity and the intricate scoring system of Chen et al. method. PMID:23425207

  19. engAGE in Community: Using Mixed Methods to Mobilize Older People to Elucidate the Age-Friendly Attributes of Urban and Rural Places.

    PubMed

    John, Deborah H; Gunter, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    The growing numbers of older adults in the United States will have a significant impact on community resources, which will affect the ability of residents to live and thrive in their local community regardless of age. For this study, we applied explanatory sequential mixed methods and community-based participatory research (CBPR) to discover how attributes of the physical, social, and service environments determine residents' perceptions of community age-friendliness and conditions for aging-in-place. A population survey measuring county residents' (n = 387) perceptions and importance of community resources that support community livability are explained by thematic results of the CBPR, that is, emergent proximal and distal age-friendly factors. Our qualitative approach engaged local people (n = 237) in participatory processes to study and share perceptions of environmental attributes in six communities in one Oregon county. Findings are integrated to explain similarities and differences in older residents' lived experience of rural and urban settings with regard to age-friendly foci. PMID:25608869

  20. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study

    PubMed Central

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, FK; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, SR; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Context: Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. Aims: To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8–18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Settings and Design: Clinical setting and computerized design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Results: Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Conclusions: Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research. PMID:26097317

  1. Phase equilibria in the quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 and optical properties of (Ga55In45)2S300, (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, I. A.; Danyliuk, I. V.; Olekseyuk, I. D.; Pankevych, V. Z.; Halyan, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 was investigated by differential thermal, X-ray diffraction analyses. The phase diagram of the Ga2S3-In2S3 system and nine polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were constructed. The existence of the large solid solutions ranges of binary and ternary compounds was established. The range of the existence of the quaternary phase AgGaxIn5-xS8 (2.25≤x≤2.85) at 820 K was determined. The single crystals (Ga55In45)2S300 and (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 were grown by a directional crystallization method from solution-melt. Optical absorption spectra in the 500-1600 nm range were recorded. The luminescence of the (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystal shows a maximum at 1530 nm for the excitation wavelengths of 532 and 980 nm at 80 and 300 K.

  2. Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods

    PubMed Central

    Türkyılmaz, Esengül; Yıldırım, Melahat; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nerves system. Because the disease predominantly affects women of reproductive ages, having knowledge about contraception options for MS patients can make clinicians provide better counseling. Although most contraceptive methods are generally accepted as safe and effective in MS patients, recent studies have raised questions about their potential adverse effects on the disease. The use of contraceptive methods to avoid unintended pregnancies is crucial in MS patients, particularly during the relapse phase of the disease or the time when the disease is not completely under control. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. Providing appropriate contraception options to multiple sclerosis patients will be one of the most challenging issues for clinicians to deal with. Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. PMID:25788851

  3. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    PubMed

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  4. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26651997

  5. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight age births (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile at term) and 58 control adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  6. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions: An (18)F-FDG-PET study of aging.

    PubMed

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A

    2016-05-15

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87years from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. The exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. PMID:26915497

  7. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tappy, L

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. PMID:17133233

  8. Methods and Materials for Infusing Aging Issues into the Rehabilitation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Harley, Debra A.; Wadsworth, John S.; Smith, S. Mae

    2007-01-01

    In order to better prepare rehabilitation counselors to meet the needs of older workers, Kampfe, Wadsworth, Smith, and Harley (2005) suggested that aging issues can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs. This article is a follow-up to the earlier publication that called for infusion of aging issues into the…

  9. A method for estimating the dynamical age of FR II-type radio sources from multi-frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, J.; Chyży, K. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Kozieł, D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Determining the ages of powerful radio sources is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, the activity cycle of galactic nuclei, and their influence on the surrounding intergalactic medium. So far, several different methods for estimating the age of classical double radio galaxies have been proposed and widely used in the literature, although each of them faces difficulty due to observational limitations and/or freedom in choosing the underlying model assumptions. Aims: We propose a new approach to determining the ages of FR II type radio sources that, on one hand exploits a dynamical model developed for these objects by Kaiser et al. (1997, MNRAS, 292, 723) and, on the other hand, uses multifrequency radio observations not necessarily restricted to the high-resolution ones. Methods: In particular, we applied the assumed dynamical model to a number of FR II type radio galaxies observed at different radio frequencies and fit - for each frequency separately - the model's free parameters to the quantities of the observed sources. Such a procedure, which in fact enlarged a number of observables, enabled us to determine relatively precise ages and other crucial characteristics (like the jets' kinetic power) for the analyzed sources. Results: The resulting age estimates agree very well with those obtained with the "classical" spectral aging method for objects not older than 10 Myr, for which good-quality spectral data are available. However, this method is also applicable in the case of older sources than this and/or those for which the only available low-resolution radio data do not allow for detailed spectral aging studies. Interestingly, the estimated ages always correspond to the realistic values of the jets' advance velocity of ~0.01-0.1~c. Conclusions: . Our analysis indicates that the main factor precluding precise age determination for FR II type radio galaxies is related to the poorly known shape of the initial electron energy distribution injected

  10. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium-aluminum superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Pickus, Milton R.; Ciardella, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb.sub.3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium.

  11. CT evaluation of medial clavicular epiphysis as a method of bone age determination in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ufuk, Furkan; Agladioglu, Kadir; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system. RESULTS Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. CONCLUSION CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years. PMID:27015321

  12. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795

  13. Copy Number Variants in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Jan M.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Caliebe, Janina; Bosch, Cathy A.J.; Lui, Julian C.; Gijsbers, Antoinet C.J.; Bakker, Egbert; Breuning, Martijn H.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Baron, Jeffrey; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims In addition to Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) height-associated genes may be uncovered by studying individuals with extreme short or tall stature. Methods Genome-wide analysis for copy number variants (CNVs), using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) arrays, was performed in 49 index cases born small for gestational age (SGA) with persistent short stature. Segregation analysis was performed, and genes in CNVs were compared with information from GWAS, gene expression in rodents’ growth plates, and published information. Results CNVs were detected in 13 cases. In 5 children a known cause of short stature was found: UPD7, UPD14, a duplication of the SHOX enhancer region, an IGF1R deletion, and a 22q11.21 deletion. In the remaining 8 cases potential pathogenic CNVs were detected, either de novo (n=1), segregating (n=2), or not segregating with short stature (n=5). Bioinformatic analysis of the de novo and segregating CNVs suggested that HOXD4, AGPS, PDE11A, OSBPL6, PRKRA and PLEKHA3, and possibly DGKB and TNFRSF11B are potential candidate genes. A SERPINA7 or NRK defect may be associated with an X-linked form of short stature. Conclusion SNP arrays detected 5 known causes of short stature with prenatal onset and suggested several potential candidate genes. PMID:25300501

  14. Age of Popigai impact event using the Ar-40 - Ar-39 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, R. J.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1993-03-01

    The Popigai impact structure of central Siberia is the largest known impact crater in the Commonwealth of Independent States with an original diameter of some 100 km. The age of the crater is constrained by the existing stratigraphy to a period between 5-65 Ma. Attempts to date the impact event using conventional K-Ar on whole rock samples and fission track dating on glasses yield a spread of ages between 30 and 45 Ma. Argon step-heating analyses of several whole-rock samples performed with the Argon Laserprobe at the University of Toronto indicated an age of impact of about 36 Ma. However, a more recently reported Ar-40 - Ar-49 result on glass separated from a suevite sample gave a 65 Ma age and raised the possibility that Popigai was involved with the K/T boundary event. We have pursued further analyses at the University of Toronto on a broader spectrum of Popigai samples. These results confirm an age of about 36 Ma for the formation of this crater, and indicate that Popigai was not associated with the K/T boundary event.

  15. Age of Popigai impact event using the Ar-40 - Ar-39 method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottomley, R. J.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The Popigai impact structure of central Siberia is the largest known impact crater in the Commonwealth of Independent States with an original diameter of some 1OO km. The age of the crater is constrained by the existing stratigraphy to a period between 5-65 Ma. Attempts to date the impact event using conventional K-Ar on whole rock samples and fission track dating on glasses yield a spread of ages between 30 and 45 Ma. Argon step-heating analyses of several whole-rock samples performed with the Argon Laserprobe at the University of Toronto indicated an age of impact of about 36 Ma. However, a more recently reported Ar-40 - Ar-49 result on glass separated from a suevite sample gave a 65 Ma age and raised the possibility that Popigai was involved with the K/T boundary event. We have pursued further analyses at the University of Toronto on a broader spectrum of Popigai samples. These results confirm an age of about 36 Ma for the formation of this crater, and indicate that Popigai was not associated with the K/T boundary event.

  16. A preliminary report on methods of determining the age of Colorado plateau carnotite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stieff, Lorin Rollins; Girhard, M.N.; Stern, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    Four methods of dating Colorado Plateau carnotite have been examined and evaluated: mineralogic methods, radioactive-equilibrium methods, lead-uranium-ratio methods, and lead-isotope methods. The data on 12 high-grade samples, from a suite of 50 representative carnotite ores, are presented.

  17. Aging and service wear of check valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Check valves are used extensively in nuclear power plant safety systems and balance-of-plant systems. The failures of these valves have resulted in significant maintenance efforts and, on occasion, have resulted in water hammer, overpressurization of low-pressure systems, and damage to flow system components. These failures have largely been attributed to severe degradation of internal parts (e.g., hinge pins, hinge arms, discs, and disc nut pins) resulting from instability (flutter) of check valve discs under normal plant operating conditions. Present surveillance requirements for nuclear power plant check valves have been inadequate for timely detection and trending of such degradation because neither the flutter nor the resulting wear can be detected prior to failure. Consequently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has had a continuing strong interest in resolving check valve problems. In support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has carried out an evaluation of several developmental and/or commercially available check valve diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. In each case, the evaluations have been focused on the capability of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation), check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. A description of each monitoring method is provided in this report, including examples of test data acquired under controlled laboratory conditions. In some cases, field test data acquired in situ are also presented. The methods are compared, and suggested areas in need of further development are identified. 6 refs., 36 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. TMT-AGE: numerical simulation of a new tomographic reconstruction method for wide FoR MOAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshito H.; Akiyama, Masayuki; Oya, Shin

    2014-08-01

    We are conducting a concept study on a wide field of regard (FoR) Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) system for Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT-AGE: TMT-Analyzer for Galaxies in the Early universe). The main science target of TMT-AGE is high-redshift galaxies. Considering the small number density of high-redshift galaxies, enlarging the FoR of an MOAO system up to around 100 is critical. In order to increase the FoR of an MOAO system, we propose a new tomographic reconstruction method. In the new method, we use atmospheric wind profiles and WFS measurements at previous time steps to increase the number of virtual measurement points of atmospheric turbulence layers for tomographic reconstruction. We present the results of numerical simulations with the new tomography method. The simulations show the new method can reduce the tomographic error in a wide FoR.

  19. [The assessment of skeletal age in hypothyroidism during the first year of life. The features of a new method].

    PubMed

    Salti, R; Galluzzi, F; Albanese, A; Morandi, A; La Cauza, F; Vichi, G F; Natoli, G

    1991-01-01

    Determining skeletal maturity in the first year of age with usual methods is often quite difficult. Some years ago, we investigated a new method based on the time of appearance of appreciable ossification centres in the upper limbs with the following succession: humerus head, capitate, coracoid process, hamate, humerus capitulum, greater tuberosity and radius distal epiphysis; in the first month of age it must be associated to knee and foot study. We studied with our method the skeletal maturity of 16 hypothyroid patients before and after 6 and 12 months of therapy; in the first month of age we associated the study of left knee and foot and study of left hand and wrist using Greulich and Pyle's method at 12 months of age. We compared data of hypothyroid patients to data of 399 infants hospitalized in Pediatric Clinic of Florence for infectious diseases or for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Our study has showed that skeletal maturity, retarded before therapy, rejoined normal values over a period of time of 12 months of substitutive treatment; it was accelerated in some patients. PMID:1806919

  20. The CITRA Research-Practice Consensus-Workshop Model: Exploring a New Method of Research Translation in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabir, Myra; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Wethington, Elaine; Reid, Carrington; Pillemer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of the experience of an extensive community-based research partnership in New York City, we developed an innovative process for bridging the gap between aging-related research and practice, using a consensus-workshop model. Design and Methods: We adapted the traditional scientific consensus-workshop model to include…

  1. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  2. METHODS FOR MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION AS A FUNCTION OF AGE. (R827352C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to review the application of mathematical models of inhaled particle deposition to people of various ages. The basic considerations of aerosol physics, biological characteristics and model structure are presented along with limitations inherent in ...

  3. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  4. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  5. ENHANCED RECOVERY METHODS FOR 85KR AGE-DATING GROUNDWATER: ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential widespread use of 85Kr, having a constant input function in the northern hemisphere, for groundwater age-dating would advance watershed investigations. The current input function of tritium is not sufficient to estimate young modern recharge waters. While tri...

  6. A new method for evaluating age distributions of detrital zircon datasets by incorporating discordant data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimink, Jesse; Davies, Joshua; Rojas, Xavier; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    U-Pb ages from detrital zircons play an important role in sediment provenance studies. However, U-Pb ages from detrital zircon populations often contain a discordant component, which is traditionally removed before the age data are interpreted. Many different processes can create discordant analyses, with the most important being Pb-loss and mixing of distinct zircon age domains during analysis. Discordant ages contain important information regarding the history of a detrital zircon population, for example the timing of Pb-loss or metamorphism, and removing these analyses may significantly bias a zircon dataset. Here we present a new technique for analyzing detrital zircon populations that uses all U-Pb analyses, independent of discordance. We have developed computer code that evaluates the relative likelihood of discordia lines based on their proximity to discordant data points. When two or more data points lie on or near a discordia line the likelihood associated with that line increases. The upper and lower intercepts of each discordia line, as well as the relative likelihood along that line, are stored, and the likelihood of upper and lower intercepts are plotted with age. There are many benefits to using this technique for analysis of detrital zircon datasets. By utilizing the discordant analyses we allow for the addition of upper and lower intercept information to conventional analysis techniques (i.e. probability density functions or kernel density estimators). We are then able to use a much stricter discordance filter (e.g. < 3%) when analyzing 'concordant' data, thereby increasing the reliability of Pb/Pb ages used in the traditional analysis. Additionally, by not rejecting discordant data from zircon datasets we potentially reduce the overall bias in the analysis, which is a critical step in detrital zircon studies. This new technique is relatively quick and uses traditional analytical results, while the upper and lower intercept information is obtained

  7. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  8. Developing a self-reporting method to measure pedestrian behaviors at all ages.

    PubMed

    Granié, Marie-Axelle; Pannetier, Marjorie; Guého, Ludivine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a self-reporting scale to measure injury risk behaviors among pedestrians of all ages. The Pedestrian Behavior Scale (PBS) was developed that included 47 items enabling respondents to evaluate the frequency with which they had different types of pedestrian behaviors. The validation study was carried out on 343 participants (126 men and 217 women) between the ages of 15 and 78. Factor analyses were used to differentiate between 4 axes. Factor 1, "transgression", included items concerning offence of legal rules and errors. Factor 2 included "lapses" items. Factor 3 comprised "aggressive behavior" items and factor 4 included "positive behavior" items. A revised version of the PBS with 20 items was produced by selecting those items that loaded most strongly on the four factors. The 20-item version had good internal reliability. The effects of demographic and mobility variables on the PBS scores were investigated. This instrument will be useful in measuring the frequency of these different types of behaviors among the pedestrians who are most at risk, analyzing the psychological factors used to predict PBS scores and thus better adapt preventive actions to the different populations of vulnerable road users of all ages. PMID:22836115

  9. Thermal characterization and model free kinetics of aged epoxies and foams using TGA and DSC methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Nissen, April

    2013-10-01

    Two classes of materials, poly(methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) or PMDI foam, and cross-linked epoxy resins, were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to help understand the effects of aging and %E2%80%9Cbake-out%E2%80%9D. The materials were evaluated for mass loss and the onset of decomposition. In some experiments, volatile materials released during heating were analyzed via mass spectroscopy. In all, over twenty materials were evaluated to compare the mass loss and onset temperature for decomposition. Model free kinetic (MFK) measurements, acquired using variable heating rate TGA experiments, were used to calculate the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition. From these compiled data the effects of aging, bake-out, and sample history on the thermal stability of materials were compared. No significant differences between aged and unaged materials were detected. Bake-out did slightly affect the onset temperature of decomposition but only at the highest bake-out temperatures. Finally, some recommendations for future handling are made.

  10. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  11. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  12. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  13. A simple-rapid method to separate uranium, thorium, and protactinium for U-series age-dating of materials.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Nelson, Andrew W; Nelson, Steven; Schultz, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Uranium-series dating techniques require the isolation of radionuclides in high yields and in fractions free of impurities. Within this context, we describe a novel-rapid method for the separation and purification of U, Th, and Pa. The method takes advantage of differences in the chemistry of U, Th, and Pa, utilizing a commercially-available extraction chromatographic resin (TEVA) and standard reagents. The elution behavior of U, Th, and Pa were optimized using liquid scintillation counting techniques and fractional purity was evaluated by alpha-spectrometry. The overall method was further assessed by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry for the preliminary age determination of an ancient carbonate sample obtained from the Lake Bonneville site in western Utah (United States). Preliminary evaluations of the method produced elemental purity of greater than 99.99% and radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90% for U and Th and 85% for Pa. Excellent purity and yields (76% for U, 96% for Th and 55% for Pa) were also obtained for the analysis of the carbonate samples and the preliminary Pa and Th ages of about 39,000 years before present are consistent with (14)C-derived age of the material. PMID:24681438

  14. [Spectral discrimination method information divergence combined with gradient angle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-bao; Yuan, Yan; Jing, Juan-juan; Sun, Cheng-ming; Wang, Qian

    2011-03-01

    The present paper proposes a spectral discrimination method combining spectral information divergence with spectral gradient angle (SID x tan(SGA(pi/2)) which overcomes the shortages of the existing methods which can not take the whole spectral shape and local characteristics into account simultaneously. Using the simulation spectra as input data, according to the interferogram acquirement principle and spectrum recovery algorithm of the temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (TSMFTIS), we simulated the distortion spectra recovery process of the TMSFTIS in different maximum mix ratio and distinguished the difference between the recovered spectra and the true spectrum by different spectral discrimination methods. The experiment results show that the SID x tan(SGA(pi/2)) can not only identify the similarity of the whole spectral shapes, but also distinguish local differences of the spectral characteristics. A comparative study was conducted among the different discrimination methods. The results have validated that the SID x tan(SGA(pi/2)) has a significant improvement in the discriminatory ability. PMID:21595255

  15. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Brophy, Juliet; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Musiba, Chares M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: "Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?" and "How old is it?" We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed. PMID:27457542

  16. Alteration of blue pigment in artificial iris in ocular prosthesis: effect of paint, drying method and artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Úrsula Rocha; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Hadadd, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2011-02-01

    The artificial iris is the structure responsible for the dissimulation and aesthetics of ocular prosthesis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the color stability of artificial iris of microwaveable polymerized ocular prosthesis, as a function of paint type, drying method and accelerated aging. A total of 40 discs of microwaveable polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated, and divided according to the blue paint type (n = 5): hydrosoluble acrylic, nitrocellulose automotive, hydrosoluble gouache and oil paints. Paints where dried either at natural or at infrared light bulb method. Each specimen was constituted of one disc in colorless acrylic resin and another colored with a basic sclera pigment. Painting was performed in one surface of one of the discs. The specimens were submitted to an artificial aging chamber under ultraviolet light, during 1008 h. A reflective spectrophotometer was used to evaluate color changes. Data were evaluated by 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). All paints suffered color alteration. The oil paint presented the highest color resistance to artificial aging regardless of drying method. PMID:21081281

  17. Methods of Engaging Preschool-age Children in Science Practices During Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Providing preschool children with science learning experiences may improve their later science literacy. Further, research shows that children are capable of engaging in the same kinds of scientific reasoning as adults. An initial step towards increasing the opportunities for children to engage in science is to improve our understanding of how to support children's engagement in the practices of science in astronomy. To this end, the My Sky Tonight project is developing and evaluating astronomy activities for informal science educators to use with young children. I have gathered video of a series of astronomy workshops that engaged preschool-age children with My Sky Tonight-developed activities. This paper describes features of these museum-based astronomy activities that supported young children in evidence-based science practices.

  18. Novel method for assessing age-related differences in the temporal summation of pain

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Fillingim, Roger B; Staud, Roland; Riley, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Temporal summation (TS) of pain protocols typically involve the delivery of brief repetitive noxious stimuli held at a constant intensity and measuring the consequent increase in the perceived intensity of pain sensations. To date, no studies have examined the effect of a TS protocol on the perceived spatial dimensions of the pain experience and its interaction with age. This study used a new TS protocol that examined changes in the perceived size of the painful area in 22 younger adults and 20 older adults. Four trials of ten brief heat pulses delivered at a constant intensity were administered on the volar forearm. Interpulse intervals (IPIs) were 2.5 seconds or 3.5 seconds. Subjects rated the peak pain intensity (trials 1 and 3) or the size of the painful area (trials 2 and 4) after each pulse on a 0–100 scale. The magnitude of summation was calculated for each trial. Three seconds and 6 seconds after delivering the last heat pulse, the subjects rated the intensity or the size of any remaining pain (aftersensations). The results indicated that older adults compared to younger adults exhibited significantly greater summation of size ratings for the 2.5-second and 3.5-second IPI trials and size of pain aftersensations at 3 seconds following the 2.5-second IPI TS trial. These results suggest that aging is associated with enhanced endogenous facilitation of the perceived size of pain. The potential clinical and mechanistic implications of enhanced TS of size of pain remain unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:27114716

  19. Carotenoids and co-antioxidants in age-related maculopathy: design and methods.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Kumari; Hogg, Ruth E; Stevenson, Michael R; Johnston, Elinor; Anderson, Roger; Beatty, Stephen; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is the leading cause of blind registration in the Western World among individuals 65 years or older. Early AMD, a clinical state without overt functional loss, is said to be present clinically when yellowish deposits known as drusen and/or alterations of fundus pigmentation are seen in the macular retina. Although the etiopathogenesis of AMD remains uncertain, there is a growing body of evidence in support of the view that cumulative oxidative damage plays a causal role. Appropriate dietary antioxidant supplementation is likely to be beneficial in maintaining visual function in patients with AMD, and preventing or delaying the progression of early AMD to late AMD. The Carotenoids in Age-Related Maculopathy (CARMA) Study is a randomized and double-masked clinical trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in 433 participants with either early AMD features of sufficient severity in at least one eye or any level of AMD in one eye with late AMD (neovascular AMD or central geographic atrophy) in the fellow eye. The aim of the CARMA Study is to investigate whether lutein and zeaxanthin, in combination with co-antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and zinc), has a beneficial effect on visual function and/or prevention of progression from early to late stages of disease. The primary outcome is improved or preserved distance visual acuity at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include improved or preserved interferometric acuity, contrast sensitivity, shape discrimination ability, and change in AMD severity as monitored by fundus photography. This article outlines the CARMA Study design and methodology, including its rationale. PMID:19065432

  20. A scientific and statistical analysis of accelerated aging for pharmaceuticals. Part 1: accuracy of fitting methods.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Swanson, Jon T; Lippold, Blake L

    2014-10-01

    Three competing mathematical fitting models (a point-by-point estimation method, a linear fit method, and an isoconversion method) of chemical stability (related substance growth) when using high temperature data to predict room temperature shelf-life were employed in a detailed comparison. In each case, complex degradant formation behavior was analyzed by both exponential and linear forms of the Arrhenius equation. A hypothetical reaction was used where a drug (A) degrades to a primary degradant (B), which in turn degrades to a secondary degradation product (C). Calculated data with the fitting models were compared with the projected room-temperature shelf-lives of B and C, using one to four time points (in addition to the origin) for each of three accelerated temperatures. Isoconversion methods were found to provide more accurate estimates of shelf-life at ambient conditions. Of the methods for estimating isoconversion, bracketing the specification limit at each condition produced the best estimates and was considerably more accurate than when extrapolation was required. Good estimates of isoconversion produced similar shelf-life estimates fitting either linear or nonlinear forms of the Arrhenius equation, whereas poor isoconversion estimates favored one method or the other depending on which condition was most in error. PMID:25043838

  1. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Laura L.; Steggell, Carmen D.; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants’ perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  2. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Lien, Laura L; Steggell, Carmen D; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants' perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  3. Changes in Volatile Compounds during Aging of Sweet Fennel Fruits-Comparison of Hydrodistillation and Static Headspace Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Mence; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Two extraction methods for subsequent gas chromatographic (GC) determination of volatiles from freshly harvested and aged fennel fruit samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,ssp. vulgare var. dulce) have been compared. Hydrodistillation followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis was used as a standard method for essential oil characterization, while static headspace followed by GC (SHS-GC-FID) was used as a comparative method for determination of volatile components. As the fennel fruit ages, there is a gradual loss of the volatile components as indicated by the lower yield of essential oil and lower content of volatiles, as indicated by the alternative SHS-GC-FID analysis. Slight differences observed for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and limonene) using the two methods are negligible, indicating that these volatiles did not undergo chemical transformation during the sample preparation procedures. A difference in anisaldehyde content was observed when the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was compared with the SHS-GC-FIDanalysis of volatiles and explanation for the variation of anisaldehyde content and the origin of other compounds was suggested. Comparison of the obtained results showed that limonene oxides, carvone and carveolare detectable in SHS-GC-FID analysis of the aged fennel fruits, while in hydrodistilled samples analyzed by GC-FID they were not present. Another observed difference was the appearance of products in significant amounts with higher retention times than trans-anethole, namely threo- and erythro-anethole β-hydroxymethylether and anethole glycol that are not detectable in the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. So, the relative abundance of the major components is comparable between these two methods for fennel seed up to 3 years from harvest and they can be used interchangeably depending on the purpose and amount of material. Furthermore, SHS-GC-FID can be used for assessment of maximum storage time

  4. Extracting and summarizing white matter hyperintensities using supervised segmentation methods in Alzheimer's disease risk and aging studies.

    PubMed

    Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Lindner, Christopher; Austin, Benjamin P; Hinrichs, Chris; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-08-01

    Precise detection and quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed in T2-weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is of substantial interest in aging, and age-related neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is mainly because WMH may reflect co-morbid neural injury or cerebral vascular disease burden. WMH in the older population may be small, diffuse, and irregular in shape, and sufficiently heterogeneous within and across subjects. Here, we pose hyperintensity detection as a supervised inference problem and adapt two learning models, specifically, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests, for this task. Using texture features engineered by texton filter banks, we provide a suite of effective segmentation methods for this problem. Through extensive evaluations on healthy middle-aged and older adults who vary in AD risk, we show that our methods are reliable and robust in segmenting hyperintense regions. A measure of hyperintensity accumulation, referred to as normalized effective WMH volume, is shown to be associated with dementia in older adults and parental family history in cognitively normal subjects. We provide an open source library for hyperintensity detection and accumulation (interfaced with existing neuroimaging tools), that can be adapted for segmentation problems in other neuroimaging studies. PMID:24510744

  5. Extracting and summarizing white matter hyperintensities using supervised segmentation methods in Alzheimer’s disease risk and aging studies

    PubMed Central

    Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Lindner, Christopher; Austin, Benjamin P.; Hinrichs, Chris; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Precise detection and quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed in T2–weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is of substantial interest in aging, and age related neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is mainly because WMH may reflect comorbid neural injury or cerebral vascular disease burden. WMH in the older population may be small, diffuse and irregular in shape, and sufficiently heterogeneous within and across subjects. Here, we pose hyperintensity detection as a supervised inference problem and adapt two learning models, specifically, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests, for this task. Using texture features engineered by texton filter banks, we provide a suite of effective segmentation methods for this problem. Through extensive evaluations on healthy middle–aged and older adults who vary in AD risk, we show that our methods are reliable and robust in segmenting hyperintense regions. A measure of hyperintensity accumulation, referred to as normalized Effective WMH Volume, is shown to be associated with dementia in older adults and parental family history in cognitively normal subjects. We provide an open source library for hyperintensity detection and accumulation (interfaced with existing neuroimaging tools), that can be adapted for segmentation problems in other neuroimaging studies. PMID:24510744

  6. Use of Brain MRI Atlases to Determine Boundaries of Age-Related Pathology: The Importance of Statistical Method

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Gonzalez, David Rodriguez; Shenkin, Susan D.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegenerative disease diagnoses may be supported by the comparison of an individual patient’s brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) with a voxel-based atlas of normal brain MRI. Most current brain MRI atlases are of young to middle-aged adults and parametric, e.g., mean ±standard deviation (SD); these atlases require data to be Gaussian. Brain MRI data, e.g., grey matter (GM) proportion images, from normal older subjects are apparently not Gaussian. We created a nonparametric and a parametric atlas of the normal limits of GM proportions in older subjects and compared their classifications of GM proportions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Methods Using publicly available brain MRI from 138 normal subjects and 138 subjects diagnosed with AD (all 55–90 years), we created: a mean ±SD atlas to estimate parametrically the percentile ranks and limits of normal ageing GM; and, separately, a nonparametric, rank order-based GM atlas from the same normal ageing subjects. GM images from AD patients were then classified with respect to each atlas to determine the effect statistical distributions had on classifications of proportions of GM in AD patients. Results The parametric atlas often defined the lower normal limit of the proportion of GM to be negative (which does not make sense physiologically as the lowest possible proportion is zero). Because of this, for approximately half of the AD subjects, 25–45% of voxels were classified as normal when compared to the parametric atlas; but were classified as abnormal when compared to the nonparametric atlas. These voxels were mainly concentrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. Discussion To our knowledge, we have presented the first nonparametric brain MRI atlas. In conditions where there is increasing variability in brain structure, such as in old age, nonparametric brain MRI atlases may represent the limits of normal brain structure more accurately than parametric approaches. Therefore, we

  7. A Multi-Method Investigation of Mathematics Motivation for Elementary Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.; Smart, Julie B.; Cribbs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-method study examining elementary students with high self-reported levels of mathematics motivation. Second- through fifth-grade students at a Title One school in the southeastern United States completed the Elementary Mathematics Motivation Instrument (EMMI), which examines levels of mathematics…

  8. A New Method for Collecting Clean Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae of Known Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., are important pest of confined and pasture cattle. They have been reared in the laboratory to study their biology and to test new methods of control. Research on rearing modifications has concentrated on developing larval diets from materials that are locally ...

  9. A New Method for Rapid Screening of End-Point PCR Products: Application to Single Genome Amplified HIV and SIV Envelope Amplicons.

    PubMed

    Houzet, Laurent; Deleage, Claire; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Merlande, Laetitia; Mahe, Dominique; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    PCR is the most widely applied technique for large scale screening of bacterial clones, mouse genotypes, virus genomes etc. A drawback of large PCR screening is that amplicon analysis is usually performed using gel electrophoresis, a step that is very labor intensive, tedious and chemical waste generating. Single genome amplification (SGA) is used to characterize the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of virus populations within infected hosts. SGA is based on the isolation of single template molecule using limiting dilution followed by nested PCR amplification and requires the analysis of hundreds of reactions per sample, making large scale SGA studies very challenging. Here we present a novel approach entitled Long Amplicon Melt Profiling (LAMP) based on the analysis of the melting profile of the PCR reactions using SYBR Green and/or EvaGreen fluorescent dyes. The LAMP method represents an attractive alternative to gel electrophoresis and enables the quick discrimination of positive reactions. We validate LAMP for SIV and HIV env-SGA, in 96- and 384-well plate formats. Because the melt profiling allows the screening of several thousands of PCR reactions in a cost-effective, rapid and robust way, we believe it will greatly facilitate any large scale PCR screening. PMID:26053379

  10. Anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticide resistance: comparison of three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods and mosquito age in resistance measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. Resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. In the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affected bioassay results, which may cause incorrect classification of mosquito resistance status. Methods The study was conducted in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes in two study sites in central China. Three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods were compared for insecticide susceptibility, kdr frequencies and metabolic enzyme activities: 1) adult mosquitoes collected from the field; 2) F1 adults from field collected, blood-fed mosquitoes; and 3) adult mosquitoes reared from field collected larvae. Results Mosquito sample collection and preparation methods significantly affected mortality rates in the standard WHO tube resistance bioassay. Mortality rate of field-collected female adults was 10-15% higher than in mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and F1 adults from field collected blood-fed females. This pattern was consistent in mosquitoes from the two study sites. High kdr mutation frequency (85-95%) with L1014F allele as the predominant mutation was found in our study populations. Field-collected female adults consistently exhibited the highest monooxygenase and GST activities. The higher mortality rate observed in the field-collected female mosquitoes may have been caused by a mixture of mosquitoes of different ages, as older mosquitoes were more susceptible to deltamethrin than younger mosquitoes. Conclusions

  11. Age compositions of flatfish stocks as determined by a new otolithometric method, its application in the estimation of growth, spawning potential and fisheries management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Gorie, Shigeaki

    2010-11-01

    We developed an ageing methodology and examined age composition of three flatfish stocks inhabiting the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Ages were difficult to determine for three-lined tongue sole ( Cynoglossus abbreviates) and ridged-eye flounder ( Pleuronichthys cornutus) because the first year annulus ring was often indistinct; therefore, we used directional change in otolith growth to distinguish it. Sectioning and etching methods were powerful tools for identifying annual checks for red tongue sole ( Cynoglossus joyneri). Using these ageing methods, we determined age-length relationships and growth curves. The age composition of the populations studied and of the landings showed that a large proportion of the latter consisted of individuals under the mean age of sexual maturity, thereby reducing the percent spawning potential ratio (%SPR) to ≈ 20% for all species. These findings suggest that fishing pressure on immature fish is leading to overfishing of these flatfish stocks.

  12. Establishing even-aged pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains using the shelterwood method

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The study was established in 1989 as a joint effort among the Ouachita National Forest, the Southern Forest Experiment Station, and the University of Arkansas at Monticello. The goals of the study are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are compatible in the shelterwood regeneration method by evaluating the amount, spatial distribution and development of regeneration and measuring the growth and yield of the retained seedtrees, (2) determine the damage to regeneration caused by the eventual seedtree harvest, and (3) to evaluate the wildlife habitat, water quality, and aesthetics of shelterwood stands so that comparisons can be made with uneven-aged stands.

  13. [Usefulness of hybrid small group learning and age-mixing method in early exposure learning in 2006 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Tadao; Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kato, Marina; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Ito, Tatsuo; Noda, Yukihiro

    2009-09-01

    In 2006 the Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University has introduced an early exposure learning into the first-year curriculum of the 6-year pharmacy education system, with the aim of "understanding of patients," "enhancing motivation to learn pharmacy," and "understanding of the roles of pharmacists in the clinical setting". This program has three approaches: "active learning", "hybrid small group learning (SGL)" and "age-mixing". The 2006 questionnaire survey on this program revealed some disadvantages, including the inability of student facilitators to get the program in perspective, due to their lack of numbers and time assigned to each group. In response to the survey results, steps were taken to rectify these defects. Accordingly, in the 2007 questionnaire survey, the first-year undergraduates, student facilitators and faculty facilitators responded that the program was achieving its aims. In particular, they acknowledged the usefulness of "age-mixing" and "hybrid SGL" as educational approaches fundamental to the 6-year education system. Thus, in 2007 the program became more useful through our efforts to remedy the issues pointed out in 2006, including the low degree of understanding of "age-mixing" among the first-year undergraduates, and poor assignment of student facilitators to each group. The challenges for 2008 include further enhancing motivation of first-year undergraduates regarding SGL and establishment of a method for student facilitator intervention in SGL. Focusing on these challenges, we will continue our efforts to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical education through such approaches as early exposure learning. PMID:19721385

  14. Evaluation of toughness deterioration by an electrochemical method in an isothermally-aged N-containing austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L. Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.; Avila-Davila, Erika O.; Melo-Maximo, Dulce V.

    2009-02-15

    This work presents the results of an evaluation of the deterioration of cryogenic toughness by means of an electrochemical method in a N-containing austenitic stainless steel (JK2) aged at temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 deg. C for times from 10 to 1000 min. The aging process at 700 and 800 deg. C caused the decrease in the Charpy V-Notch impact energy at - 196 deg. C because of the intergranular precipitation of carbides. Scanning electron micrographs of the Charpy V-Notch test specimens showed the presence of intergranular brittle fracture. The degree of sensitization was determined by the ratio of the maximum current density generated by the reactivation scan to that of the anodic scan, I{sub r}/I{sub a}, using the double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The Charpy V-Notch impact energy decreased with increase in the I{sub r}/I{sub a} ratio. This relation permits an estimate of the deterioration of cryogenic toughness due to thermal aging in this type of steel.

  15. Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

  16. Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational age, the mother’s race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for

  17. The new methods of treatment for age-related macular degeneration using the ultra-short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yumiko; Awazu, Kunio; Suzuki, Sachiko; Ohshima, Tetsuro; Sawa, Miki; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Tano, Yasuo; Ohji, Masahito

    2007-02-01

    The non-invasive methods of treatments have been studying for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing treatment. A photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the non-invasive treatments. PDT is the methods of treatment using combination of a laser and a photosensitizer. PDT has few risks for patients. Furthermore, PDT enables function preservation of a disease part. PDT has been used for early cancer till now, but in late years it is applied for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is one of the causes of vision loss in older people. However, PDT for AMD does not produce the best improvement in visual acuity. The skin photosensivity by an absorption characteristic of a photosensitizer is avoided. We examined new PDT using combination of an ultra-short pulsed laser and indocyanine green (ICG).

  18. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity. PMID:24617030

  19. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) study, a federally funded, randomized trial comparing two pharmacologic strategies against a control condition to manage SGA-related weight gain. Methods The design and methodology considerations of the IMPACT trial are described and embedded in a description of health risks associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain and the limitations of currently available research. Results The IMPACT study is a 4-site, six month, randomized, open-label, clinical trial of overweight/obese youth ages 8–19 years with pediatric schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar-spectrum disorders, psychotic or non-psychotic major depressive disorder, or irritability associated with autistic disorder. Youth who have experienced clinically significant weight gain during antipsychotic treatment in the past 3 years are randomized to either (1) switch antipsychotic plus healthy lifestyle education (HLE); (2) add metformin plus HLE; or (3) HLE with no medication change. The primary aim is to compare weight change (body mass index z-scores) for each pharmacologic intervention with the control condition. Key secondary assessments include percentage body fat, insulin resistance, lipid profile, psychiatric symptom stability (monitored independently by the pharmacotherapist and a blinded evaluator), and all-cause and specific cause discontinuation. This study is ongoing, and the targeted sample size is 132 youth. Conclusion Antipsychotic-related weight gain is an important public health issue for youth requiring

  20. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  1. A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development and ages of geologic deposits: A design for soil-chronosequence studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, P.; Harden, J.W.; Mark, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development in a given region based on calibration from a series of dated soils is used to estimate ages of soils in the same region that are not dated directly. The method is designed specifically to account for sampling procedures and uncertainties that are inherent in soil studies. Soil variation and measurement error, uncertainties in calibration dates and their relation to the age of the soil, and the limited number of dated soils are all considered. Maximum likelihood (ML) is employed to estimate a parametric linear calibration curve, relating soil development to time or age on suitably transformed scales. Soil variation on a geomorphic surface of a certain age is characterized by replicate sampling of soils on each surface; such variation is assumed to have a Gaussian distribution. The age of a geomorphic surface is described by older and younger bounds. This technique allows age uncertainty to be characterized by either a Gaussian distribution or by a triangular distribution using minimum, best-estimate, and maximum ages. The calibration curve is taken to be linear after suitable (in certain cases logarithmic) transformations, if required, of the soil parameter and age variables. Soil variability, measurement error, and departures from linearity are described in a combined fashion using Gaussian distributions with variances particular to each sampled geomorphic surface and the number of sample replicates. Uncertainty in age of a geomorphic surface used for calibration is described using three parameters by one of two methods. In the first method, upper and lower ages are specified together with a coverage probability; this specification is converted to a Gaussian distribution with the appropriate mean and variance. In the second method, "absolute" older and younger ages are specified together with a most probable age; this specification is converted to an asymmetric triangular distribution with mode at the

  2. PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4

  3. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  4. New rapid screening method for anti-aging compounds using budding yeast and identification of beauveriolide I as a potent active compound.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Mizuno, Saki; Ishigami, Hiroki; Yamakawa, Yasuhiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. We report here the development of a new method to assess yeast CLS. The new assay is simple, convenient and labor-saving. We applied this new method to screen natural compounds isolated from mushrooms and discovered beauveriolide I as a potent anti-aging agent. PMID:22790951

  5. Associations of Pregnancy Complications with Calculated CVD Risk and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle Age: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Cherry, Lynne; Butler, Elaine; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The nature and contribution of different pregnancy related complications to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, as well as mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Methods and Results We studied associations of pregnancy diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm delivery and size for gestational age with calculated 10 year CVD risk (based on the Framingham score) and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured 18 years after pregnancy (mean age at outcome assessment: 48 years) in a prospective cohort of 3,416 women. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, even after adjusting for potential confounders whilst HDP were associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin. Large for gestational age (LGA) was associated with greater waist circumference and glucose concentrations, whilst small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm delivery were associated with higher blood pressure. The association with the calculated 10 year CVD risk based on the Framingham prediction score was OR=1.31 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.53) for preeclampsia and 1.26 (0.95, 1.68) for GDM compared to women without preeclampsia and GDM respectively. Conclusions HDP and pregnancy diabetes are independently associated with an increased calculated 10 year CVD risk. Preeclampsia may be the better predictor of future CVD since it was associated with a wider range of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that pregnancy may be an important opportunity for early identification of women at increased risk of CVD later in life. PMID:22344039

  6. Detailed kinetic and chemometric study of the cellulose thermal breakdown in artificially aged and non aged commercial paper. Different methods for computing activation energy as an assessment model in archaeometric applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The thermal oxidative degradation of aged and non aged cellulose samples of commercial paper was studied using thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry under a forced air flow up to 800°C. Results TG and DTG data were processed using two non-isothermal-based model-fitting methods and one based on linear least squares to calculate Ea trend values, measured as a function of artificially induced sample age. The Ea trends thus obtained were compared in order to assess their potential for yielding archaeometric curves. As the trends of first two methods show an inversion of the direction between non aged cellulose samples and artificially aged samples, while the third method does not, an in-depth study was carried out using a multilinearity assumption. Conclusions The results are discussed and the outcomes indicate that the above cited inversion is real and not linked to the method. Additionally, it was evidenced that the number of points used for the estimation of linear least squares model parameters is of capital importance. PMID:22594442

  7. [Nonarthroplasty methods for developmental dysplasia of the hip with complete dislocation at the age of 8-25 patients].

    PubMed

    Zang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    It is a tough challenge treatment of complete dislocation from developmental dysplasia of the hip at the age of 8-25 patients. Although the procedure of total hip arthroplasty (THA) can improve joint function significantly, the failure rate still remains high. Hip arthrodesis remains a sensible and safe option. A stable and painless hip joint can be obtained without multiple operations. Ganz et al.had described a modified Colonna capsular arthroplasty and surgical hip dislocation with well joint functions, radiographic findings and the less complications of the femoral head osteonecrosis. There is a obvious advantage in postponing THA, and subsequent THA could be technically easier and safer in a dislocated hip. The procedure of pelvic support osteotomy, which is proposed by Ilizarov, combined two steps of femur osteotomy and femur lengthening, provides an effective treatment option for adolescent hip dysplasia or dislocation. By this procedure, the hip could be reserved, the limb length recovered and the gait improved significantly. Resection arthroplasty is a reliable method, by which 90% dysplasia patients received a painless joint and good functional outcomes. In view of certain drawbacks, it is used only as a salvage operation currently. This article reviews some alternative nonarthroplasty methods for developmental dysplasia of the hip with complete dislocation. Good clinical results can be obtained through strict indications and nice surgical skills. PMID:26359064

  8. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an informative, yet feasible geographical structure for the elicitation; defining what constitutes expertise in a global setting; structuring international, multidisciplinary expert panels; and managing demands on experts' time in the elicitation. This article was written as part of a workshop, "Methods for Research Synthesis: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach" held at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis on October 13, 2013. PMID:26857339

  9. Age and Gender Differences in the Use of Various Poisoning Methods for Deliberate Parasuicide Cases Admitted to Loghman Hospital in Tehran (2000-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazinour, Mehdi; Emami, Habib; Richter, Jorg; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Pazhumand, Abdolkarim

    2009-01-01

    Different methods of poisoning used by individuals with the diagnosis of parasuicide admitted to the Loghman Hospital, Tehran, from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with particular focus on gender and age differences. Drugs, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals (women: 12.7%, men: 9%) were the most commonly used methods. In males, the…

  10. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  11. Survival Prediction Score: A Simple but Age-Dependent Method Predicting Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Palliative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Haukland, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Validation of a Canadian three-tiered prognostic model (survival prediction score, SPS) in Norwegian cancer patients referred for palliative radiotherapy (PRT), and evaluation of age-dependent performance of the model. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all 579 PRT courses administered at a dedicated PRT facility between 20.06.07 and 31.12.2009. SPS was assigned as originally described, That is, by taking into consideration three variables: primary cancer type, site of metastases, and performance status. Results. Patients with poor prognosis (non-breast cancer, metastases other than bone, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≤ 60) had median survival of 13 weeks. Those with intermediate prognosis (two of these parameters) survived for a median of 29 weeks, and patients with good prognosis for a median of 114 weeks, P < 0.001. While this model performed well in patients who were 60 years or older, it was less satisfactory in younger patients (no significant difference between the good and intermediate prognosis groups). Conclusion. SPS should mainly be used to predict survival of elderly cancer patients. However, even in this group accuracy is limited because the good prognosis group contained patients with short survival, while the poor prognosis group contained long-term survivors. Thus, improved models should be developed. PMID:25006508

  12. Iron status in 268 Danish women aged 18-30 years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method, and iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Clausen, J; Byg, K E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of menstruation, method of contraception, and iron supplementation on iron status in young Danish women, and to assess whether iron deficiency could be predicted from the pattern of menstruation. Iron status was examined by measuring serum (S-) ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) in 268 randomly selected, healthy, menstruating, nonpregnant Danish women aged 18-30 years. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin <16 microg/l) was observed in 9.7%, of the women, iron deficiency anemia (S-ferritin < 13 microg/l and Hb < 121 g/l) in 2.2%. Iron supplementation, predominantly as vitamin-mineral tablets containing 14-20 mg of ferrous iron was used by 35.1%. The median serum ferritin was similar in non-iron users and in iron users, whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency was 12.6% in nonusers vs. 4.3% in users, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia 3.4% in nonusers vs. 0%, in users (p=0.17) In non-iron-supplemented women, S-ferritin levels were inversely correlated with the duration of menstrual bleeding (rs= -0.25, p<0.001) and with the women's assessment of the intensity of menstrual bleeding (r(s)= -0.27, p<0.001), whereas no such correlations were found in iron-supplemented women. The results demonstrate that even moderate daily doses of ferrous iron can influence iron status in women with small iron stores. Women using hormonal contraceptives had menstrual bleeding of significantly shorter duration than those using intrauterine devices (IUD) or other methods. There was a high prevalence of small and absent body iron stores in young women, suggesting that preventive measures should be focused on those women whose menstruation lasts 5 days or longer, who have menstrual bleeding of strong intensity, who use an IUD without gestagen, and who are blood donors. PMID:9760147

  13. Identifying Psychosocial Dysfunction in School-Age Children: The Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a Self-Report Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Maria E.; Cassidy, Linden J.; Little, Michelle; Murphy, J. Michael; Jellinek, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief, well-validated parent-report questionnaire designed to detect psychosocial dysfunction in school-age. Study assessed the utility of the PSC when completed by children ages nine to fourteen (PSC-Y) when parents were not available. Results show the PSC-Y to potentially be a rapid, easily administered…

  14. Is the use of the cervical vertebrae maturation method justified to determine skeletal age? A comparison of radiation dose of two strategies for skeletal age estimation.

    PubMed

    Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess effective doses of a lateral cephalogram radiograph with and without thyroid shield and compare the differences with the radiation dose of a hand-wrist radiograph. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 19 different sites in the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO phantom). Analogue lateral cephalograms with and without thyroid shield (67 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) and hand-wrist radiographs (40 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) were obtained. The effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. The effective dose for conventional lateral cephalogram without a thyroid shield was 5.03 microsieverts (µSv). By applying a thyroid shield to the RANDO phantom, a remarkable dose reduction of 1.73 µSv could be achieved. The effective dose of a conventional hand-wrist radiograph was calculated to be 0.16 µSv. Adding the effective dose of the hand-wrist radiograph to the effective dose of the lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield resulted in a cumulative effective dose of 3.46 µSv. Without thyroid shield, the effective dose of a lateral cephalogram was approximately 1.5-fold increased than the cumulative effective dose of a hand-wrist radiograph and a lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield. Thyroid is an organ that is very sensitive to radiation exposure. Its shielding will significantly reduce the effective dose. An additional hand-wrist radiograph, involving no vulnerable tissues, however, causes very little radiation risk. In accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, if an evaluation of skeletal age is indicated, an additional hand-wrist radiograph seems much more justifiable than removing the thyroid shield. PMID:22828078

  15. The EpiTect Methyl qPCR Assay as novel age estimation method in forensic biology.

    PubMed

    Mawlood, Shakhawan K; Dennany, Lynn; Watson, Nigel; Pickard, Benjamin S

    2016-07-01

    Human aging is associated with epigenetic modification of the genome. DNA methylation at cytosines appears currently as the best characterised modification that occurs during the mammalian lifetime. Such methylation changes at regulatory region can provide insights to track contributor age for criminal investigation. The EpiTect Methyl II PCR system (QIAGEN) was used to compare methylation levels of CpG islands in the promoter regions of a number of age related genes, of which four successfully showed changes across the lifespan (NPTX2, KCNQ1DN, GRIA2 and TRIM58). This technique is based on the detection of remaining input genome after digestion with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. This study examined DNA specimens from 80 female subjects of various ages (18-91 years) obtained from blood, using primers designed to flank the studied gene loci. The data obtained from DNA methylation quantification showed successful discrimination among volunteered ages. Overall, the difference between predicted and real age was about 11 years and absolute mean differences (AMD) was only 7.2 years error. We suggest the EpiTect system can be used as fast and simple innovative tool in future forensic age estimation. PMID:27108355

  16. A method for assessing age-standardized weight-for-height in children seen cross-sectionally.

    PubMed

    Cole, T J

    1979-01-01

    Weight-for-height standards in children are usually constructed on the basis that the expected weight for a given height does not depend on age, an assumption which is unjustified. The present paper investigates regression standards of age-standardized weight for age-standardized height, the standardization being achieved by expressing weight and height as fractions of the 50th centile for age from a suitable growth standard. The precise choice of standard is not critical. Data on 4631 children from five different countries, exhibiting a wide spectrum of growth status, show that throughout childhood until puberty, the following ratio is appropriate as a simple and convenient index of weight-for-height: age-standardized weight/(age-standardized height)2. During puberty a larger power than 2 is required, so the index as specified is inappropriate. Approximate values for the distribution centiles of the index are suggested. The index may be used to assess degree of malnutrition or obesity, for individuals or groups seen on a single occasion. A slide-rule is described which calculates the index directly, given the child's sex, age, height and weight. PMID:496386

  17. Identification of Growth Phases and Influencing Factors in Cultivations with AGE1.HN Cells Using Set-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and

  18. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and

  19. Extending the Lee-Carter method to model the rotation of age patterns of mortality-decline for long-term projection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Lee, Ronald; Gerland, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, mortality decline is decelerating at younger ages and accelerating at old ages, which we call a “rotation”. We expect that this rotation will also occur in developing countries as they attain high life expectancies. But the rotation is subtle and has proved difficult to handle in mortality models that include all age groups. Without taking it into account, however, long-term mortality projections will produce questionable results. Here we simplify the problem by focusing on the relative magnitude of death rates at two ages, 0 and 15–19, while making assumptions about changes in rates of decline at other ages. We extend the Lee-Carter method to incorporate this subtle rotation in projection. We suggest that the extended Lee-Carter method could provide plausible projections of the age pattern of mortality for populations that currently have very high life expectancies as well as others. Detailed examples are given using data from Japan and the US. PMID:23904392

  20. A 13 ± 3 ka age determination of a tholeiite, Pinacate volcanic field, Mexico, and improved methods for 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of young basaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, Brent D.; Gutmann, James T.; Swisher, Carl C., III

    2008-11-01

    Among the youngest lava flows of the Pinacate volcanic field, Sonora, Mexico, is a large outpouring of tholeiite, the Ives flow. This tube-fed pahoehoe flow contrasts sharply with other Pinacate lavas in its great volume, alkali-poor composition and morphologic features, which include novel small structures named "spatter tubes." Despite its K-poor character, young age, and the presence of excess 40Ar, we determined a 40Ar/ 39Ar age on samples of this flow at 13 ± 3 ka. Such an age determination is made possible via careful monitoring of the mass discrimination of the mass spectrometer and by stacking results from multiple incremental-heating experiments into a single, composite isochron. This age is among the youngest ever to be determined with such precision by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method on a K-poor tholeiite.

  1. Age estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a Portuguese sample to test Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Sassaroli, E; Nuzzolese, E; Ferrante, L

    2009-12-15

    Age estimation in adults is an important problem in both anthropological and forensic fields, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. In recent papers, Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio of canines for this purpose. The present study examines the application of the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images as an age indicator in a Portuguese identified sample. The statistical model was then compared with results from an Italian identified sample, to establish whether a common regression model for both samples could be developed. The Portuguese sample consisted of 126 canines of male and 132 of female from subjects 20 to 84 years old, from the osteological collection of the Museum of Anthropology at Coimbra University. The Italian sample consisted of 114 canines of male and 86 of female from subjects 20 to 79 years old, analyzed in Cameriere et al. (2007), and came from the Frassetto osteological collection of Sassari (Sardinia), now housed in the Museum of Anthropology, Department of Experimental and Evolutionistic Biology, University of Bologna. Statistical analysis was performed in order to obtain multiple regression formulas for dental age calculation, with chronological age as dependent variable, and gender and pulp/tooth area ratio on upper (RA(u)) and lower canines (RA(l)) as independent variables. ANCOVA analysis showed that gender was not significant but that variables RA(u) and RA(l) were. The regression model for the Portuguese sample yielded the following equations: Age=101.3-556.68 RA(u) (upper canines) and Age=92.37-492.05 RA(l) (lower canines). Both models explained about 97% of total variance, and mean prediction errors were ME=2.37 years and 2.55 years, respectively. Comparisons between the equation referring to the Portuguese sample and the equivalent linear equations proposed by Cameriere et al. for the Italian sample did not reveal significant differences between the linear models

  2. Placental aging and oxidation damage in a tissue micro-array model: an immunohistochemistry study.

    PubMed

    Londero, Ambrogio P; Orsaria, Maria; Marzinotto, Stefania; Grassi, Tiziana; Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Calcagno, Angelo; Bertozzi, Serena; Nardini, Nastassia; Stella, Enrica; Lellé, Ralph J; Driul, Lorenza; Tell, Gianluca; Mariuzzi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the expression of markers correlated with cellular senescence and DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG), p53, p21, APE1/Ref-1 (APE1), interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8) in placentas from healthy and pathologic pregnancies. This retrospective study considered a placental tissue micro-array containing 92 controls from different gestational ages and 158 pathological cases including preeclampsia (PE), HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count), small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurring at different gestational ages. In this study, we demonstrated a significant influence of gestational age on the expression in the trophoblast of 8-OHdG, p53, p21, APE1, and IL-6. In placentas of cases affected by PE, HELLP, or IUGR, there was an increased expression of 8-OHdG, p53, APE1, and IL-6 compared to controls (only IL-8 was significantly decreased in cases). In both groups of pathology between 22- and 34-week gestation and after 34-week gestation, APE1 levels were higher in the trophoblast of women affected by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than women carrying an IUGR fetus. The cytoplasmic expression of 8-OHdG was increased in placentas in IUGR cases compared to PE or HELLP pregnancies. In cases after 34-week gestation, p21 was higher in SGA and IUGR than in controls and late PE. Moreover, p53 was increased after 34-week gestation in IUGR pregnancies. Placentas from pathological pregnancies had an altered expression of 8-OHdG, p53, p21, APE1, IL-6, and IL-8. The alterations of intracellular pathways involving these elements may be the cause or the consequence of placental dysfunction, but in any case reflect an impaired placental function, possibly due to increased aging velocity in pathologic cases. PMID:27106773

  3. Small for gestational age as a predictor of behavioral and learning problems in twins.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hay, David; Levy, Florence

    2003-02-01

    The study examines the effects of being born small for gestational age (SGA) on rates of behavioral problems in twins and siblings, utilising data from the Australian Twin Study of disruptive behavior disorders in twins and their siblings. Participants were 3944 twins and their siblings who were assessed at two intervals three years apart. At the first assessment (1991), they ranged between 4 and 12 years of age. Items assessing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were based on DSM-III-R criteria (Time 1) and DSM-IV criteria (Time 2). Other measures included history of speech and reading therapy, demographic information and obstetric and neonatal history. Results indicated that both male and female twins, who were extremely growth restricted (small for gestational age up to the third percentile-WGA3) showed more inattention, and poorer speech and reading scores. The effects were greater for males. Male twins who were small for gestation age, up to the 10th percentile, were more likely to have a DSM-IV diagnosis of Inattention. Implications of these results included WGA3 male twins being at a "triple disadvantage" for subsequent behavioral and learning problems, in that being male, being a twin and being small for gestational age are all significant factors. Recommendations are made for early intervention for low birthweight male twins. The study is consistent with recent follow-up studies of very-low-birthweight singletons, indicating male disadvantage in cognitive outcome. While there is some genetic component to SGA, it does constitute a potentially major contribution to common environmental effects that must be considered in twin-based genetic analyses. PMID:12626228

  4. ON A NEW NEAR-INFRARED METHOD TO ESTIMATE THE ABSOLUTE AGES OF STAR CLUSTERS: NGC 3201 AS A FIRST TEST CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, G.; Di Cecco, A.; Sanna, N.; Buonanno, R.; Stetson, P. B.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Calamida, A.; Amico, P.; Marchetti, E.; D'Odorico, S.; Gilmozzi, R.; Dall'Ora, M.; Iannicola, G.; Caputo, F.; Corsi, C. E.; Ferraro, I.; Monelli, M.; Walker, A. R.; Zoccali, M.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2010-01-10

    We present a new method to estimate the absolute ages of stellar systems. This method is based on the difference in magnitude between the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) and a well-defined knee located along the lower main sequence (MSK). This feature is caused by the collisionally induced absorption of molecular hydrogen, and it can easily be identified in near-infrared (NIR) and in optical-NIR color-magnitude diagrams of stellar systems. We took advantage of deep and accurate NIR images collected with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator temporarily available on the Very Large Telescope and of optical images collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope and with ground-based telescopes to estimate the absolute age of the globular NGC 3201 using both the MSTO and the {delta}(MSTO-MSK). We have adopted a new set of cluster isochrones, and we found that the absolute ages based on the two methods agree to within 1{sigma}. However, the errors of the ages based on the {delta}(MSTO-MSK) method are potentially more than a factor of 2 smaller, since they are not affected by uncertainties in cluster distance or reddening. Current isochrones appear to predict slightly bluer ({approx}0.05 mag) NIR and optical-NIR colors than observed for magnitudes fainter than the MSK.

  5. Development of the Permanent Dentition and Validity of Demirjian and Goldstein Method for Dental Age Estimation in Sample of Saudi Arabian Children (Qassim Region)

    PubMed Central

    Nour El Deen, Ragia E. H.; Alduaiji, Hifaa M.; Alajlan, Ghadir M.; Aljabr, Abdalla A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine dental maturity (dental age) in cross-sectional sample of Saudi Arabian children by applying the standards established by Demirjian and Golstein and to examine the applicability of these standards in determination of dental maturity among Saudi Arabian children (Qassim region). Materials & Methods Dental maturity was assessed from panoramic radiographs of 400 Saudi Arabian children, 222 boys, and 198 girls ranging in age from 4 to 14 years by using these standards. The difference between the dental and chronological age in different age groups in both sexes was statistically compared using ANOVA testat 0.05 level of significance. Results The Saudi Arabian children were generally somewhat advanced in dental maturity compared with the French Canadian reference sample with an overall mean difference between the dental and chronological age of 0.279 years in boys and 0.385 years in girls. Conclusion The applied standards appear to be adequate for studying dental age in groups of children among Saudi Arabian population. PMID:27004054

  6. Development of a novel headspace sorptive extraction method to study the aging of volatile compounds in spent handgun cartridges.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Bylenga, K; Weyermann, C

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the time since the last discharge of firearms and/or spent cartridges may be a useful piece of information in forensic firearm-related cases. The current approach consists of studying the diffusion of selected volatile organic compounds (such as naphthalene) released during the shooting using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). However, this technique works poorly on handgun cartridges because the extracted quantities quickly fall below the limit of detection. In order to find more effective solutions and further investigate the aging of organic gunshot residue after the discharge of handgun cartridges, an extensive study was carried out in this work using a novel approach based on high-capacity headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). By adopting this technique, for the first time 51 gunshot residue (GSR) volatile organic compounds could be simultaneously detected from fired handgun cartridge cases. Application to aged specimens showed that many of those compounds presented significant and complementary aging profiles. Compound-to-compound ratios were also tested and proved to be beneficial both in reducing the variability of the aging curves and in enlarging the time window useful in a forensic casework perspective. The obtained results were thus particularly promising for the development of a new complete forensic dating methodology. PMID:24684369

  7. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  8. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among women aged 15-49 years in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alege, Stephen Galla; Matovu, Joseph KB; Ssensalire, Simon; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of knowledge of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a critical barrier to eventual uptake of FP services. We assessed knowledge, sources and use of FP methods among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Methods This secondary analysis uses data from a larger cross-sectional study conducted to measure changes in perceptions towards long-term and reversible contraceptive use among 2,033 women of reproductive age (15-49years) resident in 34 districts of Uganda. Both users and non-users of FP methods were interviewed. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software, version 12. Results Majority of the women were less than 30 years of age (64.3%). Nearly three-quarters were married (73.1%), 51.1% had primary education and more than half (57%) were engaged in employment. Knowledge of FP methods was universal (98.1%). Clinic providers (60.4%), friends (56.9%) and the media (51.3%) were the most trusted sources of contraceptive information. Government (27.6%) and private (21.1%) health facilities were the main sources of modern FP methods. Sixty two per cent of women reported current use of any FP method. Among non-users of FP, injectables (50.4%), implants (22.8%) and pills (20.2%) were the most preferred FP methods. Conclusion Our findings show that knowledge of FP methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method. Clinic providers, friends and the media are the most trusted sources of FP information. Government and private health facilities are the main sources of FP services. PMID:27583102

  9. A new method for estimating species age supports the coexistence of malaria parasites and their Mammalian hosts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joana C; Egan, Amy; Arze, Cesar; Spouge, John L; Harris, David G

    2015-05-01

    Species in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria in humans and infect a variety of mammals and other vertebrates. Currently, estimated ages for several mammalian Plasmodium parasites differ by as much as one order of magnitude, an inaccuracy that frustrates reliable estimation of evolutionary rates of disease-related traits. We developed a novel statistical approach to dating the relative age of evolutionary lineages, based on Total Least Squares regression. We validated this lineage dating approach by applying it to the genus Drosophila. Using data from the Drosophila 12 Genomes project, our approach accurately reconstructs the age of well-established Drosophila clades, including the speciation event that led to the subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora, and age of the melanogaster species subgroup. We applied this approach to hundreds of loci from seven mammalian Plasmodium species. We demonstrate the existence of a molecular clock specific to individual Plasmodium proteins, and estimate the relative age of mammalian-infecting Plasmodium. These analyses indicate that: 1) the split between the human parasite Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi, from Old World monkeys, occurred 6.1 times earlier than that between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi, parasites of humans and chimpanzees, respectively; and 2) mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated 22 times earlier than the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Calibrating the absolute divergence times for Plasmodium with eukaryotic substitution rates, we show that the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 3.0-5.5 Ma, and that mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated over 64 Ma. Our results indicate that mammalian-infecting Plasmodium evolved contemporaneously with their hosts, with little evidence for parasite host-switching on an evolutionary scale, and provide a solid timeframe within which to place the evolution of new Plasmodium species. PMID:25589738

  10. A New Method for Estimating Species Age Supports the Coexistence of Malaria Parasites and Their Mammalian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana C.; Egan, Amy; Arze, Cesar; Spouge, John L.; Harris, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Species in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria in humans and infect a variety of mammals and other vertebrates. Currently, estimated ages for several mammalian Plasmodium parasites differ by as much as one order of magnitude, an inaccuracy that frustrates reliable estimation of evolutionary rates of disease-related traits. We developed a novel statistical approach to dating the relative age of evolutionary lineages, based on Total Least Squares regression. We validated this lineage dating approach by applying it to the genus Drosophila. Using data from the Drosophila 12 Genomes project, our approach accurately reconstructs the age of well-established Drosophila clades, including the speciation event that led to the subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora, and age of the melanogaster species subgroup. We applied this approach to hundreds of loci from seven mammalian Plasmodium species. We demonstrate the existence of a molecular clock specific to individual Plasmodium proteins, and estimate the relative age of mammalian-infecting Plasmodium. These analyses indicate that: 1) the split between the human parasite Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi, from Old World monkeys, occurred 6.1 times earlier than that between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi, parasites of humans and chimpanzees, respectively; and 2) mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated 22 times earlier than the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Calibrating the absolute divergence times for Plasmodium with eukaryotic substitution rates, we show that the split between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 3.0–5.5 Ma, and that mammalian Plasmodium parasites originated over 64 Ma. Our results indicate that mammalian-infecting Plasmodium evolved contemporaneously with their hosts, with little evidence for parasite host-switching on an evolutionary scale, and provide a solid timeframe within which to place the evolution of new Plasmodium species. PMID:25589738

  11. The Variation with Age of 67 Macro- and Microelement Contents in Nonhyperplastic Prostate Glands of Adult and Elderly Males Investigated by Nuclear Analytical and Related Methods.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    To clarify age-related changes of 67 macro- and microelement contents in prostate gland of adult and geriatric males, a quantitative measurement by five analytical methods was performed. The nonhyperplastic prostate glands of 65 subjects (European-Caucasian aged 21-87 years) were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides (INAA-SLR), instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LLR), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The prostates were obtained at autopsy from subjects who died from acute illness (cardiac insufficiency, stroke, embolism of pulmonary artery, alcohol poisoning) and trauma. None of the subjects had any symptoms of prostatic disease, and all prostates were classified as histologically normal. The combination of nuclear (EDXRF, INAA-SLR, and INAA-LLR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES and ICP-MS) analytical methods allowed estimation of the contents of 67 chemical elements and precisely determined the mass fraction of 54 elements in the tissue samples of nonhyperplastic adult and geriatric prostate glands. This work's results reveal that there is a significant increase with age of Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sc, Sn, Th, U, and Zn mass fractions in the prostate tissue of healthy individuals of ages from 21 to 60 years, as well as an increase in Ba from age 61 up to 87 years. It implies that an age-related increase and excess in Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sc, Sn, Th, U, and Zn mass fraction in prostatic tissue may be one of the main factors in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PCa). PMID:25940729

  12. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Alcantara, Pino; Li, Linna; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ≤68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  13. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  14. Evaluation of the Re-Os Geochronometer in Organic-rich Mudrocks as a Method for Constraining the Absolute Ages of Neoproterozoic Glaciogenic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, B. S.; Creaser, R. A.; Ross, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Absolute-age constraints on the Neoproterozoic glaciations are generally poor due to a paucity of suitable plutonic and volcanic igneous rocks that are temporally and spatially related to Neoproterozoic glaciogenic deposits and are amenable to radiometric dating methods. In this study, the Re-Os isotope systematics of dark gray, sulfidic slates from the Old Fort Point Formation (OFP) of the Windermere Supergroup (near Jasper, Alberta) were examined to test the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to provide an absolute age constraint for a Neoproterozoic glaciogenic deposit. The OFP has been interpreted as the deep water expression of post-glacial sea level rise and therefore is comparable stratigraphically to cap carbonates that immediately overlie glaciogenic deposits worldwide. Despite the relatively low Re (6-16 ppb) and Os (0.07-0.14 ppb) concentrations and total organic contents (~ 0.5% TOC) of the slates compared to other organic-rich mudrocks used in previous Re-Os isotope studies, precise well-fitted Re-Os isochrons have been obtained with two different dissolution methods. An age of 620.8 +/- 8.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.9; initial 187Os/188Os = 0.68 +/- 0.06) is obtained using conventional aqua regia dissolution. Using a method designed to selectively dissolve organic matter alone, an age of 609.0 +/- 8.3 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; initial 187Os/188Os = 0.62 +/- 0.05) is obtained. These absolute age results are in accord with existing age constraints (e.g., stratigraphically younger Hamill Group with a U-Pb zircon age of 569 Ma). The well-defined Re-Os systematics of the OFP slates demonstrates for the first time that the Re-Os system is not disturbed in organic-rich sediments during lower greenschist (-chlorite) grade metamorphic conditions. The whole-rock analysis of each individual sample yields consistently higher initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratios than the corresponding organic matter analysis and suggests that a significant radiogenic detrital Os component is present

  15. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley E.; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea V.; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amandine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  16. Age of the North Anatolian Fault Segments in the Yalova with U/Th Dating Method by Travertine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Haluk; Ömer Taş, K.

    2016-04-01

    Travertine occurrences developed along the segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south of Yalova. Travertines outcrop approximately 1 km2 area. These are middle-thick bedded approximately 20-40 m and back-tilted southward or horizontally. Lithology of travertines deposited such as physolite, stalactites-stalagmites, cave pearls, sharp pebble carbonate nodules, spherical-roller-intricate shapes or laminated banded travertine. Geochemical analyses were performed on the six samples of the travertines. X-ray analysis indicates that all samples are entirely composed of low-Mg calcite. Banded travertines with some tubular structures formed by precipitation from rising hot water are best developed near the toes of the large, hanging-wall-derived alluvial fans, whereas phreatic cement preferentially exists in footwall-derived, alluvial-fan conglomerates. The unit developed clarity which is controlled by normal fault as the structural and morphological, relationship with active tectonics. The travertines are a range-front type. U/Th series age dating results indicate that the travertine deposition extends back to 155 ka and yields ages of 60.000 (± 3, 091) to 153.149 (±13,466) from the range-front type travertines.

  17. The effect of thermal aging and color pigments on the Egyptian linen properties evaluated by physicochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gaoudy, H.; Kourkoumelis, N.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2011-11-01

    Archaeologists in Egypt discovered ancient colored textiles in great quantities in comparison with the analogous uncolored ones. Furthermore, the latter are far more deteriorated. Most research investigations into archaeological linen have been concerned with manufacture, restoration, and conservation but little information is available about the properties of the fibers, and particularly their chemical and physical properties after dyeing with natural dyes or painted with pigments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Egyptian linen textiles coloring with a variety of pigments used in painting in ancient times after thermally aged to get linen samples which are similar as possible to the ancient linen textiles. The evaluations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and tensile strength, and elongation measurements. Results showed that beyond cosmetic reasons, colored textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration. Specifically, in the molecular level, pigments under study seem to interact to cellulose and lignin compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Electron microscopy confirms that pigment particles are deposited on and between the fibers' surfaces.

  18. Is the atherosclerotic phenotype of preeclamptic placentas due to altered lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptors? Role of a small-for-gestational-age phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hentschke, Marta R.; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira E.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Williams, Paula J.; Mistry, Hiten D.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosis of spiral arteries in uteroplacental beds from preeclamptic women resemble those of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased plasma lipids and lipoproteins. We hypothesized that: 1) lipoprotein receptors/transporters in the placenta would be upregulated in preeclampsia, associated with increased maternal and fetal lipoprotein concentrations; and 2) expression of these would be reduced in preeclamptic placentae from women delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Placental biopsies and maternal and umbilical serum samples were taken from 27 normotensive and 24 preeclamptic women. Maternal/umbilical cord serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Placental mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors/transporters were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. Protein localization/expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the preeclamptic placentae with/without SGA was measured by immunohistochemistry. Placental mRNA expression of all genes except paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 2 (PDIA2) were observed. No differences for any lipoprotein receptors/transporters were found between groups; however, in the preeclamptic group placental LRP-1 expression was lower in SGA delivering mothers (n = 7; P = 0.036). LRP-1 protein was localized around fetal vessels and Hofbauer cells. This is the first detailed study of maternal/fetal lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. These findings do not support a role of altered lipid metabolism in preeclampsia, but may be involved in fetal growth. PMID:23898049

  19. A new method for estimating bedrock surface exposure ages and long-term erosion rates using a single in situ-produced cosmogenic radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, N.A.; Jull, A.J.T. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-04-01

    Numerous ambiguities, limitations and uncertainties in geomorphic research have resulted from a historical inability to reliably and quantitatively estimate (1) the age of exposure of a geomorphic surface, and (2) spatial variability of long-term erosion rates. Radioactive and stable nuclides produced in situ by cosmic ray bombardment of rock materials exposed at the earth's surface may enable one to estimate surface exposure ages and long-term erosion rates directly. Recent development of techniques for measuring and interpreting concentrations of these nuclides may ultimately help to resolve many long-standing geomorphic debates. Cosmogenic radionuclide pairs such as [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al have been used most frequently to solve the governing equations for both erosion rates and surface exposure ages. However, the applicability of these techniques to geomorphic problems has been limited to some extent by the number of assumptions which had to be made to interpret the measured concentrations -- particularly those pertaining to steady-state or non-steady-state erosion conditions. The authors are developing a new method for interpreting the depth distribution of a single cosmogenic radionuclide in bedrock which avoids the need for many of these assumptions. Monte Carlo techniques are used to explore the range of erosion rate and exposure age conditions on a grid which would produce theoretical depth distributions of the radionuclide consistent with the measured depth profile. They plan to present new cosmogenic [sup 14]C data to corroborate the model results. Although unanswered questions and potential problems remain, this method appears to hold great promise for unraveling spatial variation in both erosion rates and exposure ages of a wide range of bedrock surfaces.

  20. Evaluation of the accuracy of brain optical properties estimation at different ages using the frequency-domain multi-distance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-03-01

    NIRS is safe, non-invasive and offers the possibility to record local hemodynamic parameters at the bedside, avoiding the transportation of neonates and critically ill patients. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method to retrieve brain optical properties from neonate to adult. Realistic measurements are simulated using a 3D Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation. Height different ages were investigated: a term newborn of 38 weeks gestational age, two infants of 6 and 12 months of age, a toddler of 2 year (yr.) old, two children of 5 and 10 years of age, a teenager of 14 yr. old, and an adult. Measurements are generated at multiple distances on the right parietal area of head models and fitted to a homogeneous FD-MD model to estimate the brain optical properties. In the newborn, infants, toddler and 5 yr. old child models, the error was dominated by the head curvature, while the superficial layer in the 10 yr. old child, teenager and adult heads. The influence of the CSF is also evaluated. In this case, absorption coefficients suffer from an additional error. In all cases, measurements at 5 mm provided worse estimation because of the diffusion approximation.

  1. Comparison of geometric morphometric outline methods in the discrimination of age-related differences in feather shape

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, H David; Covino, Kristen M; Panasiewicz, Joanna M; Morris, Sara R

    2006-01-01

    Background Geometric morphometric methods of capturing information about curves or outlines of organismal structures may be used in conjunction with canonical variates analysis (CVA) to assign specimens to groups or populations based on their shapes. This methodological paper examines approaches to optimizing the classification of specimens based on their outlines. This study examines the performance of four approaches to the mathematical representation of outlines and two different approaches to curve measurement as applied to a collection of feather outlines. A new approach to the dimension reduction necessary to carry out a CVA on this type of outline data with modest sample sizes is also presented, and its performance is compared to two other approaches to dimension reduction. Results Two semi-landmark-based methods, bending energy alignment and perpendicular projection, are shown to produce roughly equal rates of classification, as do elliptical Fourier methods and the extended eigenshape method of outline measurement. Rates of classification were not highly dependent on the number of points used to represent a curve or the manner in which those points were acquired. The new approach to dimensionality reduction, which utilizes a variable number of principal component (PC) axes, produced higher cross-validation assignment rates than either the standard approach of using a fixed number of PC axes or a partial least squares method. Conclusion Classification of specimens based on feather shape was not highly dependent of the details of the method used to capture shape information. The choice of dimensionality reduction approach was more of a factor, and the cross validation rate of assignment may be optimized using the variable number of PC axes method presented herein. PMID:16978414

  2. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Time-Dependent Data: Mean-Induced Association in Age-Heterogeneous Samples and an Alternative Method Based on Sequential Narrow Age-Cohort Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Scott M.; Flaherty, Brian P.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2006-01-01

    The effect of time-related mean differences on estimates of association in cross-sectional studies has not been widely recognized in developmental and aging research. Cross-sectional studies of samples varying in age have found moderate to high levels of shared age-related variance among diverse age-related measures. These findings may be…

  3. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason A.; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS. PMID:23817761

  4. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  5. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  6. The problematic construction of 'Palaeolithic Man': The Old Stone Age and the difficulties of the comparative method, 1859-1914.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2015-06-01

    The growth of a prehistoric timescale was one of the most dramatic developments in nineteenth-century ideas of humanity, massively extending the assumed course of human development and placing it within the deep chronologies of geological time. A dominant motif linking prehistory with wider studies of humanity and notions of historical change was the 'comparative method'-the idea that modern 'savages' were analogous to prehistoric Europeans, and that the two sets of peoples could explain one another. The importance of this mode of reasoning has been well-studied, and shown to have had great significance for concepts of progress and social evolution. What has been less investigated are cases when the comparative method broke down, and where 'modern savages' and 'prehistoric man' seemed to be dissimilar and analogies hard to make. This paper examines how a series of authors engaged with problems in the comparative method when they attempted to place human development within this deep prehistoric past. In doing so, it highlights the changing interactions between the Victorian deep time sciences and the 'sciences of man,' and how notions of European prehistory and modern 'primitives' often rested on a notion of variability in the 'savage' condition. PMID:25746292

  7. Rationale, design and methods for a community-based study of clustering and cumulative effects of chronic disease processes and their effects on ageing: the Busselton healthy ageing study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global trend of increased life expectancy and increased prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases will impact on health systems. To identify effective intervention and prevention strategies, greater understanding of the risk factors for and cumulative effects of chronic disease processes and their effects on function and quality of life is needed. The Busselton Healthy Ageing Study aims to enhance understanding of ageing by relating the clustering and interactions of common chronic conditions in adults to function. Longitudinal (3–5 yearly) follow-up is planned. Methods/design Phase I (recruitment) is a cross-sectional community-based prospective cohort study involving up to 4,000 'Baby Boomers’ (born from 1946 to 1964) living in the Busselton Shire, Western Australia. The study protocol involves a detailed, self-administered health and risk factor questionnaire and a range of physical assessments including body composition and bone density measurements, cardiovascular profiling (blood pressure, ECG and brachial pulse wave velocity), retinal photography, tonometry, auto-refraction, spirometry and bronchodilator responsiveness, skin allergy prick tests, sleep apnoea screening, tympanometry and audiometry, grip strength, mobility, balance and leg extensor strength. Cognitive function and reserve, semantic memory, and pre-morbid intelligence are assessed. Participants provide a fasting blood sample for assessment of lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein and renal and liver function, and RNA, DNA and serum are stored. Clinically relevant results are provided to all participants. The prevalence of risk factors, symptoms and diagnosed illness will be calculated and the burden of illness will be estimated based on the observed relationships and clustering of symptoms and illness within individuals. Risk factors for combinations of illness will be compared with those for single illnesses and the relation of combinations of illness and symptoms

  8. Low resource screening method of pre-cancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teen-age Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Tandon, Shobha; Deshpande, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer screening is the main weapon for early detection at a pre-invasive or premalignant stage. It has been reported that over 12 million people use some form of tobacco, which is one of the high risk factors and has hence become an alarming world-wide problem. Aim: To evaluate the effective diagnostic screening of disease in its early stage by inexpensive method and also to evaluate the effect of indigenous mouthrinse on reversal of pre-cancerous lesions. Materials and Methods: The screening for teenagers belonging to low socio-economic status was carried out. Suspected subjects were evaluated for the reversal of the lesions by use of Ayurvedic preparation as a mouthwash. From 13 to19 years working-child population of North India was selected for the study. Screening was performed by new method-visual inspection with acetic acid. The positive subjects were further investigated by pap smear and biopsy was done as a confirmatory histopathological report. In second phase, the subjects showing positive lesions were advised indigenous anti-cancer mouth rinse and its effect was evaluated after 6 month and 9 month of prescribing the rinse. Results: The total 1095 children were screened (831 boys and 264 girls). Out of total 34 teenager boys were diagnosed, as acetowhite positive lesion. All the acetowhite positive lesions were found exclusively in males. Histological findings after 9 month use of Triphala mouth rinse revealed no changes in cells in 23 (85.2%), hyperkeratinization in 2 (7.4%), hyperkeratinization and spongiosis was evident in 1 (3.7%), mild pleomorphism in 1 (3.7%) patient. Comparative evaluation from 0-9 month showed statistically highly significant test (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Use of different forms of tobacco and betel nut showed convincing relationship between developments of oral pre-cancerous lesions. Triphala was found to have great potential for reversal of these lesions. PMID:25558161

  9. Sequence-based Methods in Human Microbial Ecology: A The 2nd HumanGenome Comes of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-06-01

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for more than a decade (Whitman et al. 1998). The development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail (Handelsman 2004; Harris et al. 2004; Hugenholtz et al. 1998; Moreira and Lopez-Garcia 2002; Rappe and Giovannoni 2003). Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because these techniques now allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, it is time for clinical microbiologists to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has been aptly called ''the second Human Genome Project'' (Relman and Falkow 2001). In this review we will discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis and treatment of known infectious diseases, and finally to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  10. Physical methods for evaluating the nutrition status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency. PMID:25791209

  11. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population. PMID:21496018

  12. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  13. Use Impact-Echo Method to Evaluate Bond of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Early-Age Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yiching

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a non-destructive test method for evaluating the bond of reinforcing bars in concrete structure which was damaged by earthquake while still cast in the form. In the experimental design, the specimens containing a steel reinforcing bar with one end extruded outside were constructed. Different degrees of damage on the rebar-concrete interfaces were successfully created by the resonant vibration of exposed steel bar induced by the cyclic motion of the specimen. The local bond-loss of the steel bars was evaluated by both non-destructive impact-echo tests and the destructive pullout tests. To create different kinds of failure mode in the pullout test, some of the specimens contain stirrups surrounding reinforcing bar. Poor-bond was quantitatively evaluated before the pullout test by the amplitude of the peak corresponding to the multiple reflections from the steel bar in the normalized spectra derived from the impact-echo tests. As a result, two empirical formulas displaying the proportional relations between the percentage of loss of local bond-stress and loss of steel-amplitude for specimens failed by split failure and pull-out failure modes were established.

  14. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  15. New source and process apportionment method using a three-dimensional chemical transport model: Process, Age, and Source region Chasing ALgorithm (PASCAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a new source and process apportionment method, the Process, Age, and Source region Chasing ALgorithm (PASCAL), and implemented it in a three-dimensional chemical transport model, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. By adding new variables (tagged species), PASCAL traces 1) the source region of emissions (source apportionment), 2) the age of individual species (elapsed time from emissions), 3) net and gross production and loss amounts from individual physical and chemical processes during transport (Lagrangian way), and 4) local production and loss rates at individual grid cells (Eulerian way) for primary and secondary aerosols and their precursor gases. The main advantage of PASCAL is the third one, which can trace accumulated production and loss amounts of individual processes during transport from source regions to each grid cell (Lagrangian type of integration) for both gross (production and loss) and net (gross production - loss) concentrations. Currently the method is applied for mixing ratios of CO and SO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon and sulfate aerosols. This algorithm is not impacted by the non-linearity of chemical reactions and is computationally efficient. CMAQ/PASCAL model calculations were conducted over the East Asian region to test its performance. The overall validity of PASCAL calculations is confirmed for all species, periods, altitudes, and regions. This algorithm will be a useful tool in evaluating source regions as well as formation and loss processes of aerosols in the atmosphere in order to make effective strategies for emissions reduction.

  16. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  17. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  18. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  19. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross- sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Results Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -3.58), number of live children (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46- 4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR = 6.11, 95% CI: 2.29- 16.30), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.40 - 3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 8.37 - 22.47). Conclusion Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples PMID:26523185

  20. Influence of virus inoculation method and host larval age on productivity of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Cramer).

    PubMed

    Biji, C P; Sudheendrakumar, V V; Sajeev, T V

    2006-04-01

    Hyblaea puera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HpNPV) is a potential biocontrol agent against the teak defoliator H. puera (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). As part of optimization of the mass production of this nucleopolyhedrovirus, three methods of inoculation were evaluated against the host larvae with various yield parameters as selection criteria. The inoculation methods compared were controlled dose on diet in rearing tubes using a micropipette, controlled dose on leaf discs (prepared from teak leaves) using a micropipette and spraying onto diet filled rearing tubes using an atomizer. Fifth instar H. puera larvae of the weight classes 75-100, 101-125, 126-150, 151-175 and 176-200mg were used for the bioassay. With reference to percentage of harvested larvae, virus production per larva and virus production per inoculated larva (VPIL), spraying viral suspension into rearing tubes filled with artificial diet using a hand sprayer was found to be the most efficient method of inoculation. It was observed that the method of inoculation and age of the larvae has discrete as well as interactive influence on the virus yield parameters. PMID:16384613

  1. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Krishnan, Ramesh; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Materials and Methods: 100 underweight children between the age group of 18-14 years were selected. Chronological age was assessed by recording date of birth. Dental age assessment was done using orthopantamogram following the method described by Demirjian. Bone age assessment was carried out using hand wrist radiograph following Bjork, Grave and Brown′s method. Results: Dental age and Bone age was delayed compared to chronological age in both sexes. The correlation between chronological age, dental age and bone age were all positive in males. Interpretation and Conclusion: The data supports the concept that dental age and bone age delay is a significant feature in underweight children. It is important to consider dental age and bone age as variables for diagnosing underweight children. To support our findings further a well-designed, controlled as well as longitudinal studies with a larger sample size is required. PMID:23946582

  2. Use of the Adaptive LASSO Method to Identify PM2.5 Components Associated with Blood Pressure in Elderly Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingzhen; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is unclear whether specific PM2.5 components, particularly metals, may be responsible for cardiovascular effects. Objectives We aimed to determine which PM2.5 components are associated with blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort. Methods We fit linear mixed-effects models with the adaptive LASSO penalty to longitudinal data from 718 elderly men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study, 1999–2010. We controlled for PM2.5 mass, age, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication (ACE inhibitors, non-ophthalmic beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin receptor antagonists), smoking status, alcohol intake, years of education, temperature, and season as fixed effects in the models, and additionally applied the adaptive LASSO method to select PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure. Final models were identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results For systolic blood pressure (SBP), nickel (Ni) and sodium (Na) were selected by the adaptive LASSO, whereas only Ni was selected for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). An interquartile range increase (2.5 ng/m3) in 7-day moving-average Ni was associated with 2.48-mmHg (95% CI: 1.45, 3.50 mmHg) increase in SBP and 2.22-mmHg (95% CI: 1.69, 2.75 mmHg) increase in DBP, respectively. Associations were comparable when the analysis was restricted to study visits with PM2.5 below the 75th percentile of the distribution (12 μg/m3). Conclusions Our study suggested that exposure to ambient Ni was associated with increased blood pressure independent of PM2.5 mass in our study population of elderly men. Further research is needed to confirm our findings, assess generalizability to other populations, and identify potential mechanisms for Ni effects. Citation Dai L, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Use of the adaptive LASSO method to

  3. Developing a cuts-based system to improve consumer acceptability of pork: Impact of gender, ageing period, endpoint temperature and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R

    2016-11-01

    The effect of gender (entire male, female and castrate), ageing period (2 or 7days) and endpoint temperature (70 or 75°C) on consumer perceptions of cuts from the loin (Musculuslongissimus thoracis et lumborum), silverside (Musculus biceps femoris) and shoulder (Musculus triceps brachii (roast) and Musculus supraspinatus (stir fry)) when roasted or stir fried (all primals) or grilled as steaks (loin only) was investigated. Higher scores for juiciness (P=0.035), flavour (P=0.017), overall liking (P=0.018), quality grade (P=0.026) were obtained from castrates than entire males, with females intermediate. Neither ageing period nor endpoint temperature, as main effects, influenced sensory scores. Loin steaks and silverside roasts obtained lower (P<0.001) scores for all sensory traits except aroma; scores for shoulder cuts were highest (P<0.001). Cooking to 70°C improved (P<0.05) juiciness, flavor and overall liking scores of loin steaks compared with 75°C. Different pathway interventions are required to optimize eating quality of different pork cuts and the cooking methods used to prepare them. PMID:27348320

  4. A Method for Investigating Age-related Differences in the Functional Connectivity of Cognitive Control Networks Associated with Dimensional Change Card Sort Performance

    PubMed Central

    DeBenedictis, Bianca; Morton, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The ability to adjust behavior to sudden changes in the environment develops gradually in childhood and adolescence. For example, in the Dimensional Change Card Sort task, participants switch from sorting cards one way, such as shape, to sorting them a different way, such as color. Adjusting behavior in this way exacts a small performance cost, or switch cost, such that responses are typically slower and more error-prone on switch trials in which the sorting rule changes as compared to repeat trials in which the sorting rule remains the same. The ability to flexibly adjust behavior is often said to develop gradually, in part because behavioral costs such as switch costs typically decrease with increasing age. Why aspects of higher-order cognition, such as behavioral flexibility, develop so gradually remains an open question. One hypothesis is that these changes occur in association with functional changes in broad-scale cognitive control networks. On this view, complex mental operations, such as switching, involve rapid interactions between several distributed brain regions, including those that update and maintain task rules, re-orient attention, and select behaviors. With development, functional connections between these regions strengthen, leading to faster and more efficient switching operations. The current video describes a method of testing this hypothesis through the collection and multivariate analysis of fMRI data from participants of different ages. PMID:24837515

  5. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  6. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  7. A level-set method for pathology segmentation in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of patients with age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Ansari, Rashid; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-03-01

    The visibility and continuity of the inner segment outer segment (ISOS) junction layer of the photoreceptors on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images is known to be related to visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Automatic detection and segmentation of lesions and pathologies in retinal images is crucial for the screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with retinal diseases. One of the challenges of using the classical level-set algorithms for segmentation involves the placement of the initial contour. Manually defining the contour or randomly placing it in the image may lead to segmentation of erroneous structures. It is important to be able to automatically define the contour by using information provided by image features. We explored a level-set method which is based on the classical Chan-Vese model and which utilizes image feature information for automatic contour placement for the segmentation of pathologies in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of the ISOS layer. This was accomplished by exploiting a priori knowledge of the shape and intensity distribution allowing the use of projection profiles to detect the presence of pathologies that are characterized by intensity differences with surrounding areas in retinal images. We first tested our method by applying it to fluorescein angiograms. We then applied our method to en face retinal images of patients with AMD. The experimental results included demonstrate that the proposed method provided a quick and improved outcome as compared to the classical Chan-Vese method in which the initial contour is randomly placed, thus indicating the potential to provide a more accurate and detailed view of changes in pathologies due to disease progression and treatment.

  8. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  9. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  10. Conversion of Exogenous Cholesterol into Glycoalkaloids in Potato Shoots, Using Two Methods for Sterol Solubilisation

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Erik V.; Nahar, Nurun; Dahlin, Paul; Broberg, Anders; Tröger, Rikard; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D) in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled), or side chain (D7-labelled), and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine) were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-β-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-β-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato. PMID:24349406

  11. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). Conclusions First, extensive

  12. Current research funding methods dumb down health care and rehabilitation for disabled people and aging population: a call for a change.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Padua, L; Kiekens, C; Michail, X; Boldrini, P

    2014-12-01

    Health care systems in Western societies are faced with two major challenges: aging populations and the growing burden of chronic conditions. This translates into more persons with disabilities and the need for more Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) services. We raise the point of how these emerging needs are faced by the actual research funding. We briefly present the results of an analysis we made about research funding by the Italian National Health Service as an interesting case study, since it relates to Italy (the financer) and the United States, where National Institutes of Health (NIH) reviewers were identified according to their classification of research topics. The topics of potentially greatest interest for aging Western societies, like chronicity, disability and rehabilitation, were among those least often funded and considered in the traditional method of financing research projects. These results could be based on those PRM peculiarities that make the specialty different from all other classical biomedical specialties, namely the bio-psycho-social approach and its specific research methodologies. Moreover, PRM researchers are spread among the different topics as usually classified, and it is probable that PRM projects are judged by non-PRM reviewers. There are at least two possible ways in which research can be better placed to meet the emerging needs of Western societies (chronicity, disability and consequently also rehabilitation). One is to create specific keywords on these topics so as to improve the match between researchers and reviewers; the second is to allocate specific funds to research in these areas. In fact, the not coherence between emerging needs and research priorities have already been periodically addressed in the past with specific "political" and/or "social" initiatives, when researchers were forced to respond to new emergencies: some historical examples include cancer or HIV and viral diseases or the recent Ebola

  13. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  14. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  15. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  16. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  17. Improving the intake of nutritious food in children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, China – a multi-method approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Ye; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To develop affordable, appropriate, and nutritious recipes based on local food resources and dietary practices that have the potential to improve infant feeding practices. Methods We carried out a mixed methods study following the World Health Organization’s evaluation guidelines on the promotion of child feeding. We recruited caregivers with children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, Hebei Province, China. The study included a 24-hour dietary recall survey, local food market survey, and development of a key local food list, food combinations, and recipes. Mothers tested selected recipes at their homes for two weeks. We interviewed mothers to obtain their perceptions on the recipes. Results The 24-hour dietary recall survey included 110 mothers. Dietary diversity was poor; approximately 10% of children consumed meat and only 2% consumed vitamin A-rich vegetables. The main reason for not giving meat was the mothers’ belief that their children could not chew and digest meat. With the help of mothers, we developed six improved nutritious recipes with locally available and affordable foods. Overall, mothers liked the recipes and were willing to continue using them. Conclusions This is the first study using a systematic evidence-based method to develop infant complementary recipes that can address complementary feeding problems in China. We developed recipes based on local foods and preparation practices and identified the barriers that mothers faced toward feeding their children with nutritious food. To improve nutrition practices, it is important to both give mothers correct feeding knowledge and assist them in cooking nutritious foods for their children based on locally available products. Further research is needed to assess long-term effects of those recipes on the nutritional status of children. PMID:23630143

  18. Aging blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inchang

    2013-09-01

    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  19. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  20. Health Professionals’ Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Values for Oral Clefting by Age Using a Visual Analogue Scale Method

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To elicit health-related quality of life (HRQL) values associated with oral clefting by age using a visual analogue scale, and to explore the appropriateness of using health professionals as evaluators. Methods A representative group of health professionals working on craniofacial and/or cleft palate teams in the United States was sampled. Values (between 0 and 1) representing the HRQL associated with isolated and nonisolated oral clefting for infants, children, adolescents, and adults were obtained. The relationships between selected evaluator characteristics and values were also assessed. Results Of 330 professionals surveyed, 133 (40%) completed and returned reliable evaluations. Overall, HRQL values were clustered toward the right tail of the scale, indicating modest decreases in HRQL. Most evaluators reported feeling confident in completing the evaluations. HRQL values seemed to vary by team type (cleft palate only versus cleft palate/craniofacial care) and geographic location, but no major differences were found overall for any selected evaluator characteristics. Conclusions This study provides HRQL values for oral clefting based on preferences of health professionals that may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies, including those carried out in clinical trial studies. The clustered pattern of HRQL values suggests either a consensus among evaluators of a limited burden of oral clefting or an overall lack of understanding of the evaluation task. PMID:16854194

  1. A Serious Video Game to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary Aged Youth (Squire’s Quest! II): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Riddhi; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. Objective This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire’s Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods Squire’s Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. Results To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. Conclusions This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094 PMID:23612366

  2. CMF Signal Processing Method Based on Feedback Corrected ANF and Hilbert Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Yang, Huiyue; Zhang, Haitao; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on CMF signal processing and aim to resolve the problems of precision sharp-decline occurrence when using adaptive notch filters (ANFs) for tracking the signal frequency for a long time and phase difference calculation depending on frequency by the sliding Goertzel algorithm (SGA) or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution. A novel method is proposed based on feedback corrected ANF and Hilbert transformation. We design an index to evaluate whether the ANF loses the signal frequency or not, according to the correlation between the output and input signals. If the signal frequency is lost, the ANF parameters will be adjusted duly. At the same time, singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm is introduced to reduce noise. And then, phase difference between the two signals is detected through trigonometry and Hilbert transformation. With the frequency and phase difference obtained, time interval of the two signals is calculated. Accordingly, the mass flow rate is derived. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method always preserves a constant high precision of frequency tracking and a better performance of phase difference measurement compared with the SGA or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution

  3. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the a* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The b* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP. PMID:26761167

  4. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  5. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the a* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The b* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP. PMID:26761167

  6. Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Nancy P; Iribarren, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD), Bilingual (BIL), and English-dominant (ED) Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter), 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs), health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression), computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only). The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat <3 servings of fruit/vegetables per day. SD and BIL of both genders were significantly less likely than ED Latinos to believe that health practices had a large impact on health. Compared to ED men and women, SD and BIL Latinos had significantly lower Internet and computer access. As a result, SD Latinos had a greater

  7. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  8. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  9. Reliability of inferred age, and coincidence between inferred age and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, J; Ohara, S; Shibata, S; Maie, K

    1996-06-01

    Outdoor research is restricted by many factors. The age inference was one of the biggest problems for the outdoor researchers. We have investigated the reliability of inferred age for the Japanese people, and took out the estimation formula for the age, even if it was based on the inferred age. The age classification was the most popular method for this purpose, and there were many classifications. We took the classification of young, middle aged, and elderly groups, in which classification of the SDs were rather small, that is, 4, 5, and 7 years for the young, middle aged, and elderly age groups, respectively. PMID:9551138

  10. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  11. Two-criteria dental aging method applied to a Bosnian population: comparison of formulae for each tooth group versus one formula for all teeth.

    PubMed

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Cihlarz, Zdenko; Klonowski, Eva-Elvira; Selak, Ivan; Brkić, Hrvoje; Topić, Berislav

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain age estimation formulae using the length of periodontosis, transparency of the root and root height in each tooth group for the current male population in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare these formulae with Lamendin's and Prince's formulae. The research was undertaken on 847 single rooted teeth from 200 identified deceased persons, individuals who died between the ages of 23 and 85 years. Periodontosis, transparency and root height were measured according to Lamendin's procedure. All teeth were grouped in two ways: according to the tooth groups and to the age groups. The highest coefficients of correlation are obtained for maxillary canines (R = 0,731) and mandibular canines (R = 0,706) and the maxillary lateral incisors showed the lowest mean error (ME = 6,63 years). In age groups, the lowest mean error was obtained in the 40-49 years age group (ME = 5,15 years). Equations developed in this study give statistically significantly better age estimations in comparison to the original Lamendin and Prince formulae for the whole sample as well as for each tooth group, except for mandibular central incisors. Age estimation with models developed for each tooth group (except for mandibular lateral incisors) was statistically significantly better than models based on the whole sample. PMID:16995854

  12. Subtle increases in heart size persist into adulthood in growth restricted babies: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, Clare; Skilton, Michael R; Ruohonen, Saku; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laitinen, Tomi; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. We sought to determine whether adults born with intrauterine growth restriction have primary maladaptive changes in cardiac structure. Methods Study participants were adults (34–49 years) who attended the 31-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (longitudinal cohort). Transthoracic echocardiograms and demographic and cardiovascular risk surveys were completed for 157 adults born small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <10th population centile) and 627 born average for gestational age (average for gestational age (AGA), birth weight 50th–90th population centile). Results Those born growth restricted had subtly enlarged hearts with indexed left ventricular (LV) end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters slightly greater in the SGA individuals than the AGA group (LVESD 18.7 mm/m2 SGA vs 18.1 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01; LVEDD 27.5 mm/m2 SGA vs 26.6 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); LV base-to-apex length (47.4 mm/m2 SGA vs 46.0 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); LV basal diameter (26.4 mm/m2 SGA vs 25.7 mm/m2 AGA, p<0.01); and right ventricular base-to-apex length (40.1 mm/m2 SGA vs 39.2 mm/m2 AGA, p=0.02). LV stroke volume was greater in those born AGA (74.5 mL SGA vs 78.8 mL AGA, p<0.01), with no significant difference in cardiac output (5 L/min SGA vs 5.2 L/min AGA, p=0.06), heart rate, diastolic indices or sphericity index. Conclusions Adults born SGA have some statistically significant but subtle changes in cardiac structure and function, which are less marked than have been described in childhood, and are unlikely to play a pathogenic role in their elevated cardiovascular risk. PMID:26339495

  13. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  14. Dissociative changes in Bmax and KD of dopamine D2/D3 receptors with aging observed in functional subdivisions of striatum: A revisit with an improved data analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Hiroto; McCaul, Mary E.; Wand, Gary S.; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P; Weerts, Elise M; Dannals, Robert F.; Wong, Dean F

    2013-01-01

    Separate measurements of Bmax, the density of available receptors and KD, the equilibrium dissociation constant in the human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) have contributed to our understandings of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially with respect to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor system. However, existing methods have limited applications to the whole striatum, putamen or caudate nucleus. Improved methods are required to examine Bmax and KD in detailed functional striatal subdivisions that are becoming widely used. Methods In response, a new method (bolus-plus-infusion transformation, BPIT) was developed. After completion of a validation study for [11C]raclopride scans involving 81 subjects, age-associated changes in Bmax and KD were examined in 47 healthy subjects ranging from 18 to 77 years old. Results The BPIT method was consistent with established reference tissue methods regarding regional binding potential (BPND). BPIT yielded time-consistent estimates of Bmax and KD when scan and infusion lengths were set equal in the analysis. In addition, BPIT was shown to be robust against PET measurement errors when compared to a widely accepted transient equilibrium method (TEM). Altogether, BPIT was supported as a method for BPND, Bmax, and KD. We demonstrated age-associated declines in Bmax in all five functional striatum subdivisions with BPIT when corrected for multiple comparisons. These age-related effects were not consistently attainable with TEM. Irrespective to methods, KD remained unchanged with age. Conclusion The BPIT approach may be useful for understanding dopamine receptor abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders by enabling separate measurements of Bmax and KD in functional striatum subdivisions. PMID:22492734

  15. Plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations in healthy neonates, children and adolescents measured with a high sensitive immunoassay method: High sensitive troponin I in pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Chiara; Cangemi, Giuliana; Masotti, Silvia; Ragusa, Rosetta; Gennai, Iulian; Del Ry, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Clerico, Aldo

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 10years cardiac troponin (cTn) immunoassays have been improved in analytical sensitivity and precision thereby allowing the measurement of cTn in adult healthy subjects. However, there are currently substantial gaps in our knowledge on circulating levels of cTn in healthy children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution of plasma troponin concentration in apparently healthy pediatric subjects using a high sensitive immunoassay for cTnI measurement (hs-cTnI). Blood samples were obtained from 357 healthy pediatric subjects [204 males; age range 0-18years; mean (SD): 8.7(6) years], including 36 subjects aged <1month (neonates), 57 between 1 and 12months (infants), 65 between 1 and 10years (toddlers), and 223 between 10 and 18years (adolescents). The percentages of healthy population with cTnI values equal or less than the calculated and LOD value were 13.1%. cTnI plasma levels were highest in the first month of life with a progressive decline in the next years and were lower in female. At multivariate analysis, only age was predictor of hs-cTnI plasma levels. The age and sex of children influence normal and physiologically released circulating concentrations of hs-cTnI, suggesting the need of reference intervals specific for age and sex. PMID:27118089

  16. Using a Mixed Methods Sequential Design to Identify Factors Associated with African American Mothers' Intention to Vaccinate Their Daughters Aged 9 to 12 for HPV with a Purpose of Informing a Culturally-Relevant, Theory-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential, explanatory mixed methods research study was to understand what factors influenced African American maternal intentions to get their daughters aged 9 years to 12 years vaccinated in Alabama. In the first, quantitative phase of the study, the research questions focused on identifying the predictive power of eleven…

  17. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  18. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  19. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  20. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  1. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  2. Quantitative assessment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Noninvasive methods have allowed physicians to give an objective description of aged skin in terms of functional and esthetic properties. The relative influence of environment (mainly sun) on the true aging process can be assessed through the obtained data. It is also possible to measure the efficacy of topical preparations (cosmetics or drugs) designed for treating the various cutaneous aging marks. PMID:11535423

  3. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  4. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  5. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  6. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults. PMID:19697188

  7. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  8. [The rationale for the conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of the older age groups by the «soft» therapy methods].

    PubMed

    Lavrenova, G V; Nesterova, K I; Yaremenko, K V; Nesterova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient system for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of advanced and middle age based on the application of polyvalent bacteriophages in the combination with the physical factors and herbal medicines. The study involved 65 patients (39 women and 276 men) at the age from 65 to 73 years presenting with chronic tonsillitis. The treatment included washing the tonsillar lacunae with herbal infusion consisting of a tetterwort (Choledoniummajus) extract. This procedure was followed by phonophoresiswith the use of the combined polyvalent bacteriophage preparation in the non-liquid formulation during 7-10 days. The effectiveness of such treatment was evaluated based on the results of clinical examination and the analysis of the subjective feelings reported by the patients. In addition, the rosette-forming function of lymphocytes was estimated and palatine tonsil microbiotas in different patients were compared. The effectiveness of therapy was estimated at 89.2%. The positive outcome of the proposed treatment was documented in 78.6% of the cases within 6 months after the onset of therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of chronic tonsillitis with bacteriophagal preparations and herbal infusions in combination with thetraditionallow-frequency ultrasound treatment is highly efficacious (favourable outcome in 78.6% of the patients of middle and advanced age) without the use of antibiotic medications. PMID:27500573

  9. Growth increment periodicity in the shell of the razor clam Ensis directus using stable isotopes as a method to validate age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, J. F. M. F.; Nieuwland, G.; Witbaard, R.; van der Veer, H. W.; Machado, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the role of the razor clam Ensis directus in Dutch coastal waters, understanding its population dynamics is important. As such, the age structure of the population forms a key parameter. Accurate age determination in bivalve shells is not always straightforward due to the difficulty of interpreting externally visible growth lines. In the present paper, we aimed at validating the seasonality in growth line formation using visual techniques in combination with stable oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C). High δ18O values in the shell coincided with growth marks on the external surface of the valve and in acetate peels of the shell's cross section. Most shell δ18O samples were assigned to the months from June to September. From November to March no samples were retrieved, indicating that the shell did not grow. The lowest reconstructed temperature (6.3 °C) suggests that ~ 6 °C may be the threshold temperature for growth. Nevertheless, most of the reconstructed values fell above 14.5 °C, indicating that growth occurred mainly in the summer at relatively high temperatures. Shell δ13C profiles followed a more or less seasonal cycle, but no direct relationship could be made between δ13C values and annual growth lines. Although counting external annual growth lines led to a correct estimation of age and consequently of growth rates, we recommend analysing acetate peels of cross sections to support the distinction between annual lines and disturbance lines.

  10. 45 CFR 233.39 - Age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.39 Age. (a) Condition for plan approval. A State plan under title I or...) In OAA or AABD with respect to the aged, 65 years of age or over; (ii) In AFDC, under 18 years of age... Social Security Act will be made according to the common-law method (under which a specific age...

  11. 45 CFR 233.39 - Age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.39 Age. (a) Condition for plan approval. A State plan under title I or...) In OAA or AABD with respect to the aged, 65 years of age or over; (ii) In AFDC, under 18 years of age... Social Security Act will be made according to the common-law method (under which a specific age...

  12. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  13. Growth increment periodicity in the shell of the razor clam Ensis directus using stable isotopes as a method to validate age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, J. F. M. F.; Nieuwland, G.; Witbaard, R.; van der Veer, H. W.; Machado, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the razor clam Ensis directus in Dutch coastal waters, assessment and understanding its population dynamics is important. As such, the age structure of the population forms a key parameter. Accurate age determination in bivalve shells is not always straightforward due to the difficulty of interpreting externally visible growth lines. In the present paper, we aimed at validating the seasonality in growth line formation using visual techniques in combination with stable oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C). High δ18O values in the shell coincided with growth marks on the external surface of the valve and in acetate peels of the shell's cross section. Most shell δ18O samples were assigned to the months June to September. From November to March no samples were retrieved indicating that the shell did not grow. The lowest reconstructed temperature (6.1 °C) suggests that ~6 °C may be the threshold temperature for growth. Nevertheless, most of the reconstructed values fell above 14.5 °C indicating growth occurred mainly in the summer at relatively high temperatures. Shell δ13C profiles followed a more or less seasonal cycle but no direct relationship could be made between δ13C values and annual growth lines. Although counting external annual growth lines led to a correct estimation of age and consequently of growth rates, we recommend analysing acetate peels of cross-sections to support the distinction between annual lines and disturbance lines.

  14. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Women in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jennifer Y.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Souda, Sajini; Parekh, Natasha; Ogwu, Anthony; Lockman, Shahin; Powis, Kathleen; Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Creek, Tracy; Jimbo, William; Madidimalo, Tebogo; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy, particularly in resource-limited settings. Methods. We abstracted obstetrical records at 6 sites in Botswana for 24 months. Outcomes included stillbirths (SBs), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal death (NND). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women, comparisons were limited to HAART exposure status at conception, and those with similar opportunities for outcomes. Comparisons were adjusted for CD4+ lymphocyte cell count. Results. Of 33 148 women, 32 113 (97%) were tested for HIV, of whom 9504 (30%) were HIV infected. Maternal HIV was significantly associated with SB, PTD, SGA, and NND. Compared with all other HIV-infected women, those continuing HAART from before pregnancy had higher odds of PTD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 1.4), SGA (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6, 2.1) and SB (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8). Among women initiating antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, HAART use (vs zidovudine) was associated with higher odds of PTD (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8), SGA (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.9), and SB (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6, 3.9). Low CD4+ was independently associated with SB and SGA, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy with PTD, SGA, and SB. Conclusions. HAART receipt during pregnancy was associated with increased PTD, SGA, and SB. PMID:23066160

  15. The Determination of Predictive Construct of Physical Behavior Change on Osteoporosis Prevention Women Aged 30-50: A Trans-Theoretical Method Study.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alirezad; Niknami, Shamseddin; Aminshokravi, Frakhondeh

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health priority in Iran and throughout the world. The prevention of osteoporosis has recently become the ultimate goal of many health professionals. Behavior change is one of the most powerful strategies to prevent osteoporosis. This study aimed to determine the predictive construct of physical preventive behavior of osteoporosis in women aged 30-50 in Khorramabad, west of Iran. This study included 269 women selected from all the health centers of Khorramabad city according to the inclusion criteria of the study and through random cluster and systematic sampling. The data gathering tools were valid and reliable questionnaires of demographic information, stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean of the subjects' age was 38.72±7.003, and the mean of light weekly physical activity was 38.83±56.400. The results showed that the construct of self-efficacy had the highest predictive power of the preventive behavior. The results also showed that self-efficacy among the constructs of the Trans-theoretical Model was the only predictive construct for osteoporosis prevention behavior. Therefore, the findings of this study can serve as a base for educational interventions in behavioral changes to prevent of osteoporosis by health authorities. PMID:26493413

  16. The Determination of Predictive Construct of Physical Behavior Change on Osteoporosis Prevention Women Aged 30-50: A Trans-theoretical Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alireza; Niknami, Shamseddin; Aminshokravi, Frakhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health priority in Iran and throughout the world. The prevention of osteoporosis has recently become the ultimate goal of many health professionals. Behavior change is one of the most powerful strategies to prevent osteoporosis. This study aimed to determine the predictive construct of physical preventive behavior of osteoporosis in women aged 30-50 in Khorramabad, west of Iran. This study included 269 women selected from all the health centers of Khorramabad city according to the inclusion criteria of the study and through random cluster and systematic sampling. The data gathering tools were valid and reliable questionnaires of demographic information, stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean of the subjects’ age was 38.72±7.003, and the mean of light weekly physical activity was 38.83±56.400. The results showed that the construct of self-efficacy had the highest predictive power of the preventive behavior. The results also showed that self-efficacy among the constructs of the Trans-theoretical Model was the only predictive construct for osteoporosis prevention behavior. Therefore, the findings of this study can serve as a base for educational interventions in behavioral changes to prevent of osteoporosis by health authorities. PMID:26493413

  17. THE AGES OF 55 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS DETERMINED USING AN IMPROVED ΔV{sup HB}{sub TO} METHOD ALONG WITH COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM CONSTRAINTS, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR BROADER ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L. E-mail: kfb@phys.au.dk E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the 'fitting' of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ∼ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼< – 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼> –1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ∼ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R{sub G}) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13

  18. The Ages of 55 Globular Clusters as Determined Using an Improved \\Delta V^HB_TO Method along with Color-Magnitude Diagram Constraints, and Their Implications for Broader Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the "fitting" of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ~ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] <~ - 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] >~ -1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ~ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R G) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13, subtle variations have

  19. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images. PMID:23994351

  20. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  1. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  2. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen, and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  3. Methods to Parameterize Brown Carbon, Distinguish Brown Carbon Absorption From Enhanced Black Carbon Absorption, and Assess the Stability of Brown Carbon to Photochemical Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. M.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Beamesderfer, E.; Wagner, N. L.; Langridge, J.; Lack, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present results obtained during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment-4 (FLAME-4) with a combination of multi-wavelength photoacoustic and cavity ringdown spectrometers. It will be shown that the single scattering albedo and Angstrom exponent of biomass burning emissions can be better parameterized by the organic carbon to black carbon ratio than by the modified combustion efficiency. Two different methods to distinguish the contribution to aerosol absorption from brown carbon versus black carbon and enhanced black carbon absorption will be presented. One method is based on extending the absorption seen at 660 nm with an assumed Angstrom exponent while the other assumes a similar absorption enhancement (determined via thermal denuder) of black carbon at 660 and 405 nm. Potential errors and advantages of both methods will be discussed. Finally, chamber experiments that show degradation of brown carbon by photochemical oxidation will be presented along with a number of methods by which to assess the amount of brown carbon that is degraded.

  4. A serious video game to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among elementary aged youth (Squire's Quest! II): Rationale, design, and methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions a...

  5. Technological Literacy for Students Aged 6-18: A New Method for Holistic Measuring of Knowledge, Capabilities, Critical Thinking and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avsec, Stanislav; Jamšek, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Technological literacy is identified as a vital achievement of technology- and engineering-intensive education. It guides the design of technology and technical components of educational systems and defines competitive employment in technological society. Existing methods for measuring technological literacy are incomplete or complicated,…

  6. Toward a Mixed-Methods Research Approach to Content Analysis in The Digital Age: The Combined Content-Analysis Model and its Applications to Health Care Twitter Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Eradah O; Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter’s 140-character microblog posts are increasingly used to access information and facilitate discussions among health care professionals and between patients with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Recently, efforts have emerged to investigate the content of health care-related posts on Twitter. This marks a new area for researchers to investigate and apply content analysis (CA). In current infodemiology, infoveillance and digital disease detection research initiatives, quantitative and qualitative Twitter data are often combined, and there are no clear guidelines for researchers to follow when collecting and evaluating Twitter-driven content. Objective The aim of this study was to identify studies on health care and social media that used Twitter feeds as a primary data source and CA as an analysis technique. We evaluated the resulting 18 studies based on a narrative review of previous methodological studies and textbooks to determine the criteria and main features of quantitative and qualitative CA. We then used the key features of CA and mixed-methods research designs to propose the combined content-analysis (CCA) model as a solid research framework for designing, conducting, and evaluating investigations of Twitter-driven content. Methods We conducted a PubMed search to collect studies published between 2010 and 2014 that used CA to analyze health care-related tweets. The PubMed search and reference list checks of selected papers identified 21 papers. We excluded 3 papers and further analyzed 18. Results Results suggest that the methods used in these studies were not purely quantitative or qualitative, and the mixed-methods design was not explicitly chosen for data collection and analysis. A solid research framework is needed for researchers who intend to analyze Twitter data through the use of CA. Conclusions We propose the CCA model as a useful framework that provides a straightforward approach to guide Twitter-driven studies and that

  7. Aging and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Idar, D.J.; Buntain, G.A.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.

    1998-12-31

    Components made from PBX 9502, an insensitive high explosive formulated with triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F 800 binder, have been in service for nearly two decades. Since that time, samples have been destructively evaluated to determine if potential changes that might affect safety, reliability, or performance have occurred in the high explosive with time. Data from routine, historical testing is reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on specific tests conducted to evaluate the effects of natural aging on handling sensitivity (through the small-scale tests of Human Electrostatic Discharge, friction, and Drop Weight Impact), compressive strength, and thermal ignition. Also reported are the effects of a radiation environment on TATB. Small-scale sensitivity tests show no differences between aged and unaged material. Observed differences in compressive strength behavior are attributed to conditions of original material rather than aging effects. Thermal ignition by flame and laser methods showed no changes between aged and unaged material. Extreme levels of radiation are shown to have only minimal effects in explosive response tests. PBX 9502 is concluded, once again, to be a very stable material, aging gracefully.

  8. Check valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information.

  9. Making Aging "Real" for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altpeter, Mary; Marshall, Victor W.

    2003-01-01

    Part of an undergraduate introductory aging course was an experiential web-based exercise on calculating life expectancy, which used transformative learning methods. Data from 12 undergraduates revealed the reflective exercise stimulated thinking and increased awareness of and sensitivity to aging. (Contains 11 references.) (SK)

  10. Supervision of care networks for frail community dwelling adults aged 75 years and older: protocol of a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Dutch healthcare inspectorate (IGZ) supervises the quality and safety of healthcare in the Netherlands. Owing to the growing population of (community dwelling) older adults and changes in the Dutch healthcare system, the IGZ is exploring new methods to effectively supervise care networks that exist around frail older adults. The composition of these networks, where formal and informal care takes place, and the lack of guidelines and quality and risk indicators make supervision complicated in the current situation. Methods and analysis This study consists of four phases. The first phase identifies risks for community dwelling frail older adults in the existing literature. In the second phase, a qualitative pilot study will be conducted to assess the needs and wishes of the frail older adults concerning care and well-being, perception of risks, and the composition of their networks, collaboration and coordination between care providers involved in the network. In the third phase, questionnaires based on the results of phase II will be sent to a larger group of frail older adults (n=200) and their care providers. The results will describe the composition of their care networks and prioritise risks concerning community dwelling older adults. Also, it will provide input for the development of a new supervision framework by the IGZ. During phase IV, a second questionnaire will be sent to the participants of phase III to establish changes of perception in risks and possible changes in the care networks. The framework will be tested by the IGZ in pilots, and the researchers will evaluate these pilots and provide feedback to the IGZ. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Scientific Committee of the EMGO+institute and the Medical Ethical review committee of the VU University Medical Centre. Results will be presented in scientific articles and reports and at meetings. PMID:26307619

  11. Correlation between Chronological Age, Dental Age and Skeletal Age among Monozygoyic and Dizygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mohit; Divyashree, R; Abhilash, PR; A Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem; Murali, KV

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronological age, dental development, height and weight measurements, sexual maturation characteristics and skeletal age are some biological indicators that have been used to identify time of growth. Many researchers have agreed that skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth, and bones of hand and wrist are reliable parameters in assessing it. The complete hand and wrist radiograph involves 30 bones and assessment of these bones is one elaborate task. The present study is therefore, undertaken to assess the correlation between the chronological age, dental age and skeletal ages among different types of twins. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 subjects (30 twins) aged 8 to 16 years, divided into group of 10 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic and 10 mixed sex twins. The sample was selected from Twin Survey- 2008 conducted by Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Their zygosity was determined by sex, blood groups and by the parent. The chronological age was measured by the date of birth given by the parents. Panoramic and hand wrist x-rays were taken. Dental age was assessed by Demerjian et al method and skeletal age by Greulich and Pyle method. The correlation among twins in dental and skeletal ages with the chronological age was assessed using Correlation Coefficient and Student's't' Test. Results: The obtained data was fed into the computer and statistical analysis was done for the same using the SPSS version 10.0. Statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 level. Mean and Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficient, Student's't' Test statistical methods were employed. The result showed highly significant 'p' value as <0.001 in all the correlations except for mixed pairs. Descriptive statistics in most of the areas demonstrated a non-significant result between zygosity groups. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between the individual

  12. Chemical characteristics combined with bioactivity for comprehensive evaluation of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in different ages and seasons based on HPLC-DAD and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Shan, Si-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Huang, Fang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been known as a valuable traditional Chinese medicines for thousands years of history. Ginsenosides, the main active constituents, exhibit prominent immunoregulation effect. The present study first describes a holistic method based on chemical characteristic and lymphocyte proliferative capacity to evaluate systematically the quality of P. ginseng in thirty samples from different seasons during 2-6 years. The HPLC fingerprints were evaluated using principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The spectrum-efficacy model between HPLC fingerprints and T-lymphocyte proliferative activities was investigated by principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The results indicated that the growth of the ginsenosides could be grouped into three periods and from August of the fifth year, P. ginseng appeared significant lymphocyte proliferative capacity. Close correlation existed between the spectrum-efficacy relationship and ginsenosides Rb1, Ro, Rc, Rb2 and Re were the main contributive components to the lymphocyte proliferative capacity. This comprehensive strategy, providing reliable and adequate scientific evidence, could be applied to other TCMs to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:24252727

  13. Single leg mini squat: an inter-tester reproducibility study of children in the age of 9–10 and 12–14 years presented by various methods of kappa calculation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest that reduced postural orientation is a possible risk factor for both patello-femoral joint pain (PFP) and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In order to prevent PFP and ACL injuries in adolescent athletes, it is necessary to develop simple and predictive screening tests to identify those at high risk. Single Leg Mini Squat (SLMS) is a functional and dynamic real-time screening test, which has shown good validity and reproducibility in evaluation of postural orientation of the knee in an adult population. The aim of this study was to determine the inter-tester reproducibility of SLMS in the age group of 9–10 and 12–14 years by evaluating postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk. Further on, this study exemplify the divergence of kappa values when using different methods of calculating kappa for the same dataset. Methods A total of 72 non-injured children were included in the study. Postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk for both legs was determined by two testers using a four-point scale (ordinal, 0–3). Prevalence, overall agreement as well as four different methods for calculating kappa were evaluated: linear weighted kappa in comparison with un-weighted kappa, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa. Results The linear weighted kappa values ranged between 0.54-0.86 (overall agreement 0.86-0.97), reflecting a moderate to almost perfect agreement. When calculating un-weighted kappa (with and without PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa, the results spread between 0.46-0.88, 0.50-0.94, and 0.76-0.95, reflecting the various results when using different methods of kappa calculation. Conclusions The Single Leg Mini Squat test has moderate to almost perfect reproducibility in children aged 9–10 and 12–14 years when evaluating postural orientation of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk, based on the excellent strength of agreement as presented by

  14. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: A Novel Method for the Multi-Dimensional Assessment of Neurodevelopment in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Michelle; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R.; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Kihara, Michael; Wulff, Katharina; de León Quintana, Enrique; Aranzeta, Luis; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Acedo, Javier; Ibanez, David; Abubakar, Amina; Giuliani, Francesca; Lewis, Tamsin; Kennedy, Stephen; Villar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. Methods An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations) to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i) categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii) devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii) selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. Results The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests); cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm); and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment) in 35–45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy) are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. Conclusions The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD). Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts. PMID:25423589

  15. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  16. Optimisation of broiler chicken responses from 0 to 7 d of age to dietary leucine, isoleucine and valine using Taguchi and mathematical methods.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Kolahan, F; Afsar, A

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method (TM) and optimisation algorithms to optimise the branch chain amino acids (BCAA) requirements in 0 to 7 d broiler chicks. In the first experiment, the standardised digestible (SID) amino acids and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of maize, wheat and soya bean meal were evaluated. In the second experiment, three factors including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), each at 4 levels, were selected, and an orthogonal array layout of L16 (4(3)) using TM was performed. After data collection, optimisation of average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained using TM. The multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and random search algorithm (RSA) were also applied to predict the optimal combination of BCAA for broiler performance. In the third experiment, a growth study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of obtained optimum BCAA requirements data by TM, MOGA and RSA, and results were compared with those of birds fed with a diet formulated according to Ross 308 recommendations. In the second experiment, the TM resulted in 13.45 g/kg SID Leu, 8.5 g/kg SID Ile and 10.45 g/kg SID Val as optimum level for maximum ADG (21.57 g/bird/d) and minimum FCR (1.11 g feed/g gain) in 0- to 7-d-old broiler chickens. MOGA predicted the following combinations: SID Leu = 14.8, SID Ile = 9.1 and SID Val = 10.3 for maximum ADG (22.05) and minimum FCR (1.11). The optimisation using RSA predicted Leu = 16.0, Ile = 9.5 and Val = 10.2 for maximum ADG (22.67), and Leu = 15.5, Ile = 9.0 and Val = 10.4 to achieve minimum FCR (1.08). The validation experiment confirmed that TM, MOGA and RSA yielded optimum determination of dietary amino acid requirements and improved ADG and FCR as compared to Aviagen recommendations. However, based on the live animal validation trial, MOGA and RSA overpredicted the optimum requirement as compared to TM. In

  17. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  18. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  19. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  20. What's Your Aging IQ?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » What's Your Aging IQ? Heath and Aging What's Your Aging IQ? About this booklet We all know someone " ... at the dry cleaners. But what is normal aging? In this booklet there are several very short ...

  1. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  2. Time perception and age.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Fernanda Moreira; Paiva, Gabriel Pina; Prando, Natália; Graça, Carla Renata; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2016-04-01

    Our internal clock system is predominantly dopaminergic, but memory is predominantly cholinergic. Here, we examined the common sensibility encapsulated in the statement: "time goes faster as we get older". Objective To measure a 2 min time interval, counted mentally in subjects of different age groups. Method 233 healthy subjects (129 women) were divided into three age groups: G1, 15-29 years; G2, 30-49 years; and G3, 50-89 years. Subjects were asked to close their eyes and mentally count the passing of 120 s. Results The elapsed times were: G1, mean = 114.9 ± 35 s; G2, mean = 96.0 ± 34.3 s; G3, mean = 86.6 ± 34.9 s. The ANOVA-Bonferroni multiple comparison test showed that G3 and G1 results were significantly different (P < 0.001). Conclusion Mental calculations of 120 s were shortened by an average of 24.6% (28.3 s) in individuals over age 50 years compared to individuals under age 30 years. PMID:27097002

  3. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used. PMID:26636143

  4. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

  5. Attention, psychomotor functions and age.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Konrad Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jeroen A J; Benton, David

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions. The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different facets of attention and psychomotor functions beyond fifty as well as assessment methods for attention and psychomotor performance. It also provides a review of models to explain the pattern of changes with increasing age, and discusses the problems of high performance variance and of age related confounding variables like health status. Two different approaches are discussed that analyse a performance profile and an experimentally oriented functional microanalysis of changes in performance with respect to the effects of nutrition on attention and psychomotor functions. Addressed are examples of missing age-related deficits or even age-related superiority. Caffeine and Ginseng are considered as examples to enhance performance in older persons. Results are in accordance with data on the positive role of physical fitness for mental performance in older persons. Performance of older persons can well be enhanced by functional food components or nutritional supplementation. The effects are comparable to the effects obtained in younger groups, while there is only weak evidence for specific compensatory effects in aged persons. Finally the role of nutrition for the processes of healthy aging is discussed. PMID:16331357

  6. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  7. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation. PMID:25698302

  8. Allostatic Load in Women with a History of Low Birth Weight Infants: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Catov, Janet M.; Roberts, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of our study was to determine whether women of reproductive age with history of low birth weight (LBW) deliveries have higher allostatic load (AL), a measure of the cumulative toll of chronic stress, than those with normal-weight deliveries. Methods: We used data from women ages 17–35 who responded to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reproductive-health questionnaire, 1999–2006. Women reported history of LBW infants and those who were preterm. We classified preterm-LBW and term-LBW as surrogates for preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA), respectively. Normal weight included those without LBW infant history. We utilized nine biomarkers measured in NHANES to determine AL and used linear regression to compare unadjusted and adjusted means. Results: We identified 877 women divided among SGA (2%), PTB (10%), and normal groups (88%). The SGA group had higher unadjusted and adjusted AL scores than did the normal group (2.82±0.35 vs. 1.92±0.07, p=0.011); women in the PTB group had higher AL scores than did the referent in adjusted analyses (2.58±0.21 vs. 1.92±0.07, p=0.001). Conclusions: Women with history of SGA or PTB had higher AL than did those with normal birth weight outcomes. This suggests a link between adverse pregnancy outcomes, chronic stress, and subclinical disease. PMID:25495368

  9. Age models and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwan, N.; Rehfeld, K.; Goswami, B.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The usefulness of a proxy record is largely dictated by accuracy and precision of its age model, i.e., its depth-age relationship. Only if age model uncertainties are minimized correlations or lead-lag relations can be reliably studied. Moreover, due to different dating strategies (14C, U-series, OSL dating, or counting of varves), dating errors or diverging age models lead to difficulties in comparing different palaeo proxy records. Uncertainties in the age model are even more important if an exact dating is necessary in order to calculate, e.g., data series of flux or rates (like dust flux records, pollen deposition rates). Several statistical approaches exist to handle the dating uncertainties themselves and to estimate the age-depth relationship. Nevertheless, linear interpolation is still the most commonly used method for age modeling. The uncertainties of a certain event at a given time due to the dating errors are often even completely neglected. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering dating errors and implications for the interpretation of variations in palaeo-climate proxy records from stalagmites (U-series dated). We present a simple approach for estimating age models and their confidence levels based on Monte Carlo methods and non-linear interpolation. This novel algorithm also allows for removing age reversals. Our approach delivers a time series of a proxy record with a value range for each age depth also, if desired, on an equidistant time axis. The algorithm is implemented in interactive scripts for use with MATLAB®, Octave, and FreeMat.

  10. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  11. Adverse Outcomes Among Asian Indian Singleton Births in New Jersey, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kurtyka, Karen; Gaur, Sunanda; Mehrotra, Naveen; Chandwani, Sheenu; Janevic, Teresa; Demissie, Kitaw

    2015-08-01

    The study determined the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth, and perinatal morbidity among Asian Indians (AI) in New Jersey (NJ), as well as identified predictors of SGA. We analyzed birth records for singletons born to mothers identified as AI and non-Hispanic white from 2008 to 2011, obtained from the NJ Department of Health. For AI, rates of LBW and SGA were elevated, rates of preterm birth were similar, and neonatal intensive care unit admission was lower, compared to whites. Factors associated with SGA in AI included nulliparity, anemia, hypertension, placental abruption, and lack of prenatal care. Maternal education, marital status, substance abuse, and timing of prenatal care were associated with SGA in whites, but not in AI. SGA incidence was higher among AI despite preterm rates similar to whites. Anemia was associated with SGA uniquely among AI. PMID:25047404

  12. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  13. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  14. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the growing ... the OAA, and a link to National Aging Network information (State Units on Aging and Area Agencies ...

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  16. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  17. MARK-AGE biomarkers of ageing.

    PubMed

    Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhard, Jürgen; Blasco, María; Zondag, Gerben; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Collino, Sebastiano; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Gradinaru, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn; Salmon, Michel; Kristensen, Peter; Griffiths, Helen R; Libert, Claude; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Simm, Andreas; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Talbot, Duncan; Caiafa, Paola; Friguet, Bertrand; Slagboom, P Eline; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Aspinall, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many candidate biomarkers of human ageing have been proposed in the scientific literature but in all cases their variability in cross-sectional studies is considerable, and therefore no single measurement has proven to serve a useful marker to determine, on its own, biological age. A plausible reason for this is the intrinsic multi-causal and multi-system nature of the ageing process. The recently completed MARK-AGE study was a large-scale integrated project supported by the European Commission. The major aim of this project was to conduct a population study comprising about 3200 subjects in order to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any marker in isolation. PMID:25818235

  18. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions. PMID:26357815

  19. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  20. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  1. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness. PMID:27256991

  2. On the autofluorescence of aged fingermarks.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; Todorovski, Toni; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2016-01-01

    Fingermark autofluorescence changes with time, both spectrally and in total intensity. In this study we investigate which components in the aged fingermarks cause this change in autofluorescent signal. Thin layer chromatography combined with fluorescence spectroscopy was used to identify fluorescent aging products. Based on our results, tryptophan derivatives, including indoleacetic acid, (nor)harman and xanthurenic acid are indicated as important contributors to the autofluorescence of aged fingermarks. Knowledge about which fluorescent aging products are present in fingermarks might be useful in the development of fingermark age estimation methods. This work is part of a larger project of which the major goal is to develop a method to estimate the time of deposition of fingermarks. Additionally, by selective targeting of aging products the development of aged fingermarks might be improved. PMID:26638122

  3. The Aging Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lauren N; Brunet, Anne

    2016-06-01

    During aging, the mechanisms that normally maintain health and stress resistance strikingly decline, resulting in decrepitude, frailty, and ultimately death. Exactly when and how this decline occurs is unknown. Changes in transcriptional networks and chromatin state lie at the heart of age-dependent decline. These epigenomic changes are not only observed during aging but also profoundly affect cellular function and stress resistance, thereby contributing to the progression of aging. We propose that the dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is a crucial component of aging. Understanding age-dependent epigenomic changes will yield key insights into how aging begins and progresses and should lead to the development of new therapeutics that delay or even reverse aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27259204

  4. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  5. The age of universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zeeshan

    The presence of short-lived isotope Curium-247 in the early Solar System complicates the job of dating the earliest events in the solar nebula. Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solarnebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materialsformed re-quires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes toPb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining theages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. How-ever, my colleagues at Arizona State University(Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made.Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before theSolar System began to form.

  6. Premature birth and insulin resistance in infancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Payal, Vikas; Jora, Rakesh; Sharma, Pramod; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine the role of prematurity and other variables to predict insulin sensitivity in infancy. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, 36 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and 17 term SGA included as study cohort and 36 term AGA as control cohort. Detailed anthropometry assessment was performed at birth, 3, 6, and 9 months and at 9 months, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin was done. Insulin resistance was determined by using homeostasis model assessment version 2. Results: It is found that preterm AGA (mean difference 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.43–0.80, P = 0.0001), preterm SGA (mean difference 0.764, 95% CI; 0.44–1.09, P = 0.0001), and term AGA (mean difference 0.725, 95% CI; 0.49–0.96, P = 0.0001) group had significantly higher insulin resistance than control. There was no significant difference in between preterm SGA and preterm AGA (mean difference 0.147 95% CI; −0.13–0.42, P = 0.927). In multiple regression models, SGA status (β =0.505) was more significant predictor of insulin resistance index than gestational age (β = −0.481), weight-for-length (β =0.315), and ponderal index (β = −0.194). Conclusion: Preterm birth is a risk factor for the future development of insulin resistance which may develop as early as infancy. PMID:27366716

  7. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  8. DNA methylation and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    With ever-increasing elder population, the high incidence of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders has turned out to be a huge public concern. Especially the elders and their families dreadfully suffer from the learning, behavioral and cognitive impairments. The lack of effective therapies for such a horrible symptom makes a great demanding for biological mechanism study for cognitive aging. Epigenetics is an emerging field that broadens the dimensions of mammalian genome blueprint. It is, unlike genetics, not only inheritable but also reversible. Recent studies suggest that DNA methylation, one of major epigenetic mechanisms, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerations and cognitive defects. In this review, the evolving knowledge of age-related cognitive functions and the potential DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging are discussed. That indicates the impairment of DNA methylation may be a crucial but reversible mechanism of behavioral and cognitive related neurodegeneration. The methods to examine the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns at tissue and single cell level and at the representative scale as well as the whole genome single base resolution are also briefly discussed. Importantly, the challenges of DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging research are brought up, and the possible solutions to tackle these difficulties are put forward. PMID:26015403

  9. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  10. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  11. Portable Electronic Nose to Discriminate Artificial Aged Wine from Barrel-Aged Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. P.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.; Horrillo, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel portable electronic nose is presented as a fast tool to differentiate traditional aged wines from artificial aged wines. The instrument we have developed for testing the wines is a general purpose wireless portable electronic nose base on micromechanical tin oxide sensors. This system may discriminate among the wine samples obtained with the different aging methods.

  12. Aging mourning doves by outer primary wear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Blankenship, L.H.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    Many immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) cannot be aged by the conventional white-tipped primary covert method if molt has proceeded beyond the 7th primary. A new method of aging doves in this group is based on the presence (immature) or absence (adult) of a buff-colored fringe on the tips of the 9th and 10th primaries. Experienced biologists were nearly 100 percent accurate in aging wings of 100 known-age doves from eastern and midwestern states. The technique is not as reliable for doves from southwestern United States because of added feather wear, apparently from harsh vegetative and soil conditions.

  13. Bayesian calibration for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Luigi; Skrami, Edlira; Gesuita, Rosaria; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-05-10

    Forensic medicine is increasingly called upon to assess the age of individuals. Forensic age estimation is mostly required in relation to illegal immigration and identification of bodies or skeletal remains. A variety of age estimation methods are based on dental samples and use of regression models, where the age of an individual is predicted by morphological tooth changes that take place over time. From the medico-legal point of view, regression models, with age as the dependent random variable entail that age tends to be overestimated in the young and underestimated in the old. To overcome this bias, we describe a new full Bayesian calibration method (asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration) for forensic age estimation that uses asymmetric Laplace distribution as the probability model. The method was compared with three existing approaches (two Bayesian and a classical method) using simulated data. Although its accuracy was comparable with that of the other methods, the asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration appears to be significantly more reliable and robust in case of misspecification of the probability model. The proposed method was also applied to a real dataset of values of the pulp chamber of the right lower premolar measured on x-ray scans of individuals of known age. PMID:25645903

  14. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  15. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  16. The aging inmate.

    PubMed

    LaMere, S; Smyer, T; Gragert, M

    1996-04-01

    Aging inmates form a distinct cultural subgroup. The antecedents for their unique patterns and needs come from the life cycle of aging within the confines of a total institution. The inmate who ages in place will lack the common social markers experienced by his age cohorts in the outside world. The aging inmate faces challenges to his self-concept related to loss of family, employment, and sexual identity. His sense of autonomy is threatened by loss of self-selective behaviors, personal possessions, and privacy. Needs of the aging prison population will challenge traditional prison resources, including correctional nursing staff and mental health and counseling services. Substantive assistance for the inmate who has aged in prison must be accompanied by an awareness of the cumulative effects of living and aging within the unique sociocultural environment of the total institution. PMID:8778405

  17. Aging and Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the rapid aging of the American population and the changing age structure of society. Discusses the needs of older adults, the role of the family in providing support to older members, and issues of intergenerational relations. (NB)

  18. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  19. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  20. Aging changes in immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  1. Reverse age discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Zapperi, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    Brilliant scientists of all ages should be able to thrive at universities. Mandatory retirement is, therefore, a form of age discrimination, but its removal or postponement can come at a cost to younger faculty members, as observed in Italy.

  2. National Institute on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  3. Bone age assessment meets SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Jonas, Stephan; Haak, Daniel; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a method of determining the skeletal maturity and finding the growth disorder in the skeleton of a person. BAA is frequently used in pediatric medicine but also a time-consuming and cumbersome task for a radiologist. Conventionally, the Greulich and Pyle and the Tanner and Whitehouse methods are used for bone age assessment, which are based on visual comparison of left hand radiographs with a standard atlas. We present a novel approach for automated bone age assessment, combining scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In this approach, (i) data is grouped into 30 classes to represent the age range of 0- 18 years, (ii) 14 epiphyseal ROIs are extracted from left hand radiographs, (iii) multi-level image thresholding, using Otsu method, is applied to specify key points on bone and osseous tissues of eROIs, (iv) SIFT features are extracted for specified key points for each eROI of hand radiograph, and (v) classification is performed using a multi-class extension of SVM. A total of 1101 radiographs of University of Southern California are used in training and testing phases using 5- fold cross-validation. Evaluation is performed for two age ranges (0-18 years and 2-17 years) for comparison with previous work and the commercial product BoneXpert, respectively. Results were improved significantly, where the mean errors of 0.67 years and 0.68 years for the age ranges 0-18 years and 2-17 years, respectively, were obtained. Accuracy of 98.09 %, within the range of two years was achieved.

  4. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  5. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  6. [Aging and free radicals].

    PubMed

    Manso, C

    1992-02-01

    Several theories on aging are presented. All of them give important contributions but none explains all the aspects of the problem. Oxygen radicals produced during cellular combustion contribute to aging through multiple cumulative microlesions throughout life. The importance of glucose is emphasized; it forms early and late Maillard compounds. Other causes of aging are discussed. PMID:1595373

  7. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  8. Focus on Aging.

    PubMed

    2016-06-14

    As a preview of the upcoming Cell Symposium on Aging and Metabolism in Sitges, Spain, July 10-12 (http://www.cell-symposia-aging-metabolism.com), several of our speakers and other leaders in the field share their stimulating viewpoints and theories on the complex topic of aging. PMID:27304491

  9. Resources for Aging Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Lorraine A.

    Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…

  10. Physiological Aging and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne

    This paper explores the nature of the aging process by providing an overview of the available evidence relating to the body systems that are most critical to biological function. Each system is treated separately to more clearly describe various aspects of the aging process and then integrated in a discussion of the theories of biological aging.…

  11. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  12. The School Age Criminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert

    School age crime has increased a great deal in recent decades and a review of types of school age criminals may help school officials develop policies and programs to handle the problem. Both increased crime and improved news coverage have made the general public more concerned about school crime and school age criminals. A comparison of crime…

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shiogai, Y.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time–frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  14. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843

  15. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  16. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  17. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  18. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  19. Aging and Vision.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves defined genetic, biochemical and cellular pathways that regulate lifespan. These pathways are called longevity pathways and they have relevance for many age-related diseases. In the eye, longevity pathways are involved in the major blinding diseases, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Pharmaceutical targeting of longevity pathways can extend healthy lifespan in laboratory model systems. This offers the possibility of therapeutic interventions to also delay onset or slow the progression of age-related eye diseases. I suggest that retinal degeneration may be viewed as accelerated aging of photoreceptors and that interventions extending healthy lifespan may also slow the pace of photoreceptor loss. PMID:26427437

  20. Update on terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

    2000-01-14

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial ages were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial age is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial ages by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the exposure age, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl/{sup 26}Al to derive a terrestrial age less dependent on the exposure age. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial ages of meteorites from different ice-fields.

  1. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  2. Facial Psoriasis Log-based Area and Severity Index: A valid and reliable severity measurement method detecting improvement of facial psoriasis in clinical practice settings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Bae, You In; Kuk, Su Kyung; Suh, Dae Hun; Youn, Jai Il; Kwon, In Ho

    2016-08-01

    Facial psoriasis is often observed in moderate to severe degrees of psoriasis. While we previously demonstrated construct validity of the facial Psoriasis Log-based Area and Severity Index (fPLASI) system for the cross-sectional evaluation of facial psoriasis, its reliability and accuracy to detect clinical improvement has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study is to analyze whether the fPLASI properly represents the range of improvement for facial psoriasis compared with the existing facial Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (fPASI) after receiving systemic treatments in clinical practice settings. The changing severity of facial psoriasis for 118 patients was calculated by the scales of fPASI and fPLASI between two time points after systemic treatments. Then, percentage changes (ΔfPASI and ΔfPLASI) were analyzed from the perspective of both the Physician's Global Assessment of effectiveness (PGA) and patients' Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). As a result, the distribution of the fPASI was more heavily clustered around the low score range compared with the fPLASI at both first and second visits. Linear regression analysis between ΔfPASI and ΔfPLASI shows that the correlation coefficient was 0.94, and ΔfPLASI represented greater percentage changes than ΔfPASI. Remarkably, degrees of clinical improvement measured by the PGA matched better with ΔfPLASI, while ΔfPASI underestimated clinical improvements compared with ΔfPLASI from treatment-responding groups by the PGA and SGA. In conclusion, the fPLASI represented clinical improvement of facial psoriasis with more sensitivity and reliability compared with the fPASI. Therefore, the PLASI system would be a viable severity measurement method for facial psoriasis in clinical practice. PMID:26992293

  3. Aging and Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Chandra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccination is less effective at old than at young age, due to T cell unresponsiveness. This is caused by age-related changes of the immune system. Major immune defects at older age are lack of naïve T cells, impaired activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Also innate immune responses are affected by aging, but this seems less abundant than adaptive immune responses. In this review we compared various cancer vaccine studies at young and old age, demonstrating the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, we found suggestive evidence that innate immune responses could help improve adaptive immune responses through cancer vaccination in old age. PMID:24579737

  4. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  5. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Schminkey, Donna; Comstock, Emily; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects an estimated 1.5 million U.S. women annually. IPV impacts maternal and neonatal health with higher rates of depression and low birth weight (LBW). Less studied is experiencing IPV and delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) baby. SGA neonates are at increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. The negative sequelae persist into adulthood with increased rates of diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Methods: In a sample of 239 pregnant women experiencing IPV, in urban and rural settings, we examined cross-sectional associations of severity of IPV and neonatal outcomes (i.e., birth weight and gestational age). Severity of IPV was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 and neonatal outcomes were collected at the time of delivery. Results: Outcomes were collected on 194 neonates; 14.9% (n=29) were classified as LBW, 19.1% (n=37) classified as SGA, and 9.8% (n=19) as LBW and SGA. Women reporting higher severity of IPV during pregnancy had a greater likelihood of delivering an SGA neonate (odds ratio [OR] 4.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.86–12.47), and LBW neonate (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.46–12.10). Conclusions: In a sample of pregnant women experiencing perinatal IPV, women experiencing greater severities of IPV were more likely to deliver a neonate with an adverse outcome. Early recognition and intervention of IPV is essential to reduce disparities in birth outcomes and long-term health outcomes for these neonates. PMID:25290007

  6. Epigenetic estimation of age in humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Polanowski, Andrea M; Robbins, Jooke; Chandler, David; Jarman, Simon N

    2014-09-01

    Age is a fundamental aspect of animal ecology, but is difficult to determine in many species. Humpback whales exemplify this as they have a lifespan comparable to humans, mature sexually as early as 4 years and have no reliable visual age indicators after their first year. Current methods for estimating humpback age cannot be applied to all individuals and populations. Assays for human age have recently been developed based on age-induced changes in DNA methylation of specific genes. We used information on age-associated DNA methylation in human and mouse genes to identify homologous gene regions in humpbacks. Humpback skin samples were obtained from individuals with a known year of birth and employed to calibrate relationships between cytosine methylation and age. Seven of 37 cytosines assayed for methylation level in humpback skin had significant age-related profiles. The three most age-informative cytosine markers were selected for a humpback epigenetic age assay. The assay has an R(2) of 0.787 (P = 3.04e-16) and predicts age from skin samples with a standard deviation of 2.991 years. The epigenetic method correctly determined which of parent-offspring pairs is the parent in more than 93% of cases. To demonstrate the potential of this technique, we constructed the first modern age profile of humpback whales off eastern Australia and compared the results to population structure 5 decades earlier. This is the first epigenetic age estimation method for a wild animal species and the approach we took for developing it can be applied to many other nonmodel organisms. PMID:24606053

  7. Neutrinos and the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symbalisty, E. M. D.; Yang, J.; Schramm, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    The age of the universe should be calculable by independent methods with similar results. Previous calculations using nucleochronometers, globular clusters and dynamical measurements coupled with Friedmann models and nucleosynthesis constraints have given different values of the age. A consistent age is reported, whose implications for the constituent mass density are very interesting and are affected by the existence of a third neutrino flavor, and by allowing the possibility that neutrinos may have a non-zero rest mass.

  8. New Maps: Creating a Personal Plan for Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Penelope Barnes; Mullin, Virginia Speltz

    This document provides a theory on successful aging and describes a workshop method devised to inspire middle-aged and older adults to meet and embrace the challenge of growing older. A five-stage model is proposed, based on the assumptions that aging adults need not be victims of the various scenarios of aging that exist in American culture and…

  9. At What Age Should Children Engage in Agricultural Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jingzhen; O'Gara, Erin; Cheng, Gang; Kelly, Kevin M.; Ramirez, Marizen; Burmeister, Leon F.; Merchant, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared parents' perceived-as-appropriate ages with actual-performance ages for their children engaging in selected agricultural tasks or practices, and we examined the factors associated with age discrepancy. Methods: We analyzed data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study collected among parents of children age 17 or younger.…

  10. Utilization of bone impedance for age estimation in postmortem cases.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Noboru; Suganami, Hideki; Nishida, Atsushi; Miyamori, Daisuke; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Naotake; Wook-Cheol, Kim; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    In the field of Forensic Medicine the number of unidentified cadavers has increased due to natural disasters and international terrorism. The age estimation is very important for identification of the victims. The degree of sagittal closure is one of such age estimation methods. However it is not widely accepted as a reliable method for age estimation. In this study, we have examined whether measuring impedance value (z-values) of the sagittal suture of the skull is related to the age in men and women and discussed the possibility to use bone impedance for age estimation. Bone impedance values increased with aging and decreased after the age of 64.5. Then we compared age estimation through the conventional visual method and the proposed bone impedance measurement technique. It is suggested that the bone impedance measuring technique may be of value to forensic science as a method of age estimation. PMID:26421720

  11. Destructive versus non-destructive methods for geochemical analyses of ceramic artifacts: comparison of portable XRF and ICP-MS data on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Ashkanani, Hasan; Tykot, Robert H.

    2013-04-01

    The study of bi-phase (i.e. matrix and clasts) geochemical composition of ceramic artifacts is a very powerful tool in fingerprinting the raw materials used by ancient manufacturers (clay sources, tempering materials, coloring agents, etc.), as well as in understanding the physical parameters of the manufacturing techniques. Reliable datasets often require the deployment of destructive techniques that will irremediably damage the artifact. Recent advances in portable X-ray fluorescence instrumentation (pXRF) allow for quick measurements of a range of chemical elements that not too long ago were available only through complicated and often destructive means of analytical chemistry (instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - ICP-MS, direct coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy - DCP-OES etc.). In this contribution we present a comparison of datasets acquired by means of pXRF, DCP-OES, and ICP-MS on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain. The samples chosen for this study are fine grained, with very well sorted mineral components, and lack any visible organic material fragments. The sample preparation for ICP-MS and DCP-OES analyses was carried out on powdered samples, by using LiBO2 flux fusion and Ge (for the DCP-OES) and In (for ICP-MS) were used as internal standards. The measurements were calibrated against certified reference materials ranging from shales to rhyolites (SGR-1, SDo-1, JA-2, and JR-1) and performed at Univerity of South Florida's Center for Geochemical Analyses. The analytical errors for major elements was smaller than 5 %, while for selected trace elements the error was usually smaller than 3 %. The same set of elements was measured on the same samples at University of South Florida's Anthropology Department using a pXRF device equipped with obsidian filter. Each sample was measured three times and the values were averaged. Two certified reference materials (NIST-612

  12. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  13. Birth weight- and fetal weight-growth restriction: impact on neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Streimish, Iris G.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl C.K.; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The newborn classified as growth-restricted on birth weight curves, but not on fetal weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Aims To see (1) to what extent the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months corrected age differed among three groups of infants (those identified as SGA based on birth weight curves (B-SGA), those identified as SGA based on fetal weight curves only (F-SGA), and the referent group of infants considered AGA, (2) if girls and boys were equally affected by growth restriction, and (3) to what extent neurosensory limitations influenced what we found. Study design Observational cohort of births before the 28 week of gestation. Outcome measures: Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Results B-SGA, but not F-SGA girls were at an increased risk of a PDI < 70 (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) compared to AGA girls. B-SGA and F-SGA boys were not at greater risk of low developmental indices than AGA boys. Neurosensory limitations diminished associations among girls of B-SGA with low MDI, and among boys B-SGA and F-SGA with PDI < 70. Conclusions Only girls with the most severe growth restriction were at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 24 months corrected age in the total sample. Neurosensory limitations appear to interfere with assessing growth restriction effects in both girls and boys born preterm. PMID:22732241

  14. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  15. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  16. Terrestrial Ages of Antarctic Meteorites- Update 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Welten, K. C.; Caffee, Marc W.

    1999-01-01

    We are continuing our ongoing study of cosmogenic nuclides in Antarctic meteorites. In addition to the studies of exposure histories of meteorites, we study terrestrial ages and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and desert meteorites. Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites provide information on meteorite accumulation mechanisms, mean weathering lifetimes, and influx rates. The determination of Cl-36(half-life=3.01 x 10(exp 5) y) terrestrial ages is one of our long-term on-going projects, however, in many instances neither Cl-36 or C-14 (5,730 y) yields an accurate terrestrial age. Using Ca-14 (1.04 x 10(exp 5) y) for terrestrial age determinations solves this problem by filling the c,ap in half-life between 14-C and Cl-36 ages. We are now applying the new Ca-41- Cl-36 terrestrial age method as well as the Cl-36-Be-10 method to Antarctic meteorites. Our measurements and C-14 terrestrial age determinations by the University of Arizona group are always complementary. We have measured Cl-36 in over 270 Antarctic meteorites since our previous compilation of terrestrial ages. Since a large number of meteorites have been recovered from many different icefields in Antarctica, we continue to survey the trends of terrestrial ages for different icefields. We have also measured detailed terrestrial ages vs. sample locations for Allan Hills, Elephant Moraine, and Lewis Cliff Icefields, where meteorites have been found with very long ages. The updated histograms of terrestrial ages of meteorites from the Allan Hills Main Icefield and Lewis Cliff Icefield are shown. These figures include C-14 ages obtained by the University of Arizona group. Pairs of meteorites are shown as one object for which the age is the average of all members of the same fall. The width of the bars represents 70,000 years, which was a typical uncertainty for Cl-36 ages. We reduced the uncertainty of terrestrial age determinations to approx. 40,000 years by using pairs of nuclides such as Ca-41-Cl-36 or Cl

  17. The essence of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vijg, Jan; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that aging is a purposeful, programmed series of events is intuitively appealing based on its many conserved aspects and the demonstrated feasibility of modifying life span by manipulating single genes or pathways. Yet, the case for a non-adaptive basis of aging is strong and now all but generally accepted in the field. Here, we briefly review why the case for programmed aging is weak, with a focus on the lack of possible evolutionary beneficial effects. PMID:26389968

  18. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  19. Fireset materials aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.; Arnold, C.; Bailey, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    A thermally-accelerated aging study of 10 selected organic materials used in a fireset has been conducted. The study included both quantitative and qualitative gas analyses as well as the measurement of physical properties before and after accelerated aging. The test plan involved single material aging, as well as pairs and larger groups to look for synergistic interactions. The material types tested were epoxies, polyurethanes, polysulfides, silicones, phenolics, polyolefins, and diallyl phthalates. Only two of the materials tested showed evidence of degradation as a result of aging.

  20. Immigration and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D T

    1986-05-01

    "This paper aims to provide an overview of immigration and ageing, and to highlight some implications of the numbers and characteristics of the immigrant elderly for the development of policies for aged care [in Australia]. Particular attention is given to the issues of demographic ageing, family support and institutionalisation." The author uses data from recent official and other published sources to examine the elderly immigrant population by birthplace and racial origin, sex, proportion institutionalized, and proportion handicapped. It is found that "insufficient recognition of the widespread lack of fluency in English among the ethnic minority aged is the greatest obstacle to achieving adequate provision for their needs." PMID:12268076

  1. [Depression and aging].

    PubMed

    Léger, J M; Clément, J P

    1992-09-01

    Old age is a qualitative state during which depression frequently occurs. This illness presents particular features which should be considered in the course of both normal ageing and senility. Viewed as an existential crisis, ageing may be considered as a depression promoting factor. Rich in depression promoting factors, this period of life is a sequence of crises which result in reorganizations heavily dependent on the adaptive capabilities of the aged person. During ageing, depression exhibits particular features that one should be able to recognize and distinguish from the consequences of deficits that are the normal adjuncts of the ageing process. The same is true of alterations occurring in the cognitive sphere and which might result from demential alteration. During ageing, depression should be identified among the other decompensation patterns occurring in the aged patient by viewing the situation in terms of overhelmed mechanisms. Depression exhibits a pattern whereby it relates closely with the risk of dementia. Therapeutic management should take into account such a perspective, that one might call transnosographic, when considering the depressiveness of aged patients as a high-risk situation requiring long-term follow-up of their biological, psychodynamic, social and cognitive functions. PMID:1308847

  2. Stem cell aging

    PubMed Central

    Muller-Sieburg, Christa; Sieburg, Hans B.

    2009-01-01

    The question whether stem cells age remains an enigma. Traditionally, aging was thought to change the properties of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We discuss here a new model of stem cell aging that challenges this view. It is now well-established that the HSC compartment is heterogeneous, consisting of epigenetically fixed subpopulations of HSC that differ in self-renewal and differentiation capacity. New data show that the representation of these HSC subsets changes during aging. HSC that generate lymphocyte-rich progeny are depleted, while myeloid-biased HSC are enriched in the aged HSC compartment. Myeloid-biased HSC, even when isolated from young donors, have most of the characteristics that had been attributed to aged HSC. Thus, the distinct behavior of the HSC isolated from aged hosts is due to the accumulation of myeloid-biased HSC. By extension this means that the properties of individual HSC are not substantially changed during the lifespan of the organism and that aged hosts do not contain many aged HSC. Myeloid-biased HSC give rise to mature cells slowly but contribute for a long time to peripheral hematopoiesis. We propose that such slow, “lazy” HSC are less likely to be transformed and therefore may safely sustain hematopoiesis for a long time. PMID:19066464

  3. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  4. We Are Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa D.; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses. This review is an attempt to analyze the mechanisms and theories of ageing and achieving longevity. PMID:25045704

  5. Inference from aging information.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evaldo Araujo; Caticha, Nestor

    2010-06-01

    For many learning tasks the duration of the data collection can be greater than the time scale for changes of the underlying data distribution. The question we ask is how to include the information that data are aging. Ad hoc methods to achieve this include the use of validity windows that prevent the learning machine from making inferences based on old data. This introduces the problem of how to define the size of validity windows. In this brief, a new adaptive Bayesian inspired algorithm is presented for learning drifting concepts. It uses the analogy of validity windows in an adaptive Bayesian way to incorporate changes in the data distribution over time. We apply a theoretical approach based on information geometry to the classification problem and measure its performance in simulations. The uncertainty about the appropriate size of the memory windows is dealt with in a Bayesian manner by integrating over the distribution of the adaptive window size. Thus, the posterior distribution of the weights may develop algebraic tails. The learning algorithm results from tracking the mean and variance of the posterior distribution of the weights. It was found that the algebraic tails of this posterior distribution give the learning algorithm the ability to cope with an evolving environment by permitting the escape from local traps. PMID:20421181

  6. Viscoelastic and aging characteristics of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, W W

    1984-04-01

    This paper concerns the time dependent mechanical properties for incompressible polymer-like materials subjected to finite deformations. There are two parts: the viscoelastic effects and the aging characteristics. A method for determining these mechanical properties is presented in detail.

  7. The Age-of-the-Earth-Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badash, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Earth's age calculation including the work of Archbishop Ussher, James Hutton, Lord Kelvin, Ernest Rutherford, Bertram Boltwood, and Arthur Holmes. Describes the changes in radioisotope dating methods. (YP)

  8. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b) For families and children, the agency must use the popular usage method (under which an age is reached... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section...

  9. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  10. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  11. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  12. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  13. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  14. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

  15. Cable aging phenomena under accelerated aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E.; Alsammarae, A.

    1996-06-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the impact of accelerated (temperature and radiation) aging on the insulation of power cables. The intent was to develop a more realistic model for cable degradation mechanisms, and a more realistic technique for determining a cable`s qualified life. Samples of new cables and samples of cables obtained from an operating plant were subjected to a series of tests. The test showed that the order of imposing the harsh conditions, the presence of oxygen, and the use of a compressive measurement technique each had a significant impact on the results. This paper discusses the test methodology and test samples, the order of imposing artificial aging, and the results. Also presented are issues planned to be addressed in future testing.

  16. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  17. New Dimensions on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ollie

    This brief presentation discusses various problems older adults face. First, older adults are described, and old age is defined. Old age starts after 50, and older adults should not be considered as a homogeneous group; thay fall into many different categories which enrich rather than impoverish them as a group. The long experience they have had…

  18. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  19. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  20. Blueberries and neuronal aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the population of people in the United States over the age of 65 years continues to increase, so too will the incidence of age-related pathologies, including decreases in cognitive and motor function. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care ...