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Sample records for age significantly predicted

  1. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  2. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  3. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes.

  4. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen, and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  5. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  6. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

  7. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance

    PubMed Central

    D’Lima, Darryl D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  8. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  9. Predictive intervals for age-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Keilman, N; Pham, D Q

    2000-03-01

    A multivariate ARIMA model is combined with a Gamma curve to predict confidence intervals for age-specific birth rates by 1-year age groups. The method is applied to observed age-specific births in Norway between 1900 and 1995, and predictive intervals are computed for each year up to 2050. The predicted two-thirds confidence intervals for Total Fertility (TF) around 2010 agree well with TF errors in old population forecasts made by Statistics Norway. The method gives useful predictions for age-specific fertility up to the years 2020-30. For later years, the intervals become too wide. Methods that do not take into account estimation errors in the ARIMA model coefficients underestimate the uncertainty for future TF values. The findings suggest that the margin between high and low fertility variants in official population forecasts for many Western countries are too narrow. PMID:12158991

  10. Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, Stefan I.

    2015-01-01

    It becomes clearer and clearer that aging is a result of a significant number of causes and it would seem that counteracting one or several of them should not make a significant difference. Taken at face value, this suggests, for example, that free radicals and reactive oxygen species do not play a significant role in aging and that the lifespan of organisms cannot be significantly extended. In this review, I point to the fact that the causes of aging synergize with each other and discuss the implications involved. One implication is that when two or more synergizing causes increase over time, the result of their action increases dramatically; I discuss a simple model demonstrating this. It is reasonable to conclude that this might explain the acceleration of aging and mortality with age. In this regard, the analysis of results and mortality patterns described in studies involving yeasts and Drosophila provides support for this view. Since the causes of aging are synergizing, it is also concluded that none of them is the major one but many including free radicals, etc. play significant roles. It follows that health/lifespan might be significantly extended if we eliminate or even attenuate the increase of a few or even just one of the causes of aging. While the synergism between the causes of aging is the main topic of this review, several related matters are briefly discussed as well. PMID:26783959

  11. PETN Coarsening - Predictions from Accelerated Aging Data

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Amitesh; Gee, Richard H.

    2011-03-30

    Ensuring good ignition properties over long periods of time necessitates maintaining a good level of porosity in powders of initiator materials and preventing particle coarsening. To simulate porosity changes of such powder materials over long periods of time a common strategy is to perform accelerated aging experiments over shorter time spans at elevated temperatures. In this paper we examine historical accelerated-aging data on powders of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), an important energetic material, and make predictions for long-term aging under ambient conditions. Lastly, we develop an evaporation-condensation- based model to provide some mechanistic understanding of the coarsening process.

  12. A metabolic signature predicts biological age in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomás-Loba, Antonia; de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Mato, Jose M.; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the sera metabolite profile of 117 wild-type mice of different genetic backgrounds ranging from 8-129 weeks of age. This has allowed us to define a robust metabolomic signature and a derived metabolomic score that reliably/accurately predicts the age of wild-type mice. In the case of telomerase-deficient mice, which have a shortened lifespan, their metabolomic score predicts older ages than expected. Conversely, in the case of mice that over-express telomerase, their metabolic score corresponded to younger ages than expected. Importantly, telomerase reactivation late in life by using a TERT based gene therapy recently described by us, significantly reverted the metabolic profile of old mice to that of younger mice, further confirming an anti-aging role for telomerase. Thus, the metabolomic signature associated to natural mouse aging accurately predicts aging produced by telomere shortening, suggesting that natural mouse aging is in part produced by presence of short telomeres. These results indicate that the metabolomic signature is associated to the biological age rather than to the chronological age. This constitutes one of the first aging-associated metabolomic signatures in a mammalian organism. PMID:23107558

  13. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  14. Predictive aging results in radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.

    1993-06-01

    We have previously derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict polymer degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in predictive capabilities at the low dose rates and long time periods appropriate, for instance, to ambient nuclear power plant environments. The methodology was successfully applied to several polymeric cable materials and then verified for two of the materials by comparisons of the model predictions with 12 year, low-dose-rate aging data on these materials from a nuclear environment. In this paper, we provide a more detailed discussion of the methodology and apply it to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicone rubber and two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7-9 year) low-dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under bnuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following "generic" materials: hypalon, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such "generic" behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated.

  15. Does the Aging Process Significantly Modify the Mean Heart Rate?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. Objective To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. Methods A total of 1,172 patients aged ≥ 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = ≥ 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value <0.05 was considered significant (95% CI). Results The MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p < 0.001). Women showed a correlation with higher MHR (p <0.001). In the ANOVA and regression models, age and gender were predictors (p < 0.001). However, R2 and ETA2 < 0.10, as well as discrete standardized beta coefficients indicated reduced effect. Dyslipidemia, hypertension and DM did not influence the findings. Conclusion The MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results. PMID:24029962

  16. [False memories and aging: age effects on predictive inferences].

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2008-12-01

    To study false memories in older adults, a lot of experiments used the DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger et McDermott). Most of the time, the results showed that older adults make more false memories than young adults. To test this hypothesis with a more ecological material, we used a situation of text reading. When we read a text, we activate predictive inferences, which are anticipations of what will happen next. We constructed short texts inducing predictive inferences (represented by a target word not presented) to study false memories in young and older adults. For example, in the text , the target word "sting" is not presented but represents the predictive inference. After the reading of the texts, we propose to the subjects a restitution task consisting in recalling texts with the first sentence as clue. Then, they made a recognition task composed of target words and lures; they had to say if they remembered having read these words in the texts. In these two tasks, the subjects tended to remember not presented target words, creating false memories. This effect was the same for the two age groups showing that, in an ecological situation like text reading, older persons make as many false memories as young adults. PMID:19087911

  17. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    PubMed

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  18. Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason A; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M; Edwards, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  19. Space shuttle nonmetallic materials age life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. D.; Hassell, J. A.; Nathan, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The chemiluminescence from samples of polybutadiene, Viton, Teflon, Silicone, PL 731 Adhesive, and SP 296 Boron-Epoxy composite was measured at temperatures from 25 to 150 C. Excellent correlations were obtained between chemiluminescence and temperature. These correlations serve to validate accelerated aging tests (at elevated temperatures) designed to predict service life at lower temperatures. In most cases, smooth or linear correlations were obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums, including the tensile strength, viscosity, and loss tangent. The latter is a complex function of certain polymer properties. Data were obtained with far greater ease by the chemiluminescence technique than by the conventional methods of study. The chemiluminescence from the Teflon (Halon) samples was discovered to arise from trace amounts of impurities, which were undetectable by conventional, destructive analysis of the sample.

  20. Disease-aging network reveals significant roles of aging genes in connecting genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiguang; Zhang, Shihua; Wang, Yong; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2009-09-01

    One of the challenging problems in biology and medicine is exploring the underlying mechanisms of genetic diseases. Recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic diseases and the aging process is important in understanding the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases. Although some intricate associations have been investigated for a long time, the studies are still in their early stages. In this paper, we construct a human disease-aging network to study the relationship among aging genes and genetic disease genes. Specifically, we integrate human protein-protein interactions (PPIs), disease-gene associations, aging-gene associations, and physiological system-based genetic disease classification information in a single graph-theoretic framework and find that (1) human disease genes are much closer to aging genes than expected by chance; and (2) diseases can be categorized into two types according to their relationships with aging. Type I diseases have their genes significantly close to aging genes, while type II diseases do not. Furthermore, we examine the topological characters of the disease-aging network from a systems perspective. Theoretical results reveal that the genes of type I diseases are in a central position of a PPI network while type II are not; (3) more importantly, we define an asymmetric closeness based on the PPI network to describe relationships between diseases, and find that aging genes make a significant contribution to associations among diseases, especially among type I diseases. In conclusion, the network-based study provides not only evidence for the intricate relationship between the aging process and genetic diseases, but also biological implications for prying into the nature of human diseases.

  1. Formalized prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer: is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Carvell T; Kattan, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Greater understanding of the biology and epidemiology of prostate cancer in the last several decades have led to significant advances in its management. Prostate cancer is now detected in greater numbers at lower stages of disease and is amenable to multiple forms of efficacious treatment. However, there is a lack of conclusive data demonstrating a definitive mortality benefit from this earlier diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is likely due to the treatment of a large proportion of indolent cancers that would have had little adverse impact on health or lifespan if left alone. Due to this overtreatment phenomenon, active surveillance with delayed intervention is gaining traction as a viable management approach in contemporary practice. The ability to distinguish clinically insignificant cancers from those with a high risk of progression and/or lethality is critical to the appropriate selection of patients for surveillance protocols versus immediate intervention. This chapter will review the ability of various prediction models, including risk groupings and nomograms, to predict indolent disease and determine their role in the contemporary management of clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:22367181

  2. Clinical and Predictive Significance of Hyponatremia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Javanović, Gordana; Stanisavljević, Snežana; Uvelin, Arsen; Vrsajkov, Jelena Panti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Hyponatremia after SAH was the object of several studies with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine a predictive correlation of hyponatremia with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor clinical outcome. Material and Methods: We have used a retrospective hospital chart review of 82 patients with SAH treated from August 2008 to August 2010. Patients were divided into hyponatremia and normonatremia groups. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium level <135 mmol/l. Information compared and analyzed included demographics, preoperative neurological status, aneurysm characteristics, postoperative intensive care, duration of stay, DCI and clinical outcome at hospital discharge. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Thirty-two patients with SAH (39%) developed hyponatremia. In that group we had a significantly higher WFNS score at admission (p=0.03) and longer duration of stay in intensive care (p=0.001). DCI with transit or definitive deficit included 20 patients (62%) in the hyponatremia group, and 19 patients (38%) in the normonatremia group (p=0.03). Binary enter logistic regression revealed a significant correlation of hyponatremia with DCI (p=0.03) and poor clinical outcome (p=0.001). Conclusion: This result revealed a possible use of hyponatremia as an additional predictor of developing DCI and poor clinical outcome. PMID:25207008

  3. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases.

  4. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  5. Novel regression equations predicting lung age from varied spirometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Omori, Hisamitsu; Onoue, Ayumi; Katoh, Takahiko; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Hidetoshi; Onizawa, Shigemitsu; Tsuji, Takao; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Nagai, Atsushi

    2012-08-15

    Although lung age calculated backward from regression formulas constructed for FEV(1) estimation is widely used, it possesses a couple of faults. We developed novel equations predicting lung age from varied spirometric parameters (spirometry-derived lung age (SDL-age)). Applying multiple regression analysis, equations predicting SDL-age were invented using data from 8015 never-smokers with normal spirometry (group I). Validation was made based on data from 6398 never-smokers with normal spirometry (group II). Equations were further applied for 446 subjects with airflow limitation. FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC, FEF(50), and PEF were selected as explanatory variables for reference value of SDL-age. Normal limits of difference between SDL-age and chronological-age were ± 13.4 years in the male and ± 15.0 years in the female. Established equations predicted SDL-age of group II. SDL-age was older than chronological-age only in subjects with severe airflow limitation. Novel regression equations allowing prediction of reference value of SDL-age and normal limits of difference between SDL-age and chronological-age were elaborated in both genders.

  6. Predicting School Readiness: The Validity of Developmental Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the predictive validity of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test with 84 kindergarten-age children found the procedure effective in predicting child success or failure in kindergarten and that within four-six years the chronological age of children entering kindergarten is unrelated to eventual success of failure in…

  7. Predicting Significant Reductions in Instructional Expenditures by School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Patrick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses survival analysis to investigate the symptoms of fiscal distress that can lead to significant reductions in instructional expenditures by independent public school districts in the United States. We hypothesize that the likelihood of significant reductions in instructional expenditures is positively correlated with revenue…

  8. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  9. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  10. Metabolic Youth in Middle Age: Predicting Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Bundy, Jacob G; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-11-01

    Many mutations and allelic variants are known that influence the rate at which animals age, but when in life do such variants diverge from normal patterns of aging? Is this divergence visible in their physiologies? To investigate these questions, we have used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to study how the metabolome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans changes as it grows older. We identify a series of metabolic changes that, collectively, predict the age of wild-type worms. We then show that long-lived mutant daf-2(m41) worms are metabolically youthful compared to wild-type worms, but that this relative youth only appears in middle age. Finally, we show that metabolic age predicts the timing and magnitude of differences in age-specific mortality between these strains. Thus, the future mortality of these two genotypes can be predicted long before most of the worms die.

  11. Metabolic Youth in Middle Age: Predicting Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Bundy, Jacob G; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-11-01

    Many mutations and allelic variants are known that influence the rate at which animals age, but when in life do such variants diverge from normal patterns of aging? Is this divergence visible in their physiologies? To investigate these questions, we have used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to study how the metabolome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans changes as it grows older. We identify a series of metabolic changes that, collectively, predict the age of wild-type worms. We then show that long-lived mutant daf-2(m41) worms are metabolically youthful compared to wild-type worms, but that this relative youth only appears in middle age. Finally, we show that metabolic age predicts the timing and magnitude of differences in age-specific mortality between these strains. Thus, the future mortality of these two genotypes can be predicted long before most of the worms die. PMID:26381038

  12. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  13. Approaches to Learning and Age in Predicting College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the approaches to learning and age are significantly correlated to grade point average (GPA) in early childhood education students. In addition, another purpose of this study is to determine whether approaches to learning and age predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The…

  14. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was expected to have more predictive power than focused attention. Data were drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Focused attention and lack of impulsivity, measured in a laboratory task at age 5, were equally predictive of attention problems at age 9, including the mother’s report of whether the child had been diagnosed with ADHD. However, age 9 teacher-reported hyperactivity was not predicted by focused attention, and only marginally predicted by lack of impulsivity. Results complement an earlier study showing that both focused attention and lack of impulsivity at age 5 predicted children’s approaches to learning at age 9 (Razza, Martin, & Brooks-Gunn, 2011). PMID:23226909

  15. DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: meta-analysis predicting time to death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Colicino, Elena; Peters, Marjolein J.; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Just, Allan C.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Bressler, Jan; Fornage, Myriam; Studenski, Stephanie; Vandiver, Amy R.; Moore, Ann Zenobia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liang, Liming; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena G.; Melzer, David; Nalls, Michael; Pilling, Luke C.; Price, Timothy R.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Gieger, Christian; Holle, Rolf; Kretschmer, Anja; Kronenberg, Florian; Kunze, Sonja; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christine; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Waldenberger, Melanie; Visscher, Peter M.; Shah, Sonia; Wray, Naomi R.; McRae, Allan F.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Tsao, Philip S.; Hou, Lifang; Manson, JoAnn E.; Carty, Cara L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Spector, Tim D.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Levy, Daniel; Baccarelli, Andrea; van Meurs, Joyce; Bell, Jordana T.; Peters, Annette; Deary, Ian J.; Pankow, James S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of biological age based on DNA methylation patterns, often referred to as “epigenetic age”, “DNAm age”, have been shown to be robust biomarkers of age in humans. We previously demonstrated that independent of chronological age, epigenetic age assessed in blood predicted all-cause mortality in four human cohorts. Here, we expanded our original observation to 13 different cohorts for a total sample size of 13,089 individuals, including three racial/ethnic groups. In addition, we examined whether incorporating information on blood cell composition into the epigenetic age metrics improves their predictive power for mortality. All considered measures of epigenetic age acceleration were predictive of mortality (p≤8.2×10−9), independent of chronological age, even after adjusting for additional risk factors (p<5.4×10−4), and within the racial/ethnic groups that we examined (non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African Americans). Epigenetic age estimates that incorporated information on blood cell composition led to the smallest p-values for time to death (p=7.5×10−43). Overall, this study a) strengthens the evidence that epigenetic age predicts all-cause mortality above and beyond chronological age and traditional risk factors, and b) demonstrates that epigenetic age estimates that incorporate information on blood cell counts lead to highly significant associations with all-cause mortality. PMID:27690265

  16. Ultra-weak photon emission of hands in aging prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; van Wijk, Eduard; Yan, Yu; van Wijk, Roeland; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Aging has been one of the several topics intensely investigated during recent decades. More scientists have been scrutinizing mechanisms behind the human aging process. Ultra-weak photon emission is known as one type of spontaneous photon emission that can be detected with a highly sensitive single photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT) from the surface of human bodies. It may reflect the body's oxidative damage. Our aim was to examine whether ultra-weak photon emission from a human hand is able to predict one's chronological age. Sixty subjects were recruited and grouped by age. We examined four areas of each hand: palm side of fingers, palm side of hand, dorsum side of fingers, and dorsum side of hand. Left and right hand were measured synchronously with two independent PMTs. Mean strength and Fano factor values of photon counts were utilized to compare the UPE patterns of males and females of different age groups. Subsequently, we utilized UPE data from the most sensitive PMT to develop an age prediction model. We randomly picked 49 subjects to construct the model, whereas the remaining 11 subjects were utilized for validation. The results demonstrated that the model was a good regression compared to the observed values (Pearson's r=0.6, adjusted R square=0.4, p=9.4E-7, accuracy=49/60). Further analysis revealed that the average difference between the chronological age and predicted age was only 7.6±0.8years. It was concluded that this fast and non-invasive photon technology is sufficiently promising to be developed for the estimation of biological aging. PMID:27472904

  17. Ultra-weak photon emission of hands in aging prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; van Wijk, Eduard; Yan, Yu; van Wijk, Roeland; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Aging has been one of the several topics intensely investigated during recent decades. More scientists have been scrutinizing mechanisms behind the human aging process. Ultra-weak photon emission is known as one type of spontaneous photon emission that can be detected with a highly sensitive single photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT) from the surface of human bodies. It may reflect the body's oxidative damage. Our aim was to examine whether ultra-weak photon emission from a human hand is able to predict one's chronological age. Sixty subjects were recruited and grouped by age. We examined four areas of each hand: palm side of fingers, palm side of hand, dorsum side of fingers, and dorsum side of hand. Left and right hand were measured synchronously with two independent PMTs. Mean strength and Fano factor values of photon counts were utilized to compare the UPE patterns of males and females of different age groups. Subsequently, we utilized UPE data from the most sensitive PMT to develop an age prediction model. We randomly picked 49 subjects to construct the model, whereas the remaining 11 subjects were utilized for validation. The results demonstrated that the model was a good regression compared to the observed values (Pearson's r=0.6, adjusted R square=0.4, p=9.4E-7, accuracy=49/60). Further analysis revealed that the average difference between the chronological age and predicted age was only 7.6±0.8years. It was concluded that this fast and non-invasive photon technology is sufficiently promising to be developed for the estimation of biological aging.

  18. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  19. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  20. Lifetime prediction from only present age: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledford, Anthony; Marriott, Paul; Crowder, Martin

    2001-03-01

    We focus on the widely used method of J.R. Gott III for predicting future lifetime using only present age as confusion still reigns about whether it is justified. We provide a focused and precise examination of the method so that its validity or otherwise may be established unambiguously.

  1. Prediction of Clinically Significant Leg-Length Discrepancy in Congenital Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Kadono, Izumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitamura, Akiko; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 to 2.5 cm can potentially have an adverse effect on our walking and standing mechanisms and requires proper correction involving surgical treatment. However, for minor leg-length discrepancy in childhood, decision making for the indications for and timing of epiphysiodesis is difficult because of unpredictable final discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes of minor leg-length discrepancy in congenital disorders and to determine earlier predictive values for the clinically significant discrepancy. Twenty-one patients with congenital disorders who had minor leg-length discrepancy less than 2 cm at the first presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to leg-length discrepancy at latest follow-up: the significant group (n=11) had 25 mm or more of leg-length discrepancy and the minor group (n=10) had less than 25 mm of leg-length discrepancy. The authors evaluated longitudinal changes of leg-length discrepancy within the first 10 years by mixed-effects regression model. All patients showed monotonically increasing leg-length discrepancy with age, except for 2 (neurofibromatosis type 1 and macrodactyly of the foot) who demonstrated fluctuating leg-length discrepancy. Mean annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the significant group was 2.1 mm across the first decade of life and was significantly larger than that in the minor group (difference in slope, 1.3 mm; P<.0001). In minor leg-length discrepancy associated with congenital disorders, the incidence of clinically significant leg-length discrepancy can be predictable by the annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the first decade of life. PMID:26488788

  2. Prediction of Clinically Significant Leg-Length Discrepancy in Congenital Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Kadono, Izumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitamura, Akiko; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 to 2.5 cm can potentially have an adverse effect on our walking and standing mechanisms and requires proper correction involving surgical treatment. However, for minor leg-length discrepancy in childhood, decision making for the indications for and timing of epiphysiodesis is difficult because of unpredictable final discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes of minor leg-length discrepancy in congenital disorders and to determine earlier predictive values for the clinically significant discrepancy. Twenty-one patients with congenital disorders who had minor leg-length discrepancy less than 2 cm at the first presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to leg-length discrepancy at latest follow-up: the significant group (n=11) had 25 mm or more of leg-length discrepancy and the minor group (n=10) had less than 25 mm of leg-length discrepancy. The authors evaluated longitudinal changes of leg-length discrepancy within the first 10 years by mixed-effects regression model. All patients showed monotonically increasing leg-length discrepancy with age, except for 2 (neurofibromatosis type 1 and macrodactyly of the foot) who demonstrated fluctuating leg-length discrepancy. Mean annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the significant group was 2.1 mm across the first decade of life and was significantly larger than that in the minor group (difference in slope, 1.3 mm; P<.0001). In minor leg-length discrepancy associated with congenital disorders, the incidence of clinically significant leg-length discrepancy can be predictable by the annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the first decade of life.

  3. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  4. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  5. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  6. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively.

  7. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively. PMID:27428567

  8. Culture, age and gender: effects on quality of predicted self and colleague reactions.

    PubMed

    Greipp, M E

    1996-02-01

    Ethnocentrism on the part of health care workers has been documented in the literature and has led to misdiagnosis, mistreatment and undertreatment of culturally diverse individuals worldwide. Aversive Insidious Racism and Ingroup Favoritism theories were used as the guiding framework for this study. Two hundred and sixty-eight female nurses from a large, urban, multi-service hospital in the United States were surveyed to identify those psychosocial variables (age, gender and culture status of the client) which enhanced and/or inhibited their predicted reactions with clients and which have the power to contribute to unethical decision making and less than ethical client care. The findings of this study, which is the first to examine nurses' predicted self and colleague reactions to multiple client variables concurrently, demonstrated that Client Gender as a main effect was not significant in itself when examining self and colleague predictions. Client Age as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.006, and for colleague predictions, p < 0.000. Client Culture as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.001 and for colleague predictions, p < 0.001. Many two-way and three-way interaction effects were significant. Subjects consistently predicted more favorable self reactions than colleague reactions, supporting Aversive Insidious Racism theory. Study findings did not consistently support Ingroup Favoritism theory. Subjects did not predict most favorable reactions with Caucasian female clients.

  9. Development of a forensically useful age prediction method based on DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Żanetta; Pałeczka, Anna; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-07-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping needs to be supplemented with age prediction to become a relevant source of information on human appearance. Recent progress in analysis of the human methylome has enabled selection of multiple candidate loci showing linear correlation with chronological age. Practical application in forensic science depends on successful validation of these potential age predictors. In this study, eight DNA methylation candidate loci were analysed using convenient and reliable pyrosequencing technology. A total number of 41 CpG sites was investigated in 420 samples collected from men and women aged from 2 to 75 years. The study confirmed correlation of all the investigated markers with human age. The five most significantly correlated CpG sites in ELOVL2 on 6p24.2, C1orf132 on 1q32.2, TRIM59 on 3q25.33, KLF14 on 7q32.3 and FHL2 on 2q12.2 were chosen to build a prediction model. This restriction allowed the technical analysis to be simplified without lowering the prediction accuracy significantly. Model parameters for a discovery set of 300 samples were R(2)=0.94 and the standard error of the estimate=4.5 years. An independent set of 120 samples was used to test the model performance. Mean absolute deviation for this testing set was 3.9 years. The number of correct predictions ±5 years achieved a very high level of 86.7% in the age category 2-19 and gradually decreased to 50% in the age category 60-75. The prediction model was deterministic for individuals belonging to these two extreme age categories. The developed method was implemented in a freely available online age prediction calculator. PMID:26026729

  10. Preoperative prediction of significant coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdale, D R; Faragher, E B; Bennett, D H; Bray, C L; Ward, C; Beton, D C

    1982-01-01

    A prognostic index for predicting significant coronary artery disease was established using multiple logistic regression analysis of clinical data from 643 patients with valvular heart disease who had undergone routine coronary arteriography before valve replacement. The index or equation obtained incorporated the presence of angina, a family history of ischaemic heart disease, age, cigarette smoking habits, mitral valve disease, sex, and electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction. The equation was validated using prospective data from 387 patients with valvular disease and shown to enable almost a third of routine coronary arteriograms to be omitted while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients with coronary artery disease. Similar analysis of the more detailed prospective data produced a second discriminant function incorporating diastolic blood pressure, total cigarettes smoked in life, the severity of angina, family history of ischaemic heart disease, age, current cigarette smoking habits, and the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This method improved the discrimination between patients with and without coronary artery disease, allowing omission of 30% of routine coronary arteriograms with 100% sensitivity for patients with coronary disease and omission of 41% with a 96% sensitivity level. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6799111

  11. Significance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in predicting recurrence of intracranial meningioma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, M A; Husain, M; Andersen, B J; al-Mefty, O

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the histological appearance of meningiomas often fails to predict accurately the clinical behavior of the tumor. Therefore, attention has turned from tumor histology to tumor biology. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell cycle-regulated protein, has been recently characterized as the cofactor of DNA polymerase-delta, an enzyme required for DNA replication. The rate of synthesis of PCNA directly correlates with the proliferative state of cells. Immunohistochemical labeling of this antigen is now possible with monoclonal antibodies that allow for its demonstration in routinely fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. In this study, the PCNA labeling index (LI) was determined for 83 meningiomas, including tumors with both benign and malignant clinical courses and with benign, atypical, and malignant histologies, apparent after total or subtotal resections. No statistical difference was found between the LI on recurrence and that found at initial presentation. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analysis failed to identify any combination of factors (age, gender, race, age of specimen, tumor histology, Simpson grade of resection) that contributes to the predictive strength of the PCNA LI for tumor recurrence. However, for LIs less than 2%, only one of 26 gross totally resected tumors recurred (mean follow up 53 months); for LIs more than 7%, five of 13 gross totally resected tumors recurred (mean follow up 55 months). The difference in recurrence rates between gross totally resected meningiomas with PCNA LIs less than 2% and those with PCNA LIs more than 7% achieved statistical significance with a Fisher's exact probability equaling 0.011. The authors conclude that quantitative PCNA labeling of meningiomas is a promising technique that can provide meaningful prognostic information.

  12. Significance of plasma nitric oxide/endothelial-1 ratio for prediction of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akira; Matsui, Takemi; Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Takase, Bonpei; Satomura, Kimio

    2005-01-01

    Vascular tone is regulated by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant vasoconstrictor peptide that constricts vascular smooth muscle, whereas nitric oxide (NO) is the primary vasodilator peptide that relaxes vascular smooth muscle. In this study, the authors examined whether NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful marker for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), by comparison with evaluation based on vascular endothelial (VE) function. They measured plasma NOX and ET-1 by using ENO-200 and radioimmunoassay, in 38 subjects with normal (NL) coronary arteries (NL group; mean age, 60 +/-12 years) and 25 subjects with CAD (CAD group; mean age, 69 +/- 6 years). VE function (randomized endothelium-dependent [D] and endothelium-independent [I] VE function) was assessed by measuring brachial artery (BA) diameter by using high-resolution ultrasound (7.5 MHz). Soon after these procedures, symptom-limited exercise testing was performed. There were no statistically significant differences in serum lipid concentrations or VED function between the groups. However, the CAD group had a significantly lower NO/ET-1 ratio (1.2 +/- 1.1 vs 2.7 +/- 2.2, p < 0.01) and BA diameter after sublingual nitroglycerin (VEID function: 6 +/- 7% vs 10 +/- 4%, p < 0.05). As expected, the ST segment and treadmill exercise duration were significantly lower in the CAD group. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by plasma NO/ET-1 ratio (> or =2 .0) were 90% and 85%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by ST depression (> or =1 mm) were 80% and 78%, respectively. The present results suggest that plasma NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful biological marker for predicting CAD. PMID:15889192

  13. Prediction of long-term aging of cellular plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Kokko, E.

    1995-09-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-based cellular plastics are facing the challenge of environmental protection. The cellular plastic industry has been looking for new blowing agents as alternatives for CFCs since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987. The prediction of long-term thermal performance of newly developed cellular plastics thus becomes apparent. In this paper, the model ACP aging of cellular plastic is introduced. This model was originally developed for evaluating the thermal performance of carbon dioxide, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, n-Pentane, neo-Pentane and cyclo-Pentane. In comparison with short-term measurements, the ACP program now is able to predict the aging performance of cellular plastics is to combine the short-term measurements and model simulation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Optimization of arterial age prediction models based in pulse wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandurra, A. G.; Meschino, G. J.; Passoni, L. I.; Pra, A. L. Dai; Introzzi, A. R.; Clara, F. M.

    2007-11-01

    We propose the detection of early arterial ageing through a prediction model of arterial age based in the coherence assumption between the pulse wave morphology and the patient's chronological age. Whereas we evaluate several methods, a Sugeno fuzzy inference system is selected. Models optimization is approached using hybrid methods: parameter adaptation with Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms. Features selection was performed according with their projection on main factors of the Principal Components Analysis. The model performance was tested using the bootstrap error type .632E. The model presented an error smaller than 8.5%. This result encourages including this process as a diagnosis module into the device for pulse analysis that has been developed by the Bioengineering Laboratory staff.

  16. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  17. The Role of Age, Family Support, and Negative Cognitions in the Prediction of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Rick; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Nay, W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Study examines developmental changes in the relationship between negative cognitions and stressful family characteristics in the prediction of depression in young people. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrates significant 3-way interaction between age, negative cognitions, and family unsupportiveness. Discusses results as they relate to…

  18. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  19. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    PubMed

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing.

  20. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    PubMed

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  1. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    PubMed Central

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  2. Manipulation of Ovarian Function Significantly Influenced Sarcopenia in Postreproductive-Age Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Rhett L.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d) ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice. The percentages of lean body mass and total body water were significantly reduced in 13-month-old control mice but were restored in 16- and 25-month-old recipient mice by ovarian transplantation to the levels found in six-month-old control mice. In summary, we have shown that skeletal muscle mass, which is negatively influenced by aging, can be positively influenced or restored by reestablishment of active ovarian function in aged female mice. These findings provide strong incentive for further investigation of the positive influence of young ovaries on restoration of health in postreproductive females. PMID:27747096

  3. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  4. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  5. Testing earthquake prediction algorithms: Statistically significant advance prediction of the largest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Healy, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Algorithms M8 and MSc (i.e., the Mendocino Scenario) were used in a real-time intermediate-term research prediction of the strongest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt. Predictions are made by M8 first. Then, the areas of alarm are reduced by MSc at the cost that some earthquakes are missed in the second approximation of prediction. In 1992-1997, five earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above occurred in the test area: all of them were predicted by M8 and MSc identified correctly the locations of four of them. The space-time volume of the alarms is 36% and 18%, correspondingly, when estimated with a normalized product measure of empirical distribution of epicenters and uniform time. The statistical significance of the achieved results is beyond 99% both for M8 and MSc. For magnitude 7.5 + , 10 out of 19 earthquakes were predicted by M8 in 40% and five were predicted by M8-MSc in 13% of the total volume considered. This implies a significance level of 81% for M8 and 92% for M8-MSc. The lower significance levels might result from a global change in seismic regime in 1993-1996, when the rate of the largest events has doubled and all of them become exclusively normal or reversed faults. The predictions are fully reproducible; the algorithms M8 and MSc in complete formal definitions were published before we started our experiment [Keilis-Borok, V.I., Kossobokov, V.G., 1990. Premonitory activation of seismic flow: Algorithm M8, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 61, 73-83; Kossobokov, V.G., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Smith, S.W., 1990. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 19763-19772; Healy, J.H., Kossobokov, V.G., Dewey, J.W., 1992. A test to evaluate the earthquake prediction algorithm, M8. U.S. Geol. Surv. OFR 92-401]. M8 is available from the IASPEI Software Library [Healy, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Lee, W.H.K. (Eds.), 1997. Algorithms for Earthquake Statistics and Prediction, Vol. 6. IASPEI Software Library]. ?? 1999 Elsevier

  6. Characterization and predictive abilities of GroundWater age data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J. R.; Kolbe, T.; Marçais, J.; Thomas, Z.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Leray, S.; Gueutin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater-age data derived from sampled tracer concentrations are recognized as essential characterization and prediction tools in hydrogeology. They give characteristic transit time information as well as indications on aquifer structures and exchanges. Information can however be difficult to extract and often requires additional knowledge on the flow patterns or on the geological heterogeneity that can guide the choice of the interpretation framework. Any constrain on transit times concerning their distribution facilitates greatly the interpretation. Groundwater flow and transport models help in characterizing potential transit time distributions. This has been extensively done in heterogeneous porous and fractured media. Upscaling local pore and Darcy transport processes to some 100m-scale generic breakthrough curves underline the importance of extended tailing (long transit times of several decades to centuries). Shorter transit times from months to decades are also sensitive to recharge variability, catchment topography, aquifer exchanges and sampling conditions. Large-scale calibrated models integrating these different constrains are of high interest to assess the information content of GroundWater age data. Results on a limited number of case studies confirm that the atmospheric tracers of the last 50 years give accurate estimates of cumulative residence times and of the transport fate of some contaminants like nitrates. It already appears that the quality of the prediction does not always come from the capacity of the transit-time model to fit the actual transit-time distribution but also from the nature of the prediction or of the hydrological regime. Access to a wide range of well-informed and calibrated models taken as synthetic references should be developed to confirm and refine these early conclusions.

  7. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  8. Predicting low testosterone in aging men: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Lau, Adrian N.C.; Tomlinson, George; Kraguljac, Alan; Simel, David L.; Detsky, Allan S.; Lipscombe, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physicians diagnose and treat suspected hypogonadism in older men by extrapolating from the defined clinical entity of hypogonadism found in younger men. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the accuracy of clinical symptoms and signs for predicting low testosterone among aging men. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases (January 1966 to July 2014) for studies that compared clinical features with a measurement of serum testosterone in men. Three of the authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, assessed quality and extracted data. Results: Among 6053 articles identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of low testosterone ranged between 2% and 77%. Threshold testosterone levels used for reference standards also varied substantially. The summary likelihood ratio associated with decreased libido was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.9), and the likelihood ratio for absence of this finding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.58–0.85). The likelihood ratio associated with the presence of erectile dysfunction was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.8) and with absence of erectile dysfunction was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76–0.91). Of the multiple-item instruments, the ANDROTEST showed both the most favourable positive likelihood ratio (range 1.9–2.2) and the most favourable negative likelihood ratio (range 0.37–0.49). Interpretation: We found weak correlation between signs, symptoms and testosterone levels, uncertainty about what threshold testosterone levels should be considered low for aging men and wide variation in estimated prevalence of the condition. It is therefore difficult to extrapolate the method of diagnosing pathologic hypogonadism in younger men to clinical decisions regarding age-related testosterone decline in aging men. PMID:27325129

  9. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Prediction of early-age shrinkage cracking in concrete elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, William Jason

    1999-11-01

    When concrete is prevented from shrinking freely, tensile stresses develop which frequently result in cracking. Cracks in reinforced concrete structures reduce overall durability by allowing the penetration of water and aggressive agents, thereby accelerating the deterioration of the reinforcing steel. Highway pavements, bridge decks, and industrial floors are especially susceptible to this type of deterioration since these structures exhibit high rates of shrinkage and are frequently exposed to aggressive environmental conditions. The objectives of this investigation included the development of experimental procedures for assessing shrinkage cracking potential, the evaluation of mix composition on shrinkage cracking potential, and the development of theoretical models to simulate early-age cracking behavior. Specifically, the influence of a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) was investigated. The shrinkage-reducing admixture substantially reduces free shrinkage and restrained shrinkage cracking while providing similar mechanical properties. An experimental procedure was developed in which a pressurized cylindrical specimen was used to assess tensile creep. Electrical properties were investigated using impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the moisture profiles of drying and wetting concrete. Restrained shrinkage experiments were developed and shrinkage cracking was shown to be size/geometry dependent, even though shrinkage strains and residual stress levels were comparable. A fracture mechanics modeling approach was developed to predict the behavior of a variety of restrained concrete specimens. This modeling approach was used to successfully explain experimental results from a variety of mixture compositions and specimen geometries. The model was used to demonstrate the influence of material and structural properties on the potential for cracking. A favorable correlation was observed between the predictions of the fracture-based model and the experimentally observed

  11. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  12. Can Age at Sexual Maturity act as a Predictive Biomarker for prodromal negative symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Miewald, Jean; Montrose, Debra; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-01-01

    Background Puberty and reproductive hormones have been identified as having a potential role in schizophrenia. Earlier reports have suggested associations between later age at puberty and schizophrenia in males. Similarly, associations have been reported between testosterone levels and psychotic symptoms. In this report, we examined the association between age at puberty and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Methods 58 child or adolescent family members of individuals with schizophrenia were interviewed using the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms and the Tanner Maturational Scale. Age at tanner pubertal stage was determined and regression analyses were used to explore associations between prodromal symptoms and age at puberty. Results Among males, delayed age at puberty was associated with greater severity of prodromal symptoms; the association between negative prodromal symptoms and delayed age was significant (p=0.001). In females, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that delayed age at puberty may be associated with negative prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in males. Our findings suggest that delayed age at puberty could potentially be a predictive biomarker for psychopathology in males at risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25778616

  13. Predicting plasticity: acute context-dependent changes to vocal performance predict long-term age-dependent changes.

    PubMed

    James, Logan S; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the factors that predict and guide variation in behavioral change can lend insight into mechanisms of motor plasticity and individual differences in behavior. The performance of adult birdsong changes with age in a manner that is similar to rapid context-dependent changes to song. To reveal mechanisms of vocal plasticity, we analyzed the degree to which variation in the direction and magnitude of age-dependent changes to Bengalese finch song could be predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. Using a repeated-measures design, we found that variation in age-dependent changes to the timing, sequencing, and structure of vocal elements ("syllables") was significantly predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. In particular, the degree to which the duration of intersyllable gaps, syllable sequencing at branch points, and fundamental frequency of syllables within spontaneous [undirected (UD)] songs changed over time was correlated with the degree to which these features changed from UD song to female-directed (FD) song in young-adult finches (FDyoung). As such, the structure of some temporal features of UD songs converged over time onto the structure of FDyoung songs. This convergence suggested that the FDyoung song could serve as a stable target for vocal motor plasticity. Consequently, we analyzed the stability of FD song and found that the temporal structure of FD song changed significantly over time in a manner similar to UD song. Because FD song is considered a state of heightened performance, these data suggest that age-dependent changes could reflect practice-related improvements in vocal motor performance. PMID:26311186

  14. Predicting plasticity: acute context-dependent changes to vocal performance predict long-term age-dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    James, Logan S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that predict and guide variation in behavioral change can lend insight into mechanisms of motor plasticity and individual differences in behavior. The performance of adult birdsong changes with age in a manner that is similar to rapid context-dependent changes to song. To reveal mechanisms of vocal plasticity, we analyzed the degree to which variation in the direction and magnitude of age-dependent changes to Bengalese finch song could be predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. Using a repeated-measures design, we found that variation in age-dependent changes to the timing, sequencing, and structure of vocal elements (“syllables”) was significantly predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. In particular, the degree to which the duration of intersyllable gaps, syllable sequencing at branch points, and fundamental frequency of syllables within spontaneous [undirected (UD)] songs changed over time was correlated with the degree to which these features changed from UD song to female-directed (FD) song in young-adult finches (FDyoung). As such, the structure of some temporal features of UD songs converged over time onto the structure of FDyoung songs. This convergence suggested that the FDyoung song could serve as a stable target for vocal motor plasticity. Consequently, we analyzed the stability of FD song and found that the temporal structure of FD song changed significantly over time in a manner similar to UD song. Because FD song is considered a state of heightened performance, these data suggest that age-dependent changes could reflect practice-related improvements in vocal motor performance. PMID:26311186

  15. Age and Individual Foraging Behavior Predict Tooth Wear in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Altmann, Jeanne; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Alberts, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    Teeth represent an essential component of the foraging apparatus for any mammal, and tooth wear can have significant implications for survival and reproduction. This study focuses on tooth wear in wild baboons in Amboseli, southern Kenya. We obtained mandibular and maxillary tooth impressions from 95 baboons and analyzed digital images of replicas made from these impressions. We measured tooth wear as the percent dentine exposure (PDE, the percent of the occlusal surface on which dentine was exposed), and we examined the relationship of PDE to age, behavior, and life history variables. We found that PDE increased significantly with age for both sexes in all three molar types. In females, we also tested the hypotheses that long-term patterns of feeding behavior, social dominance rank, and one measure of maternal investment (the cumulative number of months that a female had dependent infants during her lifetime) would predict tooth wear when we controlled for age. The hypothesis that feeding behavior predicted tooth wear was supported. The percent of feeding time spent consuming grass corms predicted PDE when controlling for age. However, PDE was not associated with social dominance rank or maternal investment. Am J Phys Anthropol 000:000–000, 2010. PMID:20721946

  16. Predictive factors of abdominal compartment syndrome in neonatal age.

    PubMed

    Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Giuffrè, Mario; Piro, Ettore; Ortolano, Rita; Siracusa, Fortunato; Pinello, Giuseppa; La Placa, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the pediatric population, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of abdominal wall defect repair. However, there are only few reports on ACS in newborns and only a proposal of critical intra-abdominal pressure value (IAP) in term newborns, absent in preterm newborns. Although the prevalent clinical sign is tense abdominal distension, it may be difficult to distinguish ACS from pathologies that will not require decompression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors for ACS and therefore morbidity or mortality indicators. We reviewed newborns presenting with tense abdominal distension and end organ failure. Anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigations were analyzed to extrapolate predictors. Outcomes were compared with a control group. The incidence of ACS in our neonatal intensive care unit was 5% in the overall population of babies, 16% in tracheal-ventilated newborns, and 57% in infants with abdominal wall defects. We found that, with onset of acidosis or high gastric residuals, the lactate values will be predictive for mortality. We can also suggest paying particular attention to high lactate values just at the onset of distension, in infants with more advanced gestational age, with previously surgical repair, to determine early surgical intervention independently of a specific IAP measurement.

  17. The significance of parameter uncertainties for the prediction of offshore pile driving noise.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Tristan; von Estorff, Otto

    2014-11-01

    Due to the construction of offshore wind farms and its potential effect on marine wildlife, the numerical prediction of pile driving noise over long ranges has recently gained importance. In this contribution, a coupled finite element/wavenumber integration model for noise prediction is presented and validated by measurements. The ocean environment, especially the sea bottom, can only be characterized with limited accuracy in terms of input parameters for the numerical model at hand. Therefore the effect of these parameter uncertainties on the prediction of sound pressure levels (SPLs) in the water column is investigated by a probabilistic approach. In fact, a variation of the bottom material parameters by means of Monte-Carlo simulations shows significant effects on the predicted SPLs. A sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the single quantities is performed, as well as a global variation. Based on the latter, the probability distribution of the SPLs at an exemplary receiver position is evaluated and compared to measurements. The aim of this procedure is to develop a model to reliably predict an interval for the SPLs, by quantifying the degree of uncertainty of the SPLs with the MC simulations. PMID:25373948

  18. Predictive and Prognostic Significance of Glutathione Levels and DNA Damage in Cervix Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi Srinivasa; Kodali, Maheedhar; Prakash Saxena, Pu

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive significance of serum glutathione (GSH) and tumor tissue DNA damage in the treatment of cervical cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included subjects undergoing hysterectomy (for normal cervix tissue) and cervical cancer patients who underwent conventional concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin once per week for 5 weeks with concurrent external radiotherapy of 2 Gy per fraction for 5 weeks, followed by two applications of intracavitary brachytherapy once per week after 2 weeks' rest). Blood was collected after two fractions, whereas both blood and tissues were collected after five fractions of radiotherapy in separate groups of subjects. Serum for total GSH content and tissues were processed for single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay for DNA damage analysis. Clinical tumor radioresponse was assessed 2 months after the completion of treatment as complete responders (CR) (100% shrinkage), partial responders (PR) (>50%), and nonresponders (NR) (<50%). Results: Serum GSH content depleted significantly after a total dose of 4 Gy and 10 Gy of radiotherapy with a single dose of cisplatin, which was significantly lesser in NR than of CR patients. Similarly, Olive Tail Moment, the index of DNA damage, indicated significantly higher values in the fifth fraction of radiotherapy (5-RT) than in pretreatment. The DNA damage after 5-RT in the NR subgroup was significantly lower than that of CR. Conclusions: Serum GSH analysis and tumor tissue SCGE assay found to be useful parameters for predicting chemoradioresponse prior to and also at an early stage of treatment of cervical cancers.

  19. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion. PMID:25519133

  20. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion.

  1. Semantic and phonological skills in predicting reading development: from 3-16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jørgen; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Niedersøe, Jan; Olofsson, Ake; Sørensen, Peer Møller

    2005-05-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the relationship between pre-school semantic skills (vocabulary, comprehension and sentence construction), phonological awareness and later word decoding and reading comprehension skills. More than 200 Danish children were followed from a speech therapist screening at the age of three, through a phonological group screening at six, word decoding tests in Grade 2, sentence reading tests in Grades 3, 4, and 6, and to a text reading test in Grade 9 (age 16). The predictor variables consisted of both standardized test results, professional ratings, and a factor of interest in books. The results showed that both the semantic variables and interest in books at the age of three and the phonological variables at the age of six predicted reading development significantly at the age of 16. In addition the results demonstrated changing main effect from semantic and phonological variables on reading development. Phonological awareness at the age of 6 seemed to have the greatest influence on reading at the beginning of Grade 2 compared to the semantic variables at the age of three. On all other measures in time, the semantic variables had the greatest influence. PMID:15918368

  2. DNA methylation age of blood predicts future onset of lung cancer in the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Brian; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is considered an age-associated disease, whose progression is in part due to accumulation of genomic instability as well as age-related decline in system integrity and function. Thus even among individuals exposed to high levels of genotoxic carcinogens, such as those found in cigarette smoke, lung cancer susceptibility may vary as a function of individual differences in the rate of biological aging. We recently developed a highly accurate candidate biomarker of aging based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, which may prove useful in assessing risk of aging-related diseases, such as lung cancer. Using data on 2,029 females from the Women's Health Initiative, we examined whether baseline measures of "intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration" (IEAA) predicted subsequent lung cancer incidence. We observed 43 lung cancer cases over the nearly twenty years of follow-up. Results showed that standardized measures of IEAA were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence (HR: 1.50, P=3.4x10-3). Furthermore, stratified Cox proportional hazard models suggested that the association may be even stronger among older individuals (70 years or above) or those who are current smokers. Overall, our results suggest that IEAA may be a useful biomarker for evaluating lung cancer susceptibility from a biological aging perspective. PMID:26411804

  3. Investigating the seasonal predictability of significant wave height in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Hosmay; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates seasonal prediction skill of significant wave height (SWH) in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans. We forced the WAVEWATCH III model with 10 m winds from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-2 and from the Community Climate System Model version 4 North American Multi-Model Ensemble retrospective forecasts for the period of January 1979 to December 2013. Results indicate potential for predicting SWH with several months lead time during boreal summers after the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) measured by deterministic and probabilistic skill scores in the Northwest Pacific and Bay of Bengal. During these summers, SWH is smaller than normal due to reduced atmospheric synoptic activity associated with an anomalously anticyclone in the western Pacific, leading to larger signal-to-noise ratio in the 10 m winds, hence increasing SWH prediction skill. It is shown that ENSO has a nonlinear influence on the number of extremely large SWH events, with reduced number of extreme occurrences during boreal summers after the warm phase of ENSO.

  4. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children. PMID:21789735

  5. The age and chronostratigraphical significance of North Atlantic Ash zone II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, William E. N.; Wilson, Lindsay J.; Hunt, John B.

    2004-02-01

    Rhyolitic tephra with the geochemical characteristics of North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II are described from the giant piston core MD95-2006 from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Shard size distribution indicates that the tephra represent a wind-sorted, primary air-fall deposit, but with a mode close to 200 m they are too coarse to be air-fall deposits at the core site, which lies ca. 1000 km from the possible tephra source. Randomly sampled shards reveal a single geochemical population belonging to the Icelandic transitional alkali magma series, suggesting that they are unlikely to represent ice rafted debris derived from Icelandic icebergs. The tephra probably represent air-fall deposits, transported to the core site by sea ice within the northeast Atlantic gyre. The NAAZ II peak coincides with the rapid climate transition (cooling) at the end of interstadial 15, which can be assigned an age of 53 260+/-2660 yr BP from direct correlation with the Greenland ice-core (GISP2) record. A comparison of the MD95-2006 Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) relative abundance and GISP2 18O records, relative to the NAAZ II isochron, suggests that this climatic event was synchronous across the North Atlantic. By direct correlation of interstadial maxima between the two records, the GISP2 time-scale is transferred to MD95-2006. Comparison of corrected and calibrated radiocarbon ages derived from monospecific foraminifers with the GISP2 ages at the same stratigraphical horizon suggest major age differences. These probably result from large variations in atmospheric 14C concentration and highlight the significant uncertainties associated with radiocarbon calibration during marine isotope stage 3. Copyright

  6. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  7. Analytic Methods for Predicting Significant Multi-Quanta Effects in Collisional Molecular Energy Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1996-01-01

    Collision-induced transitions can significantly affect molecular vibrational-rotational populations and energy transfer in atmospheres and gaseous systems. This, in turn. can strongly influence convective heat transfer through dissociation and recombination of diatomics. and radiative heat transfer due to strong vibrational coupling. It is necessary to know state-to-state rates to predict engine performance and aerothermodynamic behavior of hypersonic flows, to analyze diagnostic radiative data obtained from experimental test facilities, and to design heat shields and other thermal protective systems. Furthermore, transfer rates between vibrational and translational modes can strongly influence energy flow in various 'disturbed' environments, particularly where the vibrational and translational temperatures are not equilibrated.

  8. Investigation of environmental influences on a transcriptional assay for the prediction of age of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Kay, Brian H; O'Neill, Scott L; Ryan, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    We examined the effects of environmental regulation of gene transcription on the accuracy of a transcriptional profiling method for determining insect age. In combined temperature/nutrition treatments, Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes were maintained in the laboratory at three different temperatures (20, 26, and 32 degrees C), and larvae were fed on low, medium, and high diet regimens. Adult mosquitoes of distinct size classes were produced. Transcription of three age-responsive genes (Ae-15848, Ae-8505, and Ae-4274) was measured from 1-, 10-, and 19-d-old specimens using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method incorporating dual-labeled TaqMan probes. Temperature had a significant effect on transcript abundance for two of the model genes (Ae-15848 and Ae-8505), and transcription of model genes was unaffected by the main effect of larval diet level; however, significant temperature by diet level interactions were observed. Total RNA yield from individual mosquitoes varied according to adult age and temperature, and when combined with wing length, provided a useful predictor variable in age prediction models. More accurate age predictions were achieved from models generated at the same temperature as test mosquitoes; however, whereas significant differences in mean predicted ages were observed between 1- and 10-d-old mosquitoes, differences between 10 and 19 d were nonsignificant. This study highlights the effect of environmental regulation on gene transcription age grading and the need to identify additional gene biomarkers of age to improve the classification of older mosquitoes.

  9. Impaired innate immunity predicts frailty in old age. The Leiden 85-plus study.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Huizinga, Tom W J; de Craen, Anton J M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Frölich, Marijke; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2004-09-01

    Aging is associated with an impaired capacity of the immune system to respond properly to danger signals, such as infection and cancer. Here, we provide evidence that an impaired innate immune response, as measured by a low production capacity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines upon ex vivo standardized danger signalling with bacterial LPS, is predictive for frailty in elderly people: participants who at age 85-year produced low levels of LPS-induced IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1Ra and IL-10, were found to have a more than 2-fold elevated overall mortality risk, independent of chronic illnesses (relative risk is 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.27-3.82, P = 0.005), compared to peers with a higher production of any of the pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines. A significant genetic association with the IL-10 promoter gene was found, indicating that people who are genetically predisposed low cytokine producers are at a higher risk of losing the capacity to respond properly to danger signals with aging. We conclude that a malfunctioning innate immune response predicts frailty in old age and is under specific (immuno-) genetic control. PMID:15489064

  10. Cognitive Function and Prediction of Dementia in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rue, Asenath; Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1987-01-01

    Examined longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning for aging twins. Found that those who were considered demented in old age had achieved lower test scores 20 years prior to diagnosis and experienced greater declines in vocabulary and forward digit span over time than those without dementia. Suggests that dementia may develop very slowly.…

  11. Predictable Loneliness of Old Age: Dispelling the Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenson, Tracey A.

    Ageism has taken its place beside sexism and racism not only in society but also in the arenas of social science research and policy. Survey data obtained from an extensive questionnaire published in three North American daily newspapers in 1980 from 2,026 adults, aged 18-90, were examined to debunk the myth of loneliness in old age. The data…

  12. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging.

  13. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  14. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  15. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

  16. Predicting and detecting adverse drug reactions in old age: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A

    2012-05-01

    Increased, often inappropriate, drug exposure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, reduced homeostatic reserve and frailty increase the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the older population, thereby imposing a significant public health burden. Predicting and diagnosing ADRs in old age presents significant challenges for the clinician, even when specific risk scoring systems are available. The picture is further compounded by the potential adverse impact of several drugs on more 'global' health indicators, for example, physical function and independence, and the fragmentation of care (e.g., increased number of treating doctors and care transitions) experienced by older patients during their clinical journey. The current knowledge of drug safety in old age is also curtailed by the lack of efficacy and safety data from pre-marketing studies. Moreover, little consideration is given to individual patients' experiences and reporting of specific ADRs, particularly in the presence of cognitive impairment. Pending additional data on these issues, the close review and monitoring of individual patients' drug prescribing, clinical status and biochemical parameters remain essential to predict and detect ADRs in old age. Recently developed strategies, for example, medication reconciliation and trigger tool methodology, have the potential for ADRs risk mitigation in this population. However, more information is required on their efficacy and applicability in different healthcare settings. PMID:22512705

  17. First seamount age evidence for significantly slower African plate motion since 19 to 30 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; van den Bogaard, P.; McWilliams, M.

    1999-09-01

    Resolving the time-space (and compositional) evolution of volcanism along long-lived South Atlantic hotspot trails is important to understanding the connection between hotspot volcanism and mantle plumes. 40Ar/39Ar ages are reported here for rocks dredged from a line of five individual seamounts along an ∼290 km northeast to southwest line extending from the vicinity of Saint Helena Island, and also for Circe Seamount. These seamounts were created in a midplate setting and could have formed rapidly (≤1 Myr). The St. Helena Seamount ages reveal a remarkably linear migration rate of volcanism of 20±1 mm/yr for at least the past 19 Myr, which is interpreted as the absolute motion of the African plate. Because this is much slower than estimated for earlier African plate migration it also represents the first evidence based on seamount ages for a significant deceleration (∼33%) of the African plate since at least 19 Ma. However, this change could have occurred as early as 30 Ma when the limited data for the Tristan/Gough hotspot chain are also considered. This deceleration supports a relationship between African plate speed and the upsurge of hotspot volcanism on the African continent at ∼25 Ma. We suggest that the increased number of oceanic African hotspots between ∼19 and 30 Ma points to a link also between major changes in plate motion and the onset and continuation of oceanic hotspot volcanism. Our study supports the assumption that chains of individual, rapidly (?) formed seamounts have considerably more potential of providing clear insights into how mantle plumes interact with overriding lithosphere than do those consisting of uninterrupted, more massive lines of hotspot volcanism.

  18. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H. ); Atwood, C.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  19. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H.; Atwood, C.L.

    1993-05-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  20. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  1. Position Weight Matrix, Gibbs Sampler, and the Associated Significance Tests in Motif Characterization and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuhua

    2012-01-01

    Position weight matrix (PWM) is not only one of the most widely used bioinformatic methods, but also a key component in more advanced computational algorithms (e.g., Gibbs sampler) for characterizing and discovering motifs in nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, few generally applicable statistical tests are available for evaluating the significance of site patterns, PWM, and PWM scores (PWMS) of putative motifs. Statistical significance tests of the PWM output, that is, site-specific frequencies, PWM itself, and PWMS, are in disparate sources and have never been collected in a single paper, with the consequence that many implementations of PWM do not include any significance test. Here I review PWM-based methods used in motif characterization and prediction (including a detailed illustration of the Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery), present statistical and probabilistic rationales behind statistical significance tests relevant to PWM, and illustrate their application with real data. The multiple comparison problem associated with the test of site-specific frequencies is best handled by false discovery rate methods. The test of PWM, due to the use of pseudocounts, is best done by resampling methods. The test of individual PWMS for each sequence segment should be based on the extreme value distribution. PMID:24278755

  2. Validation of ZAP-70 methylation and its relative significance in predicting outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Rainer; Lucas, David M.; Ruppert, Amy S.; Williams, Katie E.; Weng, Daniel; Patterson, Kara; Zucknick, Manuela; Oakes, Christopher C.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Greaves, Andrew W.; Geyer, Susan; Wierda, William G.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Gribben, John G.; Barrientos, Jacqueline C.; Rai, Kanti R.; Kay, Neil E.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Shields, Peter; Zhao, Weiqiang; Grever, Michael R.; Plass, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    ZAP-70 methylation 223 nucleotides downstream of transcription start (CpG+223) predicts outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but its impact relative to CD38 and ZAP-70 expression or immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) status is uncertain. Additionally, standardizing ZAP-70 expression analysis has been unsuccessful. CpG+223 methylation was quantitatively determined in 295 untreated CLL cases using MassARRAY. Impact on clinical outcome vs CD38 and ZAP-70 expression and IGHV status was evaluated. Cases with low methylation (<20%) had significantly shortened time to first treatment (TT) and overall survival (OS) (P < .0001). For TT, low methylation defined a large subset of ZAP-70 protein-negative cases with significantly shortened TT (median, 8.0 vs 3.9 years for high vs low methylation; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.74). Conversely, 16 ZAP-70 protein-positive cases with high methylation had poor outcome (median, 1.1 vs 2.3 years for high vs low methylation; HR = 1.62; 95% CI, 0.87-3.03). For OS, ZAP-70 methylation was the strongest risk factor; CD38 and ZAP-70 expression or IGHV status did not significantly improve OS prediction. A pyrosequencing assay was established that reproduced the MassARRAY data (κ coefficient > 0.90). Thus, ZAP-70 CpG+223 methylation represents a superior biomarker for TT and OS that can be feasibly measured, supporting its use in risk-stratifying CLL. PMID:24868078

  3. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

  4. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  5. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  6. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  7. Immunoinformatics and epitope prediction in the age of genomic medicine.

    PubMed

    Backert, Linus; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2015-11-20

    Immunoinformatics involves the application of computational methods to immunological problems. Prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes has long been the focus of immunoinformatics, given the potential translational implications, and many tools have been developed. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, an unprecedented wealth of information has become available that requires more-advanced immunoinformatics tools. Based on information from whole-genome sequencing, exome sequencing and RNA sequencing, it is possible to characterize with high accuracy an individual's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype (i.e., the individual set of HLA alleles of the patient), as well as changes arising in the HLA ligandome (the collection of peptides presented by the HLA) owing to genomic variation. This has allowed new opportunities for translational applications of epitope prediction, such as epitope-based design of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, and personalized cancer immunotherapies. Here, we review a wide range of immunoinformatics tools, with a focus on B- and T-cell epitope prediction. We also highlight fundamental differences in the underlying algorithms and discuss the various metrics employed to assess prediction quality, comparing their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we discuss the new challenges and opportunities presented by high-throughput data-sets for the field of epitope prediction.

  8. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  9. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients.

  10. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  11. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  12. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  13. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joesph A., III; Hill, H. G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of a comet has always been considered to be a function of where it formed in the nebula. We suggest that the most important factor in determining a comet's chemistry might actually be when it formed. We present specific predictions of correlations between the dust and volatile components to test our hypothesis.

  14. Aging and Predicting Inferences: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In the domain of discourse processing, it has been claimed that older adults (60-0-year-olds) are less likely to encode and remember some kinds of information from texts than young adults. The experiment described here shows that they do make a particular kind of inference to the same extent that college-age adults do. The inferences examined were…

  15. Prediction of endurance running performance for middle-aged and older runners.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, N; Tanaka, K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations that would sufficiently predict the endurance running performance (ERP) of middle-aged and older runners (n = 55, 43-79 years). Among many independent variables which were selected as possible predictors of the ERP, oxygen uptake corresponding to the lactate threshold (VO2@LT), or age was found to be the single best predictor. Some variables representing training habits correlated significantly but only moderately with the ERP. Linear multiple regression equations developed in this study were: V5km = 4.203 + 0.054X1 - 0.028X2 (r = 0.87) V5km = 4.436 + 0.045X1 - 0.033X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.89) V10km = 4.252 + 0.042X1 - 0.026X2 (r = 0.79) V10km = 4.371 + 0.037X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.82) VM = 3.207 + 0.048X1 - 0.022X2 (r = 0.91) VM = 3.707 + 0.038X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.93) where V5km, V10km and VM are the mean running velocity at 5 km, 10 km and marathon races, respectively, and X1 = VO2@LT (ml kg-1 min-1), X2 = age (year), and X3 = average running duration per workout (min). We suggest that the ERP of middle-aged and older runners can be predicted from a linear combination of VO2@LT and age or a combination of these variables plus average running duration per workout. PMID:7788211

  16. Impaired Sleep Predicts Cognitive Decline in Old People: Findings from the Prospective KORA Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Kawan, Rasmila; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep-related characteristics and cognitive change over 3 years of follow up in an aged population. Methods: Sleep characteristics and covariates were assessed at baseline in a standardized interview and clinical examination of the population-based KORA Age Study (n = 740, mean age = 75 years). Cognitive score (determined by telephone interview for cognitive status, TICS-m) was recorded at baseline and 3 years later. Results: At baseline, 82.83% (n = 613) of participants had normal cognitive status, 13.51% (n = 100) were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 3.64% (n = 27) with probable dementia. The effect of three distinct patterns of poor sleep (difficulties initiating [DIS] or maintaining sleep [DMS], daytime sleepiness [DS] or sleep duration) were considered on a change in cognitive score with adjustments for potential confounders in generalized linear regression models. Cognitive decline was more pronounced in individuals with DMS compared to those with no DMS (β = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.41–2.24, P < 0.001). However, the predictive power of DMS was only significant in individuals with normal cognition and not impaired subjects at baseline. Prolonged sleep duration increased the risk for cognitive decline in cognitively impaired elderly (β = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.15–3.57, P = 0.03). Other sleep characteristics (DIS and DS) were not significantly associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions: DMS and long sleep duration were associated with cognitive decline in normal and cognitively impaired elderly, respectively. The identification of impaired sleep quality may offer intervention strategies to deter cognitive decline in the elderly with normal cognitive function. Citation: Johar H, Kawan R, Emeny RT, Ladwig KH. Impaired sleep predicts cognitive decline in old people: findings from the prospective KORA age study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):217–226. PMID:26414903

  17. Predicting human age using regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study is predicting human age using neuro-metrics derived from structural MRI, as well as investigating the relationships between age and predictive neuro-metrics. To this end, a cohort of healthy subjects were recruited from 1000 Functional Connectomes Project. The ages of the participations were ranging from 7 to 83 (36.17+/-20.46). The structural MRI for each subject was preprocessed using FreeSurfer, resulting in regional cortical thickness, mean curvature, regional volume and regional surface area for 148 anatomical parcellations. The individual age was predicted from the combination of regional and inter-regional neuro-metrics. The prediction accuracy is r = 0.835, p < 0.00001, evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient between predicted ages and actual ages. Moreover, the LASSO linear regression also found certain predictive features, most of which were inter-regional features. The turning-point of the developmental trajectories in human brain was around 40 years old based on regional cortical thickness. In conclusion, structural MRI could be potential biomarkers for the aging in human brain. The human age could be successfully predicted from the combination of regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity. The inter-regional measures could be beneficial to investigating human brain connectome.

  18. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  19. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  20. Survival Prediction Score: A Simple but Age-Dependent Method Predicting Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Palliative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Haukland, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Validation of a Canadian three-tiered prognostic model (survival prediction score, SPS) in Norwegian cancer patients referred for palliative radiotherapy (PRT), and evaluation of age-dependent performance of the model. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all 579 PRT courses administered at a dedicated PRT facility between 20.06.07 and 31.12.2009. SPS was assigned as originally described, That is, by taking into consideration three variables: primary cancer type, site of metastases, and performance status. Results. Patients with poor prognosis (non-breast cancer, metastases other than bone, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≤ 60) had median survival of 13 weeks. Those with intermediate prognosis (two of these parameters) survived for a median of 29 weeks, and patients with good prognosis for a median of 114 weeks, P < 0.001. While this model performed well in patients who were 60 years or older, it was less satisfactory in younger patients (no significant difference between the good and intermediate prognosis groups). Conclusion. SPS should mainly be used to predict survival of elderly cancer patients. However, even in this group accuracy is limited because the good prognosis group contained patients with short survival, while the poor prognosis group contained long-term survivors. Thus, improved models should be developed. PMID:25006508

  1. Validation of DAB2IP methylation and its relative significance in predicting outcome in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang-Yun; Kapur, Payal; Wu, Kai-Jie; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Bing; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Margulis, Vitaly; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Luo, Jun-Hang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in RCC development. In this study, We identified one CpG methylation biomarker (DAB2IP CpG1) located UTSS of DAB2IP that was associated with poor overall survival in a cohort of 318 ccRCC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We further validated the prognostic accuracy of DAB2IP CpG methylation by pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay in 224 ccRCC patients from multiple Chinese centers (MCHC set), and 239 patients from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW set) by using FFPE samples. DAB2IP CpG1 can predict the overall survival of patients in TCGA, MCHC, and UTSW sets independent of patient age, Fuhrman grade and TNM stage (all p<0.05). DAB2IP CpG1 successfully categorized patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical subsets, regardless of age, sex, grade, stage, or race (HR: 1.63-7.83; all p<0.05). The detection of DAB2IP CpG1 methylation was minimally affected by ITH in ccRCC. DAB2IP mRNA expression was regulated by DNA methylation in vitro. DAB2IP CpG1 methylation is a practical and repeatable biomarker for ccRCC, which can provide prognostic value that complements the current staging system. PMID:27129174

  2. Visceral Obesity Predicts Significant Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Won; Kim, Donghee; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kyoungbun; Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hwi Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Chung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with visceral obesity. However, the association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and fibrosis in NAFLD patients has not been completely established. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between the computed tomography-measured VAT area and significant fibrosis in NAFLD patients. A total of 324 NAFLD patients and 132 controls were evaluated by liver biopsy. NAFLD was diagnosed based on histological examinations and alcohol consumption <20 g/day. The NAFLD patients showed a higher age and gender-adjusted VAT area than the control group (86.1 ± 2.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.7, P < 0.001). The VAT area increased across the control, NAFLD without significant fibrosis, and NAFLD with significant fibrosis groups (54.9 ± 3.5, 80.6 ± 2.4, and 123.4 ± 6.4, P < 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for multiple confounders (P for trend = 0.028). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated the VAT area was independently associated with NAFLD with significant fibrosis (F2–F4) (odds ratio [OR] 1.21 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.37 per 10 cm2 increase of VAT area; OR 2.62 [per 1 – standard deviation (SD)] 95% CI 1.41–4.86). Moreover, a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the VAT area was independently associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in NAFLD (OR 1.17 95% CI 1.05–1.32 per 10 cm2 increase of VAT area; OR 2.21 [per 1 – SD] 95% CI 1.25–3.89). Increased VAT area is independently associated with NASH or significant fibrosis and VAT might be a central target for lifestyle modifications in NAFLD patients. PMID:26632897

  3. Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jonathan; Dai, Jianliang; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Arte, Ankit; Johnson, Mary Ann; Hausman, Dorothy; Rodgers, Willard L; Hensley, Robert; Martin, Peter; Macdonald, Maurice; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Poon, Leonard W

    2010-01-01

    Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life. PMID:20885919

  4. Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jonathan; Dai, Jianliang; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Arte, Ankit; Johnson, Mary Ann; Hausman, Dorothy; Rodgers, Willard L; Hensley, Robert; Martin, Peter; Macdonald, Maurice; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Poon, Leonard W

    2010-01-01

    Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life.

  5. Cardiac Aging: From Molecular Mechanisms to Significance in Human Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Chen, Tony; Johnson, Simon C.; Szeto, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes of death in the western world. The incidence of cardiovascular disease as well as the rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity increase exponentially in the elderly population, suggesting that age per se is a major risk factor of CVDs. The physiologic changes of human cardiac aging mainly include left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, valvular degeneration, increased cardiac fibrosis, increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation, and decreased maximal exercise capacity. Many of these changes are closely recapitulated in animal models commonly used in an aging study, including rodents, flies, and monkeys. The application of genetically modified aged mice has provided direct evidence of several critical molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac aging, such as mitochondrial oxidative stress, insulin/insulin-like growth factor/PI3K pathway, adrenergic and renin angiotensin II signaling, and nutrient signaling pathways. This article also reviews the central role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in CVDs and the plausible mechanisms underlying the progression toward heart failure in the susceptible aging hearts. Finally, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiac aging may support the potential clinical application of several “anti-aging” strategies that treat CVDs and improve healthy cardiac aging. PMID:22229339

  6. Prediction of brain age suggests accelerated atrophy after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cole, James H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The long-term effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can resemble observed in normal ageing, suggesting that TBI may accelerate the ageing process. We investigate this using a neuroimaging model that predicts brain age in healthy individuals and then apply it to TBI patients. We define individuals' differences in chronological and predicted structural "brain age," and test whether TBI produces progressive atrophy and how this relates to cognitive function. Methods A predictive model of normal ageing was defined using machine learning in 1,537 healthy individuals, based on magnetic resonance imaging–derived estimates of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). This ageing model was then applied to test 99 TBI patients and 113 healthy controls to estimate brain age. Results The initial model accurately predicted age in healthy individuals (r * 0.92). TBI brains were estimated to be "older," with a mean predicted age difference (PAD) between chronological and estimated brain age of 4.66 years (±10.8) for GM and 5.97 years (±11.22) for WM. This PAD predicted cognitive impairment and correlated strongly with the time since TBI, indicating that brain tissue loss increases throughout the chronic postinjury phase. Interpretation TBI patients' brains were estimated to be older than their chronological age. This discrepancy increases with time since injury, suggesting that TBI accelerates the rate of brain atrophy. This may be an important factor in the increased susceptibility in TBI patients for dementia and other age-associated conditions, motivating further research into the age-like effects of brain injury and other neurological diseases. PMID:25623048

  7. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status.

  8. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  9. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  10. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory. PMID:27098421

  11. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07–1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options. PMID:23826273

  12. Tectonic significance of precambrian apatite fission-track ages from the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Babel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Apparent apatite fission-track ages from drill core penetrating basement on the flank of the Transcontinental Arch in northwestern Iowa range from 934 ?? 86 to 641 ?? 90 Ma. These ages, the oldest reported in North America, record at least two thermal events. The 934 Ma age, which is synchronous with KAr ages in the Grenville Province and many KAr whole-rock and RbSr isochron ages from the Lake Superior region, may document basement cooling caused by regional uplift and erosion of the crust. The remaining fission-track ages are products of a more recent thermal event, relative to the age of the samples, which raised temperatures into the zone of partial annealing. Heating may have occurred between the Middle Ordovician and Middle Cretaceous by burial of the basement with additional sediment. It is estimated that burial raised temperatures in the part of the basement sampled by the core to between 50 and 75??C. These temperature estimates imply paleogeothermal gradients of about 20??C/km, approximately two and one-half times present-day values, and burial of the basement by an additional 2-3 km of sediment. ?? 1986.

  13. Does age at onset have clinical significance in older adults with bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Houck, Patricia R.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective While age at onset may be useful in explaining some of the heterogeneity of bipolar disorder (BD) in large, mixed age groups, investigations to date have found few meaningful clinical differences between early versus late age at onset in older adults with BD. Methods Data were collected from sixty-one subjects aged 60 years and older, mean (SD) age 67.6 (7.0), with BD I (75%) and II (25%). Subjects were grouped by early (<40 years; n=43) versus late (≥40 years; n=18) age at onset. Early versus late onset groups were compared on psychiatric comorbidity, medical burden, and percentage of days well during study participation. Results Except for family history of major psychiatric illnesses, there were no differences between the groups on demographic or clinical variables. Patients with early and late onset experienced similar percentages of days well; however, those with early onset had slightly more percentage of days depressed than those with late onset (22% versus 13%) Conclusion Distinguishing older adults with BD by early or late age at onset has limited clinical usefulness. PMID:20082348

  14. Age of acquisition predicts rate of lexical evolution.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic

    2014-12-01

    The processes taking place during language acquisition are proposed to influence language evolution. However, evidence demonstrating the link between language learning and language evolution is, at best, indirect, constituting studies of laboratory-based artificial language learning studies or computational simulations of diachronic change. In the current study, a direct link between acquisition and evolution is established, showing that for two hundred fundamental vocabulary items, the age at which words are acquired is a predictor of the rate at which they have changed in studies of language evolution. Early-acquired words are more salient and easier to process than late-acquired words, and these early-acquired words are also more stably represented within the community's language. Analysing the properties of these early-acquired words potentially provides insight into the origins of communication, highlighting features of words that have been ultra-conserved in language.

  15. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement

  16. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8(.)6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with Δ (95% CI) = - 0.795 (- 1.436 to - 0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans.

  17. Accuracy of prediction of canine litter size and gestational age with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Hopper, B J; Lester, N V; Richardson, J L; Robertson, I D

    2007-06-01

    Different sonographic criteria have been developed to estimate canine fetal age, including fetal mensuration and assessment of fetal organ development. This retrospective study assessed the accuracy of gestational age and litter size predictions in 76 bitches using one of two techniques. The first method used the differential features of fetal organ development that occur in early and mid pregnancy, based on published tables for beagles. The second method used biparietal head and trunk diameters to predict gestational age based on tables published for late gestational Labrador Retrievers. The accuracy of the two methods was compared and the effect of maternal body weight and litter size evaluated. Litter size and maternal body weight did not affect the accuracy of gestational age prediction. Using a combination of both methods, the overall accuracy of predicting parturition date within 65 +/- 1 day and +/- 2 days was 70.8% and 86.1%, respectively. The correct litter size was predicted in 65% of cases, and in 89.5% of cases for +/- 1 pup. Pearson's correlation between actual litter size and predicted litter size was high (R = 0.957, P < 0.001). The organ development method of predicting gestational age was more accurate than late gestational fetal mensuration (P = 0.019). The optimum time for sonographic estimation of fetal age and litter size is early and mid pregnancy.

  18. 75 FR 57102 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Titian and the Golden Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Titian and the Golden Age of... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Titian and the Golden Age...

  19. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age...

  20. 76 FR 51458 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wonder of the Age: Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wonder of the Age: Master Painters... Age: Master Painters of India, 1100-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  1. Significance of apparent discrepanices in water ages derived from atmospheric radionuclides at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Robinson, B.; Sharma, P.

    1995-02-23

    Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C produced in the atmosphere are being used to estimate water residence times in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results thus far show a systematic discordance in that {sup 14}C-based ages are generally one to two orders of magnitude younger than {sup 36}Cl-based ages. This lack of concordance probably arises from one or more of the following reasons: (1) different transport mechanisms, e.g., vapor transport for {sup 14}C; (2) different magnitudes and timing of bomb-pulse signals; (3) mixing of waters from different flow paths; and (4) possibly inadequate methods for correcting for the effect of sample contamination by carbon or chlorine from sources other than the infiltrating water. Preliminary numerical simulation results using the FEHMN code suggest that spatial variation in infiltration rates can enhance lateral flow and mixing that leads to discordance in apparent ages depending on the dating technique. Examples are presented to show that disparate radiometric ages are inevitable and to be expected where mixing of waters of markedly different ages occurs.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age-related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60-81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form "The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice." Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym ("white"; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, "nice," versus the incongruous associated condition, "yellow"). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that - at both a neurophysiological and a functional level - the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive performance. PMID

  3. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be stars are continuously replenished by infalling comets. The IR spectra of these cometary grains appear to evolve temporally from initially amorphous astronomical silicates in young protostars to crystalline olivine in much older sources. Crystalline olivine can only be produced from amorphous silicates on a time scale of months-to-years via thermal annealing at temperatures near 1000 K. Since such sustained high temperatures only occur near the central star, dust annealed at 1000 K in inner nebular regions must be continuously transported beyond the nebular snowline to be incorporated into the next generation of cometesimals. The average formation age of a comet can therefore be measured as a ratio of the annealed crystalline olivine dust component to the total dust content of the comet. Comets formed from nearly pristine interstellar materials early in the protostellar nebula stage will contain very little crystalline dust whereas comets formed towards the end of the accretion period will incorporate a much higher percentage of annealed silicate. It is unlikely that only dust grains circulate from the inner to the outer nebula; the gas associated with such dust should also find its way beyond the snowline. Since this gas and dust will have equilibrated in the higher pressure-temperature regime of the inner nebula, it will contain a much higher proportion of hydrocarbons and ammonia than more pristine interstellar ices. Therefore, in addition to a higher fraction of crystalline dust, later forming comets should also contain higher ratios of hydrocarbons to CO and ammonia to N2 than do those formed early in the history of the nebula.

  4. Predicting Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence and Self-Efficacy in Survivors by Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziner, Kim Wagler; Sledge, George W.; Bell, Cynthia J.; Johns, Shelley; Miller, Kathy D.; Champion, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine the effect that age at diagnosis has on fear of breast cancer recurrence and to identify the predictors of fear of recurrence using self-efficacy as a mediator. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Two university cancer centers and one cooperative group in the midwestern United States. Sample 1,128 long-term survivors. Methods Survivors were eligible if they were aged 18–45 years (younger group) or 55–70 years (older group) at cancer diagnosis, had received chemotherapy, and were three to eight years postdiagnosis. Fear of recurrence was compared between younger and older groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to test variables’ prediction of fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, as well as breast cancer survivor self-efficacy mediation effects. Main Research Variables Fear of recurrence, breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, and age at diagnosis. Findings Survivors diagnosed at a younger age had significantly higher fear of recurrence, as well as health, role, womanhood, death, and parenting worries. Perceived risk of recurrence, trait anxiety, and breast cancer reminders explained significant variance in fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy. Breast cancer survivor self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of variables on fear of recurrence. Conclusions The findings suggest that breast cancer survivor self-efficacy may have a protective effect for survivors who are younger at diagnosis and have higher perceived risk of recurrence, higher trait anxiety, and more breast cancer reminders. Oncology nurses already use the skills required to support self-efficacy. Additional research is needed to define and test breast cancer survivor self-efficacy interventions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses are in a key role to assess fear of recurrence and provide self-efficacy interventions to reduce it in breast cancer survivors. Strategies to efficiently address fear of

  5. Rapid kimberlite ascent and the significance of Ar-Ar ages in xenolith phlogopites

    PubMed

    Kelley; Wartho

    2000-07-28

    Kimberlite eruptions bring exotic rock fragments and minerals, including diamonds, from deep within the mantle up to the surface. Such fragments are rapidly absorbed into the kimberlite magma so their appearance at the surface implies rapid transport from depth. High spatial resolution Ar-Ar age data on phlogopite grains in xenoliths from Malaita in the Solomon Islands, southwest Pacific, and Elovy Island in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, indicate transport times of hours to days depending upon the magma temperature. In addition, the data show that the phlogopite grains preserve Ar-Ar ages recorded at high temperature in the mantle, 700 degrees C above the conventional closure temperature.

  6. Rapid kimberlite ascent and the significance of Ar-Ar ages in xenolith phlogopites

    PubMed

    Kelley; Wartho

    2000-07-28

    Kimberlite eruptions bring exotic rock fragments and minerals, including diamonds, from deep within the mantle up to the surface. Such fragments are rapidly absorbed into the kimberlite magma so their appearance at the surface implies rapid transport from depth. High spatial resolution Ar-Ar age data on phlogopite grains in xenoliths from Malaita in the Solomon Islands, southwest Pacific, and Elovy Island in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, indicate transport times of hours to days depending upon the magma temperature. In addition, the data show that the phlogopite grains preserve Ar-Ar ages recorded at high temperature in the mantle, 700 degrees C above the conventional closure temperature. PMID:10915621

  7. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  8. Predicting cisplatin ototoxicity in children: the influence of age and the cumulative dose.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Womer, R B; Silber, J H

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for high-frequency hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. We scored off-treatment pure-tone audiograms from 153 children (age 6 months to 18 years) who had completed cisplatin therapy (40-200 mg/m(2)/cycle) for germ cell tumours, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma or osteosarcoma. The risk of developing bilateral moderate to severe high-frequency hearing loss was significantly related to the age at treatment (P<0.001), and individual and cumulative cisplatin dosages (both P<0.005). Logistic regression showed that children younger than 5 years were at a greater risk of sustaining cisplatin ototoxicity than children older than 15 years, controlling for individual and cumulative doses of cisplatin (Odds Ratio (OR)=21.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.48-180.94). Age at treatment and the cumulative dose of cisplatin were the two most important risk factors in predicting moderate to severe high-frequency hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. PMID:15519518

  9. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  10. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study.

  11. Age-related changes in the visual perception of phonologically significant contrasts.

    PubMed

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Henkin, Y

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the ability to speechread phonological contrasts is influenced by age. Forty-eight subjects were equally represented in three age groups: 8-9 years, 11-12 years and adults (20-29 years). The Hebrew version of the Speech Pattern Contrast (HeSPAC) test was administered by speechreading alone. Results showed that: age influenced performance; performance was contrast-dependent (place contrasts highly visible, manner and vowel height partially visible and voicing contrast invisible); hierarchy of contrast performance was similar for all age groups; Hebrew and English differ in the visual accessibility to speech contrasts in final voicing only; and females were found to be poorer speechreaders than males for the partially visible contrasts. The results suggest that speechreading at the phonological level follows a developmental course. The implications of these findings extend to recommendations provided to children in noisy listening conditions, speechreading training in hearing-impaired children and those with central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), and to the design of sensory aids. PMID:11201323

  12. The Significance of Dewey's Aesthetics in Art Education in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Kazuyo

    2009-01-01

    On the occasion of Dewey's sesquicentennial anniversary, Kazuyo Nakamura explores Dewey's aesthetics, which holds the plurality of art and culture in high regard. Nakamura develops a theoretical foundation for art education in the present age of globalization based on educational insights drawn from Dewey's aesthetics. The theme of this essay…

  13. Aging is a more significant determinant of hepatic DNA methylation patterns than a western style diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated how DNA methylation patterns change with aging and a Western style diet (WSD) in the liver. 2-month old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to control diet (CD) or WSD for either the following 6 (young) or 18 months (old). WSD is high in fat and low in fiber, vitamins and minerals. Met...

  14. Age-Correction of Test Scores Reduces the Validity of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Predicting Progression to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hessler, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver; Förstl, Hans; Mösch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education-norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated. Methods Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test) of dementia-free participants aged ≥65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1) age and education, (2) education only, (3) age only and (4) without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals. Results 82 (15.3%) of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p<0.001). Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 840.90, model fit χ2 (1)  = 144.27, HR  = 1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87) and the highest with education-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 815.80, model fit χ2 (1)  = 171.16, HR  = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88). Conclusion The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. PMID:25171483

  15. Significantly Improved HIV Inhibitor Efficacy Prediction Employing Proteochemometric Models Generated From Antivirogram Data

    PubMed Central

    van Westen, Gerard J. P.; Hendriks, Alwin; Wegner, Jörg K.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; van Vlijmen, Herman W. T.; Bender, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Infection with HIV cannot currently be cured; however it can be controlled by combination treatment with multiple anti-retroviral drugs. Given different viral genotypes for virtually each individual patient, the question now arises which drug combination to use to achieve effective treatment. With the availability of viral genotypic data and clinical phenotypic data, it has become possible to create computational models able to predict an optimal treatment regimen for an individual patient. Current models are based only on sequence data derived from viral genotyping; chemical similarity of drugs is not considered. To explore the added value of chemical similarity inclusion we applied proteochemometric models, combining chemical and protein target properties in a single bioactivity model. Our dataset was a large scale clinical database of genotypic and phenotypic information (in total ca. 300,000 drug-mutant bioactivity data points, 4 (NNRTI), 8 (NRTI) or 9 (PI) drugs, and 10,700 (NNRTI) 10,500 (NRTI) or 27,000 (PI) mutants). Our models achieved a prediction error below 0.5 Log Fold Change. Moreover, when directly compared with previously published sequence data, derived models PCM performed better in resistance classification and prediction of Log Fold Change (0.76 log units versus 0.91). Furthermore, we were able to successfully confirm both known and identify previously unpublished, resistance-conferring mutations of HIV Reverse Transcriptase (e.g. K102Y, T216M) and HIV Protease (e.g. Q18N, N88G) from our dataset. Finally, we applied our models prospectively to the public HIV resistance database from Stanford University obtaining a correct resistance prediction rate of 84% on the full set (compared to 80% in previous work on a high quality subset). We conclude that proteochemometric models are able to accurately predict the phenotypic resistance based on genotypic data even for novel mutants and mixtures. Furthermore, we add an applicability domain to the

  16. YIELD STRENGTH PREDICTION FOR RAPID AGE-HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    A constitutive model has been developed to predict the yield strength aging curves for aluminum casting alloys during non-isothermal age-hardening processes. The model provides the specific relationship between the process variables and yield strength. Several aging heat treatment scenarios have been investigated using the proposed model, including two-step aging recipes. Two-step aging heat treatments involve a low temperature regime to promote nucleation of secondary phases and a second step at higher temperature for the growth of the secondary phases. The predicted results show that yield strength of approximately 300MPa might be obtained in shorter aging time, of approximately 30 minutes. Thus, better mechanical properties can be obtained by optimizing the time-temperature schedules for the precipitation hardening process of heat treatable aluminum alloys.

  17. Age and tectonic significance of volcanic rocks in the northern Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Fleck, Robert J.; Denison, Rodger E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic rocks, mostly basalts and some andesites, are interbedded with middle Miocene strata and are overlain by younger rocks throughout the greater part of the Los Angeles Basin, California. Roughly correlative flows, previously dated radiometrically (or paleontologically) at about 16.4 to 10.7 Ma, crop out in five separate regions around the basin perimeter. Los Angeles Basin volcanic rocks have special meaning because they offer clues to tectonomagmatic events associated with onset of clockwise transrotation of the western Transverse Ranges region and to the timing and locus of the initial basin opening. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of near-tholeiitic olivine basalts of the Topanga Formation (Hoots, 1931) from three sites in the easternmost Santa Monica Mountains, combined with 87Sr/86Sr dating of fossil carbonates from interstratified marine beds at nine sites, establish a new age of 17.4 Ma for these oldest known Topanga-age volcanics of the Los Angeles Basin. We also record three new 40Ar/39Ar ages (15.3 Ma) from andesitic flows of the lower Glendora Volcanics at the northeast edge of the basin, 70 km east of the Santa Monica Mountains. A whole-rock determination of 17.2±0.5 Ma for nearby altered olivine basalt in the unfossiliferous Glendora volcanic sequence is questionable because of a complex 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum suggestive of 39Ar recoil, but it may indicate an older volcanic unit in this eastern area. We hypothesize that the 17.4-Ma volcanics in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains are an early expression of deep crustal magmatism accompanying the earliest extensional tectonism associated with rifting. The extremely thick younger volcanic pile in the western and central parts of the range may suggest that this early igneous activity in the eastern area was premonitory. Paleomagnetic declination data are needed to determine the pre-transrotational orientation of the eastern Santa Monica Mountains volcanic sequence. The new age determinations do not

  18. Trajectories of Aggression from Toddlerhood to Age 9 Predict Academic and Social Functioning through Age 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Burchinal, Margaret; Poe, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined behavior problems and social and academic outcomes from ages 9 through 12 in children classified into five trajectories of physical aggression, on the basis of maternal ratings obtained from 24 months through 9 years (N = 1195). Methods:…

  19. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  20. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  1. Age and significance of felsic dikes from the UHP western gneiss region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.; Hacker, Bradley R.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-one plagioclase-bearing dikes were analyzed to place firmer limits on the end of (ultra)high-pressure (UHP) metamorphism across the Western Gneiss Region (WGR). Nineteen dikes were analyzed with laser ablation split-stream petrochronology to tie the U-Pb dates to zircon rare earth element (REE) chemistry, and a few key samples were analyzed by chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry to provide high-precision constraints. All analyzed dikes yielded zircons with REE chemistry consistent with low-pressure crystallization. Approximately half of the dikes yield Precambrian dates; nondeformed dikes of this age support previous interpretations that much of the WGR underwent limited deformation during Caledonian subduction and exhumation. The oldest Caledonian dikes have dates that overlap with the circa 420-400 Ma eclogite dates from the region; this discrepancy indicates that either (1) cryptic structures separate early exhumed material from later exhumed material, (2) some of the dike dates are not low-pressure crystallization ages, or (3) post-406 Ma dates from eclogites are posteclogite-facies retrogression ages.

  2. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  3. Midlife memory improvement predicts preservation of hippocampal volume in old age.

    PubMed

    Borghesani, Paul R; Weaver, Kurt E; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Richards, Anne L; Madhyastha, Tara M; Kahn, Ali R; Liang, Olivia; Ellenbogen, Rachel L; Beg, M Faisal; Schaie, K Warner; Willis, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    This study examines whether midlife change in episodic memory predicts hippocampal volume in old age. From the Seattle Longitudinal Study we retrospectively identified 84 healthy, cognitively normal individuals, age 52 to 87, whose episodic memory had reliably declined (n = 33), improved (n = 28) or remained stable (n = 23) over a 14-year period in midlife (age 43-63). Midlife memory improvement was associated with 13% larger hippocampal volume (p < 0.01) in old age (age 66-87), compared with old age individuals whose midlife episodic memory had either declined or remained stable during midlife. Midlife memory change did not predict total hippocampal volume for those currently in late middle age (age 52-65). The pattern of findings was not modified by gender, apolipoprotein ε4 status, education or current memory performance. Change in midlife memory scores over 14 years, but not any single assessment, predicted hippocampal volumes in old age, emphasizing the importance of longitudinal data in examining brain-cognition relationships. These findings suggest that improvement in memory in midlife is associated with sparing of hippocampal volume in later life.

  4. "A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers": Correction to Levy et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Reports an error in "A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers" by Becca R. Levy, Luigi Ferrucci, Alan B. Zonderman, Martin D. Slade, Juan Troncoso and Susan M. Resnick (Psychology and Aging, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 7, 2015, np). In the article, the correct analyses were reported for bootstrapping; however, the sizes of the bootstrapping samples for Studies 1 and 2 were reversed. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-54839-001.) Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Significance of a Behavioral Economic Index of Reward Value in Predicting Drinking Problem Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Vuchinich, Rudy E.; Black, Bethany C.; Rippens, Paula D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons improved prediction of drinking outcomes beyond established biopsychosocial predictors. Preferences for immediate drinking versus more delayed rewards made possible by saving money were determined from expenditures prior to…

  6. Quantum-to-continuum prediction of ductility loss in aluminium-magnesium alloys due to dynamic strain aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keralavarma, S. M.; Bower, A. F.; Curtin, W. A.

    2014-08-01

    Negative strain-rate sensitivity due to dynamic strain aging in Aluminium-5XXX alloys leads to reduced ductility and plastic instabilities at room temperature, inhibiting application of these alloys in many forming processes. Here a hierarchical multiscale model is presented that uses (i) quantum and atomic information on solute energies and motion around a dislocation core, (ii) dislocation models to predict the effects of solutes on dislocation motion through a dislocation forest, (iii) a thermo-kinetic constitutive model that faithfully includes the atomistic and dislocation scale mechanisms and (iv) a finite-element implementation, to predict the ductility as a function of temperature and strain rate in AA5182. The model, which contains no significant adjustable parameters, predicts the observed steep drop in ductility at room temperature, which can be directly attributed to the atomistic aging mechanism. On the basis of quantum inputs, this multiscale theory can be used in the future to design new alloys with higher ductility.

  7. Extended Aging Theories for Predictions of Safe Operational Life of Critical Airborne Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Chen, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The previously developed Ko closed-form aging theory has been reformulated into a more compact mathematical form for easier application. A new equivalent loading theory and empirical loading theories have also been developed and incorporated into the revised Ko aging theory for the prediction of a safe operational life of airborne failure-critical structural components. The new set of aging and loading theories were applied to predict the safe number of flights for the B-52B aircraft to carry a launch vehicle, the structural life of critical components consumed by load excursion to proof load value, and the ground-sitting life of B-52B pylon failure-critical structural components. A special life prediction method was developed for the preflight predictions of operational life of failure-critical structural components of the B-52H pylon system, for which no flight data are available.

  8. On the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs.

    PubMed

    Rigali, Sébastien; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. PMID:25387521

  9. The Age and Tectonic Significance of the Paleoproterozoic Great Falls Tectonic Zone, Southwestern Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Wooden, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone (GFTZ) separates the Archean Wyoming province from the Hearne/Medicine Hat craton. Its northeastern limit is a high angle intersection with the Trans-Hudson orogen and marks the site of the Williston basin. Its southwestern extent probably reaches the Neoproterozoic margin of Laurentia. Though long recognized as a fundamental boundary in the accretionary history of Laurentia, its overall structure and developmental history are not well constrained. Limited exposures. Sm-Nd systematics and U-Pb ages zircons from metasedimentary rocks in the Little Belt Mountains (MT) and xenoliths provide strong evidence for consumption of juvenile oceanic crust and development of a continental magmatic arc at ~1.86 Ga on Paleoproterozoic to Archean crust of the Medicine Hat/Hearne blocks, rather than Wyoming crust. U-Pb ages (magmatic and xenocrystic zircons) and cooling ages (40Ar/39Ar) of exposed crust, drill cores, and xenoliths suggest that the eastern GFTZ beneath the Williston Basin has a similar history to crust formed in the central GFTZ and Trans-Hudson zones. The western GFTZ has a more complex crustal structure and metamorphic history involving Paleoproterozoic tectonic accretion and reworking of Archean crust (~1.77 Ga) as well as magmatic additions both younger (to ~1.65 Ga) and older (to ~2.45 Ga) than this event. This complexity strongly suggests the western GFTZ does not reflect a single collision following arc formation, but more likely indicates that the western GFTZ records collisions between multiple terranes, which may or may not include the Medicine Hat/Hearne block. The spatial coincidence of this complex collisional zone and the formation of the Belt basin provides an analog to the formation of the Williston basin of the eastern GFTZ. Tectonically, the formation of these major basins along the GFTZ suggests it originally developed with a strong transcurrent component that predisposed the GFTZ crust to basin development.

  10. Severe hypoxaemia can predict unfavourable clinical outcomes in individuals with pulmonary embolism aged over 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Caio Simoes; Resende, Fernanda Simoes Seabra; Rodrigues, Marcelo Palmeira

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is an urgent clinical condition that can progress in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, we sought to develop an easy-to-apply algorithm, to be based on readily available clinical indicators, effective in predicting unfavourable outcomes. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study based on systematically collected data in a database. The study included 102 patients with APE who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital. The following outcomes were defined as unfavourable shock, the need for mechanical ventilation, the use of thrombolytics, and death. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore variables significantly associated with outcome and to calculate post-test probabilities. RESULTS The prevalence of unfavourable outcomes was 25.5% (26 of the 102 patients with APE). The risk of an unfavourable outcome was reduced to 7.0% for patients with APE who were aged ≤ 40 years. In patients with APE who were aged > 40 years, the presence of hypoxaemia (i.e. peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%) alone increased the risk of an unfavourable outcome to 57.0%. A recent history of trauma and the presence of pre-existing lung or heart disease were significantly associated with unfavourable outcomes. The inclusion of those variables in the logistic regression model increased the post-test risk of an unfavourable outcome to 65.0%–86.0%. CONCLUSION Advanced age (i.e. > 40 years), the presence of hypoxaemia, a recent history of trauma and the presence of pre-existing lung or heart disease are risk factors for unfavourable outcome in patients with APE. PMID:25273933

  11. Age and significance of former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballantyne, C.K.; Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geomorphological mapping provides evidence for two former low-level corrie glaciers on Hoy, both defined by end moraines. Five 10Be exposure ages obtained from sandstone boulders on moraine crests fall within the range 12.4??1.5 ka to 10.4??1.7 ka (weighted mean 11.7??0.6 ka), confirming that these glaciers developed during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stade (LLS) of 12.9-11.5 cal. ka BP, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach to establish the age of LLS glacier limits. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of one of the glaciers (99 m) is the lowest recorded for any LLS glacier, and the area-weighted mean ELA for both (141 m) is consistent with a general northward ELA decrease along the west coast of Britain. The size of moraines fronting these small (???0.75 km2) glaciers implies that glacier termini remained at or close to their limits for a prolonged period. The apparent restriction of LLS glaciers to only two sites on Hoy probably reflects topographic favourability, and particularly the extent of snow-contributing areas.

  12. Significant roles of anti-aging protein klotho and fibroblast growth factor23 in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hou-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The klotho gene has been identified as an aging suppressor that encodes a protein involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inactivation of the klotho gene causes serious systemic disorders resembling human aging, such as atherosclerosis, diffuse vascular calcification and shortened life span. Klotho has been demonstrated to ameliorate vascular endothelial dysfunction and delay vascular calcification. Furthermore, klotho gene polymorphisms in the human are associated with various cardiovascular events. Recent experiments show that klotho may reduce transient receptor potential canonical6 (TRPC6) channels, resulting in protecting the heart from hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction. Fibroblast growth factor23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. FGF23 accelerates urinary phosphate excretion and suppresses 1,25-dihydroxy vitaminD3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis in the presence of FGF receptor1 (FGFR1) and its co-receptor klotho, principally in the kidney. The hormonal affects of circulating klotho protein and FGF23 on vascular and heart have contributed to an understanding of their roles in the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy. Klotho and FGF23 appear to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic strategy for clinical intervention. PMID:26347327

  13. The significance of peroxisome function in chronological aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sophie D; van Roermund, Carlo W; Wanders, Ronald J A; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-01-01

    We studied the chronological lifespan of glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to the function of intact peroxisomes. We analyzed four different peroxisome-deficient (pex) phenotypes. These included Δpex3 cells that lack peroxisomal membranes and in which all peroxisomal proteins are mislocalized together with Δpex6 in which all matrix proteins are mislocalized to the cytosol, whereas membrane proteins are still correctly sorted to peroxisomal ghosts. In addition, we analyzed two mutants in which the peroxisomal location of the β-oxidation machinery is in part disturbed. We analyzed Δpex7 cells that contain virtually normal peroxisomes, except that all matrix proteins that contain a peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (PTS2, also including thiolase), are mislocalized to the cytosol. In Δpex5 cells, peroxisomes only contain matrix proteins with a PTS2 in conjunction with all proteins containing a peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1, including all β-oxidation enzymes except thiolase) are mislocalized to the cytosol. We show that intact peroxisomes are an important factor in yeast chronological aging because all pex mutants showed a reduced chronological lifespan. The strongest reduction was observed in Δpex5 cells. Our data indicate that this is related to the complete inactivation of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway in these cells due to the mislocalization of thiolase. Our studies suggest that during chronological aging, peroxisomal β-oxidation contributes to energy generation by the oxidation of fatty acids that are released by degradation of storage materials and recycled cellular components during carbon starvation conditions. PMID:23755917

  14. The significance of peroxisome function in chronological aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sophie D; van Roermund, Carlo W; Wanders, Ronald J A; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-10-01

    We studied the chronological lifespan of glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to the function of intact peroxisomes. We analyzed four different peroxisome-deficient (pex) phenotypes. These included Δpex3 cells that lack peroxisomal membranes and in which all peroxisomal proteins are mislocalized together with Δpex6 in which all matrix proteins are mislocalized to the cytosol, whereas membrane proteins are still correctly sorted to peroxisomal ghosts. In addition, we analyzed two mutants in which the peroxisomal location of the β-oxidation machinery is in part disturbed. We analyzed Δpex7 cells that contain virtually normal peroxisomes, except that all matrix proteins that contain a peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (PTS2, also including thiolase), are mislocalized to the cytosol. In Δpex5 cells, peroxisomes only contain matrix proteins with a PTS2 in conjunction with all proteins containing a peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1, including all β-oxidation enzymes except thiolase) are mislocalized to the cytosol. We show that intact peroxisomes are an important factor in yeast chronological aging because all pex mutants showed a reduced chronological lifespan. The strongest reduction was observed in Δpex5 cells. Our data indicate that this is related to the complete inactivation of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway in these cells due to the mislocalization of thiolase. Our studies suggest that during chronological aging, peroxisomal β-oxidation contributes to energy generation by the oxidation of fatty acids that are released by degradation of storage materials and recycled cellular components during carbon starvation conditions.

  15. The timing and precision of action prediction in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Diersch, Nadine; Jones, Alex L; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Successful social interactions depend on the ability to anticipate other people's actions. Current conceptualizations of brain function propose that causes of sensory input are inferred through their integration with internal predictions generated in the observer's motor system during action observation. Less is known concerning how action prediction changes with age. Previously we showed that internal action representations are less specific in older compared with younger adults at behavioral and neural levels. Here, we characterize how neural activity varies while healthy older adults aged 56-71 years predict the time-course of an unfolding action as well as the relation to task performance. By using fMRI, brain activity was measured while participants observed partly occluded actions and judged the temporal coherence of the action continuation that was manipulated. We found that neural activity in frontoparietal and occipitotemporal regions increased the more an action continuation was shifted backwards in time. Action continuations that were shifted towards the future preferentially engaged early visual cortices. Increasing age was associated with neural activity that extended from posterior to anterior regions in frontal and superior temporal cortices. Lower sensitivity in action prediction resulted in activity increases in the caudate. These results imply that the neural implementation of predicting actions undergoes similar changes as the neural process of executing actions in older adults. The comparison between internal predictions and sensory input seems to become less precise with age leading to difficulties in anticipating observed actions accurately, possibly due to less specific internal action models. PMID:26503586

  16. Six-Minute Walk Test: Reference Values and Prediction Equation in Healthy Boys Aged 5 to12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Goemans, Nathalie; Klingels, Katrijn; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Boons, Stefanie; Verstraete, Liese; Peeters, Charlotte; Feys, Hilde; Buyse, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to (1) generate normative data in healthy boys aged 5–12 years for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), an outcome measure currently used in clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), (2) to describe the relation with anthropometric variables and myometry, and (3) to compare our data with published equations. METHODS The 6MWT was conducted in 442 boys according to a standardized protocol, as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions for knee flexion and extension were recorded with a hand-held myometer. RESULTS The 6MWD increased significantly with age, from 478.0±44.1 m at age 5, to 650.0±76.8 m at age 12, with the steepest increase between 5 and 8 years. Age- and height related percentile curves of the 6MWD were developed. Correlations with anthropometric variables were fair to good (age r = 0.60, height r = 0.57, weight r = 0.44). Myometric variables (knee flexors and extensors) showed correlations of 0.46 and 0.50 respectively. When dividing into two age categories (5–8 years, 9–12 years), these magnitudes of correlations only applied to the younger age group. Additionally, predicted values were calculated according to available reference equations (Geiger and Ben Saad), indicating an overestimation by those equations. Finally, the Geiger equation was refitted to our population. CONCLUSION The percentile curves according to age and height provide a useful tool in the assessment of ambulatory capacity in boys aged 5 to 12 years. Significant correlations with anthropometric variables and myometry were only found in the 5–8 years age group. The Geiger prediction equation, currently used to assess ambulatory capacity in DMD was refitted to obtain a more accurate prediction model based on a large sample with a homogenous distribution across the age categories 5 to 12 years and applying the methodology as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. PMID:24391899

  17. Comorbidities, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Age Predict Outcomes after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Graf, Solomon A; Vaughn, Jennifer E; Chauncey, Thomas R; Storer, Barry E; Gopal, Ajay K; Holmberg, Leona A; McCune, Jeannine S; Bensinger, William I; Maloney, David G; Press, Oliver W; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2016-09-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment option for many patients diagnosed with lymphoma. The effects of patient-specific factors on outcomes after autologous HCT are not well characterized. Here, we studied a sequential cohort of 754 patients with lymphoma treated with autologous HCT between 2000 and 2010. In multivariate analysis, patient-specific factors that were statistically significantly associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) included HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) scores  ≥ 3 (HR, 1.94; P = .05), a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) (HR, 2.17; P = .004), and older age stratified by decade (HR, 1.29; P = .02). HCT-CI ≥ 3, a history of AUD, and age > 50 were combined into a composite risk model: NRM and overall mortality rates at 5 years increased from 6% to 30% and 32% to 58%, respectively, in patients with 0 versus all 3 risk factors. The HCT-CI is a valid tool in predicting mortality risks after autologous HCT for lymphoma. AUD and older age exert independent prognostic impact on outcomes. Whether AUD indicates additional organ dysfunction or sociobehavioral abnormality warrants further investigation. The composite model may improve risk stratification before autologous HCT. PMID:27311969

  18. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    PubMed

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity. PMID:22724432

  19. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    PubMed

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity.

  20. Location, Age, and Tectonic Significance of the Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Criss, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ) represents the boundary between crust overlying Proterozoic North American lithosphere and Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic intraoceanic crust accreted during Cretaceous time. Highly deformed plutons constituted of both arc and sialic components intrude the WISZ and in places are thrust over the accreted terranes. Pronounced variations in Sr, Nd, and O isotope ratios and in major and trace element composition occur across the suture zone in Mesozoic plutons. The WISZ is located by an abrupt west to east increase in initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, traceable for over 300 km from eastern Washington near Clarkston, east along the Clearwater River thorough a bend to the south of about 110? from Orofino Creek to Harpster, and extending south-southwest to near Ola, Idaho, where Columbia River basalts conceal its extension to the south. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages of hornblende and biotite from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous plutons in the accreted terranes are highly discordant within about 10 km of the WISZ, exhibiting patterns of thermal loss caused by deformation, subsequent batholith intrusion, and rapid rise of the continental margin. Major crustal movements within the WISZ commenced after about 135 Ma, but much of the displacement may have been largely vertical, during and following emplacement of batholith-scale silicic magmas. Deformation continued until at least 85 Ma and probably until 74 Ma, progressing from south to north.

  1. Ages and petrogenetic significance of igneous mangerite-charnockite suites associated with massif anorthosites, Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.; Hunt, P.A. )

    1990-03-01

    U-Pb ages of zircon fractions of major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) igneous suites imply that this magmatism inaugurated what is widely regarded as the Grenvillian event between about 1.16 and 1.12 Ga ago over about two-thirds of the Grenville Province east, northeast, and southeast of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Pre-Grenvillian AMCG suites about 1.36 and 1.64 Ga old have much more restricted distribution. An apparent time lag of about 0.05 to 0.10 Ga is indicated between culmination of AMCG magmatism and the widely recognized Grenvillian metamorphic peak (about 1.10 to 1.03 Ga), perhaps the most distinctive hallmark of the Grenville event. The time lag is consistent with conductive heating of thick subcontinental lithosphere that began with initiation of AMCG magmatism and continued until geotherms rose sufficiently to produce granulites in much of the lower to middle crust. Tectonic crustal thickening did not likely occur until later in the sequence of events, perhaps after some cooling from the metamorphic peak. Compressive forces were externally applied, possibly at a distant plate margin, while the continental lithosphere was still thermally weakened from preceding magmatic-metamorphic culminations.

  2. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  3. Protein profiling reveals consequences of lifestyle choices on predicted biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Enroth, Stefan; Enroth, Sofia Bosdotter; Johansson, Åsa; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating proteins accurately predicts chronological age, as well as anthropometrical measurements such as weight, height and hip circumference. The plasma protein profile can also be used to identify lifestyle factors that accelerate and decelerate ageing. We found smoking, high BMI and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to increase the predicted chronological age by 2–6 years, while consumption of fatty fish, drinking moderate amounts of coffee and exercising reduced the predicted age by approximately the same amount. This method can be applied to dried blood spots and may thus be useful in forensic medicine to provide basic anthropometrical measures for an individual based on a biological evidence sample. PMID:26619799

  4. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  5. Reliable ratings or reading tea leaves: can parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers predict ADHD at age six?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sarah; Schneiderman, Robyn L; Rajendran, Khushmand; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N = 104, 75 % boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (0.47) years] were followed over 2 years (mean = 26.44 months, SD = 5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (0.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. At age 6, 56 (53.8 %) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers' behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians' ratings of preschoolers' inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time.

  6. Using the IAT to predict ethnic and racial discrimination: small effect sizes of unknown societal significance.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT studies, and we correct an error by Greenwald et al. that obscures a key contribution of our meta-analysis. In the end, all of the meta-analyses converge on the conclusion that, across diverse methods of coding and analyzing the data, IAT scores are not good predictors of ethnic or racial discrimination, and explain, at most, small fractions of the variance in discriminatory behavior in controlled laboratory settings. The thought experiments presented by Greenwald et al. go well beyond the lab to claim systematic IAT effects in noisy real-world settings, but these hypothetical exercises depend crucially on untested and, arguably, untenable assumptions.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M.; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B.; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form “The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice.” Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (“white”; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, “nice,” versus the incongruous associated condition, “yellow”). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to

  8. 69 FR 8512 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Coming of Age in Ancient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-24

    ....), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999 (64 FR 56014), Delegation of Authority No. 236 of October 19, 1999 (64 FR 57920), as amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 (68 FR... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Coming of Age in Ancient...

  9. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  10. [Diagnostic significance of index alpha-amylase/glucose in amniotic fluid in prediction of fetal maturity].

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Sałacińska, B; Broniarczyk, D; Swiatkowska, E

    2001-09-01

    An increase in alpha-amylase activity with parallel decrease in glucose concentration in amniotic fluid is observed during pregnancy. This interdependence is a theoretical basis for using an alpha-amylase/glucose index in fetal maturity evaluation. The aim of the study was to investigate usefulness of the alpha-amylase/glucose index in amniotic fluid in prenatal fetal maturity diagnosis. The study was carried out on 180 pregnant women, chosen by random selection, hospitalized in Polish Mother's Health Centre Hospital in the period from 15.06.1994 to 31.12.1995. 223 samples of amniotic fluid were tested for glucose concentration and alpha-amylase activity. It was found that the alpha-amylase/glucose < 6.0 index indicates a possibility of RDS occurring in neonates born before 72 hours of performed determination. The alpha-amylase/glucose > or = 6.0 index has high diagnostic value (95.8%) in prenatal prediction of fetal lung maturity. PMID:11757480

  11. Prediction of Significant Wave Heights in Extreme Storms Affecting Far North Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, E. N.; Thornbrugh, C.; Lynch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Barrow, Alaska is located at the northernmost point of the United States on the shore of the Arctic Ocean. The area surrounding Barrow is low lying and is thus vulnerable to coastal flooding via waves and storm surges. Previous modeling of flooding resulting from a storm that affected Barrow and the rest of the North Slope coast region in October 1963 did not reproduce observed flooding, which was substantially greater than modeled. It is hypothesized that because this model only incorporated storm surge and not waves, the model was unable to simulate the total amount of flooding. The current study examines a recent storm that affected the North Slope of Alaska on July 28-30, 2003, and includes prediction of wave height using the SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. In addition this study considers the formation and development, climatological context, and community responses for this storm. Results from the wave modeling portion of this study will be incorporated into a coastal flooding model in order to better simulate the coastal environment under extreme conditions in this area.

  12. PREDICTING SIGNIFICANCE OF UNKNOWN VARIANTS IN GLIAL TUMORS THROUGH SUB-CLASS ENRICHMENT.

    PubMed

    Fichtenholtz, Alex M; Camarda, Nicholas D; Neumann, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Glial tumors have been heavily studied and sequenced, leading to scores of findings about altered genes. This explosion in knowledge has not been matched with clinical success, but efforts to understand the synergies between drivers of glial tumors may alleviate the situation. We present a novel molecular classification system that captures the combinatorial nature of relationships between alterations in these diseases. We use this classification to mine for enrichment of variants of unknown significance, and demonstrate a method for segregating unknown variants with functional importance from passengers and SNPs. PMID:26776195

  13. Applicability of an empirical law to predict significant sea-wave heights from microseisms along the Western Ligurian Coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Scafidi, Davide; Cutroneo, Laura; Gallino, Stefano; Capello, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The use of microseisms with appropriate predictive laws is a reliable method for estimating such sea-wave parameters as period and significant height. Through the use of opportune predictive laws calibrated with measurements obtained from wave buoys, it is possible to determine the significant height of the wave as a function of the spectral energy-content of the microseism. In this paper we will present a procedure that utilises microseisms recorded by a micro network of five seismic stations to predict the significant height of waves, and its uncertainty, along the western Ligurian coast (Italy). The calibration and validation of the procedure was performed using wave measurements obtained from a wave buoy off Capo Mele (Imperia, Italy) over a two and a half year period. The differences between the significant heights measured by the wave buoy and the empirical predictions were less than 10 cm (corresponding to 10% of the mean measured value) for 47% of the data and less than 20 cm (corresponding to 20% of the mean measured value) for 72%.

  14. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  15. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  16. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  17. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age…

  18. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  19. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  20. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). After 3 years of follow-up, the ⊿baPWV was significantly greater in subjects with persistent depression compared with those with no depression (36 ± 28 vs. 18 ± 10 cm s(-1), P = 0.02). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, persistent depression was significantly associated with ⊿baPWV by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.261, P < 0.01). To sum up, persistent depression was a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  1. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  2. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  3. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  4. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age.

  5. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  6. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  7. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  8. Damage Mechanisms of Filled Siloxanes for Predictive Multiscale Modeling of Aging Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, B; Maxwell, R; de Teresa, S; Dinh, L; Gee, R

    2002-04-02

    Predictions of component performance versus lifetime are often risky for complex materials in which there may be many underlying aging or degradation mechanisms. In order to develop more accurate predictive models for silica-filled siloxane components, we are studying damage mechanisms over a broad range of size domains, linked together through several modeling efforts. Atomistic and molecular dynamic modeling has elucidated the chemistry of the silica filler to polymer interaction, as this interaction plays a key role in this material's aging behavior. This modeling work has been supported by experimental data on the removal of water from the silica surface, the effect of the surrounding polymer on this desiccation, and on the subsequent change in the mechanical properties of the system. Solid State NMR efforts have characterized the evolution of the polymer and filler dynamics as the material is damaged through irradiation or desiccation. These damage signatures have been confirmed by direct measurements of changes in polymer crosslink density and filler interaction as measured by solvent swelling, and by mechanical property tests. Data from the changes at these molecular levels are simultaneously feeding the development of age-aware constitutive models for polymer behavior. In addition, the microstructure of the foam, including under load, has been determined by Computed Tomography, and this data is being introduced into Finite Element Analysis codes to allow component level models. All of these techniques are directed towards the incorporation of molecular and microstructural aging signatures into predictive models for overall component performance.

  9. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  10. Prediction of radionuclide aging in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Roig, M; Vidal, M; Rauret, G; Rigol, A

    2007-01-01

    The aging of soil-pollutant interaction, which may lead to an increase in pollutant fixation, is the main driving force in the natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Here a test was evaluated to predict the aging of radiostrontium and radiocesium in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas. After contamination, soils were maintained at various temperatures for up to 12 mo, with or without drying-wetting (DW) cycles. Changes in the quantity of radionuclide reversibly sorbed over time were monitored using an extraction test (1 mol L(-1) NH(4)Cl; 10 mL g(-1); 16 h). The fixed fraction could not be predicted from soil properties controlling the sorption step. Aging was not as relevant for Sr as for Cs. The time elapsed since contamination was the main factor responsible for the slight (up to 1.3-fold) decreases in Sr extraction yields. The additional effect of DW cycles was negligible. Instead, all factors accelerated Cs aging due to the enhancement of Cs trapping by clay interlayer collapse, with up to 20-fold increases in Cs fixation. The DW cycles also caused secondary effects on the Cs-specific sorption pool, which were beneficial or detrimental depending on the soil type. Extraction yields from laboratory aged samples agreed with those from field samples taken a few years after the Chernobyl accident. These results confirm the prediction capacity of the laboratory test and its usefulness in risk assessment exercises and in the design of intervention actions, particularly because neither fixation nor aging were related to the soil properties, such as clay content. PMID:17526873

  11. Preschool Anxiety Disorders Predict Different Patterns of Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity at School-Age

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kimberly L. H.; Angold, Adrian; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Copeland, William E.; Gaur, Pooja; Pelphrey, Kevin; Song, Allen W.; Egger, Helen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation. Methods Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces. Results A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders. PMID:25625285

  12. Dental age estimation and different predictive ability of various tooth types in the Czech population: data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Velemínská, Jana; Pilný, Ales; Cepek, Miroslav; Kot'ová, Magdaléna; Kubelková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Dental development is frequently used to estimate age in many anthropological specializations. The aim of this study was to extract an accurate predictive age system for the Czech population and to discover any different predictive ability of various tooth types and their ontogenetic stability during infancy and adolescence. A cross-sectional panoramic X-ray study was based on developmental stages assessment of mandibular teeth (Moorrees et al. 1963) using 1393 individuals aged from 3 to 17 years. Data mining methods were used for dental age estimation. These are based on nonlinear relationships between the predicted age and data sets. Compared with other tested predictive models, the GAME method predicted age with the highest accuracy. Age-interval estimations between the 10th and 90th percentiles ranged from -1.06 to +1.01 years in girls and from -1.13 to +1.20 in boys. Accuracy was expressed by RMS error, which is the average deviation between estimated and chronological age. The predictive value of individual teeth changed during the investigated period from 3 to 17 years. When we evaluated the whole period, the second molars exhibited the best predictive ability. When evaluating partial age periods, we found that the accuracy of biological age prediction declines with increasing age (from 0.52 to 1.20 years in girls and from 0.62 to 1.22 years in boys) and that the predictive importance of tooth types changes, depending on variability and the number of developmental stages in the age interval. GAME is a promising tool for age-interval estimation studies as they can provide reliable predictive models. PMID:24466642

  13. Ageing increases reliance on sensorimotor prediction through structural and functional differences in frontostriatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Ingram, James N.; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier A.; Henson, Richard N.; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Edward; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Matthews, Fiona E.; Marslen-Wilson, William; Shafto, Meredith A.; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; McCarrey, Anna; Mustafa, Abdur; Price, Darren; Samu, David; Taylor, Jason R.; Treder, Matthias; van Belle, Janna; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Auer, Tibor; Correia, Marta; Gao, Lu; Green, Emma; Henriques, Rafael; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation—a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18–88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience). Importantly, attenuation increases with age, in proportion to reduced sensory sensitivity. This effect is associated with differences in the structure and functional connectivity of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that ageing alters the balance between the sensorium and predictive models, mediated by the pre-SMA and its connectivity in frontostriatal circuits. This shift may contribute to the motor and cognitive changes observed with age. PMID:27694879

  14. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  15. Predictions of the onset of mini ice age in the 25th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Predictions of the ir-regularty in the 11 year heartbeat of the sun due to asyncronous of the two layered dynamo effect would result in mini ice age as in the Maunder minimum.The onset of this event is expected in the begining of 25th solar cycle and would go to its maximum in the 26th solar cycle.The minimum temperature is expected in 2028 due to the fall of solar activity by 60 % termed as solar hibernation.The predictions are based on the observations obtained by the Royal Greenwich observatory since 1874. Keywords: Dynamo effect,munder minimum,Solar hybernation

  16. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  17. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs.

  18. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs. PMID:26414954

  19. Executive function and theory of mind: Predictive relations from ages 2 to 4.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2007-11-01

    Despite robust associations between children's theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) skills, longitudinal studies examining this association remain scarce. In a socially diverse sample of 122 children (seen at ages 2, 3, and 4), this study examined (a) developmental stability of associations between ToM, EF, verbal ability, and social disadvantage; (b) continuity and change in ToM and EF; and (c) predictive relations between ToM and EF. Verbal ability and social disadvantage independently predicted changes in EF (but not ToM). Task scores improved with age and showed stable individual differences. The authors examined predictive relations between ToM and EF using partial correlations (controlling for age and verbal ability) and hierarchical regressions (that also controlled for social disadvantage and initial ToM and EF). The findings provide only partial support for the view that ToM is a prerequisite for EF but stronger support for the proposal that EF facilitates children's performance on ToM tasks.

  20. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  1. Neonatal invasive procedures predict pain intensity at school age in children born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Beatriz Oliveira; Ranger, Manon; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Synnes, Anne; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Children born very preterm display altered pain thresholds. Little is known about neonatal clinical and psychosocial factors associated with their later pain perception. OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine whether the number of neonatal invasive procedures, adjusted for other clinical and psychosocial factors, was associated with self-ratings of pain during a blood collection procedure in children born very preterm at school age. METHODS 56 children born very preterm (24–32 weeks gestational age) at age 7.5 years, followed longitudinally from birth, and free of major neurodevelopmental impairments, underwent a blood collection by venipuncture. The children’s pain was self-reported using the Coloured Analog Scale and Facial Affective Scale. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Pain exposure (number of invasive procedures) and clinical factors from birth to term-equivalent age were obtained prospectively. Multiple linear regression was used to predict children’s pain self-ratings from neonatal pain exposure after adjusting for neonatal clinical and concurrent psychosocial factors. RESULTS Greater number of neonatal invasive procedures and higher parent trait-anxiety were associated with higher pain intensity ratings during venipuncture at age 7.5 years. Fewer surgeries and lower concurrent child externalizing behaviors were associated with higher pain intensity. CONCLUSION In very preterm children, exposure to neonatal pain was related to altered pain self-ratings at school age, independent of other neonatal factors. Neonatal surgeries and concurrent psychosocial factors were also associated with pain ratings. PMID:26783986

  2. A simple computational principle predicts vocal adaptation dynamics across age and error size

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Conor W.; Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    The brain uses sensory feedback to correct errors in behavior. Songbirds and humans acquire vocal behaviors by imitating the sounds produced by adults and rely on auditory feedback to correct vocal errors throughout their lifetimes. In both birds and humans, acoustic variability decreases steadily with age following the acquisition of vocal behavior. Prior studies in adults have shown that while sensory errors that fall within the limits of vocal variability evoke robust motor corrections, larger errors do not induce learning. Although such results suggest that younger animals, which have greater vocal variability, might correct large errors more readily than older individuals, it is unknown whether age-dependent changes in variability are accompanied by changes in the speed or magnitude of vocal error correction. We tested the hypothesis that auditory errors evoke greater vocal changes in younger animals and that a common computation determines how sensory information drives motor learning across different ages and error sizes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that in songbirds the speed and extent of error correction changes dramatically with age and that age-dependent differences in learning were predicted by a model in which the overlap between sensory errors and the distribution of prior sensory feedback determines the dynamics of adaptation. Our results suggest that the brain employs a simple and robust computational principle to calibrate the rate and magnitude of vocal adaptation across age-dependent changes in behavioral performance and in response to different sensory errors. PMID:25324740

  3. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  4. Significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine and quantitative prediction of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nomura, Naruaki; Yabuki, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    The number of new drug candidates that are cleared via non-cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes has increased. However, unlike oxidation by P450, the roles of reductive enzymes are less understood. The metabolism in intestine is especially not well known. The purposes of this study were to investigate the significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine, and to establish a quantitative prediction method of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes, using haloperidol, mebendazole, and ziprasidone. First, we estimated the metabolic activities for these compounds in intestine and liver using subcellular fractions. Metabolic activities were detected in human intestinal cytosol (HIC) for all three compounds, and the intrinsic clearance values were higher than those in human liver cytosol for haloperidol and mebendazole. These metabolic activities in HIC were NADPH- and/or NADH-dependent. Furthermore, the metabolic activities for all three compounds in HIC were largely inhibited by menadione, which has been used as a carbonyl reductase (CBR)-selective chemical inhibitor. Therefore, considering subcellular location, cofactor requirement, and chemical inhibition, these compounds might be metabolized by CBRs in human intestine. Subsequently, we tried to quantitatively predict intestinal availability (F(g)) for these compounds using human intestinal S9 (HIS9). Our prediction model using apparent permeability of parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and metabolic activities in HIS9 could predict F(g) in humans for the three compounds well. In conclusion, CBRs might have higher metabolic activities in human intestine than in human liver. Furthermore, our prediction method of human F(g) using HIS9 is applicable to substrates of cytosolic reductive enzymes.

  5. Maximal aerobic capacity in ageing subjects: actual measurements versus predicted values

    PubMed Central

    Pistea, Cristina; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Oswald, Monique; Enache, Irina

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of selection of reference values on the categorisation of measured maximal oxygen consumption (V′O2peak) as “normal” or “abnormal” in an ageing population. We compared measured V′O2peak with predicted values and the lower limit of normal (LLN) calculated with five equations. 99 (58 males and 41 females) disease-free subjects aged ≥70 years completed an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Mean V′O2peak was 1.88 L·min−1 in men and 1.26 L·min−1 in women. V′O2peak ranged from 89% to 108% of predicted in men, and from 88% to 164% of predicted in women, depending on the reference equation used. The proportion of subjects below the LLN ranged from 5% to 14% in men and 0–22% in women, depending on the reference equation. The LLN was lacking in one study, and was unsuitable for women in another. Most LLNs ranged between 53% and 73% of predicted. Therefore, choosing an 80% cut-off leads to overestimation of the proportion of “abnormal” subjects. To conclude, the proportion of subjects aged ≥70 years with a “low” V′O2peak differs markedly according to the chosen reference equations. In clinical practice, it is still relevant to test a sample of healthy volunteers and select the reference equations that better characterise this sample. PMID:27730176

  6. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  7. Protective effect of practice on cognition during aging: implications for predictive characteristics of performance and efficacy of practice.

    PubMed

    Markowska, Alicja L; Savonenko, Alena V

    2002-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of previous experience on spatial memory, which required the retention of information either over long intervals or within a single session, was longitudinally tested in the water maze in male F-344 rats that were from 6 to 24 months of age. Performance in these tasks was found to be age-dependent (Markowska, 1999). Other behavioral tasks in the straight alley and with a visible platform in the water maze controlled the noncognitive components of performance. For all tasks, performance was significantly correlated between 12-month-old and 18-month-old rats, indicating that cognitive performance at the early, but not advanced, stage of aging could be predicted from performance at a younger age if the novelty of the first exposure to the task was eliminated. The protective effect of experience was more robust in the reference memory task as compared to the working memory task and was modified by age when training was initiated. Behavior during the probe trials was more sensitive to the effect of aging and more resistant to the beneficial effect of practice as compared to the performance in the platform trials. The speed of swimming of experienced rats progressively decreased with age only when tested in the cognitive tasks but not in the straight alley. This indicates that speed of swimming during cognitive tasks does not exclusively reflect the ability to swim, but might be also affected by the cognitive demands of the task. Protective effect of experience on cognition was not modified by restriction in diet.

  8. Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Kutas, Marta; Schul, Rina

    2010-01-01

    During sentence comprehension, older adults are less likely than younger adults to predict features of likely upcoming words. A pair of experiments assessed whether such differences would extend to tasks with reduced working memory demands and time pressures. In Experiment 1, event-related brain potentials were measured as younger and older adults read short phrases cuing antonyms or category exemplars, followed three seconds later by targets that were either congruent or incongruent and, for congruent category exemplars, of higher or lower typicality. When processing the less expected low typicality targets, younger – but not older – adults elicited a prefrontal positivity (500–900 ms) that has been linked to processing consequences of having predictions disconfirmed. Thus, age-related changes in prediction during comprehension generalize across task circumstances. Analyses of individual differences revealed that older adults with higher category fluency were more likely to show the young-like pattern. Experiment 2 showed that these age-related differences were not due to simple slowing of language production mechanisms, as older adults generated overt responses to the cues as quickly as – and more accurately than – younger adults. However, older adults who were relatively faster to produce category exemplars in Experiment 2 were more likely to have shown predictive processing patterns in Experiment 1. Taken together, the results link prediction during language comprehension to language production mechanisms and suggest that although older adults can produce speeded language output on demand, they are less likely to automatically recruit these mechanisms during comprehension unless top-down circuitry is particularly strong. PMID:20728207

  9. Predicting survival and morbidity-free survival to very old age

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-01-01

    As life expectancy continually increases, it is imperative to identify determinants of survival to the extreme end of the lifespan and more importantly to identify factors that increase the chance of survival free of major morbidities. As such, the current study assessed 45 common disease factors as predictors of survival and morbidity-free survival to age 85 years. Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, we evaluated morbidity-free participants who were able to attain age 85 within the study duration (n = 2,008). Risk factors were assessed at baseline (1990–1993), and mortality and morbidities were then collected continuously until mortality or the occurrence of their 85th birthday (average time of 7.9 years). Risk factors included demographic and lifestyle variables, health and morbidity indicators and physiological makers. Major morbidities examined included dementia, cancer, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure and myocardial infarction. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that many of the variables were independently predictive for survival and for morbidity-free ageing to 85 years. These included being female, absence of left ventricular abnormalities, stable body weight, unimpaired instrumental activities of daily living, lower C-RP levels and higher levels of femoral neck bone mineral density and albumin. Relative to non-survival, predictors were stronger for morbidity-free survival than for total survival or survival with morbidity. This suggests that lifespan and healthy survival to older age can be relatively well predicted. Understanding predictors of a long and healthy lifespan is vital for developing primary and secondary preventions to help improve the quality of life of older adults and for reducing the financial burden of the rapidly escalating ageing population. PMID:20514522

  10. Data on clinical significance of second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid in predicting preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Kesrouani, Assaad; Chalhoub, Elie; El Rassy, Elie; Germanos, Mirna; Khazzaka, Aline; Rizkallah, Jamale; Attieh, Elie; Aouad, Norma

    2016-12-01

    In this article second trimester amniotic fluid biomarkers are measured for correlation with preterm delivery. One additional milliliter of amniotic fluid is collected during amniocentesis for dosages of IL-6, MMP-9, CRP and glucose levels, along with maternal serum CRP and glucose. MMP-9 and Il-6 levels were measured with the corresponding Human Quantikine(R) ELISA Kit (R&D systems) according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Cut-off values for AF MMP-9 and IL-6 were fixed by the kit sensitivity thresholds. Data includes ROC curves for glucose (Fig. 1), IL-6 (Fig. 2) and MMP-9 (Fig. 3), aiming to search for sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of premature delivery. Statistical analyses are performed with SPSS v20.0 software. Statistical significance is determined using the Mann-Whitney and one way ANOVA test. The association with preterm delivery is performed using a two proportions test. Correlations are measured using the Pearson׳'s coefficient. A p value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The data is presented in the figures provided. Data relied on a previous publication "Prediction of preterm delivery by second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid" (A. Kesrouani, E. Chalhoub, E. El Rassy, M. Germanos, A. Khazzaka, J. Rizkallah, E. Attieh, N. Aouad, 2016) [1].

  11. Data on clinical significance of second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid in predicting preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Kesrouani, Assaad; Chalhoub, Elie; El Rassy, Elie; Germanos, Mirna; Khazzaka, Aline; Rizkallah, Jamale; Attieh, Elie; Aouad, Norma

    2016-12-01

    In this article second trimester amniotic fluid biomarkers are measured for correlation with preterm delivery. One additional milliliter of amniotic fluid is collected during amniocentesis for dosages of IL-6, MMP-9, CRP and glucose levels, along with maternal serum CRP and glucose. MMP-9 and Il-6 levels were measured with the corresponding Human Quantikine(R) ELISA Kit (R&D systems) according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Cut-off values for AF MMP-9 and IL-6 were fixed by the kit sensitivity thresholds. Data includes ROC curves for glucose (Fig. 1), IL-6 (Fig. 2) and MMP-9 (Fig. 3), aiming to search for sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of premature delivery. Statistical analyses are performed with SPSS v20.0 software. Statistical significance is determined using the Mann-Whitney and one way ANOVA test. The association with preterm delivery is performed using a two proportions test. Correlations are measured using the Pearson׳'s coefficient. A p value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The data is presented in the figures provided. Data relied on a previous publication "Prediction of preterm delivery by second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid" (A. Kesrouani, E. Chalhoub, E. El Rassy, M. Germanos, A. Khazzaka, J. Rizkallah, E. Attieh, N. Aouad, 2016) [1]. PMID:27626053

  12. Folic acid supplement use is the most significant predictor of folate concentrations in Canadian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; O'Connor, Deborah L; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    One-fifth of Canadian women of childbearing age (WCBA) have red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations below those considered optimal for neural tube defect risk reduction (≥906 nmol·L(-1)). Determinants of optimal concentrations have not been examined in a nationally representative sample of Canadian WCBA since food fortification with folic acid was implemented. This study explored correlates of optimal RBC folate concentrations and characteristics of folic acid supplement users in a sample of Canadian WCBA. RBC folate concentrations from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey were assessed in women aged 15 to 45 years (n = 1162). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and clinical determinants of RBC folate ≥906 nmol·L(-1) were examined using univariate and separate multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age and household income. t tests were used to study differences between folic acid supplement users and nonusers. WCBA not taking folic acid supplements were less likely to achieve a RBC folate concentration ≥906 nmol·L(-1) compared with folic acid supplement users (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.92). Twenty-five percent of WCBA reported folic acid supplement use, and there was a higher percentage of folic acid supplement users in the highest income group. Folic acid supplement users were also more frequent consumers of supplemental vitamin B(12) and of fruit and vegetables (>3 times per day). Folic acid supplement use was the most significant predictor of WCBA achieving optimal RBC folate concentrations. These results indicate a need for targeted strategies to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations among WCBA.

  13. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  14. Evidence for a Significant Intermediate-Age Population in the M31 Halo from Main Sequence Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Smith, Ed; Kimble, Randy A.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, R. Michael; Vandenberg, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for a minor-axis field in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M3l), 51 arcmin (11 kpc) from the nucleus. These observations, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, are the deepest optical images yet obtained, attaining 50% completeness at m(sub v) = 30.7 mag. The CMD, constructed from approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) stars, reaches more than 1.5 mag fainter than the old main-sequence turnoff. Our analysis is based on direct comparisons to ACS observations of four globular clusters through the same filters, as well as chi square fitting to a finely-spaced grid of calibrated stellar-population models. We find that the M31 halo contains a major (approx. 30% by mass) intermediate-age (6-8 Gyr) metal-rich ([Fe/H] greater than -0.5) population, as well as a significant globular-cluster age (11-13.5 Gyr) metal-poor population. These findings support the idea that galaxy mergers played an important role in the formation of the M31 halo.

  15. The significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Cho, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Han Sung; Sohn, In Sook

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the placental weight, volume, and density, and investigate the significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age (SGA), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Two hundred and fifty-four pregnant women were enrolled from August 2005 through July 2013. Participants were divided into four groups: control (n=82), SGA (n=37), PE (n=102), and GDM (n=33). The PE group was classified as PE without intrauterine growth restriction (n=65) and PE with intrauterine growth restriction (n=37). Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and placental ratios including birth weight/placental weight ratio (BPW) and birth weight/placental volume ratio (BPV) were compared between groups. Results Birth weight, placental weight, and placental volume were lower in the SGA group than in the control group. However, the BPW and BPV did not differ between the two groups. Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, BPW, and BPV were all significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, birth weight, BPW, and BPV were higher in the GDM group, whereas placental weight and volume did not differ in the two groups. Placental density was not significantly different among the four groups. Conclusion Placental ratios based on placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and birth weight are helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of complicated pregnancies. Moreover, they can be used as predictors of pregnancy complications. PMID:25264525

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Rega 8: An Updated Genotypic Interpretation System That Significantly Predicts HIV-Therapy Response

    PubMed Central

    Vercauteren, Jurgen; Beheydt, Gertjan; Prosperi, Mattia; Libin, Pieter; Imbrechts, Stijn; Camacho, Ricardo; Clotet, Bonaventura; De Luca, Andrea; Grossman, Zehava; Kaiser, Rolf; Sönnerborg, Anders; Torti, Carlo; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Zazzi, Maurizio; Geretti, Anna-Maria; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Clinically evaluating genotypic interpretation systems is essential to provide optimal guidance in designing potent individualized HIV-regimens. This study aimed at investigating the ability of the latest Rega algorithm to predict virological response on a short and longer period. Materials & Methods 9231 treatment changes episodes were extracted from an integrated patient database. The virological response after 8, 24 and 48 weeks was dichotomized to success and failure. Success was defined as a viral load below 50 copies/ml or alternatively, a 2 log decrease from the baseline viral load at 8 weeks. The predictive ability of Rega version 8 was analysed in comparison with that of previous evaluated version Rega 5 and two other algorithms (ANRS v2011.05 and Stanford HIVdb v6.0.11). A logistic model based on the genotypic susceptibility score was used to predict virological response, and additionally, confounding factors were added to the model. Performance of the models was compared using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results Per unit increase of the GSS reported by Rega 8, the odds on having a successful therapy response on week 8 increased significantly by 81% (OR = 1.81, CI = [1.76–1.86]), on week 24 by 73% (OR = 1.73, CI = [1.69–1.78]) and on week 48 by 85% (OR = 1.85, CI = [1.80–1.91]). No significant differences in AUC were found between the performance of Rega 8 and Rega 5, ANRS v2011.05 and Stanford HIVdb v6.0.11, however Rega 8 had the highest sensitivity: 76.9%, 76.5% and 77.2% on 8, 24 and 48 weeks respectively. Inclusion of additional factors increased the performance significantly. Conclusion Rega 8 is a significant predictor for virological response with a better sensitivity than previously, and with rules for recently approved drugs. Additional variables should be taken into account to ensure an effective regimen. PMID:23613852

  17. Relationship between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S

    2015-02-01

    Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.

  18. The age of predictable primary diamond sources in the northeastern Siberian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grakhanov, S. A.; Zinchuk, N. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) age was determined for zircons collected from 26 observation and sampling sites of diamonds and index minerals in the northeastern Siberian Platform. This part of the region hosts 15 low-diamondiferous Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlite fields, excluding the near economic Triassic Malokuonapskaya pipe in the Kuranakh field. Four epochs of kimberlite formation (Silurian, Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, Middle to Late Triassic, and Middle to Late Jurassic) of the Siberian Platform, including its northeastern part, are confirmed as a result of our studies. Most observation points, including economic Quaternary diamond placers, contain Middle to Late Triassic zircons, which confirms the abundant Late Triassic volcanism in this region. The positive correlation of diamonds and major index minerals of kimberlites (mostly, garnets) at some observation sites indicates the possible Triassic age of the predictable diamondiferous kimberlites.

  19. Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Salmon, David P; Montoya, Rosa I; Galasko, Douglas R

    2011-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of bilingualism were associated with increasingly later age-of-diagnosis (and age of onset of symptoms), but this effect was driven by participants with low education level (a significant interaction between years of education and bilingualism) most of whom (73%) were also Spanish-dominant. Additionally, only objective measures (i.e., BNT scores), not self-reported degree of bilingualism, predicted age-of-diagnosis even though objective and self-reported measures were significantly correlated. These findings establish a specific connection between knowledge of two languages and delay of AD onset, and demonstrate that bilingual effects can be obscured by interactions between education and bilingualism, and by failure to obtain objective measures of bilingualism. More generally, these data support analogies between the effects of bilingualism and "cognitive reserve" and suggest an upper limit on the extent to which reserve can function to delay dementia.

  20. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  1. Predicting charges for inpatient medical rehabilitation using severity, DRG, age, and function.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, G E; Osberg, J S; DeJong, G; Seward, M L; Branch, L G

    1987-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of using diagnosis related groups (DRGs), Severity of Illness Index (SII), age and function at admission to predict inpatient charges for medical rehabilitation. Data from our sample of 199 indicate that DRGs alone explained approximately 12 per cent of the variation in charges for inpatient rehabilitation while SII explained 26 per cent of the variation. SII, DRG, and age together yielded the highest regression coefficient, accounting for nearly 39 per cent of the variation in total charges; SII and age accounted for 36 per cent of the variation. Within DRG categories, SII was the only important predictor of inpatient charges accounting for 23 per cent of the variation in charges among stroke patients (DRG 014) and 28 per cent of the variation in charges among hip fracture patients (DRG 210). Function at admission was not a useful predictor of inpatient rehabilitation charges within DRGs. These results suggest that SII and age may be useful in developing a DRG-based prospective payment system for inpatient medical rehabilitation. PMID:3109268

  2. Learning impairments identified early in life are predictive of future impairments associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528

  3. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  4. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  5. Towards an improved prediction of the free radical scavenging potency of flavonoids: the significance of double PCET mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Stepanić, Višnja; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The 1H(+)/1e(-) and 2H(+)/2e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes of free radical scavenging by flavonoids were theoretically studied for aqueous and lipid environments using the PM6 and PM7 methods. The results reported here indicate that the significant contribution of the second PCET mechanism, resulting in the formation of a quinone/quinone methide, effectively discriminates the active from inactive flavonoids. The predictive potency of descriptors related to the energetics of second PCET mechanisms (the second O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE2) related to hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, and the second electron transfer enthalpy (ETE2) related to sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism) are superior to the currently used indices, which are related to the first 1H(+)/1e(-) processes, and could serve as primary descriptors in development of the QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) of flavonoids.

  6. Structure, age, and regional significance of syntectonic augen gneisses in the Pan-African Zambezi belt, south-central Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.E.; Wilson, T.J.; Wardlaw, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Pan-African Zambezi belt in Zambia contains two major augen gneiss units that are elongated parallel to regional strike. These were previously regarded as slices of sialic basement structurally interleaved with Katangan metasedimentary rocks. New field and geochronologic evidence suggests that the gneisses are syntectonic granites intruded as large concordant sheets during main-phase (D/sub 1/) Pan-African deformation. A pervasive, horizontal or shallowly plunging mineral lineation on S/sub 1/ in the gneisses indicates that the parent granites were injected along major zones of transcurrent shear. The northern gneiss unit shows local discordant contacts against, and contains xenoliths of, adjacent Katangan rocks. Large, partly polygonized K-spar augen in the gneiss are wrapped around by S/sub 1/ and offset by microfractures antithetic to S/sub 1/. Finer grained granites intruding the gneiss are penetratively foliated to nondeformed, indicating that they were injected at various times relative to D/sub 1/. In the more intensely deformed southern gneiss unit, local pods of protomylonitic flaser gneiss grade into mylonites containing asymmetric K-spar augen set in a dynamically recrystallized matrix. U-Pb analyses of four fractions plus an air-abraded split of one fraction form a normal linear discordance pattern with an upper intercept of 820 +/- 7 Ma, taken as the age of igneous crystallization. Comparison with other available geochronologic data indicates that this age dates main-phase deformation in the Zambezi belt, and that deformation in the supposedly continuous Damaran belt to the SW was significantly younger.

  7. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  8. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  9. Additional Value of Transluminal Attenuation Gradient in CT Angiography to Predict Hemodynamic Significance of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Stuijfzand, Wynand J.; Danad, Ibrahim; Raijmakers, Pieter G.; Marcu, C. Bogdan; Heymans, Martijn W.; van Kuijk, Cornelis C.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Nieman, Koen; Min, James K.; Leipsic, Jonathon; van Royen, Niels; Knaapen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The current study evaluates the incremental value of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), TAG with corrected contrast opacification (CCO), and TAG with exclusion of calcified coronary segments (ExC) over coronary computed tomography angiogram (CTA) alone using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. BACKGROUND TAG is defined as the contrast opacification gradient along the length of a coronary artery on a coronary CTA. Preliminary data suggest that TAG provides additional functional information. Interpretation of TAG is hampered by multiple heartbeat acquisition algorithms and coronary calcifications. Two correction models have been proposed based on either dephasing of contrast delivery by relating coronary density to corresponding descending aortic opacification (TAG-CCO) or excluding calcified coronary segments (TAG-ExC). METHODS Eighty-five patients with intermediate probability of coronary artery disease were prospectively included. All patients underwent step-and-shoot 256-slice coronary CTA. TAG, TAG-CCO, and TAG-ExC analyses were performed followed by invasive coronary angiography in conjunction with FFR measurements of all major coronary branches. RESULTS Thirty-four patients (40%) were diagnosed with hemodynamically-significant coronary artery disease (i.e., FFR ≤0.80). On a per-vessel basis (n = 253), 59 lesions (23%) were graded as hemodynamically significant, and the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CTA (diameter stenosis ≥50%) was 95%, 75%, 98%, and 54% for sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value, respectively. TAG and TAG-ExC did not discriminate between vessels with or without hemodynamically significant lesions (−13.5 ± 17.1 HU [Hounsfield units] × 10 mm−1 vs. −11.6 ± 13.3 HU × 10 mm−1, p = 0.36; and 13.1 ± 15.9 HU × 10 mm−1 vs. −11.4 ± 11.7 HU × 10 mm−1, p = 0.77, respectively). TAG-CCO was lower in vessels with a hemodynamically-significant lesion (−0

  10. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  11. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  12. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  13. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age.

    PubMed

    Royle, Natalie A; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging.

  14. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  15. Prognostic and Predictive Significance of MYC and KRAS Alterations in Breast Cancer from Women Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Carolina Rosal Teixeira; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Rey, Juan Antonio; Carvalho, Antônio Alberto; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Khayat, André Salim; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Demachki, Sâmia; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical evolution. Several analyses have been performed to identify the risk factors for breast cancer progression and the patients who respond best to a specific treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether the hormone receptor expression, HER2 and MYC genes and their protein status, and KRAS codon 12 mutations may be prognostic or predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. Protein, gene and mutation status were concomitantly evaluated in 116 breast tumors from women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. We observed that MYC expression was associated with luminal B and HER2 overexpression phenotypes compared to luminal A (p<0.05). The presence of MYC duplication or polysomy 8, as well as KRAS mutation, were also associated with the HER2 overexpression subtype (p<0.05). MYC expression and MYC gain were more frequently observed in early-onset compared to late-onset tumors (p<0.05). KRAS mutation was a risk factor of grade 3 tumors (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that MYC amplification defined as MYC/nucleus ratio of ≥2.5 was a protective factor for chemotherapy resistance. On the other hand, age and grade 2 tumors were a risk factor. Additionally, luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative tumors presented increased odds of being resistant to chemotherapy relative to luminal A tumors. Thus, breast tumors with KRAS codon 12 mutations seem to present a worse prognosis. Additionally, MYC amplification may help in the identification of tumors that are sensitive to doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment. If confirmed in a large set of samples, these markers may be useful for clinical stratification and prognosis. PMID:23555992

  16. Functional Significance of Conflicting Age and Wealth Cross-Categorization: The Dominant Role of Categories That Violate Stereotypical Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the functional significance of conflicting stereotypes and to identify the dominant category in such conflicts. In the present research we examined the conflicting crossed categories of age and wealth with regard to warmth and competence perceptions. It was found (Pilot Study and Study 1) that the old-rich targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of warmth, whereas young-poor targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of competence. In addition, the old stereotype dominated the warmth evaluation of old-rich targets, whereas the poor stereotype dominated the competence evaluation of young-poor targets. In Study 2, participants provided warmth and competence evaluations after they learned about the targets' behaviors which demonstrated high or low warmth and high or low competence. The results suggest that for the warmth evaluation of the old-rich target the category that did not match the behavior (i.e., contradicted the stereotype expectation) was more salient and drove judgments. However, the effect of stereotype expectation violation was not found in the competence evaluation of the young-poor target. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding factors that activate and inhibit stereotyped perceptions.

  17. The significance of the Sun, Moon and celestial bodies to societies in the Carpathian basin during the Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    2011-06-01

    Celestial events often exerted a great or even decisive influence on the life of ancient communities. They may provide some of the foundations on which an understanding of the deeper meaning of mythologies, religious systems and even folk tales can be based. These influences are reflected and may be detected in the archaeological material as well. There is good evidence that celestial (especially solar and perhaps lunar) phenomena played a particularly important rôle in the worldview of prehistoric Europe. To reveal the social and ideational significance of concepts relating to the celestial bodies in the prehistory of the Carpathian Basin, complex investigations on orientations of houses and graves, prestige archaeological finds and iconography have been accomplished. The results indicate ideological and/or social changes, which developed into a likely organized ideological system in large part of Central Europe including the Carpathian Basin by the Late Bronze Age. It might also be the first period in prehistory when people became really interested in celestial phenomena.

  18. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  19. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  20. Incorporating significant amino acid pairs and protein domains to predict RNA splicing-related proteins with functional roles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Tzu-Ya; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Machinery of pre-mRNA splicing is carried out through the interaction of RNA sequence elements and a variety of RNA splicing-related proteins (SRPs) (e.g. spliceosome and splicing factors). Alternative splicing, which is an important post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, gives rise to multiple mature mRNA isoforms, which encodes proteins with functional diversities. However, the regulation of RNA splicing is not yet fully elucidated, partly because SRPs have not yet been exhaustively identified and the experimental identification is labor-intensive. Therefore, we are motivated to design a new method for identifying SRPs with their functional roles in the regulation of RNA splicing. The experimentally verified SRPs were manually curated from research articles. According to the functional annotation of Splicing Related Gene Database, the collected SRPs were further categorized into four functional groups including small nuclear Ribonucleoprotein, Splicing Factor, Splicing Regulation Factor and Novel Spliceosome Protein. The composition of amino acid pairs indicates that there are remarkable differences among four functional groups of SRPs. Then, support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized to learn the predictive models for identifying SRPs as well as their functional roles. The cross-validation evaluation presents that the SVM models trained with significant amino acid pairs and functional domains could provide a better predictive performance. In addition, the independent testing demonstrates that the proposed method could accurately identify SRPs in mammals/plants as well as effectively distinguish between SRPs and RNA-binding proteins. This investigation provides a practical means to identifying potential SRPs and a perspective for exploring the regulation of RNA splicing.

  1. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  2. Early Neurodevelopmental Findings Predict School Age Cognitive Abilities in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chieffo, Daniela; Brogna, Claudia; Berardinelli, Angela; D’Angelo, Grazia; Mallardi, Maria; D’Amico, Adele; Alfieri, Paolo; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties are known to occur frequently in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy but so far none of the published studies have reported both early neurodevelopmental assessments and cognitive tests in the same cohort. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to establish the correlation between early neurodevelopmental assessments performed in preschool boys and the cognitive scales performed at school age or later. Methods We performed cognitive tests at school age (mean age 5.7 year ±1.7 SD) (69 months+19 SD) in a cohort of Duchenne boys, previously assessed using the Griffiths scales before the age of 4 years (mean age when the Griffiths scales were performed 30 months ±8.9 SD). Results The range of total Developmental quotients on the Griffiths ranged between 56 and 116 (mean 89 ± 15.6 SD). The total Intelligence Quotients on the Wechsler scales ranged between 35 and 119 (mean 87 ± 17.2 SD). There was a significant correlation between the findings on the two scales. P = <0.0001. When we subdivided the cohort according to site of mutations, there was a difference between boys with mutations upstream exon 44 and those with mutations in exon 44–45 affecting Dp140 on both Developmental and Intelligence Quotient (p 0.01 and p 0,003 respectively). Conclusions Our results confirm that Duchenne boys tend to slightly underperform on both neurodevelopmental and cognitive assessments. Early neurodevelopmental findings correlated with the cognitive results obtained at school age with a clear concordance between subscales exploring similar domains on the two scales. PMID:26275215

  3. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  4. Mothers' Cognitive References to 2-Year-Olds Predict Theory of Mind at Ages 6 and 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Devine, Rory T.; Marks, Alex; Hughes, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' mental-state references predict individual differences in preschoolers' false-belief (FB) understanding; less is known about the origins of corresponding variation in school-age children. To address this gap, 105 children completed observations with their mothers at child ages 2 and 6, three FB tasks and a verbal comprehension…

  5. Purchase or Pirate: Is Ethical Ideology or Age More Effective at Predicting Acquisition Choice for Online Music?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    A study using 454 respondents recruited through SurveyMonkey were used to quantitatively test whether age or ethical position is better able to predict purchasing rates for digital music acquisition. The respondents had an age range from 18 to 80 and lived in the United States. The sample had a diverse and representative geographic and economic…

  6. Predictive parameters of Legionella pneumophila occurrence in hospital water: HPCs and plumbing system installation age.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Mirmohamadlou, Ali; Esmaeli, Davoud

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila can be relevant to the installation age and the presence of heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). This research illustrates L. pneumophila contamination of hospital water in accordance with the installation age and the presence of HPCs. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from hot and cold water systems and cultured on R2A and BCYE agar. L. pneumophila identification was done via specific biochemical tests. HPCs and L. pneumophila were detected in 96 and 37.3 % of the samples, respectively. The mean of HPCs density was 947 ± 998 CFU/ml; therefore, 52 % of the samples had higher densities than 500 CFU/ml. High densities of HPCs (>500 CFU/ml) led to colonization of L. pneumophila (≥1000 CFU/ml), mainly observed in cooling systems, gynecological, sonography, and NICU wards. Chi(2) test demonstrated that higher densities (>500 CFU/ml) of HPCs and L. pneumophila contamination in cold water were more frequent than warm water (OR: 2.3 and 1.49, respectively). Univariate regressions implied a significant difference between HPCs density and installation age in positive and negative tests of L. pneumophila (OR = 1.1, p < 0.001, OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Mann-Whitney U test implied the significant effects of HPCs and installation age on L. pneumophila occurrences (p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and multivariate linear regression revealed significant differences between L. pneumophila and HPCs densities (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.11, p = 0.02), but nonsignificant difference with installation age (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.0, p = 0.91). The occurrence of L. pneumophila, HPCs, and installation age are relevant; so, plumbing system renovation with appropriate materials and promotion of the effective efforts for hospital's water quality assurance is highly recommended. PMID:27573071

  7. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  8. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  9. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PLT count of patients with thrombocytopenia (PLT count significantly in the group without splenomegaly (SV/BSA value < 400) versus that in the group with splenomegaly (P = 0.005). Thus, if both splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia coexist (PLT count or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx.

  10. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.

  11. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  12. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    PubMed

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  13. Diagnostic performance of quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography and quantitative coronary angiography to predict hemodynamic significance of intermediate-grade stenoses.

    PubMed

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Dewilde, Willem; Bellekens, Michel; Hoa, Denis; Couvreur, Thierry; Djekic, Julien; Coolen, Tim; Mancini, Isabelle; Vanhoenacker, Piet K; Dendale, Paul; Nchimi, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) during invasive coronary angiography has become an established tool for guiding treatment. However, only one-third of intermediate-grade coronary artery stenosis (ICAS) are hemodynamically significant and require coronary revascularization. Additionally, the severity of stenosis visually established by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) does not reliably correlate with the functional severity. Therefore, additional angiographic morphologic descriptors affecting hemodynamic significance are required. To evaluate quantitative stenosis analysis and plaque descriptors by CCTA in predicting the hemodynamic significance of ICAS and to compare it with quantitative catheter coronary angiography (QCA). QCA was performed in 65 patients (mean age 63 ± 9 years; 47 men) with 76 ICAS (40-70%) on CCTA. Plaque descriptors were determined including circumferential extent of calcification, plaque composition, minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and area, diameter stenosis percentage (Ds %), area stenosis percentage and stenosis length on CCTA. MLD and Ds % were also analyzed on QCA. FFR was measured on 52 ICAS lesions on CCTA and QCA. The diagnostic values of the best CCTA and QCA descriptors were calculated for ICAS with FFR ≤ 0.80. Of the 76 ICAS on CCTA, 52 (68%) had a Ds % between 40 and 70% on QCA. Significant intertechnique correlations were found between CCTA and QCA for MLD and Ds % (p < 0.001). In 17 (33%) of the 52 ICAS lesions on QCA, FFR values were ≤ 0.80. Calcification circumference extent (p = 0.50) and plaque composition assessment (p = 0.59) did not correlate with the hemodynamic significance. Best predictors for FFR ≤ 0.80 stenosis were ≤ 1.35 mm MLD (82% sensitivity, 66% specificity), and ≤ 2.3 mm(²) minimal lumen area (88% sensitivity, 60% specificity) on CCTA, and ≤ 1.1 mm MLD (59% sensitivity, 77% specificity) on QCA. Quantitative CCTA and QCA poorly predict hemodynamic significance of ICAS, though CCTA seems to

  14. Temperament, age and weather predict social interaction in the sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rebecca E; Broster, John C; Barnes, Kirsty; Browne, William J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the social relationships between individual sheep, and factors that influence this, through the novel application of the statistical multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) model. In study one 49 ewes (ranging between 1 and 8 years old) were fitted with data loggers, which recorded when pairs of sheep were within 4m or less of each other, within a social group, for a total of 6days. In study two proximity data were collected from 45 ewes over 17days, as were measures of ewe temperament, weight and weather. In study 1 age difference significantly influenced daily contact time, with sheep of the same age spending an average of 20min 43s together per day, whereas pairs with the greatest difference in age spent 16min 33s together. Maximum daily temperature also significantly affected contact time, being longer on hotter days (34min 40s hottest day vs. 18min 17s coolest day), as did precipitation (29min 33s wettest day vs. 10min 32s no rain). Vocalisation in isolation, as a measure of temperament, also affected contacts, with sheep with the same frequency of vocalisations spending more time together (27min 16s) than those with the greatest difference in vocalisations (19min 36s). Sheep behaviour in the isolation box test (IBT) was also correlated over time, but vocalisations and movement were not correlated. Influences of age, temperature and rain on social contact are all well-established and so indicate that MMMC modelling is a useful way to analyse social structures of the flock. While it has been demonstrated that personality factors affect social relationships in non-human animals, the finding that vocalisation in isolation influences pair social contact in sheep is a novel one.

  15. Temperament, age and weather predict social interaction in the sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rebecca E; Broster, John C; Barnes, Kirsty; Browne, William J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the social relationships between individual sheep, and factors that influence this, through the novel application of the statistical multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) model. In study one 49 ewes (ranging between 1 and 8 years old) were fitted with data loggers, which recorded when pairs of sheep were within 4m or less of each other, within a social group, for a total of 6days. In study two proximity data were collected from 45 ewes over 17days, as were measures of ewe temperament, weight and weather. In study 1 age difference significantly influenced daily contact time, with sheep of the same age spending an average of 20min 43s together per day, whereas pairs with the greatest difference in age spent 16min 33s together. Maximum daily temperature also significantly affected contact time, being longer on hotter days (34min 40s hottest day vs. 18min 17s coolest day), as did precipitation (29min 33s wettest day vs. 10min 32s no rain). Vocalisation in isolation, as a measure of temperament, also affected contacts, with sheep with the same frequency of vocalisations spending more time together (27min 16s) than those with the greatest difference in vocalisations (19min 36s). Sheep behaviour in the isolation box test (IBT) was also correlated over time, but vocalisations and movement were not correlated. Influences of age, temperature and rain on social contact are all well-established and so indicate that MMMC modelling is a useful way to analyse social structures of the flock. While it has been demonstrated that personality factors affect social relationships in non-human animals, the finding that vocalisation in isolation influences pair social contact in sheep is a novel one. PMID:27542918

  16. Forensic age prediction for dead or living samples by use of methylation-sensitive high resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Yuya; Manabe, Sho; Morimoto, Chie; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Ozeki, Munetaka; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-07-01

    Age prediction with epigenetic information is now edging closer to practical use in forensic community. Many age-related CpG (AR-CpG) sites have proven useful in predicting age in pyrosequencing or DNA chip analyses. In this study, a wide range methylation status in the ELOVL2 and FHL2 promoter regions were detected with methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) in a labor-, time-, and cost-effective manner. Non-linear-distributions of methylation status and chronological age were newly fitted to the logistic curve. Notably, these distributions were revealed to be similar in 22 living blood samples and 52 dead blood samples. Therefore, the difference of methylation status between living and dead samples suggested to be ignorable by MS-HRM. Additionally, the information from ELOVL2 and FHL2 were integrated into a logistic curve fitting model to develop a final predictive model through the multivariate linear regression of logit-linked methylation rates and chronological age with adjusted R(2)=0.83. Mean absolute deviation (MAD) was 7.44 for 74 training set and 7.71 for 30 additional independent test set, indicating that the final predicting model is accurate. This suggests that our MS-HRM-based method has great potential in predicting actual forensic age.

  17. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings.

  18. Forensic age prediction for dead or living samples by use of methylation-sensitive high resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Yuya; Manabe, Sho; Morimoto, Chie; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Ozeki, Munetaka; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-07-01

    Age prediction with epigenetic information is now edging closer to practical use in forensic community. Many age-related CpG (AR-CpG) sites have proven useful in predicting age in pyrosequencing or DNA chip analyses. In this study, a wide range methylation status in the ELOVL2 and FHL2 promoter regions were detected with methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) in a labor-, time-, and cost-effective manner. Non-linear-distributions of methylation status and chronological age were newly fitted to the logistic curve. Notably, these distributions were revealed to be similar in 22 living blood samples and 52 dead blood samples. Therefore, the difference of methylation status between living and dead samples suggested to be ignorable by MS-HRM. Additionally, the information from ELOVL2 and FHL2 were integrated into a logistic curve fitting model to develop a final predictive model through the multivariate linear regression of logit-linked methylation rates and chronological age with adjusted R(2)=0.83. Mean absolute deviation (MAD) was 7.44 for 74 training set and 7.71 for 30 additional independent test set, indicating that the final predicting model is accurate. This suggests that our MS-HRM-based method has great potential in predicting actual forensic age. PMID:27497326

  19. Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health.

  20. Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: Data from the GuidAge Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Francesca; Epelbaum, Stephane; Coley, Nicola; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Hampel, Harald; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Lista, Simone; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic trials, it is crucial to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its prodromal stage. We assessed the accuracy of the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) compared to other cognitive tests to predict AD dementia in subjects with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment. Subjects from the placebo group of the GuidAge trial over 70 years old and without clinical signs of dementia at baseline who completed the 5-year follow-up free of dementia (n = 840) or developed AD dementia (n = 73) were included in our study. Among all the tests, the sum of the 3 free recall of the FCSRT (FCSRT-FR) and the sum of free and cued recall (FCSRT-TR) yielded the best results to predict AD dementia occurrence (all p values <0.05 for comparison of FCSRT-FR ROC and MMSE, CDRsb, and CVF ROCs). FCSRT-FR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.799 (95% CI 0.738-0.85) and the optimal cut-off was 20 (se 68.06% , sp 81.43% , PPV 23.90% , NPV 96,75%). Concerning FCSRT-TR, the AUC was 0.776 and the optimal cut-off was 42 (se 62.5% , sp 82.26% , PPV 23.20% and NPV 96.24%). This study sets the framework for implementing the FCSRT in clinical and therapeutic trials for efficient subject selection. PMID:26402073

  1. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior. PMID:24264938

  2. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations.

  3. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259

  4. Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: Data from the GuidAge Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Francesca; Epelbaum, Stephane; Coley, Nicola; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Hampel, Harald; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Lista, Simone; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic trials, it is crucial to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its prodromal stage. We assessed the accuracy of the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) compared to other cognitive tests to predict AD dementia in subjects with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment. Subjects from the placebo group of the GuidAge trial over 70 years old and without clinical signs of dementia at baseline who completed the 5-year follow-up free of dementia (n = 840) or developed AD dementia (n = 73) were included in our study. Among all the tests, the sum of the 3 free recall of the FCSRT (FCSRT-FR) and the sum of free and cued recall (FCSRT-TR) yielded the best results to predict AD dementia occurrence (all p values <0.05 for comparison of FCSRT-FR ROC and MMSE, CDRsb, and CVF ROCs). FCSRT-FR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.799 (95% CI 0.738-0.85) and the optimal cut-off was 20 (se 68.06% , sp 81.43% , PPV 23.90% , NPV 96,75%). Concerning FCSRT-TR, the AUC was 0.776 and the optimal cut-off was 42 (se 62.5% , sp 82.26% , PPV 23.20% and NPV 96.24%). This study sets the framework for implementing the FCSRT in clinical and therapeutic trials for efficient subject selection.

  5. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.

  6. Caspase-6 activity predicts lower episodic memory ability in aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Ramcharitar, Jasmine; Afonso, Veronica M; Albrecht, Steffen; Bennett, David A; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2013-07-01

    Caspase-6 (Casp6), a cysteinyl protease that induces axonal degeneration, is activated early in Alzheimer Disease (AD) brains. To determine whether Casp6 activation is responsible for early cognitive impairment, we investigated the abundance of Casp6 activity, paired helical filament-1 (PHF-1) phosphorylated Tau and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) pathology by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal formation of aged non-cognitively impaired (NCI) individuals. Casp6 activity was restricted to the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. Pathology scores were then correlated with cognitive scores obtained within 1 year of death. Regression analyses revealed that ERC and CA1 Casp6 activity were the main contributor to lower episodic memory performance, whereas ERC PHF-1 pathology predicted lower semantic and working memory performance. Aβ did not correlate with any of the cognitive tests. Because Casp6 activity and PHF-1 pathology are intimately associated with AD pathology and memory decline is an early event in AD, we conclude that Casp6 activity and PHF-1 immunoreactivity in ERC identifies aged individuals at risk for developing AD.

  7. Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design and Setting A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project) and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study). Participants 3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia) and 517 patients with AD. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults) or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients). Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis. Results Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD. Conclusions Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults. PMID:24023894

  8. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  9. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with

  10. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  11. Dual-task costs in aging are predicted by formal education.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to manage different concurrent tasks at the same time decays in older adults. There is however a considerable amount of inter-individual variability in this capacity even in healthy aging. The purpose of this empirical study is to investigate which factors help explaining this variability. A dual-task paradigm was administered to 64 older adults and 31 younger controls. In this paradigm, a primary simple response time task had to be carried out either by itself (single-task condition) or while concurrently performing a secondary subtraction task (dual-task condition). Dual-task costs were operationalized by comparing dual-task and single-task conditions. Older adults showed higher dual-task interference than younger controls. Within the older group, the influence of age, general cognitive abilities, performance on the secondary task, and years of formal education was assessed with a multiple regression analysis. The results showed that years of formal education in older adults were the best predictor that significantly explained a portion of the variance in dual-task performance. These findings extend previous literature by showing that formal education provides an important dose of cognitive reserve, which is useful to successfully implement cognitive dual-task management despite aging.

  12. Predictive Factors for Surgical Intervention in Patients over the Age of 80 with Adhensive Small-Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zheng; Yan, Fei-Hu; Hu, Shi-Jie; Meng, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Wei; Yu, En-da; Fu, Chuan-Gang

    2015-12-01

    Adhensive small-bowel obstruction (SBO) remains a common cause of admission to surgical wards around the world. Given the growing elderly population, the number of elderly patients with adhensive SBO can be expected to increase substantially. Timely and appropriate treatment would improve morbidity and mortality rates in elderly patients with adhensive SBO. However, accurately determining which patients should undergo surgical treatment during the hospitalization remains difficult. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for surgical intervention in patients aged over 80 years presenting with SBO due to postoperative adhesions. A clinical and radiological data for the assessment of patients presenting with adhensive SBO were collected. A logistic regression model was applied to identify risk factors that would predict the need of surgical intervention. A total of 21 patients (13 males, 8 females) were treated during a 3.5-year period. The mean age was 85.5 ± 4.7 years, ranging from 80 to 97 years. There is no significant difference in age (group 1 87.6 ± 5.9 years vs. group 2 84.8 ± 4.3 years, p = 0.262) between two groups. Serious coexisting diseases were noted in 13 (61.9 %, 13/21) patients. Primary hypertension, cardiac diseases, and diabetes mellitus were common coexisting conditions. However, there is no significant difference in comorbidities (40 vs. 68.8 %, p = 0.325) between group 1 and group 2. Adhensive SBO was successfully treated with conservative treatment in 16 patients (76.2 %, 16/21, group 2), whereas conservative treatment failed in 5 patients (23.8 %, 5/21, group 1), who subsequently underwent laparotomy. Postoperative complication rate was 14.3 % (wound infection, 1/5) and mortality was 0 % (0/5) in group 1. One patient death was recorded in group 2 (1/16, 6.3 %). The overall mean hospital stay was 10.0 ± 5.9 days (range 3-27 days). Group 1 had a longer hospital stay than group 2. However

  13. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  14. Evaluating RNAlater® as a preservative for using near-infrared spectroscopy to predict Anopheles gambiae age and species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mosquito age and species identification is a crucial determinant of the efficacy of vector control programmes. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has previously been applied successfully to rapidly, non-destructively, and simultaneously determine the age and species of freshly anesthetized African malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae s.l. species complex: An. gambiae s. s. and Anopheles arabiensis. However, this has only been achieved on freshly-collected specimens and future applications will require samples to be preserved between field collections and scanning by NIRS. In this study, a sample preservation method (RNAlater®) was evaluated for mosquito age and species identification by NIRS against scans of fresh samples. Methods Two strains of An. gambiae s.s. (CDC and G3) and two strains of An. arabiensis (Dongola, KGB) were reared in the laboratory while the third strain of An. arabiensis (Ifakara) was reared in a semi-field system. All mosquitoes were scanned when fresh and rescanned after preservation in RNAlater® for several weeks. Age and species identification was determined using a cross-validation. Results The mean accuracy obtained for predicting the age of young (<7 days) or old (≥ 7 days) of all fresh (n = 633) and all preserved (n = 691) mosquito samples using the cross-validation technique was 83% and 90%, respectively. For species identification, accuracies were 82% for fresh against 80% for RNAlater® preserved. For both analyses, preserving mosquitoes in RNAlater® was associated with a highly significant reduction in the likelihood of a misclassification of mosquitoes as young or old using NIRS. Important to note is that the costs for preserving mosquito specimens with RNAlater® ranges from 3-13 cents per insect depending on the size of the tube used and the number of specimens pooled in one tube. Conclusion RNAlater® can be used to preserve mosquitoes for subsequent scanning and analysis by NIRS to determine their age and

  15. Young Age Predicts Poor Antiretroviral Adherence and Viral Load Suppression Among Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Milloy, M.-J.; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV among young injection drug users (IDU) have been limited because financial barriers to care disproportionately affect youth, thus confounding results. This study examines adherence among IDU in a unique setting where all medical care is provided free-of-charge. From May 1996 to April 2008, we followed a prospective cohort of 545 HIV-positive IDU of 18 years of age or older in Vancouver, Canada. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we studied the association between age and adherence (obtaining ART≥95% of the prescribed time), controlling for potential confounders. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we also studied the effect of age on time to viral load suppression (<500 copies per milliliter), and examined adherence as a mediating variable. Five hundred forty-five participants were followed for a median of 23.8 months (interquartile range [IQR]=8.5–91.6 months). Odds of adherence were significantly lower among younger IDU (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.76 per 10 years younger; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.89). Younger IDU were also less likely to achieve viral load suppression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.75 per 10 years younger; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88). Adding adherence to the model eliminated this association with age, supporting the role of adherence as a mediating variable. Despite absence of financial barriers, younger IDU remain less likely to adhere to ART, resulting in inferior viral load suppression. Interventions should carefully address the unique needs of young HIV-positive IDU. PMID:22429003

  16. The Late Positive Potential Predicts Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in School-Aged Children Concurrently and Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Rios, Victor; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal may be a core component of emotional competence across development, but due to methodological challenges in measuring such strategies, they are rarely studied in young children. One neurophysiological measure, the late positive potential (LPP) has been examined in response to reappraisal as a potential neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in adults. The association between the LPP and emotion regulatory capacity in children is unknown. The present study examined whether the LPP during reappraisal could predict greater observed adaptive emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children over a two-year period. Thirty-two five- to seven- year- olds participated in two identical lab visits spaced two years apart. EEG was continuously recorded during a computerized reappraisal task in which children viewed unpleasant images paired with either reappraisal or negative stories. Next they completed a disappointing and a frustrating task during which emotion regulation strategies was observed. As predicted, children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP at the first assessment used significantly more adaptive ER strategies concurrently and two years later. These findings provide observation-based evidence that the LPP may be a viable neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in children. PMID:25438825

  17. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  18. The influence of physiological status on age prediction of Anopheles arabiensis using near infra-red spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the age of malaria vectors is essential for evaluating the impact of interventions that reduce the survival of wild mosquito populations and for estimating changes in vectorial capacity. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-destructive method that has been used to determine the age and species of Anopheles gambiae s.l. by analyzing differences in absorption spectra. The spectra are affected by biochemical changes that occur during the life of a mosquito and could be influenced by senescence and also the life history of the mosquito, i.e., mating, blood feeding and egg-laying events. Methods To better understand these changes, we evaluated the influence of mosquito physiological status on NIR energy absorption spectra. Mosquitoes were kept in individual cups to permit record keeping of each individual insect’s life history. Mosquitoes of the same chronological age, but at different physiological stages, were scanned and compared using cross-validations. Results We observed a slight trend within some physiological stages that suggest older insects tend to be predicted as being physiologically more mature. It was advantageous to include mosquitoes of different chronological ages and physiological stages in calibrations, as it increases the robustness of the model resulting in better age predictions. Conclusions Progression through different physiological statuses of An. arabiensis influences the chronological age prediction by the NIRS. Entomologists that wish to use NIR technology to predict the age of field-caught An. gambiae s.l from their study area should use a calibration developed from their field strain using mosquitoes of diverse chronological ages and physiological stages to increase the robustness and accuracy of the predictions. PMID:24499515

  19. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18-39, 40-64, 65 +  years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of -0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of -0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81-1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  20. Schooling and Citizenship in a Global Age: An Exploration of the Meaning and Significance of Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lee

    The full meaning of global education and the realities which make it imperative are discussed in this work. Global education is defined as "consisting of efforts to bring about the changes in the content, in the methods, and in the social context of education in order to better prepare students for citizenship in a global age." This definition…

  1. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  2. Higher diet quality does not predict lower Medicare costs but does predict number of claims in mid-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda; Fitzgerald, David

    2011-01-01

    Optimal dietary quality, indicated by higher diet quality index scores, reflects greater adherence to National dietary recommendations and is also associated with lower morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Whether this is reflected in lower health care cost over time has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to examine whether higher diet quality, as measured by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), was associated with lower health care costs within the mid-aged cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We found that there was a statistically significant association between five year cumulative costs and ARFS, but in the opposite direction to that predicted, with those in the highest quintiles of ARFS having higher health care costs. However the number of Medicare claims over the six year period (2002-2007) was lower for those in the highest compared with the lowest quintile, p = 0.002. There is a need to monitor both costs and claims over time to examine health care usage in the longer term in order to determine whether savings are eventually obtained for those with the dietary patterns that adhere more closely to National recommendations.

  3. Predicting Curriculum and Test Performance at Age 7 Years from Pupil Background, Baseline Skills and Phonological Awareness at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, R.; Carless, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Phonological awareness tests are known to be amongst the best predictors of literacy; however their predictive validity alongside current school screening practice (baseline assessment, pupil background data) and to National Curricular outcome measures is unknown. Aim: We explored the validity of phonological awareness and orthographic…

  4. Significance of vapor phase chemical reactions on CVD rates predicted by chemically frozen and local thermochemical equilibrium boundary layer theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by vapor-phase chemical reactions on CVD rates by comparing the results of two extreme theories developed to predict CVD mass transport rates in the absence of interfacial kinetic barrier: one based on chemically frozen boundary layer and the other based on local thermochemical equilibrium. Both theories consider laminar convective-diffusion boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers and include thermal (Soret) diffusion and variable property effects. As an example, Na2SO4 deposition was studied. It was found that gas phase reactions have no important role on Na2SO4 deposition rates and on the predictions of the theories. The implications of the predictions of the two theories to other CVD systems are discussed.

  5. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Incorporation of Half-Cycle Theory Into Ko Aging Theory for Aerostructural Flight-Life Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Tran, Van T.; Chen, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The half-cycle crack growth theory was incorporated into the Ko closed-form aging theory to improve accuracy in the predictions of operational flight life of failure-critical aerostructural components. A new crack growth computer program was written for reading the maximum and minimum loads of each half-cycle from the random loading spectra for crack growth calculations and generation of in-flight crack growth curves. The unified theories were then applied to calculate the number of flights (operational life) permitted for B-52B pylon hooks and Pegasus adapter pylon hooks to carry the Hyper-X launching vehicle that air launches the X-43 Hyper-X research vehicle. A crack growth curve for each hook was generated for visual observation of the crack growth behavior during the entire air-launching or captive flight. It was found that taxiing and the takeoff run induced a major portion of the total crack growth per flight. The operational life theory presented can be applied to estimate the service life of any failure-critical structural components.

  7. Prediction of physical aging in controlled-release coatings: the application of the relaxation coupling model to glassy cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, C M; Yee, A F; Amidon, G L

    1991-06-01

    The effect of physical aging on both the water transport properties and the mechanical properties of glassy cellulose acetate was investigated. Results indicate a reduction in the mechanical rate of relaxation as well as a reduction in the water permeability as the glass ages. A model which describes the low-frequency relaxation behavior of condensed, amorphous systems is used to quantitate the mechanical relaxation data. Systematic changes in key parameters from this model signify alterations in the microscopic or short-range structure as the glass physically ages. Predictions from this model correlate quite closely with the observed water permeability reductions and thus indicate that the transport properties of glassy polymers are dependent on the structure of the glass. This approach may provide further insight into the effects of nonequilibrium behavior on pharmaceutically important properties and may serve as a basis for predicting aging and permeability changes in controlled-release dosage forms.

  8. Longitudinal Change in Happiness during Aging: The Predictive Role of Positive Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Holahan, Charles J.; Velasquez, Katherine E.; North, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed hierarchical linear modeling to document the time course of happiness across 20 years from average ages of 66 to 86 among 717 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted. In addition, the study examined the role of positive expectancies about aging, assessed at an average age of 61, in enhancing happiness in aging. The results…

  9. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances). The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501), whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  11. Assessment of MRI-Based Automated Fetal Cerebral Cortical Folding Measures in Prediction of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Awate, S.P.; Licht, D.J.; Clouchoux, C.; du Plessis, A.J.; Avants, B.B.; Vossough, A.; Gee, J.C.; Limperopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging. We compared the accuracy of the prediction of gestational age by these cortical folding measureswiththeaccuracyofpredictionbybrainvolumemeasurementandbyapreviouslyreportedsemiquantitativevisualscaleofbrain maturity. Regression models were constructed, and measurement biases and variances were determined via a cross-validation procedure. RESULTS The cortical folding measures are accurate in the estimation and prediction of gestational age (mean of the absolute error, 0.43 ± 0.45 weeks) and perform better than (P = .024) brain volume (mean of the absolute error, 0.72 ± 0.61 weeks) or sonography measures (SDs approximately 1.5 weeks, as reported in literature). Prediction accuracy is comparable with that of the semiquantitative visual assessment score (mean, 0.57 ± 0.41 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative cortical folding measures such as global average curvedness can be an accurate and reliable estimator of gestational age and brain maturity for healthy fetuses in the third trimester and have the potential to be an indicator of brain-growth delays for at-risk fetuses and preterm neonates. PMID:26045578

  12. US/UK second level panel discussions on the health and value of: Ageing and lifetime predictions (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G

    2011-01-18

    Many healthy physics, engineering, and materials exchanges are being accomplished in ageing and lifetime prediction that directly supports US and UK Stockpile Management Programs. Lifetime assessment studies of silicon foams under compression - Joint AWE/LANLlLLNL study of compression set in stress cushions completed. Provides phenomenological prediction out to 50 years. Polymer volatile out-gassing studies - New exchange on the out-gassing of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) using isotopic {sup 13}C labeling studies to interrogate mechanistic processes. Infra-red (IR) gas cell analytical capabilities developed by AWE will be used to monitor polymer out-gassing profiles. Pu Strength ageing Experiments and Constitutive Modeling - In recently compared modeling strategies for ageing effects on Pu yield strength at high strain rates, a US/UK consensus was reached on the general principle that the ageing effect is additive and not multiplicative. The fundamental mechanisms for age-strengthening in Pu remains unknown. Pu Surface and Interface Reactions - (1) US/UK secondment resulted in developing a metal-metal oxide model for radiation damaged studies consistent with a Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential; and (2) Joint US/UK collaboration to study the role of impurities in hydride initiation. Detonator Ageing (wide range of activities) - (1) Long-term ageing study with field trials at Pantex incorporating materials from LANL, LLNL, SNL and AWE; (2) Characterization of PETN growth to detonation process; (3) Detonator performance modeling; and (4) Performance fault tree analysis. Benefits are a unified approach to lifetime prediction that Includes: materials characterization and the development of ageing models through improved understanding of the relationship between materials properties, ageing properties and detonator performance.

  13. Predicting relatedness and self-definition depressive experiences in aging women based on personality traits: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood.

  14. Testing predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging using a novel invertebrate model of longevity: the giant clam (Tridacna derasa).

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Philipp, Eva E; Campbell, Courtney M; McQuary, Philip R; Chow, Tracy T; Coelho, Miguel; Didier, Elizabeth S; Gelino, Sara; Holmbeck, Marissa A; Kim, Insil; Levy, Erik; Sonntag, William E; Whitby, Paul W; Austad, Steven N; Ridgway, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Bivalve species with exceptional longevity are newly introduced model systems in biogerontology to test evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of aging. Here, we tested predictions based on the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging using one of the tropical long-lived sessile giant clam species, the smooth giant clam (Tridacna derasa; predicted maximum life span: >100 years) and the short-lived Atlantic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians; maximum life span: 2 years). The warm water-dwelling giant clams warrant attention because they challenge the commonly held view that the exceptional longevity of bivalves is a consequence of the cold water they reside in. No significant interspecific differences in production of H2O2 and O2- in the gills, heart, or adductor muscle were observed. Protein carbonyl content in gill and muscle tissues were similar in T derasa and A i irradians. In tissues of T derasa, neither basal antioxidant capacities nor superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently greater than in A i irradians. We observed a positive association between longevity and resistance to mortality induced by exposure to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). This finding is consistent with the prediction based on the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging. The findings that in tissues of T derasa, proteasome activities are significantly increased as compared with those in tissues of A i irradians warrant further studies to test the role of enhanced protein recycling activities in longevity of bivalves.

  15. The tectonic significance of pre-Scandian 40Ar/39Ar phengite cooling ages in the Caledonides of western Norway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, T.B.; Berry, H.N.; Lux, D.R.; Andresen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-Silurian continental-margin deposits in western Norway, non-conformably overlying allochthonous continental orthogneisses retain Ordovician 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages for phengites, implying either rapid cooling immediately after a Late Ordovician orogenic event, or less likely, a slow cooling following an Early Ordovician or older orogeny. The Dalsfjord Suite-H??yvik Group basement-cover pair are probably a lateral equivalent to Late Proterozoic sandstones ('sparagmites') covering the Jotun Nappe gneisses of the Middle Allochthon in central-south Norway. The H??yvik Group underwent polyphase deformation, greenschist-facies metamorphism (Tmax <450??C) and exhumation prior to deposition of the unconformably overlying Wenlockian continental-margin deposits of the Herland Group. The H??yvik Group was only weakly metamorphosed during obduction of the Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite and the Scandian continental collision between Baltica and Laurentia. Phengitic white micas from the H??yvik Group yield cooling ages of 446.1 ?? 3.0, 449.1 ?? 2.2 and 447.5 ?? 4.0 Ma, respectively, identical within experimental error. One sample gives a plateau over 72% of the gas analysed, whereas the other samples were slightly disturbed after initial cooling, as indicated by systematically lower apparent ages at low experimental extraction temperatures. Minor 40Ar loss probably occurred during subsequent Scandian deformation and late to post-orogenic extension. The H??yvik Group rocks were unroofed before the Wenlock time (423-428 Ma) and cooled through the temperature for argon retention in phengite at c. 447 ?? 4 Ma, indicating a maximum cooling rate between 14 and 22??C/Ma-1 through Ashgill and Llandovery times before being subjected to low-grade metamorphism during the Scandian orogeny. Rapid pre-Scandian cooling, combined with peak metamorphic conditions of 450??C or less, may indicate that the Dalsfjord-H??yvik basement-cover pair were affected by an orogenic event during the Late

  16. Predicting the risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, V. Shane; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Geda, Yonas E.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to develop risk scores for the progression from cognitively normal (CN) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We recruited into a longitudinal cohort study a randomly selected, population-based sample of Olmsted County, MN, residents, aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004. At baseline and subsequent visits, participants were evaluated for demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological measures, and were classified as CN, MCI, or dementia. Using baseline demographic and clinical variables in proportional hazards models, we derived scores that predicted the risk of progressing from CN to MCI. We evaluated the ability of these risk scores to classify participants for MCI risk. Results: Of 1,449 CN participants, 401 (27.7%) developed MCI. A basic model had a C statistic of 0.60 (0.58 for women, 0.62 for men); an augmented model resulted in a C statistic of 0.70 (0.69 for women, 0.71 for men). Both men and women in the highest vs lowest sex-specific quartiles of the augmented model's risk scores had an approximately 7-fold higher risk of developing MCI. Adding APOE ε4 carrier status improved the model (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We have developed MCI risk scores using variables easily assessable in the clinical setting and that may be useful in routine patient care. Because of variability among populations, validation in independent samples is required. These models may be useful in identifying patients who might benefit from more expensive or invasive diagnostic testing, and can inform clinical trial design. Inclusion of biomarkers or other risk factors may further enhance the models. PMID:25788555

  17. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative.

  18. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  19. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  20. Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

  1. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  2. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  3. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  4. Acanthosis nigricans predicts the clustering of metabolic syndrome components in Hispanic elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Skipper, Betty; Leggott, John; Sebesta, Emilie; Glew, Robert; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatologic condition associated with hyperinsulinemia, a marker of insulin resistance that is the principal abnormality in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of AN with the clustering of MetS components. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban school-based health center in New Mexico. Students without diabetes were evaluated for AN, a family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and MetS components. The clustering of MetS components by BMI category and AN status was assessed by comparing the group means of summed average z-scores of fasting insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure among the students. A multivariate model with BMI category and AN status controlling for Tanner stage was performed to identify the variables associated with the clustering of MetS components. Results Complete data were available for 90 children (age, 9.7 ± 1.4 years; 94 % Hispanic; 60 % female). In multivariate modeling of MetS cluster z-score, significant differences were found between the students with BMI < 85th percentile [−0.27; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = − 0.42 to − 0.11] and (a) the students with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile with AN (0.74; 95 % CI = 0.17 – 1.31) and (b) the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile with AN (0.86; 95 % CI = 0.54 – 1.18). No significant differences in the MetS cluster z-score were seen between the students with BMI < 85th percentile and those with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile without AN (0.24; 95 % CI = − 0.33 to 0.81) or those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile without AN (0.31; 95 % CI = − 0.13 to 0.75). Conclusions Overweight/obese Hispanic elementary school-aged children with AN exhibit clustering of MetS components and could benefit from early intervention. PMID:23329755

  5. Age and tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks along the axis of the Sierra Nevada batholith: A critical reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.; Lahren, M.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Metamorphic rocks in many roof pendants along the axis of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) between 36 and 38{degree}N lat. have been considered part of the Kings sequence, of probable Mesozoic age. However, most of the pendants are in fact undated by fossils and may contain Paleozoic or Precambrian strata. A critical reappraisal of new and existing data on these pendants has led to the following hypotheses: (1) A continental crustal silver referred to as the Snow Lake block, with the approximate dimensions of the Salinian block, and represented by metamorphosed Proterozoic and Cambrian miogeoclinal rocks, extends 120 mi (200 km) southeastward from northern YNP to the Kaweah River drainage, and includes rocks in the following pendants: Snow Lake, Piute Mountain, Glen Aulin, May Lake, Iron mountain, Shuteye Peak, Dinkey Creek, Patterson Mountain, Boyden Cave, and Sequoia Park. This silver was displaced about 400 km northward along an intrabatholithic dextral strike-slip fault during the Early Cretaceous time. (2) Based on reconnaissance studies, the authors propose that the Shoo Fly Complex, which lies west of the Snow Lake block, continues southeastward to 36{degree}N lat., and includes parts of the following pendants: Oakhurst, Lower Kings River, Kaweah River, Tule River, and Kern Canyon. The apparent juxtaposition of the Shoo Fly Complex with the Snow Lake block requires the presence of a major tectonic break between them. This structure, now largely obliterated by Cretaceous plutons of the SNB, may be the equivalent of the Golconda thrust in north-central Nevada.

  6. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  7. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  8. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  9. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  10. Prediction of reading skill several years later depends on age and brain region: implications for developmental models of reading.

    PubMed

    McNorgan, Chris; Alvarez, Aubrey; Bhullar, Annum; Gayda, Jessica; Booth, James R

    2011-06-29

    We investigated whether brain activity was predictive of future reading skill and, if so, how this brain-behavior correlation informs developmental models of reading. A longitudinal study followed 26 normally developing human children ranging in age from 9 to 15 years who were initially assessed for reading skill and performed a rhyming judgment task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patterns of brain activation in this task predicted changes between initial and a follow-up assessment of nonword reading skill administered up to 6 years later. Brain activity in areas typically active during imaging studies of reading was found to predict future nonword reading ability, but the predictive ability of these areas depended on age. Increased activity relative to peers in neural circuits associated with phonological recoding (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus and basal ganglia) was predictive of greater gains in reading fluency in younger children, whereas increased activity relative to peers in orthographic processing circuits (i.e., fusiform gyrus) was predictive of smaller gains in fluency for older children. Interpreted within the context of a connectionist model of reading, these results suggest that younger children who are more sensitive to higher-order phonological word characteristics (e.g., coarticulations) may make greater reading proficiency gains, whereas older children who focus more on whole-word orthographic representations may make smaller proficiency gains. PMID:21715629

  11. Validity of VO(2 max) in predicting blood volume: implications for the effect of fitness on aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A multiple regression model was constructed to investigate the premise that blood volume (BV) could be predicted using several anthropometric variables, age, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)). To test this hypothesis, age, calculated body surface area (height/weight composite), percent body fat (hydrostatic weight), and VO(2 max) were regressed on to BV using data obtained from 66 normal healthy men. Results from the evaluation of the full model indicated that the most parsimonious result was obtained when age and VO(2 max) were regressed on BV expressed per kilogram body weight. The full model accounted for 52% of the total variance in BV per kilogram body weight. Both age and VO(2 max) were related to BV in the positive direction. Percent body fat contributed <1% to the explained variance in BV when expressed in absolute BV (ml) or as BV per kilogram body weight. When the model was cross validated on 41 new subjects and BV per kilogram body weight was reexpressed as raw BV, the results indicated that the statistical model would be stable under cross validation (e.g., predictive applications) with an accuracy of +/- 1,200 ml at 95% confidence. Our results support the hypothesis that BV is an increasing function of aerobic fitness and to a lesser extent the age of the subject. The results may have implication as to a mechanism by which aerobic fitness and activity may be protective against reduced BV associated with aging.

  12. Validity of VO(2 max) in predicting blood volume: implications for the effect of fitness on aging.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Ludwig, D A

    2000-09-01

    A multiple regression model was constructed to investigate the premise that blood volume (BV) could be predicted using several anthropometric variables, age, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)). To test this hypothesis, age, calculated body surface area (height/weight composite), percent body fat (hydrostatic weight), and VO(2 max) were regressed on to BV using data obtained from 66 normal healthy men. Results from the evaluation of the full model indicated that the most parsimonious result was obtained when age and VO(2 max) were regressed on BV expressed per kilogram body weight. The full model accounted for 52% of the total variance in BV per kilogram body weight. Both age and VO(2 max) were related to BV in the positive direction. Percent body fat contributed <1% to the explained variance in BV when expressed in absolute BV (ml) or as BV per kilogram body weight. When the model was cross validated on 41 new subjects and BV per kilogram body weight was reexpressed as raw BV, the results indicated that the statistical model would be stable under cross validation (e.g., predictive applications) with an accuracy of +/- 1,200 ml at 95% confidence. Our results support the hypothesis that BV is an increasing function of aerobic fitness and to a lesser extent the age of the subject. The results may have implication as to a mechanism by which aerobic fitness and activity may be protective against reduced BV associated with aging. PMID:10956267

  13. Multi-modal imaging predicts memory performance in normal aging and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Walhovd, K B; Fjell, A M; Dale, A M; McEvoy, L K; Brewer, J; Karow, D S; Salmon, D P; Fennema-Notestine, C

    2010-07-01

    This study (n=161) related morphometric MR imaging, FDG-PET and APOE genotype to memory scores in normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Stepwise regression analyses focused on morphometric and metabolic characteristics of the episodic memory network: hippocampus, entorhinal, parahippocampal, retrosplenial, posterior cingulate, precuneus, inferior parietal, and lateral orbitofrontal cortices. In NC, hippocampal metabolism predicted learning; entorhinal metabolism predicted recognition; and hippocampal metabolism predicted recall. In MCI, thickness of the entorhinal and precuneus cortices predicted learning, while parahippocampal metabolism predicted recognition. In AD, posterior cingulate cortical thickness predicted learning, while APOE genotype predicted recognition. In the total sample, hippocampal volume and metabolism, cortical thickness of the precuneus, and inferior parietal metabolism predicted learning; hippocampal volume and metabolism, parahippocampal thickness and APOE genotype predicted recognition. Imaging methods appear complementary and differentially sensitive to memory in health and disease. Medial temporal and parietal metabolism and morphometry best explained memory variance. Medial temporal characteristics were related to learning, recall and recognition, while parietal structures only predicted learning.

  14. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  15. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  16. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicts interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277

  17. Older Age at Completion of Fontan Procedure Is Associated with Improved Percentage of Predicted Maximum Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Maskatia, Shiraz A.; Tate, Amanda L.; Petit, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that later completion of the Fontan procedure is associated with improved exercise capacity in the current period of staged single-ventricle palliation. We performed a retrospective study, in Fontan patients, of exercise stress test data from April 2003 through March 2011. Patients were included if they had received staged palliations in accordance with current surgical strategy, defined as the performance of a superior cavopulmonary connection at ≤1 year of age, followed in subsequent years by Fontan completion. Patients with a pacemaker or respiratory exchange ratio <1 were excluded. Early and late Fontan groups were created on the basis of whether Fontan completion had been performed at <4 or ≥ 4 years of age. The primary predictor variable was age at Fontan completion, and the primary marker of exercise performance was the percentage of predicted maximum oxygen consumption. During the study period, 55 patients were identified (mean age, 11.7 ± 2.8 yr). Older age at Fontan completion correlated positively with higher percentages of predicted maximum oxygen consumption (R=0.286, P=0.034). Patients in whom Fontan completion was performed at ≥4 years of age had higher percentages of predicted maximum oxygen consumption than did those in whom completion was at <4 years of age (84.4 ± 21.5 vs 72.9 ± 18.1; P=0.041). Later Fontan completion might be associated with improved exercise capacity in patients palliated in accordance with contemporary surgical strategy. PMID:26413015

  18. Older Age at Completion of Fontan Procedure Is Associated with Improved Percentage of Predicted Maximum Oxygen Uptake.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Elijah H; Maskatia, Shiraz A; Tate, Amanda L; Petit, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that later completion of the Fontan procedure is associated with improved exercise capacity in the current period of staged single-ventricle palliation. We performed a retrospective study, in Fontan patients, of exercise stress test data from April 2003 through March 2011. Patients were included if they had received staged palliations in accordance with current surgical strategy, defined as the performance of a superior cavopulmonary connection at ≤1 year of age, followed in subsequent years by Fontan completion. Patients with a pacemaker or respiratory exchange ratio <1 were excluded. Early and late Fontan groups were created on the basis of whether Fontan completion had been performed at <4 or ≥ 4 years of age. The primary predictor variable was age at Fontan completion, and the primary marker of exercise performance was the percentage of predicted maximum oxygen consumption. During the study period, 55 patients were identified (mean age, 11.7 ± 2.8 yr). Older age at Fontan completion correlated positively with higher percentages of predicted maximum oxygen consumption (R=0.286, P=0.034). Patients in whom Fontan completion was performed at ≥4 years of age had higher percentages of predicted maximum oxygen consumption than did those in whom completion was at <4 years of age (84.4 ± 21.5 vs 72.9 ± 18.1; P=0.041). Later Fontan completion might be associated with improved exercise capacity in patients palliated in accordance with contemporary surgical strategy. PMID:26413015

  19. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  20. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  1. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  2. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  3. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  4. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  5. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bostancic, Chelsea; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah; Galbreath, Robert; Lief, Jonathan; Gutman, Sarah E.

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive {sup 125}I patients and 57 hormone-naive {sup 103}Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes ({sup 125}I 28.1% and {sup 103}Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients <65 years vs. {>=}65 years old (38.5% vs. 16.3%). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, patient age (p < 0.001) and isotope (p = 0.002) were significant predictors for spike. Conclusion: In low-risk prostate cancer, PSA spikes are most common in patients implanted with {sup 125}I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients.

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  7. Age, origin and significance of SKS splitting in SE Iberia: insights from mantle xenoliths from Neogene alkaline basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konc, Z.; Garrido, C. J.; Tommasi, A.; Padron Navarta, J. A.; Hidas, K.; Bosch, D.; Marchesi, C.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic activity in the SE Iberian Volcanic Province (SE IVP) is the surface expression of magmatism in a complex geodynamic setting during the Cenozoic development of a Mediterranean-type back-arc basin in the Alboran realm. The late stage of this geodynamical evolution was characterized by Neogene alkaline basalt volcanism erupted at 2-3 Ma in the Tallante and Los Perez (Murcia) volcanic centers. This volcanism entrained numerous mantle xenoliths that provide a recent snapshot of the structure of the lithospheric mantle beneath this region. Xenoliths are spinel (± plagioclase ± amphibole) lherzolite, and minor harzburgite and wehrlite showing porphyroclastic to fine- to medium-grained granoblastic textures. Mantle xenoliths display a marked axial [100] pattern olivine Crystal Preferred Orientation (CPO) characterized by a strong alignment of olivine [100] axes near or parallel to the peridotite lineation and a girdle distribution of [010] axes with a maximum normal to the peridotite foliation. This CPO is consistent with dominant activation of the high temperature [100]{0kl} slip systems of olivine formed under a deformation regime dominated by simple shear or combinations of simple shear and pure shear with a transtensional component. The age of this deformation event is constrained by syn-tectonice composite xenoliths formed by reactive percolation of Si-rich melt/fluids with the lithospheric mantle during middle Miocene subduction/delamination of the paleo-iberian margin beneath the SE IVP. In order to investigate whether SKS anystropy recently measured beneath this region can be accounted by the olivine CPO of the lithospheric mantle, we have computed the theoretical seismic anisotropy of mantle xenoliths from their olivine CPOs and modal compositions. The averaged seismic properties of SE-IVP mantle xenoliths are characterized by fast propagation of P-waves and polarization of fast S-waves parallel to the peridotite lineation. The computed highest S

  8. Performance on a computerized shopping task significantly predicts real world functioning in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Pellegrini, Nadia; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2013-12-15

    Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairments. However, little is known concerning how these cognitive deficits impact their real world functioning. We developed a computerized real-life activity task, where participants are required to shop for a list of grocery store items. Twenty one individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 21 matched healthy controls were administered the computerized shopping task. Moreover, the patient group was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests and clinical scales. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for two variables: Total time to complete the shopping task and Mean time spent to consult the shopping list. Moreover, in the patient group, performance on these variables from the shopping task correlated significantly with cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, verbal episodic memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition) and with clinical variables including duration of illness and real world functioning. Finally, variables from the shopping task were found to significantly explain 41% of real world functioning of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that the shopping task provides a good indication of real world functioning and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

  9. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  10. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory.

  11. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  12. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen L.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Henson, Rik; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier; McCarrey, Anna; Price, Darren; Taylor, Jason; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Dixon, Marie; Barnes, Dan; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  13. Significance of physicochemical forms of storage in microalgae in predicting copper transfer to filter-feeding oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Berthet, Brigitte; Joux, Lamia; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane

    2006-02-01

    Copper distribution has been examined in two microalgae (Haslea ostrearia, Diatom; Tetraselmis suecica, Prasinophyceae) exposed to Cu at 30 microg/L(-1). Exchangeable copper linked at the cell surface was desorbed using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate as complexing agent. Then, incorporated copper was separated between soluble and insoluble fractions. In addition, algae were resuspended in acid solutions, the pHs of which covered the range existing in the digestive tract of bivalves. Considering that the soluble fraction is the most easily transferred in the food chain and that exchangeable Cu is easily desorbed, the percentages of Cu potentially available in microalgae have been assessed. These percentages have been compared with those retained in oysters Crassostrea gigas fed with contaminated microalgae in previous studies. In H. ostrearia, the potentially available fraction of Cu (90%) was very similar to the percentage retained by oysters (93%) when the bivalves were acclimated to this food for 3 weeks. Only half (21%) of the potentially available Cu of T. suecica (42%) was readily assimilated in oysters after 3 weeks. This is in agreement with the results of the desorption tests at physiological pHs which showed that only 15-25% of Cu was lost, despite solubilization of other constituents of T. suecica as demonstrated by the decrease in their dry weight. Bioavailability determined from metal speciation in food allows a relevant prediction of the trophic transfer in the case of H. ostrearia, but caution is recommended in generalizing this mode of assessment as shown in the case of T. suecica.

  14. Significance of time awake for predicting pilots' fatigue on short-haul flights: implications for flight duty time regulations.

    PubMed

    Vejvoda, Martin; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Plath, Gernot; Maass, Hartmut; Tritschler, Kristjof; Basner, Mathias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    European regulations restrict the duration of the maximum daily flight duty period for pilots as a function of the duty start time and the number of scheduled flights. However, late duty end times that may include long times awake are not specifically regulated. In this study, fatigue levels in pilots finishing their duty late at night (00:00-01:59 hour) were analysed and compared with pilots starting their duty early (05:00-06:59 hour). Fatigue levels of 40 commercial short-haul pilots were studied during a total of 188 flight duty periods, of which 87 started early and 22 finished late. Pilots used a small handheld computer to maintain a duty and sleep log, and to indicate fatigue levels immediately after each flight. Sleep logs were checked with actigraphy. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were more fatigued at the end of their duty than pilots on early-starting flight duty periods, despite the fact that preceding sleep duration was longer by 1.1 h. Linear mixed-model regression identified time awake as a preeminent factor predicting fatigue. Workload had a minor effect. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were awake longer by an average of 5.5 h (6.6 versus 1.1 h) before commencing their duty than pilots who started early in the morning. Late-finishing flights were associated with long times awake at a time when the circadian system stops promoting alertness, and an increased, previously underestimated fatigue risk. Based on these findings, flight duty limitations should consider not only duty start time, but also the time of the final landing. PMID:25040665

  15. Significance of time awake for predicting pilots' fatigue on short-haul flights: implications for flight duty time regulations.

    PubMed

    Vejvoda, Martin; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Plath, Gernot; Maass, Hartmut; Tritschler, Kristjof; Basner, Mathias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    European regulations restrict the duration of the maximum daily flight duty period for pilots as a function of the duty start time and the number of scheduled flights. However, late duty end times that may include long times awake are not specifically regulated. In this study, fatigue levels in pilots finishing their duty late at night (00:00-01:59 hour) were analysed and compared with pilots starting their duty early (05:00-06:59 hour). Fatigue levels of 40 commercial short-haul pilots were studied during a total of 188 flight duty periods, of which 87 started early and 22 finished late. Pilots used a small handheld computer to maintain a duty and sleep log, and to indicate fatigue levels immediately after each flight. Sleep logs were checked with actigraphy. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were more fatigued at the end of their duty than pilots on early-starting flight duty periods, despite the fact that preceding sleep duration was longer by 1.1 h. Linear mixed-model regression identified time awake as a preeminent factor predicting fatigue. Workload had a minor effect. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were awake longer by an average of 5.5 h (6.6 versus 1.1 h) before commencing their duty than pilots who started early in the morning. Late-finishing flights were associated with long times awake at a time when the circadian system stops promoting alertness, and an increased, previously underestimated fatigue risk. Based on these findings, flight duty limitations should consider not only duty start time, but also the time of the final landing.

  16. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  17. The Prostate Health Index adds predictive value to multi-parametric MRI in detecting significant prostate cancers in a repeat biopsy population

    PubMed Central

    Gnanapragasam, V. J.; Burling, K.; George, A.; Stearn, S.; Warren, A.; Barrett, T.; Koo, B.; Gallagher, F. A.; Doble, A.; Kastner, C.; Parker, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Both multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have shown promise in predicting a positive biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Here we investigated the value of combining both tests in men requiring a repeat biopsy. PHI scores were measured in men undergoing re-biopsy with an mpMRI image-guided transperineal approach (n = 279, 94 with negative mpMRIs). The PHI was assessed for ability to add value to mpMRI in predicting all or only significant cancers (Gleason ≥7). In this study adding PHI to mpMRI improved overall and significant cancer prediction (AUC 0.71 and 0.75) compared to mpMRI + PSA alone (AUC 0.64 and 0.69 respectively). At a threshold of ≥35, PHI + mpMRI demonstrated a NPV of 0.97 for excluding significant tumours. In mpMRI negative men, the PHI again improved prediction of significant cancers; AUC 0.76 vs 0.63 (mpMRI + PSA). Using a PHI≥35, only 1/21 significant cancers was missed and 31/73 (42%) men potentially spared a re-biopsy (NPV of 0.97, sensitivity 0.95). Decision curve analysis demonstrated clinically relevant utility of the PHI across threshold probabilities of 5–30%. In summary, the PHI adds predictive performance to image-guided detection of clinically significant cancers and has particular value in determining re-biopsy need in men with a negative mpMRI. PMID:27748407

  18. Prediction of Preadolescent Overweight and Poor Cardiometabolic Outcome in Children up to 6 Years of Age: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, Alet; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Heijmans, Martijn W; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Twisk, Jos WR; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic risk estimations may enable targeting primary prevention of overweight and overweight-related adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life, potentially serving as a valuable addition to universal primary prevention. This approach seems particularly promising in young children, as body mass index (BMI) changes at a young age are highly predictive of these outcomes, and parental lifestyle interventions at a young age are associated with improved long-term outcome. Objective This paper describes the design of our study, which aims to develop digitized tools that can be implemented in the Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) system or by pediatricians for children up to 6 years of age. These tools will enable (1) dynamically predicting the development of overweight, hypertension or prehypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, and high total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio by early adolescence and (2) identifying children who are likely to have poor cardiometabolic outcome by the age of 5-6 years and by the age of 10 years. Methods Data will be obtained from the Generation R (n=7893) and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA; n=3963) cohorts, two Dutch prenatally recruited cohorts. We will select candidate predictors that can be assessed during the first visit and/or during subsequent visits to the CHC center or pediatrician, including sex; parental age, education level, and BMI; smoking exposure; ethnicity; birth weight; gestational age; breastfeeding versus formula feeding; and growth data through the age of 6 years. We will design dynamic prediction models that can be updated with new information obtained during subsequent CHC visits, allowing each measurement to be added to the model. Performance of the model will be assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Finally, the model will be validated both internally and externally using the combined cohort data and then converted into a computer

  19. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (< ~ 63 μm) of alluvial deposits that sit above the sand and gravel bars of the channel floor, but below the expansive flat surface generally referred to as the floodplain. Variously described as benches, bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over

  20. Developmental genes significantly afflicted by aberrant promoter methylation and somatic mutation predict overall survival of late-stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Yang, Xue; Cheng, Shujun; Wang, Guiqi; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is an exceedingly complicated process, which involves multi-level dysregulations, including genomics (majorly caused by somatic mutation and copy number variation), DNA methylomics, and transcriptomics. Therefore, only looking into one molecular level of cancer is not sufficient to uncover the intricate underlying mechanisms. With the abundant resources of public available data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, an integrative strategy was conducted to systematically analyze the aberrant patterns of colorectal cancer on the basis of DNA copy number, promoter methylation, somatic mutation and gene expression. In this study, paired samples in each genomic level were retrieved to identify differentially expressed genes with corresponding genetic or epigenetic dysregulations. Notably, the result of gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes with corresponding aberrant promoter methylation or somatic mutation were both functionally concentrated upon developmental process, suggesting the intimate association between development and carcinogenesis. Thus, by means of random walk with restart, 37 significant development-related genes were retrieved from a priori-knowledge based biological network. In five independent microarray datasets, Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analyses both confirmed that the expression of these genes was significantly associated with overall survival of Stage III/IV colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26691761

  1. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum. PMID:27786295

  2. The Clinical Significance of MiR-429 as a Predictive Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving 5-Fluorouracil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sheng-jian; Cai, Xiao-jun; Li, Shu-jin

    2016-01-01

    Background 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based treatment is the standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but the development of chemoresistance is inevitable. Increasing evidence shows that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in malignant transformation. Thus, it is imperative that we find new diagnostic and prognostic marker for chemotherapy in CRC. Material/Methods For clinical parameter analysis, 78 CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues and 45 serum specimens from CRC patients were included in this study. For chemo-response analysis, 116 primary tissues were collected from the patients receiving first-line 5-FU treatment. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect microRNAs expression. Results The expression of miR-429 was significantly increased in both serum and primary tissues from CRC patients, and enhanced miR-429 level was associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. The diagnostic and prognostic values were also confirmed in CRC by using primary tissues. For patients receiving 5-FU-based treatment, miR-429 levels were significantly lower in responding group. The proportions of patients that did not experience response to therapy were higher in primary tumors with high miR-429 expression levels as compared with primary tumors with low miR-429 expression levels. Finally, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that miR-429 is an independent prognostic indicator for chemo-response to 5-FU therapy among CRC patients. Conclusions High level of miR-429 expression was correlated with enhanced malignant potential and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Furthermore, miR-429 could affect the chemo-sensitivity of CRC patients to 5-FU therapy and was associated with poor response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with CRC. PMID:27654003

  3. Rate of acquisition, adult age, and basic cognitive abilities predict forgetting: new views on a classic problem.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Stuart W S; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Derwinger, Anna; Bäckman, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Rate of forgetting is putatively invariant across individuals, sharing few associations with individual-differences variables known to influence encoding and retrieval. This classic topic in learning and memory was revisited using a novel statistical application, multilevel modeling, to examine whether (a) slopes of forgetting varied across individuals and (b) observed individual differences in forgetting shared systematic relations with adult age, learning speed, and cognitive ability. Participants (N = 136) received mnemonic training prior to memorizing 4-digit numbers to perfection, and retention was tested immediately after training and after 30 min, 24 hr, 7 weeks, and 8 months. Slower rate of learning to criterion, older age, and poorer cognitive performance predicted accelerated forgetting with associations most pronounced within 24 hr from baseline. Observed correlates of differential forgetting slopes are similar to those previously found to affect encoding, suggesting continuity rather than asymmetry of prediction for these memory processes.

  4. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Alcantara, Pino; Li, Linna; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ≤68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  5. Challenges of incorporating gene expression data to predict HCC prognosis in the age of systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The recurrence of HCC after curative treatments is currently a major hurdle. Identification of subsets of patients with distinct prognosis provides an opportunity to tailor therapeutic approaches as well as to select the patients with specific sub-phenotypes for targeted therapy. Thus, the development of gene expression profiles to improve the prediction of HCC prognosis is important for HCC management. Although several gene signatures have been evaluated for the prediction of HCC prognosis, there is no consensus on the predictive power of these signatures. Using systematic approaches to evaluate these signatures and combine them with clinicopathologic information may provide more accurate prediction of HCC prognosis. Recently, Villanueva et al[13] developed a composite prognostic model incorporating gene expression patterns in both tumor and adjacent tissues to predict HCC recurrence. In this commentary, we summarize the current progress in using gene signatures to predict HCC prognosis, and discuss the importance, existing issues and future research directions in this field. PMID:22912544

  6. Early immune recovery after autologous transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients: predictive factors and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Valtola, Jaakko; Varmavuo, Ville; Ropponen, Antti; Selander, Tuomas; Kuittinen, Outi; Kuitunen, Hanne; Keskinen, Leena; Vasala, Kaija; Nousiainen, Tapio; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Jantunen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    Limited data is available about the factors affecting early immune recovery or its clinical significance after autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). We prospectively analyzed factors affecting early immune recovery and outcome among 72 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. Absolute lymphocyte count 15 d after auto-SCT (ALC-15) ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was associated with the use of plerixafor (p = 0.004), the number of CD34(+) cells (p = 0.015), and CD34(+) CD38(-) cells (p = 0.005) in the grafts. ALC-15 ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.021). In patients with aggressive histology, ALC-15 ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was beneficial in regard to both progression-free survival (p = 0.015) and overall survival (p = 0.002). Early immune recovery seems to be important in transplanted patients with NHL and, therefore, an easy and affordable method for disease-related risk analysis. Patients with aggressive histology and slow immune recovery may need additional post-transplant treatment. PMID:26763346

  7. Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

    2007-03-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

  8. Predicting breeding bird occurrence by stand- and microhabitat-scale features in even-aged stands in the Central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, G.W.; Simpson, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when managing forest wildlife habitat, and models can be used to improve our understanding of these habitats at relevant scales. Our objectives were to determine whether stand- or microhabitat-scale variables better predicted bird metrics (diversity, species presence, and abundance) and to examine breeding bird response to clearcut size and age in a highly forested landscape. In 2004-2007, vegetation data were collected from 62 even-aged stands that were 3.6-34.6. ha in size and harvested in 1963-1990 on the Monongahela National Forest, WV, USA. In 2005-2007, we also surveyed birds at vegetation plots. We used classification and regression trees to model breeding bird habitat use with a suite of stand and microhabitat variables. Among stand variables, elevation, stand age, and stand size were most commonly retained as important variables in guild and species models. Among microhabitat variables, medium-sized tree density and tree species diversity most commonly predicted bird presence or abundance. Early successional and generalist bird presence, abundance, and diversity were better predicted by microhabitat variables than stand variables. Thus, more intensive field sampling may be required to predict habitat use for these species, and management may be needed at a finer scale. Conversely, stand-level variables had greater utility in predicting late-successional species occurrence and abundance; thus management decisions and modeling at this scale may be suitable in areas with a uniform landscape, such as our study area. Our study suggests that late-successional breeding bird diversity can be maximized long-term by including harvests >10. ha in size into our study area and by increasing tree diversity. Some harvesting will need to be incorporated regularly, because after 15 years, the study stands did not provide habitat for most early successional breeding specialists. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  10. The Significance of Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Predicting Progression and Metastasis of Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan-shan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies indicate that H19 plays a key role in tumorigenesis, but the results have been disputed, especially in the aspects of tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to systematically summarize the relationship between H19 and cancers. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Chinese Wan Fang to identify eligible studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the effect size. A total of 13 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, which was performed by Revman5.3 and Stata11.0 software. Our meta-analysis showed that the expression of H19 was associated with distant metastasis in nongastrointestinal tumors (OR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.31–11.36, P = 0.01) and, in gastrointestinal tumors (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15–0.78, P = 0.01), lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.19–3.48, P = 0.009). Moreover, in gastric cancer, H19 expression was significantly related to histological grade (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, P = 0.01), TNM stage (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.11–0.33, P < 0.01), and tumor invasion depth (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.04–0.27, P < 0.01). Therefore, H19 could serve as a potential marker for progression and metastasis evaluation of cancers.

  11. The Significance of Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Predicting Progression and Metastasis of Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan-shan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies indicate that H19 plays a key role in tumorigenesis, but the results have been disputed, especially in the aspects of tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to systematically summarize the relationship between H19 and cancers. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Chinese Wan Fang to identify eligible studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the effect size. A total of 13 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, which was performed by Revman5.3 and Stata11.0 software. Our meta-analysis showed that the expression of H19 was associated with distant metastasis in nongastrointestinal tumors (OR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.31–11.36, P = 0.01) and, in gastrointestinal tumors (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15–0.78, P = 0.01), lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.19–3.48, P = 0.009). Moreover, in gastric cancer, H19 expression was significantly related to histological grade (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, P = 0.01), TNM stage (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.11–0.33, P < 0.01), and tumor invasion depth (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.04–0.27, P < 0.01). Therefore, H19 could serve as a potential marker for progression and metastasis evaluation of cancers. PMID:27672656

  12. Post Eclosion Age Predicts the Prevalence of Midgut Trypanosome Infections in Glossina

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P.; Lehane, Michael J.; Haines, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    The teneral phenomenon, as observed in Glossina sp., refers to the increased susceptibility of the fly to trypanosome infection when the first bloodmeal taken is trypanosome-infected. In recent years, the term teneral has gradually become synonymous with unfed, and thus fails to consider the age of the newly emerged fly at the time the first bloodmeal is taken. Furthermore, conflicting evidence exists of the effect of the age of the teneral fly post eclosion when it is given the infected first bloodmeal in determining the infection prevalence. This study demonstrates that it is not the feeding history of the fly but rather the age (hours after eclosion of the fly from the puparium) of the fly when it takes the first (infective) bloodmeal that determines the level of fly susceptibility to trypanosome infection. We examine this phenomenon in male and female flies from two distinct tsetse clades (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina palpalis palpalis) infected with two salivarian trypanosome species, Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense using Fisher's exact test to examine differences in infection rates. Teneral tsetse aged less than 24 hours post-eclosion (h.p.e.) are twice as susceptible to trypanosome infection as flies aged 48 h.p.e. This trend is conserved across sex, vector clade and parasite species. The life cycle stage of the parasite fed to the fly (mammalian versus insect form trypanosomes) does not alter this age-related bias in infection. Reducing the numbers of parasites fed to 48 h.p.e., but not to 24 h.p.e. flies, increases teneral refractoriness. The importance of this phenomenon in disease biology in the field as well as the necessity of employing flies of consistent age in laboratory-based infection studies is discussed. PMID:22087240

  13. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  14. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  15. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders.

  16. CREB-binding protein (CBP) levels in the rat hippocampus fail to predict chronological or cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Coletta, Christopher E.; Perez, Evelyn V.; Kim, David H.; Gallagher, Michela; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Rapp, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Normal cognitive aging is associated with deficits in memory processes dependent on the hippocampus, along with large-scale changes in the hippocampal expression of many genes. Histone acetylation can broadly influence gene expression and has been recently linked to learning and memory. We hypothesized that cAMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), a key histone acetyltransferase, may contribute to memory decline in normal aging. Here, we quantified CBP protein levels in the hippocampus of young, aged unimpaired and aged impaired rats, classified on the basis of spatial memory capacity documented in the Morris water maze. First, CBP-immunofluorescence was quantified across the principal cell layers of the hippocampus using both low and high resolution laser scanning imaging approaches. Second, digital images of CBP immunostaining were analyzed by a multi-purpose classifier algorithm (WND-CHARM) with validated sensitivity across many types of input materials. Finally, CBP protein levels in the principal subfields of the hippocampus were quantified by quantitative western blotting. CBP levels were equivalent as a function of age and cognitive status in all analyses. The sensitivity of the techniques used was substantial, sufficient to reveal differences across the principal cell fields of the hippocampus, and to correctly classify images from young and aged animals independent of CBP-immunoreactivity. The results are discussed in the context of recent evidence suggesting that CBP decreases may be most relevant in conditions of aging that, unlike normal cognitive aging, involve significant neuron loss. PMID:22884549

  17. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  18. Total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Chin, K-Y; Ima-Nirwana, S; Mohamed, I N; Aminuddin, A; Ngah, W Z W

    2013-07-01

    Testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) in men. This study aimed at validating these relationships in a group of middle-aged and elderly men and assessing their strength of association to MS. A cross-sectional study of 332 Malaysian men aged 40 years and above was conducted. The blood of subject was collected under fasting condition for determination of testosterone, SHBG, glucose and lipid levels. Their medical history, smoking and alcohol consumption status, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. All testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly reduced in MS subjects compared to non-MS subjects (p<0.05). Testosterone and SHBG were correlated significantly with most of the MS indicators without adjustments. In multiple regression analysis, the triglyceride level was the only MS indicator that was significantly, inversely and independently associated with all testosterone measurements and SHBG (p<0.05). Waist circumference was significantly and negatively associated with SHBG level (p<0.05) though not independent of BMI. Total testosterone and SHBG were significantly and inversely associated with the presence of MS. Testosterone and SHBG are potential intervention targets for the prevention of MS in men.

  19. Clinical prediction of Parkinson's disease: planning for the age of neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Postuma, R B; Gagnon, J F; Montplaisir, J

    2010-09-01

    As a chronic progressive disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) has a presymptomatic interval; that is, a period during which the pathological process has begun, but motor signs required for the clinical diagnosis are absent. The ability to identify this preclinical stage may be critical in the development and eventual use of neuroprotective therapy. Recently proposed staging systems of PD have suggested that degeneration may occur initially in areas outside the substantia nigra, suggesting that non-motor manifestations may be markers of presymptomatic PD. Decreased olfaction has recently been demonstrated to predict PD in prospective pathological studies, although the lead time may be relatively short, and the positive predictive value is low. Idiopathic RBD has a very high predictive value, with approximately 50% of affected individuals developing PD or dementia within 10 years. This implies that idiopathic RBD patients are ideal candidates to test potential preclinical markers. However, the specificity of symptom screens for RBD is not established, not all persons with PD develop RBD, and there are only limited ways to predict which RBD patients will develop PD. Other simple screens based upon autonomic symptoms, depression and personality changes, quantitative motor testing and other sleep disorders may also be useful markers, but have not been extensively tested. Other more expensive measures such as detailed autonomic testing, cardiac MIBG-scintigraphy, dopaminergic imaging and transcranial ultrasound may be especially useful in defining disease risk in those identified through primary screening.

  20. Autonomic Regulation on the Stroop Predicts Reading Achievement in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; Carrere, Sybil; Siler, Chelsea; Jones, Stephanie; Bowie, Bonnie; Cooke, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, a parasympathetic index) both at rest and during challenge, to assess if variations in cardiovascular activity measured during a Stroop task could be used to predict reading achievement in typically developing children. Reading achievement was examined using the Peabody…

  1. Appraisal, Social Support, and Life Events: Predicting Outcome Behavior in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yo; Warren, Jared S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined relationship between social support and appraisal of life events in predicting adaptive, externalizing, and internalizing behavior in 265 seven- to 13-year-olds. Found support for both the main effects and moderator models of the association between life events and global social support. Gender differences were found. Appraisal of life…

  2. Experimentally induced, synergistic late effects of a single dose of radiation and aging: significance in LKS fraction as compared with mature blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Isao; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Inoue, Tohru

    2015-03-01

    The number of murine mature blood cells recovered within 6 weeks after 2-Gy whole-body irradiation at 6 weeks of age, whereas in the case of the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) compartment [cells in the lineage-negative, c-kit-positive and stem-cell-antigen-1-positive (LKS) fraction], the numerical differences between mice with and without irradiation remained more than a year, but conclusively the cells showed numerical recovery. When mice were exposed to radiation at 6 months of age, acute damages of mature blood cells were rather milder probably because of their maturation with age; but again, cells in the LKS fraction were specifically damaged, and their numerical recovery was significantly delayed probably as a result of LKS-specific cellular damages. Interestingly, in contrast to the recovery of the number of cells in the LKS fraction, their quality was not recovered, which was quantitatively assessed on the basis of oxidative-stress-related fluorescence intensity. To investigate why the recovery in the number of cells in the LKS fraction was delayed, expression levels of genes related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis of cells in the bone marrow and LKS fraction were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the case of 21-month-old mice after radiation exposure, Ccnd1, PiK3r1 and Fyn were overexpressed solely in cells in the LKS fraction. Because Ccnd1and PiK3r1 upregulated by aging were further upregulated by radiation, single-dose radiation seemed to induce the acceleration of aging, which is related to the essential biological responses during aging based on a lifetime-dependent relationship between a living creature and xenobiotic materials.

  3. Development of a risk prediction model for incident hypertension in a working-age Japanese male population.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kachi, Yuko; Takada, Hirotaka; Kato, Katsuhito; Kodani, Eitaro; Ibuki, Chikao; Kusama, Yoshiki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a risk prediction model for incident hypertension in a Japanese male population. Study participants included 15,025 nonhypertensive Japanese male workers (mean age, 38.8±8.9 years) who underwent an annual medical checkup at a company. The participants were followed-up for a median of 4.0 years to determine new-onset hypertension, defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) ⩾140 mm Hg, a diastolic BP ⩾90 mm Hg, or the initiation of antihypertensive medication. Participants were divided into the following two cohorts for subsequent analyses: the derivation cohort (n=12,020, 80% of the study population) and the validation cohort (n=3005, the remaining 20% of the study population). In the derivation cohort, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, current smoking status, excessive alcohol intake and parental history of hypertension were independent predictors of incident hypertension. Using these variables, a risk prediction model was constructed to estimate the 4-year risk of incident hypertension. In the validation cohort, the risk prediction model demonstrated high discrimination ability and acceptable calibration, with a C-statistic of 0.861 (95% confidence interval 0.844, 0.877) and a modified Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 statistic of 15.2 (P=0.085). A risk score sheet was constructed to enable the simple calculation of the approximate 4-year probability of incident hypertension. In conclusion, a practical risk prediction model for incident hypertension was successfully developed in a working-age Japanese male population.

  4. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  5. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  6. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  7. Self-Paced Study Time as a Cue for Recall Predictions across School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann-Biencourt, Anja; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ackerman, Rakefet; Koriat, Asher

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on metacognition indicates that monitoring is sometimes based itself on the feedback from control operations. Evidence for this pattern has not only been shown in adults but also in elementary schoolchildren. To explore whether this finding can be generalized to a wide range of age groups, 160 participants from first to eighth grade…

  8. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  9. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  10. BUILDING REALISTIC BIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR PREDICTING SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE AGED POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics is a major function of the liver and is important in maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of the organism. The degree to which aging affects hepatic metabolism is not known. The expression of XMEs, in part, determines the fate of the...

  11. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  12. Utilizing Genetic Predisposition Score in Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence: A Community-based Cohort Study on Middle-aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yin; Choi, Hyung Jin; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    Contribution of genetic predisposition to risk prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated using a prospective study in middle-aged adults in Korea. From a community cohort of 6,257 subjects with 8 yr' follow-up, genetic predisposition score with subsets of 3, 18, 36 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (genetic predisposition score; GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36) in association with T2DM were determined, and their effect was evaluated using risk prediction models. Rs5215, rs10811661, and rs2237892 were in significant association with T2DM, and hazard ratios per risk allele score increase were 1.11 (95% confidence intervals: 1.06-1.17), 1.09 (1.01-1.05), 1.04 (1.02-1.07) with GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36, respectively. Changes in AUC upon addition of GPS were significant in simple and clinical models, but the significance disappeared in full clinical models with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). For net reclassification index (NRI), significant improvement observed in simple (range 5.1%-8.6%) and clinical (3.1%-4.4%) models were no longer significant in the full models. Influence of genetic predisposition in prediction ability of T2DM incidence was no longer significant when HbA1c was added in the models, confirming HbA1c as a strong predictor for T2DM risk. Also, the significant SNPs verified in our subjects warrant further research, e.g. gene-environmental interaction and epigenetic studies.

  13. GxE Interactions between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Are Significantly Associated with Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C.; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D. Craig; Willcox, Bradley J.; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles. PMID:24895270

  14. GxE interactions between FOXO genotypes and drinking tea are significantly associated with prevention of cognitive decline in advanced age in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2015-04-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles.

  15. GxE interactions between FOXO genotypes and drinking tea are significantly associated with prevention of cognitive decline in advanced age in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2015-04-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles. PMID:24895270

  16. Auditory event-related potentials measured in kindergarten predict later reading problems at school age.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Guttorm, Tomi K; Richardson, Ulla; Alku, Paavo; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2013-01-01

    Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the second grade. Children who had reading problems at school age had larger N250 responses to speech and non-speech stimuli particularly at the left hemisphere. The brain responses also correlated with reading skills. The results suggest that atypical auditory and speech processing are a neural-level risk factor for future reading problems. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Developmental Neuropsychology for the following free supplemental resources: Sound files used in the experiments. Three speech sounds and corresponding non-speech sounds with short, intermediate, and long gaps]. PMID:24219695

  17. Age at the onset of senescence in birds and mammals is predicted by early-life performance.

    PubMed

    Péron, Guillaume; Gimenez, Olivier; Charmantier, Anne; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2010-09-22

    Life-history theory predicts that traits involved in maturity, reproduction and survival correlate along a fast-slow continuum of life histories. Evolutionary theories and empirical results indicate that senescence-related traits vary along this continuum, with slow species senescing later and at a slower pace than fast species. Because senescence patterns are typically difficult to estimate from studies in the wild, here we propose to predict the associated trait values in the frame of life-history theory. From a comparative analysis based on 81 free-ranging populations of 72 species of birds and mammals, we find that a nonlinear combination of fecundity, age at first reproduction and survival over the immature stage can account for ca two-thirds of the variance in the age at the onset of actuarial senescence. Our life-history model performs better than a model predicting the onset based on generation time, and it only includes life-history traits during early life as explanatory variables, i.e. parameters that are both theoretically expected to shape senescence and are measurable within relatively short studies. We discuss the good-fit of our life-history model to the available data in the light of current evolutionary theories of senescence. We further use it to evaluate whether studies that provided no evidence for senescence lasted long enough to include the onset of senescence.

  18. Prediction of troponin-T degradation using color image texture features in 10d aged beef longissimus steaks.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Berg, E P; Newman, D J; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Maddock Carlin, K R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to use digital color image texture features to predict troponin-T degradation in beef. Image texture features, including 88 gray level co-occurrence texture features, 81 two-dimension fast Fourier transformation texture features, and 48 Gabor wavelet filter texture features, were extracted from color images of beef strip steaks (longissimus dorsi, n = 102) aged for 10d obtained using a digital camera and additional lighting. Steaks were designated degraded or not-degraded based on troponin-T degradation determined on d 3 and d 10 postmortem by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis (STEPWISE regression model) and artificial neural network (support vector machine model, SVM) methods were designed to classify protein degradation. The d 3 and d 10 STEPWISE models were 94% and 86% accurate, respectively, while the d 3 and d 10 SVM models were 63% and 71%, respectively, in predicting protein degradation in aged meat. STEPWISE and SVM models based on image texture features show potential to predict troponin-T degradation in meat. PMID:24200578

  19. Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Munson, Jeffrey; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. ASD exhibits great variability in outcomes, with some individuals remaining nonverbal and others exhibiting average or above average function. Cognitive ability contributes to heterogeneity in autism and serves as a modest predictor of later function. We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years. The predictive strength of this brain measure increases over time, and exceeds the predictive strength of a measure of cognitive ability, used here for comparison. These findings have theoretical implications and may eventually lead to neural measures that allow early prediction of developmental outcomes as well as more individually tailored clinical interventions, with the potential for greater effectiveness in treating children with ASD. PMID:23734230

  20. Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hornickel, Jane; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zecker, Steve; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-20

    Reading and speech-in-noise perception, fundamental aspects of human communication, have been linked to neural indices of auditory brainstem function. However, how these factors interact is currently unclear. Multivariate analysis methods (structural equation modeling) were employed to delineate and quantify the relationships among factors that relate to successful reading and speech in noise perception in children. Neural measures of subcortical speech encoding that reflect the utilization of stimulus regularities, differentiation of stop consonants, and robustness of neural synchrony predicted 73% of the variance in reading scores. A different combination of neural measures, specifically, utilization of stimulus regularities, strength of encoding of lower harmonics, and the extent of noise-induced timing delays uniquely predicted 56% of the variance in speech-in-noise perception measures. The neural measures relating to reading and speech-in-noise perception were substantially non-overlapping and resulted in poor fitting models when substituted for each other, thereby suggesting distinct neural signatures for the two skills. When phonological processing and working memory measures were added to the models, brainstem measures still uniquely predicted variance in reading ability and speech-in-noise perception, highlighting the robustness of the relationship between subcortical auditory function and these skills. The current study suggests that objective neural markers may prove valuable in the assessment of reading or speech-in-noise abilities in children.

  1. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.

  2. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  3. DIFFERENCES IN CHANGE SCORES AND THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THREE COMMONLY USED MEASURES FOLLOWING CONCUSSION IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL AGED POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Michael; Schlabach, Drew; Peiffer, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Background: A battery of tests is commonly used to measure disability with and recovery from concussion. A number of different concussion-oriented assessment tests exist and each is considered useful. To the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the scores of these tests during recovery in the middle school and high school aged population to see how each change over time. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to analyze clinical data of concussed middle school and high school aged athletes to determine the concurrent and predictive validity for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the five subscales of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review performed on middle school and high school aged individuals with a diagnosis of concussion from the years 2008-2010 within the Akron Children's Hospital Sports Medicine system. To be eligible for inclusion in the dataset, each subject required a baseline measurement for each of the three tests (and all five subscales of the ImPACT) and a post-test measure. The mean age of the population was 15.38 years (SD = 1.7) and ranged from 11 to 19 years. Pearson product correlation tests (correlation matrix) were used to analyze the concurrent validity of the test items during recovery following a concussion. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive validity of initial scores for developing PCS. Results: The correlation matrix captured five statistically significant findings; however, these suggested only weak to mild correlations. Five test items yielded an area under the curve (AUC) greater than 0.50 but only one was statistically significant. After qualitative evaluation, only one of the three tests (including the five subscales of the ImPACT) was useful in predicting post-concussion syndrome. Conclusion: This study

  4. A significant and consistent reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization of children under 5 years of age, following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel.

    PubMed

    Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008-2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011-2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0-23 months (60-61%) than in toddlers aged 24-59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program.

  5. Orbitofrontal cortex volume in area 11/13 predicts reward devaluation, but not reversal learning performance, in young and aged monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara N; Thome, Alex; Plange, Kojo; Engle, James R; Trouard, Theodore P; Gothard, Katalin M; Barnes, Carol A

    2014-07-23

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala are both necessary for decisions based on expected outcomes. Although behavioral and imaging data suggest that these brain regions are affected by advanced age, the extent to which aging alters appetitive processes coordinated by the OFC and the amygdala is unknown. In the current experiment, young and aged bonnet macaques were trained on OFC- and amygdala-dependent tasks that test the degree to which response selection is guided by reward value and can be adapted when expected outcomes change. To assess whether the structural integrity of these regions varies with levels of performance on reward devaluation and object reversal tasks, volumes of areas 11/13 and 14 of the OFC, central/medial (CM), and basolateral (BL) nuclei of the amygdala were determined from high-resolution anatomical MRIs. With age, there were significant reductions in OFC, but not CM and BL, volume. Moreover, the aged monkeys showed impairments in the ability to associate an object with a higher value reward, and to reverse a previously learned association. Interestingly, greater OFC volume of area 11/13, but not 14, was significantly correlated with an animal's ability to anticipate the reward outcome associated with an object, and smaller BL volume was predictive of an animal's tendency to choose a higher value reward, but volume of neither region correlated with reversal learning. Together, these data indicate that OFC volume has an impact on monkeys' ability to guide choice behavior based on reward value but does not impact ability to reverse a previously learned association. PMID:25057193

  6. Age-related physical fitness and the predictive values of fitness tests for work ability in home care work.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, T

    2001-08-01

    Despite the widespread assessment of physical fitness in occupational medicine and health services, only a few validity studies have been made of the fitness tests used in relation to job demands. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical fitness of female home care workers (n = 132) in relation to age and to evaluate whether the fitness tests used predict work ability over a 5-year period of follow-up. Muscle endurance declined by 18% to 37%, and isometric muscle strength by 10% to 18%, from the youngest (21 to 35 years) to the oldest (45 to 59 years) age group. The proportion of those subjects who could be classified below the average age-related fitness categories according to the maximal oxygen consumption was highest (50%) for the 21-to-35 age group. The logistic regression model showed that obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 7.51) and poor results on the sit-up (OR, 8.9), balance (OR, 6.5), and weight-lifting (OR, 4.6) tests predicted the highest risk for reduced work ability, according to the work ability index used in the 5-year follow-up. Moreover, average results for the trunk side-bending test (OR, 4.6), poor results for the squatting test (OR, 3.8), poor knee extension strength (OR, 4.2), and the average maximal oxygen consumption (l.min-1) (OR, 3.1) indicated a high risk for reduction in work ability. The physical fitness tests were strongly associated with the physical demands of home care work and were relevant for the evaluation of work-related fitness among home care workers.

  7. Importance of physical fitness on predictive effect of body mass index and weight gain on incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-age men.

    PubMed

    Grundvold, Irene; Skretteberg, Per Torger; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Arnesen, Harald; Erikssen, Jan; Bodegard, Johan

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is increasing in the community, and lifestyle intervention is recommended. We aimed to test whether the predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change from age 25 years to midlife on incident AF were influenced by physical fitness. In 1972 to 1975, 2,014 healthy middle-age men conducted a bicycle exercise electrocardiographic test as a part of a cardiovascular survey program, defining physical fitness as work performed divided by body weight. During 35 years of follow-up, 270 men developed AF, documented by scrutiny of the health files in all Norwegian hospitals. Risk estimation was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and tested for age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median. The mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2) defined a lean baseline cohort. The men with a baseline BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) (11%) compared to a BMI <28 kg/m(2) had a 1.68-fold risk of AF (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.40) and men reporting weight gain of ≥10 kg (24%) compared to weight loss (11%) of 1.66-fold (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.89), respectively. The dichotomy into men with age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median, demonstrated statistically significant risk associations only for men with low fitness. The overall risk of AF was reduced by 23% in the fit men. In conclusion, within our lean baseline cohort of healthy middle-age men, a BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) and weight gain of ≥10 kg from age 25 to midlife were long-term predictors of incident AF in men with physical fitness below the population median. The fit men had an overall slightly reduced risk of AF.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  9. Comparing Record Dynamics Predictions with Simulations and Experiments of Aging Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    We describe the spontaneous off-equilibrium relaxation process known as aging in a simple, real-space model: Kinetic constraints bind on-lattice particles together in ``clusters,'' where a phenomenological function of size controls their lifetime. But once a cluster breaks down, its particles can move independently in space, a process akin to ``cage breaking,'' to join other clusters.Known properties of glassy systems emerge, such as spatial heterogeneity and record dynamics. Here we compare our simple model with recent molecular dynamics studies of hard-sphere colloids.We find agreement with the scaling properties of the particles mean square displacement, and the aging properties of the interface energy, of the intermediate scattering function, and of the probability density function of the particle displacements occurring within different time windows. These properties are related to an underlying Poisson process which describes the salient events or quakes which correspond to the break up of clusters and give a coarse-grained description of the model dynamics, confirmed by re-analysis of experimental data. SB acknowledges support from NSF with DMR-grant #1207431, and thanks SDU for its hospitality and the Villum Foundation for support.

  10. Predicting the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and its age of onset through modelling genetic risk variants with smoking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Seegobin, Seth D; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Hocking, Lynne J; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  11. Predicting the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and its age of onset through modelling genetic risk variants with smoking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Seegobin, Seth D; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Hocking, Lynne J; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively.

  12. Predicting the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Age of Onset through Modelling Genetic Risk Variants with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  13. Does the Amount of Fat Mass Predict Age-Related Loss of Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Quality in Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jingzhong; Stenholm, Sari; Caserotti, Paolo; Houston, Denise K.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; You, Tongjian; Lee, Jung Sun; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality over 7 years of follow-up and whether this link was explained by adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods. Data were from 2,307 men and women, aged 70–79 years, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Total fat mass was acquired from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg lean mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Knee extension strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer in Years 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Muscle quality was calculated as muscle strength divided by leg lean mass. Results. Every SD greater fat mass was related to 1.3 kg more leg lean mass at baseline in men and 1.5 kg in women (p < .01). Greater fat mass was also associated with a greater decline in leg lean mass in both men and women (0.02 kg/year, p < .01), which was not explained by higher levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Larger fat mass was related to significantly greater muscle strength but significantly lower muscle quality at baseline (p < .01). No significant differences in decline of muscle strength and quality were found. Conclusions. High fatness was associated with lower muscle quality, and it predicts accelerated loss of lean mass. Prevention of greater fatness in old age may decrease the loss of lean mass and maintain muscle quality and thereby reducing disability and mobility impairments. PMID:21572082

  14. Developmental Risk and Young Children’s Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Arbona, Anita Pedersen y; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised of 137 typically developing children and 94 children with developmental delays were examined during mildly frustrating laboratory tasks across the preschool period (ages 3–5). Results indicated that children with delays had greater use of maladaptive strategies (distraction, distress venting) and lower use of adaptive strategies (constructive coping) than typically developing children. For both groups, strategies had similar rates of growth across time; maladaptive strategies decreased and adaptive strategies increased. The intercept of strategy use, but not the slope, was found to mediate the relation between developmental risk and externalizing behaviors. Findings support that dysregulation, rather than the developmental risk, may be responsible for the high levels of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:21107675

  15. Predicting ejaculate quality and libido in male ostriches: effect of season and age.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Maud; Malecki, Irek A; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, Paulina K; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Cloete, Schalk W P

    2014-12-10

    The success of artificial breeding program depends largely on the reproductive performance of males. Male performance can vary with season and age impacting on quality and quantity of semen collected for artificial insemination purposes and therefore fertility of inseminated females. We examined variation in semen output and male libido of seven male ostriches (aged 2-5 years) over a period of 24 months. We collected ejaculates using a dummy female and measured semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate, sperm motility and morphology) and male libido (willingness to mount the dummy). A total of 1006 ejaculates were collected. Across months, the volume of semen (mean ± SEM) ranged from 1.03 ± 0.12 mL to 1.85 ± 0.07 mL, the sperm concentration from 3.21 ± 0.12 × 10(9)/mL to 4.16 ± 0.74 × 10(9)/mL, and the number of spermatozoa from 3.42 ± 0.28 × 10(9) to 7.66 ± 0.47 × 10(9). The largest volume of ejaculates and the highest number of sperm were collected in spring. Ejaculates with higher number of normal sperm were also collected in spring-early summer, whereas ejaculates with higher numbers of live abnormal and dead sperm were collected in winter. Sperm motility was relatively constant over months, despite a reduction in summer (January-February), while male libido peaked in winter (June-July) and spring (October-November). Furthermore, we observed high individual variation between males for all variables tested, except for motility. These results indicate that collections conducted in spring yield higher number of spermatozoa, when the libido of males is also at a maximum. Therefore in this species seasonal variation in semen quality should be considered in breeding programmes by artificial insemination to maximise fertility. PMID:25282554

  16. Educational Significance of Related Self-Esteem to Social Environment and Elastic-Plastic Processing of Mindies in 13-16 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo J.

    How self-esteem is related to social environment and the elastic-plastic processing of mindies was studied in students aged 13 to 16 years. A "mindy" is a unit process of the mind constructed through using a mental shape. Subjects were 12 students aged 13, 31 students aged 14, 31 aged 15, and 6 aged 16 at a secondary comprehensive school in…

  17. Paleomagnetic data support Early Permian age for the Abor Volcanics in the lower Siang Valley, NE India: Significance for Gondwana-related break-up models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Chik, Sam Y. S.; Baxter, Alan T.; Bryan, Scott E.

    2012-05-01

    Confusion exists as to the age of the Abor Volcanics of NE India. Some consider the unit to have been emplaced in the Early Permian, others the Early Eocene, a difference of ˜230 million years. The divergence in opinion is significant because fundamentally different models explaining the geotectonic evolution of India depend on the age designation of the unit. Paleomagnetic data reported here from several exposures in the type locality of the formation in the lower Siang Valley indicate that steep dipping primary magnetizations (mean = 72.7 ± 6.2°, equating to a paleo-latitude of 58.1°) are recorded in the formation. These are only consistent with the unit being of Permian age, possibly Artinskian based on a magnetostratigraphic argument. Plate tectonic models for this time consistently show the NE corner of the sub-continent >50°S; in the Early Eocene it was just north of the equator, which would have resulted in the unit recording shallow directions. The mean declination is counter-clockwise rotated by ˜94°, around half of which can be related to the motion of the Indian block; the remainder is likely due local Himalayan-age thrusting in the Eastern Syntaxis. Several workers have correlated the Abor Volcanics with broadly coeval mafic volcanic suites in Oman, NE Pakistan-NW India and southern Tibet-Nepal, which developed in response to the Cimmerian block peeling-off eastern Gondwana in the Early-Middle Permian, but we believe there are problems with this model. Instead, we suggest that the Abor basalts relate to India-Antarctica/India-Australia extension that was happening at about the same time. Such an explanation best accommodates the relevant stratigraphical and structural data (present-day position within the Himalayan thrust stack), as well as the plate tectonic model for Permian eastern Gondwana.

  18. Childhood Brain Insult: Can Age at Insult Help Us Predict Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Rick; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Jacobs, Rani

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the impact of early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to be less significant than for later brain injuries, consistent with the notion that the young brain is more flexible and able to reorganize in the context of brain insult. This study aimed to evaluate this notion by comparing cognitive and behavioural outcomes for…

  19. Predicting the ageing and the long-term durability of organic polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Rivaton, Agnès; Thérias, Sandrine; Chambon, Sylvain; Manceau, Matthieu; Gaume, Julien

    2010-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on conductive polymers exhibit a unique combination of properties which include low cost, flexibility and large surface processability. Organic photovoltaic could then prevail for some applications alongside silicon, such as nomad or indoor. To achieve this objective, the sustainability of the initial properties in conditions of use of the cell is required, since it could be a lock to the emergence of these devices in the market. The polymers used in solar cells are indeed known to exhibit low resistance to environmental constraints, in particular to the combined action of sunlight, oxygen and water. We present recent results on both the accelerated artificial and the natural outdoors ageing of MDMO-PPV (Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-Phenylenevinylene) and P3HT/PCBM blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) (methano-fullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) ([60] PCBM). The influence of various parameters such as the temperature and the presence of oxygen were studied. The modifications of the chemical structure of both the components of the blend were monitored by spectroscopic analysis (infrared, UV-visible), the morphology of the blends was analysed by AFM and XRD and the photovoltaic performances all along the exposure were recorded. Two important results have been pointed out: on one hand, the Achilles heel of the chemical structure of MDMO-PPV and P3HT under the impact of light has been evidenced. On the other hand, it has been shown that P3HT:PCBM blends are much more stable than MDMO:PCBM blends whatever the conditions of ageing are. Results show that a convenient encapsulation can ensure a promising lifetime of P3HT/PCBM blends in real conditions of use. This work also focuses on this last point and proposes to study and try to understand the behavior of the materials used in the active layer when submitted to photoaging and thermal aging in the absence of oxygen. To fulfil very good encapsulation, glass

  20. Neuromagnetic imaging of movement-related cortical oscillations in children and adults: age predicts post-movement beta rebound.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, W; Macdonald, M; Cheyne, D; Snead, O C

    2010-06-01

    We measured visually-cued motor responses in two developmentally separate groups of children and compared these responses to a group of adults. We hypothesized that if post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) depends on developmentally sensitive processes, PMBR will be greatest in adults and progressively decrease in children performing a basic motor task as a function of age. Twenty children (10 young children 4-6 years; 10 adolescent children 11-13 years) and 10 adults all had MEG recorded during separate recordings of right and left index finger movements. Beta band (15-30 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) of bi-lateral sensorimotor areas was observed to increase significantly from both contralateral and ipsilateral MI with age. Movement-related gamma synchrony (60-90 Hz) was also observed from contralateral MI for each age group. However, PMBR was significantly reduced in the 4-6 year group and, while more prominent, remained significantly diminished in the adolescent (11-13 year) age group as compared to adults. PMBR measures were weak or absent in the youngest children tested and appear maximally from bilateral MI in adults. Thus PMBR may reflect an age-dependent inhibitory process of the primary motor cortex which comes on-line with normal development. Previous studies have shown PMBR may be observed from MI following a variety of movement-related tasks in adult participants - however, the origin and purpose of the PMBR is unclear. The current study shows that the expected PMBR from MI observed from adults is increasingly diminished in adolescent and young children respectively. A reduction in PMBR from children may reflect reduced motor cortical inhibition. Relatively less motor inhibition may facilitate neuronal plasticity and promote motor learning in children. PMID:20116434

  1. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  2. Evaluation of reduced subsets of single nucleotide polymorphisms for the prediction of age at puberty in sows.

    PubMed

    Lucot, K L; Spangler, M L; Trenhaile, M D; Kachman, S D; Ciobanu, D C

    2015-08-01

    Genomic information could be used efficiently to improve traits that are expensive to measure, sex limited or expressed late in life. This study analyzed the phenotypic variation explained by major SNPs and windows for age at puberty in gilts, an indicator of reproductive longevity. A genome-wide association study using 56, 424 SNPs explained 25.2% of the phenotypic variation in age at puberty in a training set (n = 820). All SNPs from the top 10% of 1-Mb windows explained 33.5% of the phenotypic variance compared to 47.1% explained by the most informative markers (n = 261). In an evaluation population, consisting of subsequent batches (n = 412), the predictive ability of all SNPs from the major 1-Mb windows was higher compared to the variance captured by the most informative SNP from each of these windows. The phenotypic variance explained in the evaluation population varied from 12.3% to 36.8% when all SNPs from major windows were used compared to 6.5-23.7% explained by most informative SNPs. The correlation between phenotype and genomic prediction values based on SNP effects estimated in the training population was marginal compared to their effects retrained in the evaluation population for all (0.46-0.81) or most informative SNPs (0.30-0.65) from major windows. An increase in genetic gain of 20.5% could be obtained if genomic selection included both sexes compared to females alone. The pleiotropic role of major genes such as AVPR1A could be exploited in selection of both age at puberty and reproductive longevity.

  3. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żelaźniewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Trần Trọng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along

  4. End-of-Discharge and End-of-Life Prediction in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Electrochemistry-Based Aging Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2016-01-01

    As batteries become increasingly prevalent in complex systems such as aircraft and electric cars, monitoring and predicting battery state of charge and state of health becomes critical. In order to accurately predict the remaining battery power to support system operations for informed operational decision-making, age-dependent changes in dynamics must be accounted for. Using an electrochemistry-based model, we investigate how key parameters of the battery change as aging occurs, and develop models to describe aging through these key parameters. Using these models, we demonstrate how we can (i) accurately predict end-of-discharge for aged batteries, and (ii) predict the end-of-life of a battery as a function of anticipated usage. The approach is validated through an experimental set of randomized discharge profiles.

  5. Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill K; Odrobina, Ewa; Yin, Junlang; Hanley, Anthony J; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2010-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fetal environmental exposures impact on future development of obesity. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationships between (i) maternal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance status in pregnancy and (ii) early infant weight gain and adiposity in the first year of life. In this prospective cohort study, 301 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing for assessment of glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) in pregnancy. Their infants underwent anthropometric assessment at 12 months of age, including determination of weight gain in the first year of life and sum of skinfold thickness (SFT), a measure of infant adiposity. Infant weight gain and sum of SFT at 12 months did not differ according to maternal glucose tolerance status. On univariate analyses, weight gain from 0 to 12 months and sum of SFT were negatively associated with maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy. On multiple linear regression analysis, negative independent predictors of weight gain from 0 to 12 months were maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy (t = -2.73; P = 0.007), infant female gender (t = -3.16; P = 0.002), and parental education (t = -1.98; P = 0.05), whereas white ethnicity was a positive independent predictor (t = 2.68; P = 0.008). Maternal IS(OGTT) (t = -2.7; P = 0.008) and parental education (t = -2.58; P = 0.01) were independent negative predictors of sum of SFT at 12 months. Independent of maternal glucose tolerance status, maternal insulin resistance during pregnancy is associated with increased infant weight gain and adiposity over the first year of life. Further longitudinal study to evaluate obesity in this group of children will increase our understanding of the contribution of the intrauterine environment to their long-term health.

  6. Prognostic significance of electrical alternans versus signal averaged electrocardiography in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armoundas, A. A.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Ruskin, J. N.; Garan, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) and measurement of microvolt level T wave alternans as predictors of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. DESIGN: Analysis of new data from a previously published prospective investigation. SETTING: Electrophysiology laboratory of a major referral hospital. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: 43 patients, not on class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug treatment, undergoing invasive electrophysiological testing had SAECG and T wave alternans measurements. The SAECG was considered positive in the presence of one (SAECG-I) or two (SAECG-II) of three standard criteria. T wave alternans was considered positive if the alternans ratio exceeded 3.0. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inducibility of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation during electrophysiological testing, and 20 month arrhythmia-free survival. RESULTS: The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing was 84% (p < 0.0001). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 60%; p < 0.29) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.10) was a statistically significant predictor of electrophysiological testing. SAECG, T wave alternans, electrophysiological testing, and follow up data were available in 36 patients while not on class I or III antiarrhythmic agents. The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of arrhythmia-free survival was 86% (p < 0.030). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 65%; p < 0.21) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.48) was a statistically significant predictor of arrhythmia-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: T wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival, while SAECG was not a statistically significant predictor. Although these results need to be confirmed in prospective clinical studies, they suggest that T wave alternans may serve as a non-invasive probe for screening high risk populations for malignant ventricular

  7. Predictive value of pyramidal lobe, percentage thyroid uptake and age for ablation outcome after 15 mCi fixed dose of radioiodine-131 in Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Unaiza; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to find out the efficacy of fixed 15 mCi radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) dose and predictive values of various factors for inducing hypothyroidism in Graves’ disease (GD). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study conducted from January 2012 till August 2014. Patients with GD who had a technetium-99m thyroid scan, thyroid antibodies, received fixed 15 mCi RAI and did follow endocrine clinics for at least 6 months were selected. RAI was considered successful if within 6 months of RAI therapy patients developed hypothyroidism. Results: Of the 370 patients with GD who had RAI during study period, 210 (57%) qualified study criteria. Mean age of patients was 48 ± 15 years with female: male ratio of 69:31, positive thyroid antibodies in 61%, means thyroid uptake of 15.09 ± 11.23%, and presence of pyramidal lobe in 40% of total population. Hypothyroidism was achieved in 161 (77%) patients while 49 (23%) patients failed to achieve it (remained either hyperthyroid or euthyroid on antithyroid medication). Patients who became hypothyroid were significantly younger with higher proportion of presence of thyroid antibodies and pyramidal lobe and lower percentage thyroid uptake than those who failed. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (odds ratio; OR = 2.074), pyramidal lobe (OR = 3.317), thyroid antibodies (OR = 8.198), and percentage thyroid uptake (OR = 3.043) were found to be significant prognostic risk factors for post-RAI hypothyroidism. Gender was found to have nonsignificant association with the development of hypothyroidism. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed age <42 years and thyroid uptake <15% as threshold values for the development of post-RAI hypothyroidism. Conclusion: We conclude that fixed (15 mCi) RAI dose is highly effective in rendering hypothyroidism in patients with GD. Age (≤42 years), thyroid uptake (≤15%) and presence of pyramidal lobe are strong predictors of hypothyroidism and must be

  8. Predicting the age of the mutation for Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.; Risch, N.J.; Pelias, M.Z.

    1994-09-01

    The locus for Usher syndrome type I (USH1C) in the Acadian population is in the p15.1-p14 region of chromosome 11. This recessive disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and pigmentary retinopathy. Three separate loci have been localized for Usher syndrome type I. All Acadian, but no non-Acadian, families show linkage to the 11p locus, suggesting a founder effect in the Acadian population. Linkage and haplotype analyses of eight markers spanning 10 centiMorgans demonstrate that USH1C lies between D11S1397 and D11S1310. Based on analyses of Usher and CEPH families the most likely linkage map for the eight markers is: D11S569-(.02)-D11S861-(.01)-D11S419-(.01)-D11S1397-(.004)-D11S921-(.007)-D11S1310-(.01)-D11S899-(.04)-D11S928. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium with USH1C was found for all markers, indicating a recent origin of a unique mutation. Parental haplotypes were separated into those with the disease allele and those with the normal allele at the USH1C locus. Of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele, 17 had an identical haplotype for the eight markers. All but one of the haplotypes on the remaining 37 chromosomes could be explained by a few recombination events, suggesting that a single mutation is responsible for nearly all cases of Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population. The same alleles were found at D11S921 and D11S1310 on 50 of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele and on only 5 of the 50 chromosomes with the normal allele. Analysis of recombination and linkage disequilibrium between USH1C and each of the markers suggests that the age of the mutation is approximately 15 generations, which corresponds with the time that the Acadians arrived in the Canadian territory of Acadia. The analysis indicates that this mutation was already established in the Acadians who made their way to Louisiana after 1755.

  9. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  10. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  11. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  12. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  13. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  14. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  15. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents.

  16. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  17. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    PubMed

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  18. The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) predicts significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Maud; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Nayagam, Shevanthi; Khalil, Mustapha; Suso, Penda; Lloyd, Jo; Goldin, Robert; Njai, Harr-Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Taal, Makie; Cooke, Graham; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Vray, Muriel; Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Njie, Ramou; Mallet, Vincent; Thursz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Simple and inexpensive non-invasive fibrosis tests are highly needed but have been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using liver histology as a gold standard, we developed a novel index using routine laboratory tests to predict significant fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection in The Gambia, West Africa. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the novel index, Fibroscan, aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and Fib-4 in Gambian patients with CHB (training set) and also in French and Senegalese CHB cohorts (validation sets). Results Of 135 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB who had liver biopsy, 39% had significant fibrosis (Metavir fibrosis stage ≥F2) and 15% had cirrhosis (F4). In multivariable analysis, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis. Consequently, GGT-to-platelet ratio (GPR) was developed. In The Gambia, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the GPR was significantly higher than that of APRI and Fib-4 to predict ≥F2, ≥F3 and F4. In Senegal, the AUROC of GPR was significantly better than Fib-4 and APRI for ≥F2 (0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.86) and better than Fib-4 and Fibroscan for ≥F3 (0.93, 0.87 to 0.99). In France, the AUROC of GPR to diagnose ≥F2 (0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85) and F4 (0.87, 0.76 to 0.98) was equivalent to that of APRI and Fib-4. Conclusions The GPR is a more accurate routine laboratory marker than APRI and Fib-4 to stage liver fibrosis in patients with CHB in West Africa. The GPR represents a simple and inexpensive alternative to liver biopsy and Fibroscan in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26109530

  19. Water age prediction and its potential impacts on water quality using a hydrodynamic model for Poyang Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hengda; Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Sauvage, Sabine; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The water quality in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has deteriorated steadily in recent years and local governments have made efforts to manage the potential eutrophication. In order to investigate the transport and retention processes of dissolved substances, the hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was applied by using the concept of water age. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured water level, discharge, and inundation area. The water age in Poyang Lake was significantly influenced by the variations of hydrological conditions. The annual analysis revealed that the largest averaged water age was observed during the wet year (2010) with 28.4 days at Hukou, the junction of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. In the normal season (April), the youngest age with 9.1 days was found. The spatial distribution of water quality derived from the remote sensing images suggested that a higher chlorophyll-a concentration, lower turbidity, and smaller water age in the eastern area of Poyang Lake might threaten the regional aquatic health. The particle tracking simulation reproduced the trajectories of the dissolved substances, indicating that the water mass with greater nutrient loading would further lead to potential environmental problems in the east lake. Moreover, the water transfer ability would be weakened due to dam (Poyang Project) construction resulting in the rising water levels in periods of regulation. Generally, this study quantified an indicative transport timescale, which could help to better understand the complex hydrodynamic processes and manage wetland ecosystems similar to Poyang Lake. PMID:27023820

  20. Urinary nephrin: A new predictive marker for pregnancies with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ga Young; Lee, Kyung A; Park, Mi Hye; Park, Hye Sook; Ha, Eun Hee; Chun, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the differences in urinary nephrin among controls, gravidas with preeclampsia (PE), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. We also determined whether or not maternal urinary concentrations of nephrin are associated with the subsequent development of PE and SGA infants. Methods We analyzed maternal urinary levels of nephrin in women who were normal controls (n=50), women who were delivered SGA infants (n=40), and gravidas with PE (n=33) in the first, second and third trimesters. Urinary nephrin concentrations were measured with nephrin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results The levels of urinary nephrin were higher in gravida developing preeclampsia or SGA than in controls after adjusting serum creatinine (P<0.05 for both). Maternal urine concentrations of nephrin were higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA and PE in the third trimester (P<0.05), and also higher in pregnancies complicated by SGA in the first trimester (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting SGA from normal pregnancies were 67% and 89% in the first trimester, 60% and 79% in the second trimester, and 80% and 84% in the third trimester, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nephrin in predicting PE from normal pregnancies were 67% and 83% in the first trimester and 73% and 79% in the third trimester, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that urinary nephrin can be used as an early marker in pregnancies at risk for developing PE and SGA infants. PMID:24327976

  1. Prognostic significance of electrical alternans versus signal averaged electrocardiography in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Armoundas, A; Rosenbaum, D; Ruskin, J; Garan, H; Cohen, R

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the accuracy of signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) and measurement of microvolt level T wave alternans as predictors of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias.
Design—Analysis of new data from a previously published prospective investigation.
Setting—Electrophysiology laboratory of a major referral hospital.
Patients and interventions—43 patients, not on class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug treatment, undergoing invasive electrophysiological testing had SAECG and T wave alternans measurements. The SAECG was considered positive in the presence of one (SAECG-I) or two (SAECG-II) of three standard criteria. T wave alternans was considered positive if the alternans ratio exceeded 3.0.
Main outcome measures—Inducibility of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation during electrophysiological testing, and 20 month arrhythmia-free survival.
Results—The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing was 84% (p < 0.0001). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 60%; p < 0.29) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.10) was a statistically significant predictor of electrophysiological testing. SAECG, T wave alternans, electrophysiological testing, and follow up data were available in 36 patients while not on class I or III antiarrhythmic agents. The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of arrhythmia-free survival was 86% (p < 0.030). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 65%; p < 0.21) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.48) was a statistically significant predictor of arrhythmia-free survival. 
Conclusions—T wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival, while SAECG was not a statistically significant predictor. Although these results need to be confirmed in prospective clinical studies, they suggest that T wave alternans may serve as a non-invasive probe for screening high risk

  2. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  3. A Computed Tomography Based Coronary Lesion Score to Predict Acute Coronary Syndrome Among Patients With Acute Chest Pain and a Significant Coronary Stenosis on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ferencik, Maros; Schlett, Christopher L.; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kriegel, Mathias F.; Joshi, Subodh B.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Rogers, Ian S.; Banerji, Dahlia; Bamberg, Fabian; Truong, Quynh A.; Brady, Thomas J.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the assessment of lesion morphology helped to detect acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during index hospitalization among patients with acute chest pain who had a significant stenosis on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Patients who presented to the emergency department with chest pain but no objective signs of myocardial ischemia (non-diagnostic ECG and negative initial biomarkers) underwent CTA. CTA was analyzed for the degree and length of stenosis, plaque area and volume, remodeling index, CT attenuation of plaque, and spotty calcium in all patients with a significant stenosis (>50% in diameter) in CTA. ACS during the index hospitalization was determined by the panel of 2 physicians blinded to results of CTA. For lesion characteristics associated with ACS, we determined cutpoints optimized for diagnostic accuracy and created lesion scores. For each score, we determined odds ratio and discriminatory capacity for the prediction of ACS. Of the overall population of 368 patients, 34 had significant stenosis and among those 21 had ACS. Score A (remodeling index+spotty calcium: OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.2–10.1, AUC 0.734), B (remodeling index+spotty calcium+stenosis length: OR 4.6, 95%CI 1.6–13.7, AUC 0.824) and C (remodeling index+spotty calcium+stenosis length+volume of <90HU plaque: OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.9, AUC 0.833) were significantly associated with ACS. In conclusion, among patients presenting with acute chest pain and with a stenosis on coronary CTA, a CT-based score incorporating morphologic characteristics of coronary lesions had a good discriminatory value for the detection ACS during index hospitalization. PMID:22481015

  4. Significance of the whole rock Re-Os ages in cryptically and modally metasomatised cratonic peridotites: Constraints from HSE-Se-Te systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luguet, Ambre; Behrens, Melanie; Pearson, D. Graham; König, Stephan; Herwartz, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    the 187Os/188Os signatures, indicating TRD eruption ages identical with those of the SP. By contrast, the PP and GP, which suffered significant BMS ± PGM addition, have 187Os/188Os considerably shifted toward more radiogenic values. As a result, unrealistically young TRD eruption ages are obtained that cannot be used to constrain the time frame of the stabilisation of the cratonic roots and the mechanisms of craton formation. The Se-Te and incompatible HSE (i.e., Pt, Pd) are powerful geochemical tools to assess the robustness of the Re-Os isotopic system in mantle peridotites. Specifically, Se/Te and Pd/Ir ratios provide complementary insights into the complex metasomatic history of mantle peridotites. The Se/Te ratio is very sensitive to Os-free PGM metasomatism producing highly variable Se/Te >15 at low, relatively constant Pd/Ir< 0.4 but does not affect the 187Os/188Os systematics. This contrasts with BMS metasomatism, where Pd/Ir becomes more variable (>0.4), at constant but low Se/Te <10 and which is accompanied by modification of the Os isotopic composition of the host peridotite. As they are sensitive indicators of BMS ± PGM metasomatism, HSE, Se and Te should be systematically considered when investigating the timing of stabilisation of lithospheric mantle and its petrogenetic history. This would allow a more robust assessment of the Re-Os ages obtained and provide firmer constraints on the evolution and formation of Archean cratons and early Earth dynamics.

  5. Synergistic action of a triple peptide complex on an essential extra-cellular matrix protein exhibits significant anti-aging benefits.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Adam John; Al-Bader, Tamara; Kerrigan, Deirdre; Hickey, Sinead; Laloeuf, Aurelie; Rawlings, Anthony Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Basement membranes are thin structures present in the extracellular matrix that provide a supporting framework on which epithelial and endothelial cells reside. Type IV collagen is present ubiquitously in all basement membranes and plays an important role in cell adhesion, migration differentiation, and growth. These are especially important at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ) in skin. A reduction in the levels of DEJ proteins occurs in photodamaged skin and especially Type IV collagen at the base of a wrinkle. In these studies, the ability of a triple peptide complex (TPC) to stimulate the production of collagen IV in human skin fibroblasts and its effects on photoaged skin was investigated. Fibroblasts, matured to represent "aged" cells, were stimulated for 72 h with the TPC as well as the three individual peptides constituting the complex, and collagen IV production by the fibroblasts was determined immunochemically. The results show that stimulation with the individual peptides at doses found in 1% (v/v) of the TPC did not result in soluble collagen IV production above levels detected by the non-stimulated cells. However, after stimulation with 1% (v/v) of the TPC, collagen IV was produced by the cells (1.4 ng/ng total protein +/- 0.4 SD, n = 5) when compared to control un-stimulated cells (0.32 ng/ng total protein +/- 0.1 SD, n = 5). This indicates that the combination of the individual peptides is necessary to synergistically stimulate collagen IV production. These findings suggest that the TPC could play a role in the strengthening of the DEJ through its ability to produce collagen IV. In order to determine whether these results translated into significant effects in vivo, we performed two studies. In the first four-week study, a double blind, placebo-controlled and fully randomized clinical study on 22 healthy Caucasian volunteers displaying moderate periorbital wrinkles, a significant reduction in wrinkle parameters determined by profilometry was observed

  6. Headache in children: young age at onset does not imply a harmful etiology or predict a harsh headache disability.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Sarit; Gordon, Shirie; Schiff, Aharon; Shahar, Eli

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare headache etiology, type, and burden and the learning and behavioral profile in children with early-onset (under 6 years) and late-onset (8-12 years) headaches. The study included 133 patients, 35 in the early-onset group and 98 in the late-onset group. Headache diagnosis was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders -II (ICHD-II) criteria. Learning profile and behavioral problems were assessed by parental reports. Tension headache was the most common diagnosis in the early-onset headache group (51.4%). No significant differences were found between the age groups with regard to headache etiology, disability, abnormal neuroimaging results, school performance, or attention problems. Nevertheless, the early-onset group patients had a significantly higher prevalence of behavioral problems: 25.7% versus 11.2% (P < .02). The authors suggest that early age of headache onset does not imply a harmful etiology or a relentless headache disability or burden. PMID:22914375

  7. Perinatal and sociodemographic factors at birth predicting conduct problems and violence to age 18 years: comparison of Brazilian and British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rates of conduct problems and violence in Brazil. Methods Prospective population-based birth cohort studies were conducted in Pelotas, Brazil (N = 3,618) and Avon, Britain (N = 4,103). Eleven perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers during the perinatal period. Conduct problems were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers at age 11, and violence in self-report questionnaires completed by adolescents at age 18. Results Conduct problems were predicted by similar risk factors in Brazil and Britain. Female violence was predicted by several of the same risk factors in both countries. However, male violence in Brazil was associated with only one risk factor, and several risk factor associations were weaker in Brazil than in Britain for both females and males. Almost 20% of the higher risk for conduct problems in Brazil compared to Britain was explained by differential exposure to risk factors. The percentage of the cross-national difference in violence explained by early risk factors was 15% for females and 8% for males. Conclusions A nontrivial proportion of cross-national differences in antisocial behaviour are related to perinatal and sociodemographic conditions at the start of life. However, risk factor associations are weaker in Brazil than in Britain, and influences in other developmental periods are probably of particular importance for understanding male youth violence in Brazil. PMID:25471542

  8. Predicting Meaningful Outcomes to Medication and Self-Help Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: The Significance of Early Rapid Response

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing anti-obesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. Method 104 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT+sibutramine, or shCBT+placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research-clinicians monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge-eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 47% of patients. Rapid response was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. Rapid response was significantly associated prospectively with remission from binge eating at post-treatment (51% versus 9% for non-rapid responders), 6-month (53% vs 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed effects model analyses revealed rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating, eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Discussion Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and self-help CBT treatments for BED in primary care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatments. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes even in low intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 PMID

  9. JAK2 p.V617F allele burden in myeloproliferative neoplasms one month after allogeneic stem cell transplantation significantly predicts outcome and risk of relapse

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Thoralf; Edelmann, Anja; Siebolts, Udo; Krahl, Rainer; Nehring, Claudia; Jäkel, Nadja; Cross, Michael; Maier, Jacqueline; Niederwieser, Dietger; Wickenhauser, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The risk profile and prognosis of patients with myelofibrosis is well described by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System risk categorization. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is considered for intermediate-2/high risk disease. However, indicators of prognosis after transplantation are still lacking. Seventy simultaneously collected pairs of trephine and blood samples were quantified for JAK2 p.V617F allele burden to compare test sensitivity. The course of 30 patients with JAK2 p.V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasia was correlated with allele burden after transplantation. Monitoring can be performed on full blood samples as well as trephine biopsies, provided that techniques with ample sensitivity (0.01% to 0.001%) are available. Measurement of allele burden on day 28 after transplantation discriminates two prognostic groups: patients with a JAK2 p.V617F allele burden >1% have a significantly higher risk of relapse of JAK2 p.V617F positive neoplasia (P=0.04) and a poorer overall survival (P<0.01). In conclusion, measurement of JAK2 p.V617F allele burden early after transplantation is an important predictive parameter in monitoring patients following this treatment. As this might provide an important tool in early management of imminent early relapse it will be important to define consensus guidelines for optimal monitoring. PMID:23300178

  10. Pretreatment cytogenetics add to other prognostic factors predicting complete remission and long-term outcome in patients 60 years of age or older with acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 8461

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.; Archer, Kellie J.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Ruppert, Amy S.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Vardiman, James W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Baer, Maria R.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Koduru, Prasad R.; Ning, Yi; Mayer, Robert J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative prognostic significance of cytogenetics in 635 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients 60 years of age or older treated on front-line protocols. Classification trees and tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA) were used to identify important cytogenetic groups, and their prognostic significance was then assessed in multivariable analysis (MVA). Overall, 48.5% achieved complete remission (CR); 6.6% survived at 5 years. Complex karyotypes with at least 3 abnormalities (complex ≥ 3) and a group including “rare aberrations” predicted lower CR rates (25% and 30%) versus other patients (56%). Compared with complex ≥ 3, the odds of CR were significantly higher for noncomplex karyotypes without rare aberrations on MVA. Cytogenetically, complex ≥ 5 predicted inferior disease-free survival on TSSA, remaining significant on MVA together with white blood cell count (WBC), sex, and age. For survival, complex ≥ 5, rare aberrations, and core-binding factor (CBF) abnormalities were prognostic (P < .001), with 5-year survivals of 0%, 0%, and 19.4%, respectively, and 7.5% for remaining patients. Together with WBC, marrow blasts, sex, and age, the cytogenetic groups remained significant on MVA. In conclusion, pretreatment cytogenetics adds to other prognostic factors in older AML patients. Patients with complex ≥ 5 appear to benefit minimally from current treatment and are better suited for investigational therapy or supportive care. (Blood. 2006;108:63-73) PMID:16522815

  11. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  12. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset.

  13. Symptomatology and Coping Resources Predict Self-Care Behaviors in Middle to Older Age Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Lucinda J.; Grant, Joan S.; Gordon, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of heart failure (HF) and coping resources, such as social support and social problem-solving, may influence self-care behaviors. Research regarding the influence of HF symptomatology characteristics and components of social support and social problem-solving on self-care is limited. Objective. To identify predictors of HF self-care behaviors using characteristics of HF symptomatology, components of social support and social problem-solving, and demographic and clinical factors. Methods. Using a cross-sectional, correlational predictive design, a convenience sample (N = 201) of outpatients with HF answered self-report surveys. Multiple linear regression with stepwise variable selection was conducted. Results. Six predictors of HF self-care were identified: race, symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, New York Heart Association Class HF, rational problem-solving style, and social network (β = 34.265, R2 = 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Assessing the influence of race on self-care behaviors in middle to older age patients with HF is important. Clinical assessment that focuses on symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, and HF Class might also impact self-care behaviors in this population. Rational problem-solving skills used and evaluation of the size of and satisfaction with one's social network may be appropriate when assessing self-care. PMID:26618000

  14. Symptomatology and Coping Resources Predict Self-Care Behaviors in Middle to Older Age Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Graven, Lucinda J; Grant, Joan S; Gordon, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of heart failure (HF) and coping resources, such as social support and social problem-solving, may influence self-care behaviors. Research regarding the influence of HF symptomatology characteristics and components of social support and social problem-solving on self-care is limited. Objective. To identify predictors of HF self-care behaviors using characteristics of HF symptomatology, components of social support and social problem-solving, and demographic and clinical factors. Methods. Using a cross-sectional, correlational predictive design, a convenience sample (N = 201) of outpatients with HF answered self-report surveys. Multiple linear regression with stepwise variable selection was conducted. Results. Six predictors of HF self-care were identified: race, symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, New York Heart Association Class HF, rational problem-solving style, and social network (β = 34.265, R (2) = 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Assessing the influence of race on self-care behaviors in middle to older age patients with HF is important. Clinical assessment that focuses on symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, and HF Class might also impact self-care behaviors in this population. Rational problem-solving skills used and evaluation of the size of and satisfaction with one's social network may be appropriate when assessing self-care.

  15. Short- and long-term recidivism prediction of the PCL-R and the effects of age: a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively examined the short- and long-term prediction of several recidivism outcomes as a function of psychopathy and age in a sample of 273 Canadian federal inmates with an average 24 years post-release follow-up. Offenders were rated using the original 22-item Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL: Hare, 1980) based on extensive archival file information, and the ratings were used to compute the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) and the 4 facet scores. PCL-R total scores and the Lifestyle and Antisocial facets, but not the Interpersonal and Affective facets, showed mostly small and some moderate predictive efficacy for general and nonviolent recidivism over 3-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year fixed follow-ups, and predicted violence recidivism at shorter follow-ups. Age at release was negatively correlated with all recidivism outcomes and follow-up periods for both high and low PCL-R rated offenders, and uniquely predicted all recidivism outcomes after controlling for the PCL-R using Cox regression survival analysis. Increased age was consistently linked to recidivism reduction even for psychopathic offenders. The results showed that both PCL-R scores and age contributed to the prediction of recidivism; however, the PCL-R facets made differential contributions that varied with the type of offense (violent vs. nonviolent) and follow-up time (shorter vs. longer). The results have implications for both risk assessment using the PCL-R and potentially for risk reduction interventions.

  16. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  17. Lifetime History of Major Depression Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldbacher, Edie M.; Bromberger, Joyce; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Methods Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Results Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06–3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99–3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models. Conclusions This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women. PMID:19188528

  18. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  19. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships,