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Sample records for age significantly predicted

  1. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  2. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  3. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes. PMID:25521785

  4. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  5. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen, and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  6. Age and Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  7. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance

    PubMed Central

    D’Lima, Darryl D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  8. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Darryl D; Fregly, Benjamin J; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W

    2012-02-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  9. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  10. Earthquake prediction comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Lindth, A. . Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    In the last decade, scientists have begun to estimate the long-term probability of major earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issued the first official U.S. government earthquake prediction, based on research along a heavily instrumented 25-kilometer section of the fault in sparsely populated central California. Known as the Parkfield segment, this section of the Sand Andreas had experienced its last big earthquake, a magnitude 6, in 1966. Estimated probabilities of major quakes along the entire San Andreas by a working group of California earthquake experts, using new geologic data and careful analysis of past earthquakes, are reported.

  11. Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, Stefan I.

    2015-01-01

    It becomes clearer and clearer that aging is a result of a significant number of causes and it would seem that counteracting one or several of them should not make a significant difference. Taken at face value, this suggests, for example, that free radicals and reactive oxygen species do not play a significant role in aging and that the lifespan of organisms cannot be significantly extended. In this review, I point to the fact that the causes of aging synergize with each other and discuss the implications involved. One implication is that when two or more synergizing causes increase over time, the result of their action increases dramatically; I discuss a simple model demonstrating this. It is reasonable to conclude that this might explain the acceleration of aging and mortality with age. In this regard, the analysis of results and mortality patterns described in studies involving yeasts and Drosophila provides support for this view. Since the causes of aging are synergizing, it is also concluded that none of them is the major one but many including free radicals, etc. play significant roles. It follows that health/lifespan might be significantly extended if we eliminate or even attenuate the increase of a few or even just one of the causes of aging. While the synergism between the causes of aging is the main topic of this review, several related matters are briefly discussed as well. PMID:26783959

  12. A metabolic signature predicts biological age in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomás-Loba, Antonia; de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Mato, Jose M.; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the sera metabolite profile of 117 wild-type mice of different genetic backgrounds ranging from 8-129 weeks of age. This has allowed us to define a robust metabolomic signature and a derived metabolomic score that reliably/accurately predicts the age of wild-type mice. In the case of telomerase-deficient mice, which have a shortened lifespan, their metabolomic score predicts older ages than expected. Conversely, in the case of mice that over-express telomerase, their metabolic score corresponded to younger ages than expected. Importantly, telomerase reactivation late in life by using a TERT based gene therapy recently described by us, significantly reverted the metabolic profile of old mice to that of younger mice, further confirming an anti-aging role for telomerase. Thus, the metabolomic signature associated to natural mouse aging accurately predicts aging produced by telomere shortening, suggesting that natural mouse aging is in part produced by presence of short telomeres. These results indicate that the metabolomic signature is associated to the biological age rather than to the chronological age. This constitutes one of the first aging-associated metabolomic signatures in a mammalian organism. PMID:23107558

  13. PETN Coarsening - Predictions from Accelerated Aging Data

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Amitesh; Gee, Richard H.

    2011-03-30

    Ensuring good ignition properties over long periods of time necessitates maintaining a good level of porosity in powders of initiator materials and preventing particle coarsening. To simulate porosity changes of such powder materials over long periods of time a common strategy is to perform accelerated aging experiments over shorter time spans at elevated temperatures. In this paper we examine historical accelerated-aging data on powders of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), an important energetic material, and make predictions for long-term aging under ambient conditions. Lastly, we develop an evaporation-condensation- based model to provide some mechanistic understanding of the coarsening process.

  14. Predicting gestational age using neonatal metabolic markers

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Dagle, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate gestational age estimation is extremely important for clinical care decisions of the newborn as well as for perinatal health research. Although prenatal ultrasound dating is one of the most accurate methods for estimating gestational age, it is not feasible in all settings. Identifying novel and accurate methods for gestational age estimation at birth is important, particularly for surveillance of preterm birth rates in areas without routine ultrasound dating. Objective We hypothesized that metabolic and endocrine markers captured by routine newborn screening could improve gestational age estimation in the absence of prenatal ultrasound technology. Study Design This is a retrospective analysis of 230,013 newborn metabolic screening records collected by the Iowa Newborn Screening Program between 2004 and 2009. The data were randomly split into a model-building dataset (n = 153,342) and a model-testing dataset (n = 76,671). We performed multiple linear regression modeling with gestational age, in weeks, as the outcome measure. We examined 44 metabolites, including biomarkers of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root-mean-square error were used to evaluate models in the model-building dataset that were then tested in the model-testing dataset. Results The newborn metabolic regression model consisted of 88 parameters, including the intercept, 37 metabolite measures, 29 squared metabolite measures, and 21 cubed metabolite measures. This model explained 52.8% of the variation in gestational age in the model-testing dataset. Gestational age was predicted within 1 week for 78% of the individuals and within 2 weeks of gestation for 95% of the individuals. This model yielded an area under the curve of 0.899 (95% confidence interval 0.895−0.903) in differentiating those born preterm (<37 weeks) from those born term (≥37 weeks). In the subset of

  15. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    PubMed

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  16. Direct ChIP-Seq significance analysis improves target prediction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing of protein-bound DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) is an effective high-throughput methodology for the identification of context specific DNA fragments that are bound by specific proteins in vivo. Despite significant progress in the bioinformatics analysis of this genome-scale data, a number of challenges remain as technology-dependent biases, including variable target accessibility and mappability, sequence-dependent variability, and non-specific binding affinity must be accounted for. Results and discussion We introduce a nonparametric method for scoring consensus regions of aligned immunoprecipitated DNA fragments when appropriate control experiments are available. Our method uses local models for null binding; these are necessary because binding prediction scores based on global models alone fail to properly account for specialized features of genomic regions and chance pull downs of specific DNA fragments, thus disproportionally rewarding some genomic regions and decreasing prediction accuracy. We make no assumptions about the structure or amplitude of bound peaks, yet we show that our method outperforms leading methods developed using either global or local null hypothesis models for random binding. We test prediction performance by comparing analyses of ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, motif-based binding-site prediction, and shRNA assays, showing high reproducibility, binding-site enrichment in predicted target regions, and functional regulation of predicted targets. Conclusions Given appropriate controls, a direct nonparametric method for identifying transcription-factor targets from ChIP-Seq assays may lead to both higher sensitivity and higher specificity, and should be preferred or used in conjunction with methods that use parametric models for null binding. PMID:26040656

  17. Age and Grip Strength Predict Hand Dexterity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jason A.; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  18. Prognostic significance and optimal cutoff of age in medullary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-long; Li, Duan-shu; Wang, Yu; Huang, Cai-ping; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been found to correlate with the prognosis for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). This study was conducted to investigate whether age can predict long-term unfavorable prognosis and evaluate its predictive accuracy associated with TNM staging, using data of patients diagnosed with MTC between 2000 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. The relationship between the patients’ age at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Age stratifications were combined into a nomogram model to predict the CSS of MTC. The X-tile program determined 49 and 69 as optimal age cutoff values for CSS. On multivariate analysis, independent factors for survival were age (50–69 years, HR 2.853, 95% CI 1.631–4.991; ≥70 years, HR 5.804, 95% CI 2.91–11.555), race (white, HR 0.344, 95% CI 0.188–0.630), T (T3/4, HR 3.931, 95% CI 2.093–7.381), N (N1a, HR 3.269, 95% CI 1.386–7.710) and M (M1, HR 3.998, 95% CI 2.419–6.606). The C-index for CSS prediction with TNM, age (cutoff of 45)/sex/race/TNM and age (cutoff of 49 and 69)/sex/race/TNM were 0.832 (95% CI 0.763–0.901), 0.863 (95% CI 0.799–0.928), and 0.876 (95% CI 0.817–0.935), respectively. Subgroup multivariate analyses also showed that age significantly increased the risk for CSS in females, non-Hispanic white patients, and those with stage IV MTC. In conclusion, CSS was independently associated with ages between 49 and 69 years, which might be applied for risk stratification in MTC patients. PMID:26910117

  19. SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction.

    PubMed

    Han, Beomsoo; Liu, Yifeng; Ginzinger, Simon W; Wishart, David S

    2011-05-01

    A new computer program, called SHIFTX2, is described which is capable of rapidly and accurately calculating diamagnetic (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts from protein coordinate data. Compared to its predecessor (SHIFTX) and to other existing protein chemical shift prediction programs, SHIFTX2 is substantially more accurate (up to 26% better by correlation coefficient with an RMS error that is up to 3.3× smaller) than the next best performing program. It also provides significantly more coverage (up to 10% more), is significantly faster (up to 8.5×) and capable of calculating a wider variety of backbone and side chain chemical shifts (up to 6×) than many other shift predictors. In particular, SHIFTX2 is able to attain correlation coefficients between experimentally observed and predicted backbone chemical shifts of 0.9800 ((15)N), 0.9959 ((13)Cα), 0.9992 ((13)Cβ), 0.9676 ((13)C'), 0.9714 ((1)HN), 0.9744 ((1)Hα) and RMS errors of 1.1169, 0.4412, 0.5163, 0.5330, 0.1711, and 0.1231 ppm, respectively. The correlation between SHIFTX2's predicted and observed side chain chemical shifts is 0.9787 ((13)C) and 0.9482 ((1)H) with RMS errors of 0.9754 and 0.1723 ppm, respectively. SHIFTX2 is able to achieve such a high level of accuracy by using a large, high quality database of training proteins (>190), by utilizing advanced machine learning techniques, by incorporating many more features (χ(2) and χ(3) angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server ( http://www.shiftx2.ca ). PMID:21448735

  20. Space shuttle nonmetallic materials age life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. D.; Hassell, J. A.; Nathan, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The chemiluminescence from samples of polybutadiene, Viton, Teflon, Silicone, PL 731 Adhesive, and SP 296 Boron-Epoxy composite was measured at temperatures from 25 to 150 C. Excellent correlations were obtained between chemiluminescence and temperature. These correlations serve to validate accelerated aging tests (at elevated temperatures) designed to predict service life at lower temperatures. In most cases, smooth or linear correlations were obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums, including the tensile strength, viscosity, and loss tangent. The latter is a complex function of certain polymer properties. Data were obtained with far greater ease by the chemiluminescence technique than by the conventional methods of study. The chemiluminescence from the Teflon (Halon) samples was discovered to arise from trace amounts of impurities, which were undetectable by conventional, destructive analysis of the sample.

  1. [Significance of the determination of biological aging for medicine].

    PubMed

    Pöthig, D

    1986-03-01

    In the elaboration of methods of the determination of the biological age becomes evident that new approaches and models of thinking developed seem to require again to reason out the interdisciplinary position of gerontology. In the light of the results of clinical experimental examinations concerning the biological age which could be achieved by the traditional Leipzig gerontological school since Bürger's activities, the importance of biosocial norm values of age for multifarious theoretical and practical proceedings of medicine and their adjacent scientific fields is confirmed. Here the author sets out from the fact that it is possible nowadays to determine sufficiently and precisely the biological age of man by means of a multifactorial functional diagnostics. A phenotypical vitality measure, which takes into consideration the asynchronous biosocial dynamics of human ageing in the phase of development, maturity and involution, serves as criterion of the biological age. Thus there is the possibility to ascertain in all age-classes reference values ("normal values") for vitality and biological age which are obligatory according to sex. Here the gerontological research of the GDR may produce advances in international research. Furthermore the author elaborates the thoughts that in all phases of life the biological age represents a principal criterion of differentiation both in making the diagnosis by the physician and the judgment of the therapy ("revitalisation") and in the aptitude diagnostics for sports and regulation of training ("vitalisation"). From this aspect gerontology derives its specific importance as scientific theoretical link between medicine and sport sciences. PMID:3716507

  2. Riverine Eolian Dunes in Uruguay: OSL Ages and Paleoenvironmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, D. S.; Suarez, R.; Brook, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Relict parabolic dunes occur along Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó in Uruguay under the current humid temperate climate. These dunes offer important terrestrial evidence of drier conditions in the past and may provide foresight about landscape consequences of future climate change. The ages of these dunes previously had not been measured by any absolute dating technique. Two dune fields were selected for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the single aliquot regeneration method, including four samples along Rio Negro near Pueblo de la Arena and three samples along Rio Tacuarembó near Ansina. Results indicate that the dunes were active during the late Pleistocene, with five of the OSL ages in the 22 ka to 12 ka range. One OSL age at the Ansina dune field returned an age of 6 ka, indicating the possibility of limited dune reactivation during the Holocene. There is clear evidence of historical dune activation (e.g. buried fences) at both the Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó sites; one OSL sample from Rio Negro dunes confirms an historical age of 107 years BP. However, human land disturbance rather than climatic factors may explain the historical reactivation. Late Pleistocene dune activity in central Uruguay indicates much drier and windier paleoclimate (at least seasonally) than present, and correlates well with eolian activity in more arid parts of South America in western Argentina. Age and paleoenvironment of the riverine dunes in Uruguay are remarkably similar to those of the southeastern United States (USA), indicating similar patterns of paleoclimate in both hemispheres. Such similarities help to resolve the spatial patterns of global scale climate change.

  3. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  4. Predicting human age with bloodstains by sjTREC quantification.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xue-ling; Gao, Jun; Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-sheng; Lu, Hui-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2012-01-01

    The age-related decline of signal joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) in human peripheral blood has been demonstrated in our previous study and other reports. Until now, only a few studies on sjTREC detection in bloodstain samples were reported, which were based on a small sample of subjects of a limited age range, although bloodstains are much more frequently encountered in forensic practice. In this present study, we adopted the sensitive Taqman real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to perform sjTREC quantification in bloodstains from individuals ranging from 0-86 years old (n = 264). The results revealed that sjTREC contents in human bloodstains were declined in an age-dependent manner (r = -0.8712). The formula of age estimation was Age = -7.1815Y-42.458 ± 9.42 (Y dCt(TBP-sjTREC); 9.42 standard error). Furthermore, we tested for the influence of short- or long- storage time by analyzing fresh and stored bloodstains from the same individuals. Remarkably, no statistically significant difference in sjTREC contents was found between the fresh and old DNA samples over a 4-week of storage time. However, significant loss (0.16-1.93 dCt) in sjTREC contents was detected after 1.5 years of storage in 31 samples. Moreover, preliminary sjTREC quantification from up to 20-year-old bloodstains showed that though the sjTREC contents were detectable in all samples and highly correlated with donor age, a time-dependent decrease in the correlation coefficient r was found, suggesting the predicting accuracy of this described assay would be deteriorated in aged samples. Our findings show that sjTREC quantification might be also suitable for age prediction in bloodstains, and future researches into the time-dependent or other potential impacts on sjTREC quantification might allow further improvement of the predicting accuracy. PMID:22879970

  5. Predicting Significant Reductions in Instructional Expenditures by School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Patrick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses survival analysis to investigate the symptoms of fiscal distress that can lead to significant reductions in instructional expenditures by independent public school districts in the United States. We hypothesize that the likelihood of significant reductions in instructional expenditures is positively correlated with revenue…

  6. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  7. Immunoparesis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are disassociated in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Benjamin M; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Burris, Jason; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Kwok, Mary; Annunziata, Christina; Roschewski, Mark J; Engels, Eric A; Landgren, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Immunoparesis and a skewed serum free light chain (FLC) ratio are indicators of immune dysfunction predictive of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM). Previous studies have reported increased prevalence of MGUS by age, but no study has examined the relationship between immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios in the elderly. We screened 453 older adults (median age, 80 years; range, 65-96) to characterize the patterns of immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratio in relation to MGUS. We defined MGUS in 4.4% of the subjects; the prevalence was 12.5% among individuals of >90 years. In MGUS (vs. non-MGUS) cases, immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 70.0% (vs. 49.0%; P = 0.07) and 50.0% (vs. 12.9%; P = 0.0001), respectively. Based on small numbers, MGUS patients with abnormal FLC ratio were borderline (P = 0.07) more likely to have immunoparesis. Overall, the prevalence of immunoparesis varied in a nonlinear fashion, with lowest frequencies in the youngest and oldest groups. Our observed disassociation between MGUS prevalence and impaired immunoglobulin production suggests that separate mechanisms are involved in the development of MGUS and immunoparesis in advanced age. These findings emphasize the need for molecularly defined methods to characterize myeloma precursor states and better predict progression to MM. PMID:23169485

  8. Metabolic Youth in Middle Age: Predicting Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Bundy, Jacob G; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-11-01

    Many mutations and allelic variants are known that influence the rate at which animals age, but when in life do such variants diverge from normal patterns of aging? Is this divergence visible in their physiologies? To investigate these questions, we have used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to study how the metabolome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans changes as it grows older. We identify a series of metabolic changes that, collectively, predict the age of wild-type worms. We then show that long-lived mutant daf-2(m41) worms are metabolically youthful compared to wild-type worms, but that this relative youth only appears in middle age. Finally, we show that metabolic age predicts the timing and magnitude of differences in age-specific mortality between these strains. Thus, the future mortality of these two genotypes can be predicted long before most of the worms die. PMID:26381038

  9. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  10. Approaches to Learning and Age in Predicting College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the approaches to learning and age are significantly correlated to grade point average (GPA) in early childhood education students. In addition, another purpose of this study is to determine whether approaches to learning and age predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The…

  11. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  12. Ultra-weak photon emission of hands in aging prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; van Wijk, Eduard; Yan, Yu; van Wijk, Roeland; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Aging has been one of the several topics intensely investigated during recent decades. More scientists have been scrutinizing mechanisms behind the human aging process. Ultra-weak photon emission is known as one type of spontaneous photon emission that can be detected with a highly sensitive single photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT) from the surface of human bodies. It may reflect the body's oxidative damage. Our aim was to examine whether ultra-weak photon emission from a human hand is able to predict one's chronological age. Sixty subjects were recruited and grouped by age. We examined four areas of each hand: palm side of fingers, palm side of hand, dorsum side of fingers, and dorsum side of hand. Left and right hand were measured synchronously with two independent PMTs. Mean strength and Fano factor values of photon counts were utilized to compare the UPE patterns of males and females of different age groups. Subsequently, we utilized UPE data from the most sensitive PMT to develop an age prediction model. We randomly picked 49 subjects to construct the model, whereas the remaining 11 subjects were utilized for validation. The results demonstrated that the model was a good regression compared to the observed values (Pearson's r=0.6, adjusted R square=0.4, p=9.4E-7, accuracy=49/60). Further analysis revealed that the average difference between the chronological age and predicted age was only 7.6±0.8years. It was concluded that this fast and non-invasive photon technology is sufficiently promising to be developed for the estimation of biological aging. PMID:27472904

  13. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  14. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  15. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  16. Significance of plasma nitric oxide/endothelial-1 ratio for prediction of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akira; Matsui, Takemi; Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Takase, Bonpei; Satomura, Kimio

    2005-01-01

    Vascular tone is regulated by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant vasoconstrictor peptide that constricts vascular smooth muscle, whereas nitric oxide (NO) is the primary vasodilator peptide that relaxes vascular smooth muscle. In this study, the authors examined whether NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful marker for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), by comparison with evaluation based on vascular endothelial (VE) function. They measured plasma NOX and ET-1 by using ENO-200 and radioimmunoassay, in 38 subjects with normal (NL) coronary arteries (NL group; mean age, 60 +/-12 years) and 25 subjects with CAD (CAD group; mean age, 69 +/- 6 years). VE function (randomized endothelium-dependent [D] and endothelium-independent [I] VE function) was assessed by measuring brachial artery (BA) diameter by using high-resolution ultrasound (7.5 MHz). Soon after these procedures, symptom-limited exercise testing was performed. There were no statistically significant differences in serum lipid concentrations or VED function between the groups. However, the CAD group had a significantly lower NO/ET-1 ratio (1.2 +/- 1.1 vs 2.7 +/- 2.2, p < 0.01) and BA diameter after sublingual nitroglycerin (VEID function: 6 +/- 7% vs 10 +/- 4%, p < 0.05). As expected, the ST segment and treadmill exercise duration were significantly lower in the CAD group. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by plasma NO/ET-1 ratio (> or =2 .0) were 90% and 85%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by ST depression (> or =1 mm) were 80% and 78%, respectively. The present results suggest that plasma NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful biological marker for predicting CAD. PMID:15889192

  17. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  18. Culture, age and gender: effects on quality of predicted self and colleague reactions.

    PubMed

    Greipp, M E

    1996-02-01

    Ethnocentrism on the part of health care workers has been documented in the literature and has led to misdiagnosis, mistreatment and undertreatment of culturally diverse individuals worldwide. Aversive Insidious Racism and Ingroup Favoritism theories were used as the guiding framework for this study. Two hundred and sixty-eight female nurses from a large, urban, multi-service hospital in the United States were surveyed to identify those psychosocial variables (age, gender and culture status of the client) which enhanced and/or inhibited their predicted reactions with clients and which have the power to contribute to unethical decision making and less than ethical client care. The findings of this study, which is the first to examine nurses' predicted self and colleague reactions to multiple client variables concurrently, demonstrated that Client Gender as a main effect was not significant in itself when examining self and colleague predictions. Client Age as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.006, and for colleague predictions, p < 0.000. Client Culture as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.001 and for colleague predictions, p < 0.001. Many two-way and three-way interaction effects were significant. Subjects consistently predicted more favorable self reactions than colleague reactions, supporting Aversive Insidious Racism theory. Study findings did not consistently support Ingroup Favoritism theory. Subjects did not predict most favorable reactions with Caucasian female clients. PMID:8655268

  19. Development of a forensically useful age prediction method based on DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Żanetta; Pałeczka, Anna; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-07-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping needs to be supplemented with age prediction to become a relevant source of information on human appearance. Recent progress in analysis of the human methylome has enabled selection of multiple candidate loci showing linear correlation with chronological age. Practical application in forensic science depends on successful validation of these potential age predictors. In this study, eight DNA methylation candidate loci were analysed using convenient and reliable pyrosequencing technology. A total number of 41 CpG sites was investigated in 420 samples collected from men and women aged from 2 to 75 years. The study confirmed correlation of all the investigated markers with human age. The five most significantly correlated CpG sites in ELOVL2 on 6p24.2, C1orf132 on 1q32.2, TRIM59 on 3q25.33, KLF14 on 7q32.3 and FHL2 on 2q12.2 were chosen to build a prediction model. This restriction allowed the technical analysis to be simplified without lowering the prediction accuracy significantly. Model parameters for a discovery set of 300 samples were R(2)=0.94 and the standard error of the estimate=4.5 years. An independent set of 120 samples was used to test the model performance. Mean absolute deviation for this testing set was 3.9 years. The number of correct predictions ±5 years achieved a very high level of 86.7% in the age category 2-19 and gradually decreased to 50% in the age category 60-75. The prediction model was deterministic for individuals belonging to these two extreme age categories. The developed method was implemented in a freely available online age prediction calculator. PMID:26026729

  20. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a list of...

  1. Prediction of long-term aging of cellular plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Kokko, E.

    1995-09-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-based cellular plastics are facing the challenge of environmental protection. The cellular plastic industry has been looking for new blowing agents as alternatives for CFCs since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987. The prediction of long-term thermal performance of newly developed cellular plastics thus becomes apparent. In this paper, the model ACP aging of cellular plastic is introduced. This model was originally developed for evaluating the thermal performance of carbon dioxide, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, n-Pentane, neo-Pentane and cyclo-Pentane. In comparison with short-term measurements, the ACP program now is able to predict the aging performance of cellular plastics is to combine the short-term measurements and model simulation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. ASC Supercomputers Predict Effects of Aging on Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, A; Reisman, D B; Wolfer, W G

    2005-08-25

    In an extensive molecular dynamics (MD) study of shock compression of aluminum containing such microscopic defects as found in aged plutonium, LLNL scientists have demonstrated that ASC supercomputers live up to their promise as powerful tools to predict aging phenomena in the nuclear stockpile. Although these MD investigations are carried out on material samples containing only about 10 to 40 million atoms, and being not much bigger than a virus particle, they have shown that reliable materials properties and relationships between them can be extracted for density, temperature, pressure, and dynamic strength. This was proven by comparing their predictions with experimental data of the Hugoniot, with dynamic strength inferred from gas-gun experiments, and with the temperatures behind the shock front as calculated with hydro-codes. The effects of microscopic helium bubbles and of radiation-induced dislocation loops and voids on the equation of state were also determined and found to be small and in agreement with earlier theoretical predictions and recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments. However, these microscopic defects play an essential role in correctly predicting the dynamic strength for these nano-crystalline samples. These simulations also prove that the physics involved in shock compression experiments remains the same for macroscopic specimens used in gas-gun experiments down to micrometer samples to be employed in future NIF experiments. Furthermore, a practical way was discovered to reduce plastic instabilities in NIF target materials by introducing finely dispersed defects.

  3. Diagnostic and predictive significance of serum microRNA-7 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Li, Baosheng; Wang, Juan; Song, Yipeng; Zhang, Zicheng; Fu, Chengrui; Zhang, Peiliang

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNA-7 has been reported to participate in tumorigenesis and progression by several signaling pathways in various tumors. However, its potential as a serum diagnostic factor and predictive biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been studied. Serum samples were collected from 105 pathologically proven ESCC patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Real‑time polymerase chain reaction was carried out to measure the serum miR-7 expression level. The data were compared among radio-sensitive and radio-resistant groups, and healthy volunteers to elucidate the diagnostic and predictive value of miR-7 expression. Finally, in vitro experiments are used to clarify the mechanisms of the miR-7. In the present study, we found that the serum miR-7 level of ESCC patients was 4.74-fold lower as compared with healthy subjects, indicating that serum miR-7 expression could be an excellent diagnostic factor. The serum miR-7 expression level for these responsive patients was 2.34‑fold higher than that for non-responsive patients, indicating it as a valuable biomarker for predicting treatment response of ESCC patients to concurrent chemoradiation treatment. We also found that miR-7 levels are strongly correlated with tumor length and the status of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In contrast, the responsiveness of therapy is significantly correlated with CEA (P<0.05), Cyfra21-1 (P<0.05), serum miR-7 level (P<0.05) and myelosuppression (P<0.01). In addition, the experimental data also suggest that miR-7 can interfere with EGFR mRNA translation. In ESCC patients, serum miR-7 has the potential to serve as a noninvasive biomarker of diagnosis and predicting treatment responses to concurrent chemoradiation therapy. ESCC patients with lower Cyfra21-1 and CEA, higher miR-7 and severe myelosuppression were much more sensitive to CRT. In addition, miR-7 may function by interfering

  4. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    PubMed

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  5. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    PubMed Central

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  6. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  7. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  8. Testing earthquake prediction algorithms: Statistically significant advance prediction of the largest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Healy, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Algorithms M8 and MSc (i.e., the Mendocino Scenario) were used in a real-time intermediate-term research prediction of the strongest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt. Predictions are made by M8 first. Then, the areas of alarm are reduced by MSc at the cost that some earthquakes are missed in the second approximation of prediction. In 1992-1997, five earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above occurred in the test area: all of them were predicted by M8 and MSc identified correctly the locations of four of them. The space-time volume of the alarms is 36% and 18%, correspondingly, when estimated with a normalized product measure of empirical distribution of epicenters and uniform time. The statistical significance of the achieved results is beyond 99% both for M8 and MSc. For magnitude 7.5 + , 10 out of 19 earthquakes were predicted by M8 in 40% and five were predicted by M8-MSc in 13% of the total volume considered. This implies a significance level of 81% for M8 and 92% for M8-MSc. The lower significance levels might result from a global change in seismic regime in 1993-1996, when the rate of the largest events has doubled and all of them become exclusively normal or reversed faults. The predictions are fully reproducible; the algorithms M8 and MSc in complete formal definitions were published before we started our experiment [Keilis-Borok, V.I., Kossobokov, V.G., 1990. Premonitory activation of seismic flow: Algorithm M8, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 61, 73-83; Kossobokov, V.G., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Smith, S.W., 1990. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 19763-19772; Healy, J.H., Kossobokov, V.G., Dewey, J.W., 1992. A test to evaluate the earthquake prediction algorithm, M8. U.S. Geol. Surv. OFR 92-401]. M8 is available from the IASPEI Software Library [Healy, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Lee, W.H.K. (Eds.), 1997. Algorithms for Earthquake Statistics and Prediction, Vol. 6. IASPEI Software Library]. ?? 1999 Elsevier

  9. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with General Lifestyle Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59–80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (<9 years) predicted enhanced verbal working memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not

  10. Characterization and predictive abilities of GroundWater age data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J. R.; Kolbe, T.; Marçais, J.; Thomas, Z.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Leray, S.; Gueutin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater-age data derived from sampled tracer concentrations are recognized as essential characterization and prediction tools in hydrogeology. They give characteristic transit time information as well as indications on aquifer structures and exchanges. Information can however be difficult to extract and often requires additional knowledge on the flow patterns or on the geological heterogeneity that can guide the choice of the interpretation framework. Any constrain on transit times concerning their distribution facilitates greatly the interpretation. Groundwater flow and transport models help in characterizing potential transit time distributions. This has been extensively done in heterogeneous porous and fractured media. Upscaling local pore and Darcy transport processes to some 100m-scale generic breakthrough curves underline the importance of extended tailing (long transit times of several decades to centuries). Shorter transit times from months to decades are also sensitive to recharge variability, catchment topography, aquifer exchanges and sampling conditions. Large-scale calibrated models integrating these different constrains are of high interest to assess the information content of GroundWater age data. Results on a limited number of case studies confirm that the atmospheric tracers of the last 50 years give accurate estimates of cumulative residence times and of the transport fate of some contaminants like nitrates. It already appears that the quality of the prediction does not always come from the capacity of the transit-time model to fit the actual transit-time distribution but also from the nature of the prediction or of the hydrological regime. Access to a wide range of well-informed and calibrated models taken as synthetic references should be developed to confirm and refine these early conclusions.

  11. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  12. Predicting Biological Age from a Skin Surface Capacitive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Ferri, Massimo

    The skin is the largest (and the most exposed) organ of the body both in terms of surface area and weight. Its care is of great importance for both aesthetics and health issues. Often, the skin appearance gives us information about the skin health status as well as hints at the biological age. Therefore, the skin surface characterization is of great significance for dermatologists as well as for cosmetic scientists in order to evaluate the effectiveness of medical or cosmetic treatments. So far, no in vivo measurements regarding skin topography characterization could be achieved routinely to evaluate skin aging. This work describes how a portable capacitive device, normally used for fingerprint acquisition, can be utilized to achieve measures of skin aging routinely. The capacitive images give a high resolution (50 μm) representation of skin topography, in terms of wrinkles and cells. In this work, we have addressed the latter: through image segmentation techniques, cells have been localized and identified and a feature related to their area distribution has been generated. Accurate experiments accomplished in vivo show how the feature we conceived is linearly related to skin aging. Besides, since this finding has been achieved using a low cost portable device, this could boost research in this field as well as open doors to an application based on an embedded system.

  13. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  14. Predicting plasticity: acute context-dependent changes to vocal performance predict long-term age-dependent changes.

    PubMed

    James, Logan S; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the factors that predict and guide variation in behavioral change can lend insight into mechanisms of motor plasticity and individual differences in behavior. The performance of adult birdsong changes with age in a manner that is similar to rapid context-dependent changes to song. To reveal mechanisms of vocal plasticity, we analyzed the degree to which variation in the direction and magnitude of age-dependent changes to Bengalese finch song could be predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. Using a repeated-measures design, we found that variation in age-dependent changes to the timing, sequencing, and structure of vocal elements ("syllables") was significantly predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. In particular, the degree to which the duration of intersyllable gaps, syllable sequencing at branch points, and fundamental frequency of syllables within spontaneous [undirected (UD)] songs changed over time was correlated with the degree to which these features changed from UD song to female-directed (FD) song in young-adult finches (FDyoung). As such, the structure of some temporal features of UD songs converged over time onto the structure of FDyoung songs. This convergence suggested that the FDyoung song could serve as a stable target for vocal motor plasticity. Consequently, we analyzed the stability of FD song and found that the temporal structure of FD song changed significantly over time in a manner similar to UD song. Because FD song is considered a state of heightened performance, these data suggest that age-dependent changes could reflect practice-related improvements in vocal motor performance. PMID:26311186

  15. Prediction of the age at onset in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3 and 6

    PubMed Central

    Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Durr, Alexandra; Rakowicz, Maria; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Charles, Perrine; Sulek, Anna; Mariotti, Caterina; Rola, Rafal; Schols, Ludger; Bauer, Peter; Dufaure-Garé, Isabelle; Jacobi, Heike; Forlani, Sylvie; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Filla, Alessandro; Timmann, Dagmar; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Marelli, Cecila; Kang, Jun-Suk; Giunti, Paola; Cook, Arron; Baliko, Laszlo; Bela, Melegh; Boesch, Sylvia; Szymanski, Sandra; Berciano, José; Infante, Jon; Buerk, Katrin; Masciullo, Marcella; Di Fabio, Roberto; Depondt, Chantal; Ratka, Susanne; Stevanin, Giovanni; Klockgether, Thomas; Brice, Alexis; Golmard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA)—SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6—are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansion. While the number of repeats of the coding (CAG)n expansions is correlated with the age at onset, there are no appropriate models that include both affected and preclinical carriers allowing for the prediction of age at onset. Methods We combined data from two major European cohorts of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 mutation carriers: 1187 affected individuals from the EUROSCA registry and 123 preclinical individuals from the RISCA cohort. For each SCA genotype, a regression model was fitted using a log-normal distribution for age at onset with the repeat length of the alleles as covariates. From these models, we calculated expected age at onset from birth and conditionally that this age is greater than the current age. Results For SCA2 and SCA3 genotypes, the expanded allele was a significant predictor of age at onset (−0.105±0.005 and −0.056±0.003) while for SCA1 and SCA6 genotypes both the size of the expanded and normal alleles were significant (expanded: −0.049±0.002 and −0.090±0.009, respectively; normal: +0.013±0.005 and −0.029±0.010, respectively). According to the model, we indicated the median values (90% critical region) and the expectancy (SD) of the predicted age at onset for each SCA genotype according to the CAG repeat size and current age. Conclusions These estimations can be valuable in clinical and research. However, results need to be confirmed in other independent cohorts and in future longitudinal studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01037777 and NCT00136630 for the French patients. PMID:24780882

  16. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  17. The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2014-12-18

    Stars spend most of their lifetimes on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The extended main-sequence turn-off regions--containing stars leaving the main sequence after having spent all of the hydrogen in their cores--found in massive (more than a few tens of thousands of solar masses), intermediate-age (about one to three billion years old) star clusters are usually interpreted as evidence of internal age spreads of more than 300 million years, although young clusters are thought to quickly lose any remaining star-forming fuel following a period of rapid gas expulsion on timescales of order 10(7) years. Here we report, on the basis of a combination of high-resolution imaging observations and theoretical modelling, that the stars beyond the main sequence in the two-billion-year-old cluster NGC 1651, characterized by a mass of about 1.7 × 10(5) solar masses, can be explained only by a single-age stellar population, even though the cluster has a clearly extended main-sequence turn-off region. The most plausible explanation for the existence of such extended regions invokes a population of rapidly rotating stars, although the secondary effects of the prolonged stellar lifetimes associated with such a stellar population mixture are as yet poorly understood. From preliminary analysis of previously obtained data, we find that similar morphologies are apparent in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of at least five additional intermediate-age star clusters, suggesting that an extended main-sequence turn-off region does not necessarily imply the presence of a significant internal age dispersion. PMID:25519133

  18. Study of prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoo, Divya; Bajpai, M.; Abid, Ali; Sukanya, Gayan; Agarwala, Sandeep; Srinivas, M.; Deka, Deepika; Agarwal, Nutan; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Study on prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves. Materials and Methods: Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis patients were included. Postnatally, they were divided into two groups, posterior urethral valve (PUV) and non-PUV. The studied parameters were: Gestational age at detection, surgical intervention, ultrasound findings, cord blood and follow up plasma renin activity (PRA) values, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR), renal scars, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Results: A total of 25 patients were included, 10 PUV and 15 non-PUV. All infants with PUV underwent primary valve incision. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 body surface area in 4 patients at last follow-up. Keyhole sign, oligoamnios, absent bladder cycling, and cortical cysts were not consistent findings on antenatal ultrasound in PUV. Cord blood PRA was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in PUV compared to non-PUV patients. Gestational age at detection of hydronephrosis, cortical cysts, bladder wall thickness, and amniotic fluid index were not significantly correlated with GFR while PRA could differentiate between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. Conclusions: Ultrasound was neither uniformly useful in diagnosing PUV antenatally, nor differentiating it from cases with non-PUV hydronephrosis. In congenital hydronephrosis, cord blood PRA was significantly higher in cases with PUV compared to non-PUV cases and fell significantly after valve ablation. Cord blood PRA could distinguish between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. PMID:25829668

  19. The significance of parameter uncertainties for the prediction of offshore pile driving noise.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Tristan; von Estorff, Otto

    2014-11-01

    Due to the construction of offshore wind farms and its potential effect on marine wildlife, the numerical prediction of pile driving noise over long ranges has recently gained importance. In this contribution, a coupled finite element/wavenumber integration model for noise prediction is presented and validated by measurements. The ocean environment, especially the sea bottom, can only be characterized with limited accuracy in terms of input parameters for the numerical model at hand. Therefore the effect of these parameter uncertainties on the prediction of sound pressure levels (SPLs) in the water column is investigated by a probabilistic approach. In fact, a variation of the bottom material parameters by means of Monte-Carlo simulations shows significant effects on the predicted SPLs. A sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the single quantities is performed, as well as a global variation. Based on the latter, the probability distribution of the SPLs at an exemplary receiver position is evaluated and compared to measurements. The aim of this procedure is to develop a model to reliably predict an interval for the SPLs, by quantifying the degree of uncertainty of the SPLs with the MC simulations. PMID:25373948

  20. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy.

  1. Investigation of the relative significance of individual environmental parameters to sonar performance prediction uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Xu, Wen; Schmidt, Henrik

    2002-11-01

    A large part of sonar performance prediction uncertainty is associated with the uncertain ocean acoustic environment. Optimal in situ measurement strategy, i.e. adaptively capturing the most critical uncertain environmental parameters within operational constrains can minimize the sonar performance prediction uncertainty. Understanding the relative significance of individual environmental parameters to sonar performance prediction uncertainty is fundamental to the heuristics to determine the most critical environmental parameters. Based on this understanding, the optimal parametrization of ocean acoustic environments can be defined, which will significantly simplify the adaptively sampling pattern. As an example, the matched-field processing is used to localize an unknown sound source position in a realistic ocean environment. Typical shallow water environmental models are used with some of the properties being stochastic variables. The ratio of the main lobe peak to the maximum side lobe peak of the ambiguity function and the main lobe peak displacement due to mismatch are chosen as performance metrics, respectively, in two different scenarios. The relative significance of some environmental parameters such as sediment thickness, weights of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) has been computed. Some preliminary results are discussed.

  2. Predictive and Prognostic Significance of Glutathione Levels and DNA Damage in Cervix Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi Srinivasa; Kodali, Maheedhar; Prakash Saxena, Pu

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive significance of serum glutathione (GSH) and tumor tissue DNA damage in the treatment of cervical cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included subjects undergoing hysterectomy (for normal cervix tissue) and cervical cancer patients who underwent conventional concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin once per week for 5 weeks with concurrent external radiotherapy of 2 Gy per fraction for 5 weeks, followed by two applications of intracavitary brachytherapy once per week after 2 weeks' rest). Blood was collected after two fractions, whereas both blood and tissues were collected after five fractions of radiotherapy in separate groups of subjects. Serum for total GSH content and tissues were processed for single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay for DNA damage analysis. Clinical tumor radioresponse was assessed 2 months after the completion of treatment as complete responders (CR) (100% shrinkage), partial responders (PR) (>50%), and nonresponders (NR) (<50%). Results: Serum GSH content depleted significantly after a total dose of 4 Gy and 10 Gy of radiotherapy with a single dose of cisplatin, which was significantly lesser in NR than of CR patients. Similarly, Olive Tail Moment, the index of DNA damage, indicated significantly higher values in the fifth fraction of radiotherapy (5-RT) than in pretreatment. The DNA damage after 5-RT in the NR subgroup was significantly lower than that of CR. Conclusions: Serum GSH analysis and tumor tissue SCGE assay found to be useful parameters for predicting chemoradioresponse prior to and also at an early stage of treatment of cervical cancers.

  3. Age-related differences in predictive response timing in children: evidence from regularly relative to irregularly paced reaction time performance.

    PubMed

    Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Vingerhoets, Guy; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-08-01

    Predictive timing refers to the anticipation and precise timing of planned motor responses. This study was performed to investigate children's predictive response timing abilities while accounting for confounding age-related effects of motor speed. Indices of predictive timing were evaluated for their contributions in motor skill proficiency as well. Eighty typically developing children in 4 age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10 and 11-12 years) performed a visuomotor reaction time (RT) test. Differences in speed and anticipatory responding at regularly relative to irregularly paced stimuli were evaluated as indices of predictive timing. Also, explicit timing and motor tests (M-ABC-2, VMI tracing, and KTK jumping) were administered. Significant faster responding for regularly versus irregularly paced stimuli was found from the ages of 9-10 years on. Better anticipatory responding behavior for regular in contrast with irregular stimuli was found to be present already at 7-8 years. Overall, predictive timing abilities increased across the 4 age groups. Also, inter-individual differences in the speed indices of predictive timing contributed to predicting VMI tracing and KTK jumping outcomes when controlling for age and overall motor response speed. In conclusion, predictive motor timing abilities increase during age 5 to 12 and correlate with motor skill performance. PMID:22494922

  4. Investigating the seasonal predictability of significant wave height in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Hosmay; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates seasonal prediction skill of significant wave height (SWH) in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans. We forced the WAVEWATCH III model with 10 m winds from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-2 and from the Community Climate System Model version 4 North American Multi-Model Ensemble retrospective forecasts for the period of January 1979 to December 2013. Results indicate potential for predicting SWH with several months lead time during boreal summers after the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) measured by deterministic and probabilistic skill scores in the Northwest Pacific and Bay of Bengal. During these summers, SWH is smaller than normal due to reduced atmospheric synoptic activity associated with an anomalously anticyclone in the western Pacific, leading to larger signal-to-noise ratio in the 10 m winds, hence increasing SWH prediction skill. It is shown that ENSO has a nonlinear influence on the number of extremely large SWH events, with reduced number of extreme occurrences during boreal summers after the warm phase of ENSO.

  5. Significance of certain rustler aquifer parameters for predicting long-term radiation doses from WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Wofsy, C

    1980-09-01

    This report considers some aspects of the radionuclide transport modeling presented in documents published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) nuclear waste repository proposed for development in Southeastern New Mexico. The radionuclide transport modeling is used to predict worst possible consequences of a WIPP repository breach event in which waste enters groundwater. The aim of this report is to determine whether plausible changes in the parameters used by DOE to describe the flow of groundwater near the WIPP site could result in: (a) significantly faster radionuclide movement in groundwater; and (b) significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides in Pecos River water and correspondingly higher radiation doses than predicted by DOE. The conclusion reached is that while plausible changes in hydrologic conditions and waste-rock interactions might result in a significant reduction in the time it takes for radionuclides to reach the Pecos River, the shorter travel times do not result in significant increases in the estimated concentrations of radionuclides in the Pecos River nor in the radiation doses associated with the use of such water. Other ways in which parameter changes might affect these concentrations and doses are mentioned in the Conclusions section of the report, but are not the subject of this analysis.

  6. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

  7. Semantic and phonological skills in predicting reading development: from 3-16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jørgen; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Niedersøe, Jan; Olofsson, Ake; Sørensen, Peer Møller

    2005-05-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the relationship between pre-school semantic skills (vocabulary, comprehension and sentence construction), phonological awareness and later word decoding and reading comprehension skills. More than 200 Danish children were followed from a speech therapist screening at the age of three, through a phonological group screening at six, word decoding tests in Grade 2, sentence reading tests in Grades 3, 4, and 6, and to a text reading test in Grade 9 (age 16). The predictor variables consisted of both standardized test results, professional ratings, and a factor of interest in books. The results showed that both the semantic variables and interest in books at the age of three and the phonological variables at the age of six predicted reading development significantly at the age of 16. In addition the results demonstrated changing main effect from semantic and phonological variables on reading development. Phonological awareness at the age of 6 seemed to have the greatest influence on reading at the beginning of Grade 2 compared to the semantic variables at the age of three. On all other measures in time, the semantic variables had the greatest influence. PMID:15918368

  8. Thyroid Gland Involvement in Carcinoma Larynx and Hypopharynx-Predictive Factors and Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagad, Vijay; Varghese, Bipin T.; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraoperative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is controversial. Aim The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, to assess predictive factors and to assess the prognosis in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion. Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-three patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical specimens were examined to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion and predictive factors were analysed. The recurrence rate and the survival in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion were also analysed. Results Out of the 133 patients with carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx who underwent surgery, histological thyroid gland invasion was observed in 28/133 (21%) patients. Significant relationship was found between histological thyroid gland invasion and preoperative evidence of thyroid cartilage erosion by CT scan and also when gross thyroid gland involvement observed during surgery. There is significant association between thyroid gland invasion when there is upper oesophageal or subglottic involvement. Conclusion After analysing the retrospective data from our study, we would like to suggest that thyroid gland need not be removed routinely in all laryngectomies, unless there is advanced disease with thyroid cartilage erosion and gross thyroid gland involvement or disease with significant subglottic or oesophageal involvement. PMID:27042568

  9. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  10. The significance of caudate volume for age-related associative memory decline.

    PubMed

    Bauer, E; Toepper, M; Gebhardt, H; Gallhofer, B; Sammer, G

    2015-10-01

    Aging comes along with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in several cerebral areas and with cognitive performance decline in different cognitive domains. Moreover, regional GM volume is linked to specific cognitive sub processes in older adults. However, it remains unclear which regional changes in older individuals are directly associated with decreased cognitive performance. Moreover, most of the studies on this topic focused on hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions and their relation to memory and executive functioning. Interestingly, there are only a few studies that reported an association between striatal brain volume and cognitive performance. This is insofar surprising that striatal structures are (1) highly affected by age and (2) involved in different neural circuits that serve intact cognition. To address these issues, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze GM volume in 18 younger and 18 older adults. Moreover, several neuropsychological tests from different neuropsychological test batteries were applied to assess a broad range of cognitive domains. Older adults showed less GM volume than younger adults within frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions. In the group of older adults, significant correlations were found between striatal GM volume and memory performance and between prefrontal/temporal GM volume and executive functioning. The only direct overlap between brain regions associated with regional atrophy and cognitive performance in older adults was found for the right caudate: older adults showed reduced caudate volume relative to younger adults. Moreover, caudate volume was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy in older adults and older adults showed poorer performances than younger adults in the respective associative memory task. Taken together, the current findings indicate the relevance of the caudate for associative memory decline in the aging brain. PMID:26119913

  11. Analytic Methods for Predicting Significant Multi-Quanta Effects in Collisional Molecular Energy Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1996-01-01

    Collision-induced transitions can significantly affect molecular vibrational-rotational populations and energy transfer in atmospheres and gaseous systems. This, in turn. can strongly influence convective heat transfer through dissociation and recombination of diatomics. and radiative heat transfer due to strong vibrational coupling. It is necessary to know state-to-state rates to predict engine performance and aerothermodynamic behavior of hypersonic flows, to analyze diagnostic radiative data obtained from experimental test facilities, and to design heat shields and other thermal protective systems. Furthermore, transfer rates between vibrational and translational modes can strongly influence energy flow in various 'disturbed' environments, particularly where the vibrational and translational temperatures are not equilibrated.

  12. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H. ); Atwood, C.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  13. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H.; Atwood, C.L.

    1993-05-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  14. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children. PMID:21789735

  15. Economic significance of revised age relations of rocks in the Cornucopia mining district, Elko County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coats, Robert Roy

    1967-01-01

    Recent geologic work in the Cornucopia mining district, a small silver-gold mining district in northwestern Elko County, Nev., has resulted in significant revision of the geological interpretation. Rocks formerly thought to be premineralization in age, but unmineralized, are now known to be postmineral extrusives, resting unconformably on the altered andesite in which the ore bodies are found. Extensions of the known productive veins may be expected at shallow depth beneath the younger volcanic rocks, and are separated from the mined part of the veins by postmineral high-angle faults that have brought the younger volcanic rocks into fault contact with the mineralized andesite. Some veins are apparently terminated against premineral faults.

  16. Pulmonary cysts identified on chest CT: Are they part of aging change or of clinical significance?

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Putman, Rachel K.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; O'Connor, George T.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and natural course of pulmonary cysts in a population-based cohort and to describe the CT image characteristics in association with participant demographics and pulmonary functions. Materials and Methods Chest CT scans of 2633 participants (mean 59.2 years; 50% female) of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) were visually evaluated for the presence of pulmonary cysts and their image characteristics. These findings were correlated with participant demographics and results of pulmonary function tests as well as the presence of emphysema independently detected on CT. The interval change was investigated by comparison with previous CT scans (median interval, 6.1 years). Results Pulmonary cysts were seen in 7.6% (95% CI, 6.6-8.7; 200/2633). They were not observed in participants younger than 40 years old, and the prevalence increased with age. Multiple cysts (≥5) were seen in 0.9% of all participants. Participants with pulmonary cysts showed significantly lower BMI (P<0.001). Pulmonary cysts were most likely to appear solitary in the peripheral area of the lower lobes and remain unchanged or slightly increase in size over time. Pulmonary cysts showed no significant influence on pulmonary functions (P=0.07-0.6) except for DLCO (P=0.03) and no association with cigarette smoking (P=0.1-0.9) or emphysema (P=0.7). Conclusions Pulmonary cysts identified on chest CT may be a part of the aging changes of the lungs, occurring in asymptomatic individuals older than 40 years, and are associated with decreased BMI and DLCO. Multiple pulmonary cysts may need to be evaluated for the possibility of cystic lung diseases. PMID:26514407

  17. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

  18. Relict landscapes in active mountain belts: their age, interpretation and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Planar topographic markers have been widely used to infer the topographic and erosional history of mountain belts. During the last two decades, attention has focused on high-elevation low-relief surfaces in orogenic belts, the interpretation of which has generated considerable controversy regarding their age, mechanism of formation and tectonic or climatic significance. I will review three case studies to illustrate these issues. In the Pyrenees, high-elevation, low-relief surfaces have been mapped throughout the mountain belt and were suggested to have developed at high elevations due to significant base-level rise as a result of backfilling of the southern foreland basin, which developed under endorheic conditions between Late Eocene and Late Miocene times. Isolation of these surface remnants has been suggested to result from a more erosive climate since the Pliocene. However, an alternative study suggests that such relict landscape elements are restricted to the Eastern Pyrenees, developed at low elevations during the Miocene and were subsequently tectonically uplifted. This second hypothesis appears to be comforted by a suite of thermochronological, stratigraphic and geophysical data from the Eastern Pyrenees. We have used a thermo-kinematic model integrating the existing thermochronometry data from the central Pyrenees to constrain the amount and timing of base-level change in that area and find that, while significant filling and re-excavation of the southern flank must have occurred, the timing of exhumation is Late Miocene rather than Pliocene-Quaternary and the relationship with hypothetical relict landscape elements in the high chain remains unclear. In the western European Alps, widespread high-elevation low-relief surfaces develop close to the interface between crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the "external crystalline massifs" (e.g., Pelvoux-Ecrins, Belledonne, Aar). These surfaces clearly appear to be lithologically controlled and to have

  19. Investigation of environmental influences on a transcriptional assay for the prediction of age of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Kay, Brian H; O'Neill, Scott L; Ryan, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    We examined the effects of environmental regulation of gene transcription on the accuracy of a transcriptional profiling method for determining insect age. In combined temperature/nutrition treatments, Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes were maintained in the laboratory at three different temperatures (20, 26, and 32 degrees C), and larvae were fed on low, medium, and high diet regimens. Adult mosquitoes of distinct size classes were produced. Transcription of three age-responsive genes (Ae-15848, Ae-8505, and Ae-4274) was measured from 1-, 10-, and 19-d-old specimens using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method incorporating dual-labeled TaqMan probes. Temperature had a significant effect on transcript abundance for two of the model genes (Ae-15848 and Ae-8505), and transcription of model genes was unaffected by the main effect of larval diet level; however, significant temperature by diet level interactions were observed. Total RNA yield from individual mosquitoes varied according to adult age and temperature, and when combined with wing length, provided a useful predictor variable in age prediction models. More accurate age predictions were achieved from models generated at the same temperature as test mosquitoes; however, whereas significant differences in mean predicted ages were observed between 1- and 10-d-old mosquitoes, differences between 10 and 19 d were nonsignificant. This study highlights the effect of environmental regulation on gene transcription age grading and the need to identify additional gene biomarkers of age to improve the classification of older mosquitoes. PMID:21175052

  20. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  1. Position Weight Matrix, Gibbs Sampler, and the Associated Significance Tests in Motif Characterization and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuhua

    2012-01-01

    Position weight matrix (PWM) is not only one of the most widely used bioinformatic methods, but also a key component in more advanced computational algorithms (e.g., Gibbs sampler) for characterizing and discovering motifs in nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, few generally applicable statistical tests are available for evaluating the significance of site patterns, PWM, and PWM scores (PWMS) of putative motifs. Statistical significance tests of the PWM output, that is, site-specific frequencies, PWM itself, and PWMS, are in disparate sources and have never been collected in a single paper, with the consequence that many implementations of PWM do not include any significance test. Here I review PWM-based methods used in motif characterization and prediction (including a detailed illustration of the Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery), present statistical and probabilistic rationales behind statistical significance tests relevant to PWM, and illustrate their application with real data. The multiple comparison problem associated with the test of site-specific frequencies is best handled by false discovery rate methods. The test of PWM, due to the use of pseudocounts, is best done by resampling methods. The test of individual PWMS for each sequence segment should be based on the extreme value distribution. PMID:24278755

  2. Significance of Bioindicators for Early Predictions on Diagnosis and Therapy of Irradiated Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Maria; Port, Matthias; Gulani, Jatinder; Chappell, Mark; Abend, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Decisions on whether to start a therapeutic intervention for management of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) should be made early after exposure, and it should be based on readily available clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Here, the authors use the minipig to assess if early prediction of the later developing clinical outcome and necessity of therapeutic interventions can be determined within the first 3 d after exposure and whether it is comparable to human data. Retrospective analysis of data accumulated in the period 2009-2012 was used. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 60 d after irradiation in untreated minipigs. Changes in these early parameters (up to 3 d after exposure) were correlated with later occurrence (10-60 d after irradiation) of (1) hematological severity scores, (2) severe thrombocytopenia, (3) severe neutropenia, as well as need for (4) therapeutic intervention, (5) administration of cytokines/antibiotics, or (6) thrombocyte transfusions. Binary endpoints were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Most predictive were decreased lymphocyte counts and increases in body temperature at 3 h after irradiation. These data corroborate earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model. PMID:27356060

  3. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  4. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  5. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  6. Predictable Loneliness of Old Age: Dispelling the Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenson, Tracey A.

    Ageism has taken its place beside sexism and racism not only in society but also in the arenas of social science research and policy. Survey data obtained from an extensive questionnaire published in three North American daily newspapers in 1980 from 2,026 adults, aged 18-90, were examined to debunk the myth of loneliness in old age. The data…

  7. Predicting and detecting adverse drug reactions in old age: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A

    2012-05-01

    Increased, often inappropriate, drug exposure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, reduced homeostatic reserve and frailty increase the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the older population, thereby imposing a significant public health burden. Predicting and diagnosing ADRs in old age presents significant challenges for the clinician, even when specific risk scoring systems are available. The picture is further compounded by the potential adverse impact of several drugs on more 'global' health indicators, for example, physical function and independence, and the fragmentation of care (e.g., increased number of treating doctors and care transitions) experienced by older patients during their clinical journey. The current knowledge of drug safety in old age is also curtailed by the lack of efficacy and safety data from pre-marketing studies. Moreover, little consideration is given to individual patients' experiences and reporting of specific ADRs, particularly in the presence of cognitive impairment. Pending additional data on these issues, the close review and monitoring of individual patients' drug prescribing, clinical status and biochemical parameters remain essential to predict and detect ADRs in old age. Recently developed strategies, for example, medication reconciliation and trigger tool methodology, have the potential for ADRs risk mitigation in this population. However, more information is required on their efficacy and applicability in different healthcare settings. PMID:22512705

  8. Changes in Memory Prediction Accuracy: Age and Performance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Ann; Trujillo, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Memory performance predictions are subjective estimates of possible memory task performance. The purpose of this study was to examine possible factors related to changes in word list performance predictions made by younger and older adults. Factors included memory self-efficacy, actual performance, and perceptions of performance. The current study…

  9. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

  10. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  11. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  12. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  13. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  14. Significance of Geological Parameters for Predicting Water Inflow in Hard Rock Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmøy, K. H.; Nilsen, B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of tunnelling is prognostication of water inflows. More reliable prediction of groundwater inflow may give considerable economical saving for future tunnel projects and may also prevent damage of environment and installations on the surface. This paper is discussing the significance of eight hypotheses regarding geological parameters for predicting water inflow in tunnels. The respective hypotheses have been tested as part of a recent research project in Norway. Six Norwegian tunnels with different geological conditions were selected for the research; the Romeriksporten, Frøya, T-baneringen, Lunner, Skaugum, and Storsand tunnels. Based on detailed study of these tunnels, the hypotheses are tested by comparing water inflow with geological parameters and factors such as Q value, faulting, rock stress orientation, rock cover, thickness of permeable soil or depth of lake/sea above the tunnel, rock type, and width of weakness zones. It is found that four out of the eight tested hypotheses are supported, two have low to medium support and two are not supported. One unexpected result is that for the tunnels covered by this study, the water inflow was found to increase with rock cover.

  15. Weather chains during the 2013/2014 winter and their significance for seasonal prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Huw C.

    2015-11-01

    Day-to-day weather forecasting has improved substantially over the past few decades. In contrast, progress in seasonal prediction outside the tropics has been meagre and mixed. On seasonal timescales, the constraining influence of the initial atmospheric state is weak, and the internal variability associated with transient weather systems tends to be large compared with the nuanced influence of anomalies in external forcing. Current research and operational activities focus on exploring and exploiting potential links between external anomalies and seasonal-mean climate patterns. Here I examine reanalysed meteorological data sets for the unusual winter 2013/2014, with drought and freezing conditions juxtaposed over North America and severe wet and stormy weather over parts of Europe, to study the role of weather systems and their transient upper-tropospheric flow patterns. I find that the amplitude, recurrence and location of these transient patterns account directly for the corresponding anomalous seasonal-mean patterns. They occurred episodically and sequentially, were linked dynamically, and exhibited some circumpolar connectivity. I conclude that the upper-tropospheric components of transient weather systems are significant for understanding and predicting seasonal weather patterns, whereas the role of external factors is more subtle.

  16. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  17. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  18. The Psychoeducational Characteristics of School-Aged Students in Colorado with Educationally Significant Hearing Losses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1996-01-01

    This study of 461 Colorado students (ages 7-18) with deafness or partial hearing investigated the students' psychoeducational development by age and hearing loss, including syntactic comprehension and production, reading comprehension, social maturity, speech intelligibility, and math calculation skills. Traditional standardized measures of…

  19. Cardiac Aging: From Molecular Mechanisms to Significance in Human Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Chen, Tony; Johnson, Simon C.; Szeto, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes of death in the western world. The incidence of cardiovascular disease as well as the rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity increase exponentially in the elderly population, suggesting that age per se is a major risk factor of CVDs. The physiologic changes of human cardiac aging mainly include left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, valvular degeneration, increased cardiac fibrosis, increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation, and decreased maximal exercise capacity. Many of these changes are closely recapitulated in animal models commonly used in an aging study, including rodents, flies, and monkeys. The application of genetically modified aged mice has provided direct evidence of several critical molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac aging, such as mitochondrial oxidative stress, insulin/insulin-like growth factor/PI3K pathway, adrenergic and renin angiotensin II signaling, and nutrient signaling pathways. This article also reviews the central role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in CVDs and the plausible mechanisms underlying the progression toward heart failure in the susceptible aging hearts. Finally, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiac aging may support the potential clinical application of several “anti-aging” strategies that treat CVDs and improve healthy cardiac aging. PMID:22229339

  20. Field Validation of a Transcriptional Assay for the Prediction of Age of Uncaged Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Cook, Peter E.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Rapley, Luke P.; Kay, Brian H.; Ryan, Peter A.; Ritchie, Scott A.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Background New strategies to eliminate dengue have been proposed that specifically target older Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the proportion of the vector population that is potentially capable of transmitting dengue viruses. Evaluation of these strategies will require accurate and high-throughput methods of predicting mosquito age. We previously developed an age prediction assay for individual Ae. aegypti females based on the transcriptional profiles of a selection of age responsive genes. Here we conducted field testing of the method on Ae. aegypti that were entirely uncaged and free to engage in natural behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced “free-range” test specimens by releasing 8007 adult Ae. aegypti inside and around an isolated homestead in north Queensland, Australia, and recapturing females at two day intervals. We applied a TaqMan probe-based assay design that enabled high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR of four transcripts from three age-responsive genes and a reference gene. An age prediction model was calibrated on mosquitoes maintained in small sentinel cages, in which 68.8% of the variance in gene transcription measures was explained by age. The model was then used to predict the ages of the free-range females. The relationship between the predicted and actual ages achieved an R2 value of 0.62 for predictions of females up to 29 days old. Transcriptional profiles and age predictions were not affected by physiological variation associated with the blood feeding/egg development cycle and we show that the age grading method could be applied to differentiate between two populations of mosquitoes having a two-fold difference in mean life expectancy. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptional profiles of age responsive genes facilitated age estimates of near-wild Ae. aegypti females. Our age prediction assay for Ae. aegypti provides a useful tool for the evaluation of mosquito control interventions against dengue where mosquito

  1. Clinical significance of late gadolinium enhancement in patients<20 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandon M; Dorfman, Adam L; Yu, Sunkyung; Russell, Mark W; Agarwal, Prachi P; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Lu, Jimmy C

    2014-04-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is associated with adverse events in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). However, limited data exist on the extent and clinical significance of LGE in the pediatric population. In 30 patients (aged 14.1±3.2 years) with clinically diagnosed HC who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging from 2007 to 2012, segments with hypertrophy and LGE were identified by 2 experienced readers blinded to outcome. Radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strains were evaluated using feature tracking software. The composite outcome was defined as cardiac death, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge. LGE was present in 17 of 30 patients (57%), all in a midmyocardial pattern, with median 3 segments per patient (interquartile range [IQR] 2 to 5). No LGE was detected in patients without phenotypic hypertrophy. Segments with LGE had decreased radial (basal segments 20.7% vs 70.9%, p=0.01), circumferential (basal segments -23.2% vs -29.3%, p=0.04), and longitudinal strains (basal segments -13.8% vs -20.9%, p=0.04). After median follow-up of 26.9 months (IQR 7.5 to 34.3), 7 patients who had an adverse outcome (5 ventricular tachycardia, 1 appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge, and 1 death) had more segments of LGE (median 4, IQR 2 to 7 vs 0, IQR 0 to 2, p=0.01). One patient without LGE had ventricular tachycardia on exercise test. In conclusion, LGE occurs in a similar pattern in pediatric patients with HC as in adults, associated with hypertrophy, decreased myocardial strain, and adverse clinical outcomes. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the rate of development of LGE and relation to outcomes in a larger cohort. PMID:24513464

  2. Visceral Obesity Predicts Significant Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Won; Kim, Donghee; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kyoungbun; Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hwi Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Chung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with visceral obesity. However, the association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and fibrosis in NAFLD patients has not been completely established. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between the computed tomography-measured VAT area and significant fibrosis in NAFLD patients. A total of 324 NAFLD patients and 132 controls were evaluated by liver biopsy. NAFLD was diagnosed based on histological examinations and alcohol consumption <20 g/day. The NAFLD patients showed a higher age and gender-adjusted VAT area than the control group (86.1 ± 2.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.7, P < 0.001). The VAT area increased across the control, NAFLD without significant fibrosis, and NAFLD with significant fibrosis groups (54.9 ± 3.5, 80.6 ± 2.4, and 123.4 ± 6.4, P < 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for multiple confounders (P for trend = 0.028). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated the VAT area was independently associated with NAFLD with significant fibrosis (F2–F4) (odds ratio [OR] 1.21 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.37 per 10 cm2 increase of VAT area; OR 2.62 [per 1 – standard deviation (SD)] 95% CI 1.41–4.86). Moreover, a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the VAT area was independently associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in NAFLD (OR 1.17 95% CI 1.05–1.32 per 10 cm2 increase of VAT area; OR 2.21 [per 1 – SD] 95% CI 1.25–3.89). Increased VAT area is independently associated with NASH or significant fibrosis and VAT might be a central target for lifestyle modifications in NAFLD patients. PMID:26632897

  3. Tectonic significance of precambrian apatite fission-track ages from the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Babel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Apparent apatite fission-track ages from drill core penetrating basement on the flank of the Transcontinental Arch in northwestern Iowa range from 934 ?? 86 to 641 ?? 90 Ma. These ages, the oldest reported in North America, record at least two thermal events. The 934 Ma age, which is synchronous with KAr ages in the Grenville Province and many KAr whole-rock and RbSr isochron ages from the Lake Superior region, may document basement cooling caused by regional uplift and erosion of the crust. The remaining fission-track ages are products of a more recent thermal event, relative to the age of the samples, which raised temperatures into the zone of partial annealing. Heating may have occurred between the Middle Ordovician and Middle Cretaceous by burial of the basement with additional sediment. It is estimated that burial raised temperatures in the part of the basement sampled by the core to between 50 and 75??C. These temperature estimates imply paleogeothermal gradients of about 20??C/km, approximately two and one-half times present-day values, and burial of the basement by an additional 2-3 km of sediment. ?? 1986.

  4. Impaired Sleep Predicts Cognitive Decline in Old People: Findings from the Prospective KORA Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Kawan, Rasmila; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep-related characteristics and cognitive change over 3 years of follow up in an aged population. Methods: Sleep characteristics and covariates were assessed at baseline in a standardized interview and clinical examination of the population-based KORA Age Study (n = 740, mean age = 75 years). Cognitive score (determined by telephone interview for cognitive status, TICS-m) was recorded at baseline and 3 years later. Results: At baseline, 82.83% (n = 613) of participants had normal cognitive status, 13.51% (n = 100) were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 3.64% (n = 27) with probable dementia. The effect of three distinct patterns of poor sleep (difficulties initiating [DIS] or maintaining sleep [DMS], daytime sleepiness [DS] or sleep duration) were considered on a change in cognitive score with adjustments for potential confounders in generalized linear regression models. Cognitive decline was more pronounced in individuals with DMS compared to those with no DMS (β = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.41–2.24, P < 0.001). However, the predictive power of DMS was only significant in individuals with normal cognition and not impaired subjects at baseline. Prolonged sleep duration increased the risk for cognitive decline in cognitively impaired elderly (β = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.15–3.57, P = 0.03). Other sleep characteristics (DIS and DS) were not significantly associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions: DMS and long sleep duration were associated with cognitive decline in normal and cognitively impaired elderly, respectively. The identification of impaired sleep quality may offer intervention strategies to deter cognitive decline in the elderly with normal cognitive function. Citation: Johar H, Kawan R, Emeny RT, Ladwig KH. Impaired sleep predicts cognitive decline in old people: findings from the prospective KORA age study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):217–226. PMID:26414903

  5. Aging and Predicting Inferences: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In the domain of discourse processing, it has been claimed that older adults (60-0-year-olds) are less likely to encode and remember some kinds of information from texts than young adults. The experiment described here shows that they do make a particular kind of inference to the same extent that college-age adults do. The inferences examined were…

  6. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joesph A., III; Hill, H. G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of a comet has always been considered to be a function of where it formed in the nebula. We suggest that the most important factor in determining a comet's chemistry might actually be when it formed. We present specific predictions of correlations between the dust and volatile components to test our hypothesis.

  7. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  8. Predicting human age using regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study is predicting human age using neuro-metrics derived from structural MRI, as well as investigating the relationships between age and predictive neuro-metrics. To this end, a cohort of healthy subjects were recruited from 1000 Functional Connectomes Project. The ages of the participations were ranging from 7 to 83 (36.17+/-20.46). The structural MRI for each subject was preprocessed using FreeSurfer, resulting in regional cortical thickness, mean curvature, regional volume and regional surface area for 148 anatomical parcellations. The individual age was predicted from the combination of regional and inter-regional neuro-metrics. The prediction accuracy is r = 0.835, p < 0.00001, evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient between predicted ages and actual ages. Moreover, the LASSO linear regression also found certain predictive features, most of which were inter-regional features. The turning-point of the developmental trajectories in human brain was around 40 years old based on regional cortical thickness. In conclusion, structural MRI could be potential biomarkers for the aging in human brain. The human age could be successfully predicted from the combination of regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity. The inter-regional measures could be beneficial to investigating human brain connectome.

  9. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups. Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212–1.869, P <0.001), old age, male sex, high body mass index, medical comorbidity, total gastrectomy, and combined resection to be independent predictors of postoperative complications. Among these, only low PNI (OR = 4.279, 95% CI = 1.760–10.404, P = 0.001) and medical comorbidity were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. For long-term outcomes, low PNI was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival, but not recurrence (overall survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.383, 95% CI = 1.221–1.568, P < 0.001; recurrence-free survival: HR = 1.142, 95% CI = 0.985–1.325, P = 0.078). PNI can be used to predict patients at increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although PNI was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, the index was not associated with cancer recurrence. PMID:27149460

  10. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory. PMID:27098421

  11. A Predictive Study of Advantages Associated with School-based School-Age Child Care: Implications for Program Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    Examined institutional advantages of school-age child care (SACC) programming in schools. A study of 63 SACC programs in 2 southeastern states revealed that community support, number of extracurricular activities, and frequency of academic activities significantly contributed to predicting advantages associated with SAC programming. (Contains 23…

  12. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age of... Public Notice of these Determinations be published in the Federal Register. For Further...

  13. 75 FR 57102 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Titian and the Golden Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Titian and the Golden Age of... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Titian and the Golden Age of... published in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including...

  14. 76 FR 51458 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wonder of the Age: Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wonder of the Age: Master Painters... Age: Master Painters of India, 1100-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a...

  15. Survival Prediction Score: A Simple but Age-Dependent Method Predicting Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Palliative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Haukland, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Validation of a Canadian three-tiered prognostic model (survival prediction score, SPS) in Norwegian cancer patients referred for palliative radiotherapy (PRT), and evaluation of age-dependent performance of the model. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all 579 PRT courses administered at a dedicated PRT facility between 20.06.07 and 31.12.2009. SPS was assigned as originally described, That is, by taking into consideration three variables: primary cancer type, site of metastases, and performance status. Results. Patients with poor prognosis (non-breast cancer, metastases other than bone, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≤ 60) had median survival of 13 weeks. Those with intermediate prognosis (two of these parameters) survived for a median of 29 weeks, and patients with good prognosis for a median of 114 weeks, P < 0.001. While this model performed well in patients who were 60 years or older, it was less satisfactory in younger patients (no significant difference between the good and intermediate prognosis groups). Conclusion. SPS should mainly be used to predict survival of elderly cancer patients. However, even in this group accuracy is limited because the good prognosis group contained patients with short survival, while the poor prognosis group contained long-term survivors. Thus, improved models should be developed. PMID:25006508

  16. Aging behavior and life prediction of graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Raasch, David

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data from two independent tests, designed to determine the long-term reliability of composite materials. The technique of accelerated aging at elevated temperatures is employed. In the first set, graphite fiber, epoxy composites in five ply layups are manufactured and tested in the standard short-beam shear mode. In the second set, Nomex honeycomb, graphite fiber/epoxy composite face and rear sheet sandwich coupons are tested. After satisfying simple consistency checks, data interpretation is attempted within the framework of an Arrhenius degradation model. The elevated temperature is assumed to influence the degradation according to this temperature-dependent rate law. From these tests on five-ply composites and honeycomb sandwiches, it is concluded that aging is not a serious problem.

  17. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement

  18. Significance of apparent discrepanices in water ages derived from atmospheric radionuclides at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Robinson, B.; Sharma, P.

    1995-02-23

    Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C produced in the atmosphere are being used to estimate water residence times in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results thus far show a systematic discordance in that {sup 14}C-based ages are generally one to two orders of magnitude younger than {sup 36}Cl-based ages. This lack of concordance probably arises from one or more of the following reasons: (1) different transport mechanisms, e.g., vapor transport for {sup 14}C; (2) different magnitudes and timing of bomb-pulse signals; (3) mixing of waters from different flow paths; and (4) possibly inadequate methods for correcting for the effect of sample contamination by carbon or chlorine from sources other than the infiltrating water. Preliminary numerical simulation results using the FEHMN code suggest that spatial variation in infiltration rates can enhance lateral flow and mixing that leads to discordance in apparent ages depending on the dating technique. Examples are presented to show that disparate radiometric ages are inevitable and to be expected where mixing of waters of markedly different ages occurs.

  19. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  20. Significance of locally intensified strain aging to the fracture toughness of welded steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    A review of past studies shows that tests on specimens notched after welding can give overestimates of the fracture toughness that occurs at the tips of flaws present during welding. This situation results from locally intensified straining and aging embrittlement (LISAE), which has been shown to trigger low stress brittle fractures in both notched and welded wide plate tension tests, and welded structures in service. Although the relative susceptibilities of steels to strain aging embrittlement are sometimes assessed by testing bulk strained and aged samples, the results of such tests may be optimistic. A summary is given of work to develop a fracture toughness test method for LISAE. The new test will give increased confidence and accuracy in fracture assessments, be of use in selecting tough materials, and aid the development of materials that are resistant to LISAE.

  1. Rapid kimberlite ascent and the significance of Ar-Ar ages in xenolith phlogopites

    PubMed

    Kelley; Wartho

    2000-07-28

    Kimberlite eruptions bring exotic rock fragments and minerals, including diamonds, from deep within the mantle up to the surface. Such fragments are rapidly absorbed into the kimberlite magma so their appearance at the surface implies rapid transport from depth. High spatial resolution Ar-Ar age data on phlogopite grains in xenoliths from Malaita in the Solomon Islands, southwest Pacific, and Elovy Island in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, indicate transport times of hours to days depending upon the magma temperature. In addition, the data show that the phlogopite grains preserve Ar-Ar ages recorded at high temperature in the mantle, 700 degrees C above the conventional closure temperature. PMID:10915621

  2. Important temperatures associated with flames, their prediction and significance. (1) The ``instantaneous, spontaneous, ignition temperature''

    SciTech Connect

    Kretschmer, D.; Odgers, J.

    1998-07-01

    Two methods of calculating the instantaneous, spontaneous ignition temperature are suggested. Method 1 is based upon the prediction of the weak limits of any gaseous mixture and then calculating the corresponding temperature. Method 2 is a new equation related directly to experimental values of Ti. To obtain these techniques 409 data points have been examined representing the following--hydrogen, carbon monoxide, a range of alkanes, several other hydrocarbon fuels, a number of CHO fuels and a number of commercial fuel gases. Dilution effects due to added nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, helium and argon have been included as well as changes of inlet temperatures from 298 to 600 K. These notes indicate that a satisfactory prediction of Ti offers the possibility of relating a number of flame parameters. These include the prediction of laminar flame temperature distribution and flame velocity, the prediction of spontaneous ignition delays, and the extension of knowledge of, as well as the prediction of, Well Stirred Reactor performance.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Premature Atrial Complexes Burden in Prediction of Long-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Yu; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chung, Fa-Po; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chong, Eric; Cheng, Hao-Min; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chiou, Chuen-Wang; Huang, Jin-Long; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of premature atrial complex (PAC) burden is not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the burden of PACs and long-term outcome. Methods and Results We investigated the clinical characteristics of 5371 consecutive patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) or a permanent pacemaker (PPM) at baseline who underwent 24-hour electrocardiography monitoring between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2004. Clinical event data were retrieved from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan. During a mean follow-up duration of 10±1 years, there were 1209 deaths, 1166 cardiovascular-related hospitalizations, 3104 hospitalizations for any reason, 418 cases of new-onset AF, and 132 PPM implantations. The optimal cut-off of PAC burden for predicting mortality was 76 beats per day, with a sensitivity of 63.1% and a specificity of 63.5%. In multivariate analysis, a PAC burden >76 beats per day was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.384, 95% CI: 1.230 to 1.558), cardiovascular hospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.284, 95% CI: 1.137 to 1.451), new-onset AF (hazard ratio: 1.757, 95% CI: 1.427 to 2.163), and PPM implantation (hazard ratio: 2.821, 95% CI: 1.898 to 4.192). Patients with frequent PAC had increased risk of mortality attributable to myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Frequent PACs increased risk of PPM implantation owing to sick sinus syndrome, high-degree atrioventricular block, and/or AF. Conclusions The burden of PACs is independently associated with mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization, new-onset AF, and PPM implantation in the long term. PMID:26316525

  4. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07–1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options. PMID:23826273

  5. Estimation of significant solvent concentration ranges and its application to the enhancement of the accuracy of gradient predictions.

    PubMed

    Vivó-Truyols, G; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2004-11-19

    The solvent concentration range actually useful for gradient predictions is significantly narrower than the total range scanned in a gradient run. This range, called "solvent informative range" (SIR), if known with the highest accuracy, allows to predict gradient retention times (t(g) with minimal error. The small size of the SIR supports the application of the linear solvent strength theory (LSST). Furthermore, LSST allows a closed-form solution to the integral required to predict gradient retention times, which eliminates numerical integration, needed with other retention models. A methodology that calculates the SIR by applying error analysis, and uses it to improve the accuracy in the prediction of t(g) from isocratic experiments, is proposed. The importance of those mobile-phase compositions that do not contribute significantly to the prediction of t(g) is selectively attenuated within the prediction algorithm, relying the predictions more heavily on the SIR. As a result, t(g) was found to be predicted with similar accuracy using isocratic training data with regard to predictions based on gradient training data. The approach is useful for all situations where the chromatographer is able to provide predictions of retention at constant solvent concentration, and wish to predict the retention in gradient mode. PMID:15584220

  6. Aging is a more significant determinant of hepatic DNA methylation patterns than a western style diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated how DNA methylation patterns change with aging and a Western style diet (WSD) in the liver. 2-month old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to control diet (CD) or WSD for either the following 6 (young) or 18 months (old). WSD is high in fat and low in fiber, vitamins and minerals. Met...

  7. Dopamine restores reward prediction errors in old age

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rumana; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Lambert, Christian; Dayan, Peter; Huys, Quentin; Düzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Senescence affects the ability to utilize information about the likelihood of rewards for optimal decision-making. In a human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show that healthy older adults have an abnormal signature of expected value resulting in an incomplete reward prediction error signal in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region receiving rich input projections from substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) dopaminergic neurons. Structural connectivity between SN/VTA and striatum measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was tightly coupled to inter-individual differences in the expression of this expected reward value signal. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-DOPA) increased the task-based learning rate and task performance in some older adults to a level shown by young adults. Critically this drug-effect was linked to restoration of a canonical neural reward prediction error. Thus we identify a neurochemical signature underlying abnormal reward processing in older adults and show this can be modulated by L-DOPA. PMID:23525044

  8. Age and tectonic significance of volcanic rocks in the northern Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Fleck, Robert J.; Denison, Rodger E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic rocks, mostly basalts and some andesites, are interbedded with middle Miocene strata and are overlain by younger rocks throughout the greater part of the Los Angeles Basin, California. Roughly correlative flows, previously dated radiometrically (or paleontologically) at about 16.4 to 10.7 Ma, crop out in five separate regions around the basin perimeter. Los Angeles Basin volcanic rocks have special meaning because they offer clues to tectonomagmatic events associated with onset of clockwise transrotation of the western Transverse Ranges region and to the timing and locus of the initial basin opening. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of near-tholeiitic olivine basalts of the Topanga Formation (Hoots, 1931) from three sites in the easternmost Santa Monica Mountains, combined with 87Sr/86Sr dating of fossil carbonates from interstratified marine beds at nine sites, establish a new age of 17.4 Ma for these oldest known Topanga-age volcanics of the Los Angeles Basin. We also record three new 40Ar/39Ar ages (15.3 Ma) from andesitic flows of the lower Glendora Volcanics at the northeast edge of the basin, 70 km east of the Santa Monica Mountains. A whole-rock determination of 17.2±0.5 Ma for nearby altered olivine basalt in the unfossiliferous Glendora volcanic sequence is questionable because of a complex 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum suggestive of 39Ar recoil, but it may indicate an older volcanic unit in this eastern area. We hypothesize that the 17.4-Ma volcanics in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains are an early expression of deep crustal magmatism accompanying the earliest extensional tectonism associated with rifting. The extremely thick younger volcanic pile in the western and central parts of the range may suggest that this early igneous activity in the eastern area was premonitory. Paleomagnetic declination data are needed to determine the pre-transrotational orientation of the eastern Santa Monica Mountains volcanic sequence. The new age determinations do not

  9. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8.6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with Δ (95% CI) = − 0.795 (− 1.436 to − 0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans. PMID:26629551

  10. Prediction of service lifetimes of elastomeric seals during radiation ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnay, S. G.; Hitchon, J. W.

    1985-04-01

    Measurements have been made on fluoropolymer seals of leakage rates, sealing force and compression set over a limited range of temperature and irradiation conditions to compare these techniques for their effectiveness in determining seal lifetimes. The results obtained indicate that the use of compression set tests in the routine assessment of seal performance is justified. Compression set measurements have been made on a polyurethane and a fluoropolymer over a range of temperature and radiation dose rates. The time-temperature superposition principle has been used to determine the thermal and dose rate shift factors aT, aR and activation energy Ea for both materials. Determination of the functional dependence of aT, aR and Ea on the dose rate enables realistic lifetime predictions to be made even when dose rate effects and temperature-radiation synergism are present.

  11. Range fires: A significant factor in exposure-age determination and geomorphic surface evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, P.; Gillespie, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Physical weathering of rock (spalling), removal of adhered rock varnish, and diffusive loss of noble gases are accelerated by heating in range fires, a dramatic and widespread geomorphic process that must be considered when samples are collected for determining surface exposure ages or for measuring in situ production rates of cosmogenic isotopes. Exposure ages and production rates will be minima if the effects of spalling and/or the effects of accelerated diffusive loss of gaseous isotopes such as He and Ne are not considered. To minimize the effect of fire-induced diffusive loss, samples for noble-gas analysis should be collected 5-10 cm below the rock surface or form outcrops that are unlikely to have been heated by fire. In addition, by determining the concentration of in situ produced cosmogenic isotopes of different half-lives, the magnitude of spalling loss (site-specific erosion rate) can be constrained for each sample.

  12. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  13. [Clarifying some concepts and clinical significance of refractory or recurrent neovascular age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingke; Sun, Xiaodong

    2015-11-01

    Anti-VEGF therapy is currently one of the main treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Clinically, patients under standardized anti-VEGF therapy showed different responses, of which recurrences or even insensitivity were found in some patients. However, the specific definitions of these various clinical responses are still unclarified. Therefore, to consolidate and define these concepts are of great importance regarding to future efficacy comparison, treatment response clarification and novel drug switching therapies. PMID:26850580

  14. Accuracy of prediction of canine litter size and gestational age with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Hopper, B J; Lester, N V; Richardson, J L; Robertson, I D

    2007-06-01

    Different sonographic criteria have been developed to estimate canine fetal age, including fetal mensuration and assessment of fetal organ development. This retrospective study assessed the accuracy of gestational age and litter size predictions in 76 bitches using one of two techniques. The first method used the differential features of fetal organ development that occur in early and mid pregnancy, based on published tables for beagles. The second method used biparietal head and trunk diameters to predict gestational age based on tables published for late gestational Labrador Retrievers. The accuracy of the two methods was compared and the effect of maternal body weight and litter size evaluated. Litter size and maternal body weight did not affect the accuracy of gestational age prediction. Using a combination of both methods, the overall accuracy of predicting parturition date within 65 +/- 1 day and +/- 2 days was 70.8% and 86.1%, respectively. The correct litter size was predicted in 65% of cases, and in 89.5% of cases for +/- 1 pup. Pearson's correlation between actual litter size and predicted litter size was high (R = 0.957, P < 0.001). The organ development method of predicting gestational age was more accurate than late gestational fetal mensuration (P = 0.019). The optimum time for sonographic estimation of fetal age and litter size is early and mid pregnancy. PMID:17547634

  15. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Improved exposure ages are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 exposure ages were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The exposure age distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.

  16. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  17. [Significance of subjective evaluation of life events as risk factors for predicting future suicide attempts].

    PubMed

    Chrostek Maj, J; Polewka, A; Kroch, S; Mikołaszek-Boba, M; Rachel, W; Datka, W

    2001-01-01

    Among the total population of 180 patients undergoing medical examination between March and December 2000, hospitalized for suicide attempts (drug intoxication) in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CM UJ in Kraków, 159 persons were examined by means of modified questionnaire of life events based on a scale elaborated by Thomas Holmes and Richard Rache. The patients were divided into 2 groups--first group comprised patients after first suicide attempt and second group consisted of those who had reattempted suicide. In regard to sex and age there were no significant differences between these two groups and the total population of 180 patients. In order to obtain the patients' subjective evaluation of the influence of their course of life on their attempting suicide, we asked the patients to select from the list of life events those that had affected their mental and physical state during of whole their life. Objectivization of life events was based on the 'units of life change' by T. Holmes and R. Rache. The sum of units of life events was 373 scores (SD +/- 200, in the range of 39-1042 units). From the total list of life events (max. score--1513) we selected the events estimated at 40 and more units of life change. Those were; marriage, divorce, separation, marital reconciliation, patient's illness, change of behavior and illness of a close relative, death of a husband/wife, child, close relative, imprisonment, pregnancy, unemployment, retirement. In the patients' subjective evaluation part, the events most frequently selected by the patients as those that had affected their mental state were: death of a close relative (56.6%), illness of a relative (40.8%), patient's illness (37.7%). A high number of patients stated events testifying to a conflict in marriage--45.7% of patients stated marital separation, and reconciliation, and 27% of patients stated unemployment as a fact that had influenced their mental state. 30.6% of these patients belonged to the first

  18. Predicting Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence and Self-Efficacy in Survivors by Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziner, Kim Wagler; Sledge, George W.; Bell, Cynthia J.; Johns, Shelley; Miller, Kathy D.; Champion, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine the effect that age at diagnosis has on fear of breast cancer recurrence and to identify the predictors of fear of recurrence using self-efficacy as a mediator. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Two university cancer centers and one cooperative group in the midwestern United States. Sample 1,128 long-term survivors. Methods Survivors were eligible if they were aged 18–45 years (younger group) or 55–70 years (older group) at cancer diagnosis, had received chemotherapy, and were three to eight years postdiagnosis. Fear of recurrence was compared between younger and older groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to test variables’ prediction of fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, as well as breast cancer survivor self-efficacy mediation effects. Main Research Variables Fear of recurrence, breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, and age at diagnosis. Findings Survivors diagnosed at a younger age had significantly higher fear of recurrence, as well as health, role, womanhood, death, and parenting worries. Perceived risk of recurrence, trait anxiety, and breast cancer reminders explained significant variance in fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy. Breast cancer survivor self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of variables on fear of recurrence. Conclusions The findings suggest that breast cancer survivor self-efficacy may have a protective effect for survivors who are younger at diagnosis and have higher perceived risk of recurrence, higher trait anxiety, and more breast cancer reminders. Oncology nurses already use the skills required to support self-efficacy. Additional research is needed to define and test breast cancer survivor self-efficacy interventions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses are in a key role to assess fear of recurrence and provide self-efficacy interventions to reduce it in breast cancer survivors. Strategies to efficiently address fear of

  19. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age-related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60-81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form "The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice." Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym ("white"; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, "nice," versus the incongruous associated condition, "yellow"). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that - at both a neurophysiological and a functional level - the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive performance. PMID

  20. Asteroid/comet impact clusters, flood basalts and mass extinctions: Significance of isotopic age overlaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    Morgan et al. [J. Phipps Morgan, T.J. Reston, C.R. Ranero. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217 (2004) 263-284.], referring to an overlap between the isotopic ages of volcanic events and four epoch/stage extinction boundaries, suggest a dominant role of Continental Flood Basalts (CFB) and of explosive CO 2-rich volcanic pipes ("Verneshots") as mass extinction triggers. Here I point out that Morgan et al. overlook 3 overlaps between the ages of extraterrestrial impacts, volcanic and mass extinction events, and 3 overlaps between the ages of extraterrestrial impact and volcanic events. These overlaps suggest that both extraterrestrial impacts and volcanism served as extinction triggers separately or in combination. A protracted impact cluster overlaps extinctions at the end-Devonian (˜374-359 Ma) and impact-extinction age overlaps occur in the end-Jurassic (˜145-142 Ma), Aptian (˜125-112 Ma); Cenomanian-Turonian (˜95-94 Ma); K-T boundary (˜65.5 Ma) and mid-Miocene (˜16 Ma) ( Table 1). Morgan et al. appear to question the uniqueness of shock metamorphic and geochemical criteria used to identify asteroid/comet impacts. However, shock pressures at 8-35 GPa, indicated by intra-crystalline planar deformation features (PDF), exceed lithospheric and volcanic explosion pressures by an order of magnitude and are not known to be associated with explosive volcanic diatremes, kimberlites or lamproites. These authors make reference to apparent iridium anomalies of volcanic origin. However, platinum group element (PGE) abundance levels, volatile/refractory PGE ratios, and Cr and Os isotopes of meteoritic materials are clearly distinct from those of terrestrial volcanics. Given a Phanerozoic time-integrated oceanic/continent crustal ratio > 2.5 and the difficulty in identifying oceanic impacts, I suggest the effects of large impacts on thin thermally active oceanic crust-capable of triggering regional to global mafic volcanic events and ensuing environmental effects-provide an

  1. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  2. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be stars are continuously replenished by infalling comets. The IR spectra of these cometary grains appear to evolve temporally from initially amorphous astronomical silicates in young protostars to crystalline olivine in much older sources. Crystalline olivine can only be produced from amorphous silicates on a time scale of months-to-years via thermal annealing at temperatures near 1000 K. Since such sustained high temperatures only occur near the central star, dust annealed at 1000 K in inner nebular regions must be continuously transported beyond the nebular snowline to be incorporated into the next generation of cometesimals. The average formation age of a comet can therefore be measured as a ratio of the annealed crystalline olivine dust component to the total dust content of the comet. Comets formed from nearly pristine interstellar materials early in the protostellar nebula stage will contain very little crystalline dust whereas comets formed towards the end of the accretion period will incorporate a much higher percentage of annealed silicate. It is unlikely that only dust grains circulate from the inner to the outer nebula; the gas associated with such dust should also find its way beyond the snowline. Since this gas and dust will have equilibrated in the higher pressure-temperature regime of the inner nebula, it will contain a much higher proportion of hydrocarbons and ammonia than more pristine interstellar ices. Therefore, in addition to a higher fraction of crystalline dust, later forming comets should also contain higher ratios of hydrocarbons to CO and ammonia to N2 than do those formed early in the history of the nebula.

  3. Age and significance of former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballantyne, C.K.; Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geomorphological mapping provides evidence for two former low-level corrie glaciers on Hoy, both defined by end moraines. Five 10Be exposure ages obtained from sandstone boulders on moraine crests fall within the range 12.4??1.5 ka to 10.4??1.7 ka (weighted mean 11.7??0.6 ka), confirming that these glaciers developed during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stade (LLS) of 12.9-11.5 cal. ka BP, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach to establish the age of LLS glacier limits. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of one of the glaciers (99 m) is the lowest recorded for any LLS glacier, and the area-weighted mean ELA for both (141 m) is consistent with a general northward ELA decrease along the west coast of Britain. The size of moraines fronting these small (???0.75 km2) glaciers implies that glacier termini remained at or close to their limits for a prolonged period. The apparent restriction of LLS glaciers to only two sites on Hoy probably reflects topographic favourability, and particularly the extent of snow-contributing areas.

  4. Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Tobin, Sean; Dickson, William A; Potokar, Tom S

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During the 3-year period there were 104 new burns cases identified which represents 11.8% of all paediatric admissions. 63.5% (66) were treated as inpatients and 36.5% (38) treated as out-patients. Burns increased in frequency with increasing age and occurred mainly in the home. Scalds were the commonest type of burn in 65% (68) whilst the second most common was contact burns which accounted for 30% (31). The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drinks (39%) and the most common source of contact burn was radiators/hot water pipes (30%). The mean TBSA was 2.3%, (range 0.5-38%). The frequency of burns in the under 1 year old population highlights a need for emphasis of burn prevention directed to this group. Special attention is needed to look at the specific aetiology of these burns. Starting points for prevention should address the number of burns surrounding hot drinks and bottle warming practices in the case of scalds and the dangers of household radiators and hot water pipes in the case of contact burns. PMID:18378092

  5. Significant roles of anti-aging protein klotho and fibroblast growth factor23 in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hou-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The klotho gene has been identified as an aging suppressor that encodes a protein involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inactivation of the klotho gene causes serious systemic disorders resembling human aging, such as atherosclerosis, diffuse vascular calcification and shortened life span. Klotho has been demonstrated to ameliorate vascular endothelial dysfunction and delay vascular calcification. Furthermore, klotho gene polymorphisms in the human are associated with various cardiovascular events. Recent experiments show that klotho may reduce transient receptor potential canonical6 (TRPC6) channels, resulting in protecting the heart from hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction. Fibroblast growth factor23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. FGF23 accelerates urinary phosphate excretion and suppresses 1,25-dihydroxy vitaminD3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis in the presence of FGF receptor1 (FGFR1) and its co-receptor klotho, principally in the kidney. The hormonal affects of circulating klotho protein and FGF23 on vascular and heart have contributed to an understanding of their roles in the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy. Klotho and FGF23 appear to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic strategy for clinical intervention. PMID:26347327

  6. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  7. Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary dyke swarm of North Greenland it's age, origins and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    North Greenland is characterized by N-S, NW-SE and E-W trending swarms of mafic dykes which pre- and post date Kap Washington suite of bimodal lavas, ash flows and tuffs. Both rock groups are over-thrust by north vergent thrust sheets of Early Palaeozoic age rocks which record low grade Ellesmerian (Carboniferous) metamorphism and deformation. Laser ablation Ar/Ar ages of 58Ma and 62Ma obtained from thrust fault generated mylonites suggest that magmatism must have effectively ceased by then as no undeformed dykes have been found to cross the thrust planes. High resolution PMAP aeromagnetic surveys for 1989 and 1997-98 show that linear magnetic anomalies parallel to the dense N-S trending dyke swarm of Nansen Land can be traced out onto the Lincoln Sea platform suggesting the dykes are part of the predominantly offshore failed rift magmatic domain which lies central to the southern ends of Alpha ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, the Markarov Basin, the Amundsen Basin and the Morris-Jessup Plateau. In addition the dykes to the SW of the Mascart Inlet appear to extend undisturbed by faulting 150km onto the Lincoln Sea platform north of Ellesmere Island. The curved ca EW deep negative anomaly which truncates the dyke swarm offshore to the north of the Kap Canon Fault zone together with a similar anomaly along the Harder fjord Fault Zone and its western continuation to the Kap Ramsey Fault appear to constitute the limits of Eurekan thrust belt of North Greenland. Stress tensor analyses of all Eurekan fault plane populations show a consistent N-S to NNW-SSE pure compression pattern orthogonal to the main thrust faults and near parallel to the main dyke trend. Rb/Sr, and Ar/Ar ages obtained from biotite separates, with U/Th ages from apatite-feldspar pairs suggest the dykes range in age from ca 103Ma to 69Ma. The peralkaline affinity of the dyke swarm is similar to that of many other rift generated basalts. Nd, Sr and a small number of Pb isotope ratios have been determined for

  8. Significance of a Behavioral Economic Index of Reward Value in Predicting Drinking Problem Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Vuchinich, Rudy E.; Black, Bethany C.; Rippens, Paula D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons improved prediction of drinking outcomes beyond established biopsychosocial predictors. Preferences for immediate drinking versus more delayed rewards made possible by saving money were determined from expenditures prior to…

  9. On the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs.

    PubMed

    Rigali, Sébastien; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. PMID:25387521

  10. YIELD STRENGTH PREDICTION FOR RAPID AGE-HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    A constitutive model has been developed to predict the yield strength aging curves for aluminum casting alloys during non-isothermal age-hardening processes. The model provides the specific relationship between the process variables and yield strength. Several aging heat treatment scenarios have been investigated using the proposed model, including two-step aging recipes. Two-step aging heat treatments involve a low temperature regime to promote nucleation of secondary phases and a second step at higher temperature for the growth of the secondary phases. The predicted results show that yield strength of approximately 300MPa might be obtained in shorter aging time, of approximately 30 minutes. Thus, better mechanical properties can be obtained by optimizing the time-temperature schedules for the precipitation hardening process of heat treatable aluminum alloys.

  11. A Brief Screening Battery for Predicting School Achievement at Ages Seven and Nine Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Beery-Butkenica Developmental Test and the Caldwell Test were the best predictors. Combining the academic performance with visual-motor integration results at age seven years yielded 89 percent accuracy of prediction at age nine years. The false-positive rate represents the problem of mislabeling children as school failures. (Author)

  12. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  13. Trajectories of Aggression from Toddlerhood to Age 9 Predict Academic and Social Functioning through Age 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Burchinal, Margaret; Poe, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined behavior problems and social and academic outcomes from ages 9 through 12 in children classified into five trajectories of physical aggression, on the basis of maternal ratings obtained from 24 months through 9 years (N = 1195). Methods:…

  14. Neuromusculoskeletal Model Calibration Significantly Affects Predicted Knee Contact Forces for Walking.

    PubMed

    Serrancolí, Gil; Kinney, Allison L; Fregly, Benjamin J; Font-Llagunes, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    Though walking impairments are prevalent in society, clinical treatments are often ineffective at restoring lost function. For this reason, researchers have begun to explore the use of patient-specific computational walking models to develop more effective treatments. However, the accuracy with which models can predict internal body forces in muscles and across joints depends on how well relevant model parameter values can be calibrated for the patient. This study investigated how knowledge of internal knee contact forces affects calibration of neuromusculoskeletal model parameter values and subsequent prediction of internal knee contact and leg muscle forces during walking. Model calibration was performed using a novel two-level optimization procedure applied to six normal walking trials from the Fourth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads. The outer-level optimization adjusted time-invariant model parameter values to minimize passive muscle forces, reserve actuator moments, and model parameter value changes with (Approach A) and without (Approach B) tracking of experimental knee contact forces. Using the current guess for model parameter values but no knee contact force information, the inner-level optimization predicted time-varying muscle activations that were close to experimental muscle synergy patterns and consistent with the experimental inverse dynamic loads (both approaches). For all the six gait trials, Approach A predicted knee contact forces with high accuracy for both compartments (average correlation coefficient r = 0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) = 52.6 N medial; average r = 0.95 and RMSE = 56.6 N lateral). In contrast, Approach B overpredicted contact force magnitude for both compartments (average RMSE = 323 N medial and 348 N lateral) and poorly matched contact force shape for the lateral compartment (average r = 0.90 medial and -0.10 lateral). Approach B had statistically higher lateral

  15. Barriers to Employment among Unemployed Drug Users: Age Predicts Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Ring, Brandon M.; O’Reilly, Kristen; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug users in treatment or exiting treatment face many barriers to employment when entering the job market, such as low levels of education and technical skills, and low levels of interpersonal skills. As a result of these and other barriers, employment rates in these groups are generally low. Objective This article examines the existence and possible predictors of specific barriers to employment related to interpersonal and technical skills in a sample of participants enrolled in a therapeutic workplace intervention for substance abuse. Methods In Study I (N = 77), we characterized and examined predictors of participant scores on a staff-rated scale of interpersonal skills (Work Behavior Inventory). In Study II (N = 29), we examined whether participants had lower levels of computer knowledge than job seekers in the general population, and investigated possible predictors of computer knowledge in the sample. Results In general, participants in Study I displayed low levels of interpersonal skills, and participants in Study II scored lower on the computer knowledge test than job seekers in the general population. Older participants tended to have lower levels of interpersonal skills and lower levels of computer knowledge. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These results suggest that providers of workforce development services for drug users in treatment or exiting treatment should attend to these specific barriers to employment, which may also be more pronounced among older clients. PMID:22242680

  16. Age, palaeoenvironments, and climatic significance of late Pleistocene Konya lake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Neil

    1983-03-01

    The Konya Basin, a closed depression at the southern margin of the Anatolian Plateau, contained a shallow but extensive lake during the late Quaternary. Nearshore sands and gravels containing Dreissena shells form prominent depositional terraces around the basin edges at elevations between 1005 and 1020 m, and the highest has been dated at more than 30,000 yr B.P. The last major phase of limnic sedimentation occurred between 23,000 and 17,000 yr B.P., after which the lake fragmented into a number of subbasins or secondary depressions which evolved to become either marshes or playas. A final expansion of these residual lakes has been dated to ca. 11,000 yr B.P. in one secondary depression. Archaeological and other evidence indicate that only minor lake-level fluctuations occurred during the Holocene. The dominant sedimentary process over the last 10,000 years has been alluviation at the basin margin. The Konya sequence confirms that the most recent period of high-lake levels in the northern Near East was of the last glacial age. The palaeolakes of Anatolia and Iran were, however, more a product of reduced evaporation brought about by temperature depression than of changes in precipitation, and thus belie their often-used description as an indicator of "pluvial" climatic conditions.

  17. Ages and petrogenetic significance of igneous mangerite-charnockite suites associated with massif anorthosites, Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.; Hunt, P.A. )

    1990-03-01

    U-Pb ages of zircon fractions of major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) igneous suites imply that this magmatism inaugurated what is widely regarded as the Grenvillian event between about 1.16 and 1.12 Ga ago over about two-thirds of the Grenville Province east, northeast, and southeast of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Pre-Grenvillian AMCG suites about 1.36 and 1.64 Ga old have much more restricted distribution. An apparent time lag of about 0.05 to 0.10 Ga is indicated between culmination of AMCG magmatism and the widely recognized Grenvillian metamorphic peak (about 1.10 to 1.03 Ga), perhaps the most distinctive hallmark of the Grenville event. The time lag is consistent with conductive heating of thick subcontinental lithosphere that began with initiation of AMCG magmatism and continued until geotherms rose sufficiently to produce granulites in much of the lower to middle crust. Tectonic crustal thickening did not likely occur until later in the sequence of events, perhaps after some cooling from the metamorphic peak. Compressive forces were externally applied, possibly at a distant plate margin, while the continental lithosphere was still thermally weakened from preceding magmatic-metamorphic culminations.

  18. Extended Aging Theories for Predictions of Safe Operational Life of Critical Airborne Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Chen, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The previously developed Ko closed-form aging theory has been reformulated into a more compact mathematical form for easier application. A new equivalent loading theory and empirical loading theories have also been developed and incorporated into the revised Ko aging theory for the prediction of a safe operational life of airborne failure-critical structural components. The new set of aging and loading theories were applied to predict the safe number of flights for the B-52B aircraft to carry a launch vehicle, the structural life of critical components consumed by load excursion to proof load value, and the ground-sitting life of B-52B pylon failure-critical structural components. A special life prediction method was developed for the preflight predictions of operational life of failure-critical structural components of the B-52H pylon system, for which no flight data are available.

  19. Severe hypoxaemia can predict unfavourable clinical outcomes in individuals with pulmonary embolism aged over 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Caio Simoes; Resende, Fernanda Simoes Seabra; Rodrigues, Marcelo Palmeira

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is an urgent clinical condition that can progress in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, we sought to develop an easy-to-apply algorithm, to be based on readily available clinical indicators, effective in predicting unfavourable outcomes. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study based on systematically collected data in a database. The study included 102 patients with APE who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital. The following outcomes were defined as unfavourable shock, the need for mechanical ventilation, the use of thrombolytics, and death. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore variables significantly associated with outcome and to calculate post-test probabilities. RESULTS The prevalence of unfavourable outcomes was 25.5% (26 of the 102 patients with APE). The risk of an unfavourable outcome was reduced to 7.0% for patients with APE who were aged ≤ 40 years. In patients with APE who were aged > 40 years, the presence of hypoxaemia (i.e. peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%) alone increased the risk of an unfavourable outcome to 57.0%. A recent history of trauma and the presence of pre-existing lung or heart disease were significantly associated with unfavourable outcomes. The inclusion of those variables in the logistic regression model increased the post-test risk of an unfavourable outcome to 65.0%–86.0%. CONCLUSION Advanced age (i.e. > 40 years), the presence of hypoxaemia, a recent history of trauma and the presence of pre-existing lung or heart disease are risk factors for unfavourable outcome in patients with APE. PMID:25273933

  20. High neuroticism at age 20 predicts history of mental disorders and low self-esteem at age 35.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Seppo; Henriksson, Markus

    2009-07-01

    The authors assessed whether neuroticism in emerging adulthood predicts mental disorders and self-esteem in early adulthood after controlling for possible confounding variables. A sample of 69 male military conscripts was initially assessed at age 20 and again as civilians at age 35. The initial assessment included a psychiatric interview, objective indicators of conscript competence, an intellectual performance test, and neuroticism questionnaires. The follow-up assessment included a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1996) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Neuroticism predicted future mental disorders and low self-esteem beyond more objective indicators of adjustment. The results support the use of neuroticism as a predictor of future mental disorders, even over periods of time when personality is subject to change. PMID:19267331

  1. Establishing Children's Wishes and Feelings for Family Court Reports: The Significance Attached to the Age of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantle, Greg; Leslie, Jane; Parsons, Sarah; Plenty, Jackie; Shaffer, Ray

    2006-01-01

    Current UK government policy is to promote mediation as a way of avoiding family court proceedings and there is a risk, therefore, that welfare report-writing practice may receive less critical attention than it merits. A largely unstudied aspect of this practice is the significance given by practitioners to the child's age. More widely, across a…

  2. 69 FR 8512 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Coming of Age in Ancient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-24

    ....), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999 (64 FR 56014), Delegation of Authority No. 236 of October 19, 1999 (64 FR 57920), as amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 (68 FR... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Coming of Age in Ancient...

  3. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  4. Using the IAT to predict ethnic and racial discrimination: small effect sizes of unknown societal significance.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT studies, and we correct an error by Greenwald et al. that obscures a key contribution of our meta-analysis. In the end, all of the meta-analyses converge on the conclusion that, across diverse methods of coding and analyzing the data, IAT scores are not good predictors of ethnic or racial discrimination, and explain, at most, small fractions of the variance in discriminatory behavior in controlled laboratory settings. The thought experiments presented by Greenwald et al. go well beyond the lab to claim systematic IAT effects in noisy real-world settings, but these hypothetical exercises depend crucially on untested and, arguably, untenable assumptions. PMID:25844574

  5. Use of data mining to predict significant factors and benefits of bilateral cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Miguel, Angel; Perez-Zaballos, Teresa; Perez, Daniel; Falconb, Juan Carlos; Ramosb, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Data mining (DM) is a technique used to discover pattern and knowledge from a big amount of data. It uses artificial intelligence, automatic learning, statistics, databases, etc. In this study, DM was successfully used as a predictive tool to assess disyllabic speech test performance in bilateral implanted patients with a success rate above 90%. 60 bilateral sequentially implanted adult patients were included in the study. The DM algorithms developed found correlations between unilateral medical records and Audiological test results and bilateral performance by establishing relevant variables based on two DM techniques: the classifier and the estimation. The nearest neighbor algorithm was implemented in the first case, and the linear regression in the second. The results showed that patients with unilateral disyllabic test results below 70% benefited the most from a bilateral implantation. Finally, it was observed that its benefits decrease as the inter-implant time increases. PMID:25323153

  6. Comorbidities, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Age Predict Outcomes after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Graf, Solomon A; Vaughn, Jennifer E; Chauncey, Thomas R; Storer, Barry E; Gopal, Ajay K; Holmberg, Leona A; McCune, Jeannine S; Bensinger, William I; Maloney, David G; Press, Oliver W; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2016-09-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment option for many patients diagnosed with lymphoma. The effects of patient-specific factors on outcomes after autologous HCT are not well characterized. Here, we studied a sequential cohort of 754 patients with lymphoma treated with autologous HCT between 2000 and 2010. In multivariate analysis, patient-specific factors that were statistically significantly associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) included HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) scores  ≥ 3 (HR, 1.94; P = .05), a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) (HR, 2.17; P = .004), and older age stratified by decade (HR, 1.29; P = .02). HCT-CI ≥ 3, a history of AUD, and age > 50 were combined into a composite risk model: NRM and overall mortality rates at 5 years increased from 6% to 30% and 32% to 58%, respectively, in patients with 0 versus all 3 risk factors. The HCT-CI is a valid tool in predicting mortality risks after autologous HCT for lymphoma. AUD and older age exert independent prognostic impact on outcomes. Whether AUD indicates additional organ dysfunction or sociobehavioral abnormality warrants further investigation. The composite model may improve risk stratification before autologous HCT. PMID:27311969

  7. Mucosal Immune Responses Predict Clinical Outcomes during Influenza Infection Independently of Age and Viral Load

    PubMed Central

    Oshansky, Christine M.; Gartland, Andrew J.; Wong, Sook-San; Jeevan, Trushar; Wang, David; Roddam, Philippa L.; Caniza, Miguela A.; Hertz, Tomer; DeVincenzo, John P.; Webby, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Children are an at-risk population for developing complications following influenza infection, but immunologic correlates of disease severity are not understood. We hypothesized that innate cellular immune responses at the site of infection would correlate with disease outcome. Objectives: To test the immunologic basis of severe illness during natural influenza virus infection of children and adults at the site of infection. Methods: An observational cohort study with longitudinal sampling of peripheral and mucosal sites in 84 naturally influenza-infected individuals, including infants. Cellular responses, viral loads, and cytokines were quantified from nasal lavages and blood, and correlated to clinical severity. Measurements and Main Results: We show for the first time that although viral loads in children and adults were similar, innate responses in the airways were stronger in children and varied considerably between plasma and site of infection. Adjusting for age and viral load, an innate immune profile characterized by increased nasal lavage monocyte chemotactic protein-3, IFN-α2, and plasma IL-10 levels at enrollment predicted progression to severe disease. Increased plasma IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, and IL-6 levels predicted hospitalization. This inflammatory cytokine production correlated significantly with monocyte localization from the blood to the site of infection, with conventional monocytes positively correlating with inflammation. Increased frequencies of CD14lo monocytes were in the airways of participants with lower inflammatory cytokine levels. Conclusions: An innate profile was identified that correlated with disease progression independent of viral dynamics and age. The airways and blood displayed dramatically different immune profiles emphasizing the importance of cellular migration and localized immune phenotypes. PMID:24308446

  8. The timing and precision of action prediction in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Diersch, Nadine; Jones, Alex L; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Successful social interactions depend on the ability to anticipate other people's actions. Current conceptualizations of brain function propose that causes of sensory input are inferred through their integration with internal predictions generated in the observer's motor system during action observation. Less is known concerning how action prediction changes with age. Previously we showed that internal action representations are less specific in older compared with younger adults at behavioral and neural levels. Here, we characterize how neural activity varies while healthy older adults aged 56-71 years predict the time-course of an unfolding action as well as the relation to task performance. By using fMRI, brain activity was measured while participants observed partly occluded actions and judged the temporal coherence of the action continuation that was manipulated. We found that neural activity in frontoparietal and occipitotemporal regions increased the more an action continuation was shifted backwards in time. Action continuations that were shifted towards the future preferentially engaged early visual cortices. Increasing age was associated with neural activity that extended from posterior to anterior regions in frontal and superior temporal cortices. Lower sensitivity in action prediction resulted in activity increases in the caudate. These results imply that the neural implementation of predicting actions undergoes similar changes as the neural process of executing actions in older adults. The comparison between internal predictions and sensory input seems to become less precise with age leading to difficulties in anticipating observed actions accurately, possibly due to less specific internal action models. PMID:26503586

  9. Do motor skills in infancy and early childhood predict anxious and depressive symptomatology at school age?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Barrett, Nicholas C; Smith, Leigh M; Rigoli, Daniela; Gasson, Natalie

    2010-10-01

    Research has identified a relationship between social-emotional problems and motor impairment in both pre-school and school-age children. The aim of the current study was to determine how motor performance in infancy and early childhood is related to levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology at age 6-12 years. Fifty participants were assessed by their parents 11 times between the ages of 4 months and 4 years using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and once between the age of 6 and 12 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The ASQ scores were used to obtain the stability (variance) of fine and gross motor performance. Once gestational age, sex and age of testing were taken into account, the stability of gross motor scores predicted both the anxiety/depression measure and the anxious score from the CBCL. It appears that how variable a young child's gross motor development is from 4 months to 4 years predicts the level of anxious/depressive symptoms at school age. These findings may assist in the early identification of children at risk of anxiety disorders and depression at school age. PMID:20650535

  10. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  11. Protein profiling reveals consequences of lifestyle choices on predicted biological aging.

    PubMed

    Enroth, Stefan; Enroth, Sofia Bosdotter; Johansson, Åsa; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating proteins accurately predicts chronological age, as well as anthropometrical measurements such as weight, height and hip circumference. The plasma protein profile can also be used to identify lifestyle factors that accelerate and decelerate ageing. We found smoking, high BMI and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to increase the predicted chronological age by 2-6 years, while consumption of fatty fish, drinking moderate amounts of coffee and exercising reduced the predicted age by approximately the same amount. This method can be applied to dried blood spots and may thus be useful in forensic medicine to provide basic anthropometrical measures for an individual based on a biological evidence sample. PMID:26619799

  12. Protein profiling reveals consequences of lifestyle choices on predicted biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Enroth, Stefan; Enroth, Sofia Bosdotter; Johansson, Åsa; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating proteins accurately predicts chronological age, as well as anthropometrical measurements such as weight, height and hip circumference. The plasma protein profile can also be used to identify lifestyle factors that accelerate and decelerate ageing. We found smoking, high BMI and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to increase the predicted chronological age by 2–6 years, while consumption of fatty fish, drinking moderate amounts of coffee and exercising reduced the predicted age by approximately the same amount. This method can be applied to dried blood spots and may thus be useful in forensic medicine to provide basic anthropometrical measures for an individual based on a biological evidence sample. PMID:26619799

  13. A novel strategy for forensic age prediction by DNA methylation and support vector regression model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Qu, Hongzhu; Wang, Guangyu; Xie, Bingbing; Shi, Yi; Yang, Yaran; Zhao, Zhao; Hu, Lan; Fang, Xiangdong; Yan, Jiangwei; Feng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    High deviations resulting from prediction model, gender and population difference have limited age estimation application of DNA methylation markers. Here we identified 2,957 novel age-associated DNA methylation sites (P < 0.01 and R2 > 0.5) in blood of eight pairs of Chinese Han female monozygotic twins. Among them, nine novel sites (false discovery rate < 0.01), along with three other reported sites, were further validated in 49 unrelated female volunteers with ages of 20–80 years by Sequenom Massarray. A total of 95 CpGs were covered in the PCR products and 11 of them were built the age prediction models. After comparing four different models including, multivariate linear regression, multivariate nonlinear regression, back propagation neural network and support vector regression, SVR was identified as the most robust model with the least mean absolute deviation from real chronological age (2.8 years) and an average accuracy of 4.7 years predicted by only six loci from the 11 loci, as well as an less cross-validated error compared with linear regression model. Our novel strategy provides an accurate measurement that is highly useful in estimating the individual age in forensic practice as well as in tracking the aging process in other related applications. PMID:26635134

  14. Prognostic and Predictive Significance of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Benjamin Y.; Vaid, Mudit; Kaler, Pawan; Klampfer, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer development and malignant progression are driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells and by factors from the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells become reliant on the activity of specific oncogenes and on prosurvival and proliferative signals they receive from the abnormal environment they create and reside in. Accordingly, the response to anticancer therapy is determined by genetic and epigenetic changes that are intrinsic to tumor cells and by the factors present in the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances in the understanding of the involvement of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression and therapeutic response are optimizing the application of prognostic and predictive factors in colon cancer. Moreover, new targets in the tumor microenvironment that are amenable to therapeutic intervention have been identified. Because stromal cells are with rare exceptions genetically stable, the tumor microenvironment has emerged as a preferred target for therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss the role of stromal fibroblasts and macrophages in colon cancer progression and in the response of colon cancer patients to therapy. PMID:26568685

  15. Morphometric studies of age related changes in normal human breast and their significance for evolution of mammary cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, S W; Cowen, P N; Bird, C C

    1985-01-01

    Ageing changes in the normal human female breast were studied to determine their significance for the evolution of mammary cancer. Employing the morphometric techniques of point counting and planimetry, objective quantitative measurements were made of the structure of the normal female breast in 58 subjects from the prepubertal to late postreproductive period. The relative amounts of epithelial and connective tissue varied with age, and the epithelial elements (combined lobular and extralobular) were unevenly distributed within the gland, with lower containing more than upper quadrants. The upper outer quadrant, however, usually contained the largest proportion of lobular units, which may relate to the higher incidence of lobular carcinoma found in this quadrant. Involution was shown to be a premenopausal rather than postmenopausal phenomenon. Mammary dysplastic changes were uncommon in all age groups. Images PMID:3973052

  16. Age and biostratigraphic significance of the Punung Rainforest Fauna, East Java, Indonesia, and implications for Pongo and Homo.

    PubMed

    Westaway, K E; Morwood, M J; Roberts, R G; Rokus, A D; Zhao, J-x; Storm, P; Aziz, F; van den Bergh, G; Hadi, P; Jatmiko; de Vos, J

    2007-12-01

    The Punung Fauna is a key component in the biostratigraphic sequence of Java. It represents the most significant faunal turnover on the island in the last 1.5 million years, when Stegodon and other archaic mammal species characteristic of earlier Faunal stages were replaced by a fully modern fauna that included rainforest-dependent species such as Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan). Here, we report the first numerical ages for the Punung Fauna obtained by luminescence and uranium-series dating of the fossil-bearing deposits and associated flowstones. The Punung Fauna contained in the dated breccia is of early Last Interglacial age (between 128+/-15 and 118+/-3 ka). This result has implications for the age of the preceding Ngandong Fauna, including Homo erectus remains found in the Ngandong Terrace, and for the timing of Homo sapiens arrival in Southeast Asia, in view of claims for a modern human tooth associated with the Punung breccia. PMID:17706269

  17. PREDICTING SIGNIFICANCE OF UNKNOWN VARIANTS IN GLIAL TUMORS THROUGH SUB-CLASS ENRICHMENT.

    PubMed

    Fichtenholtz, Alex M; Camarda, Nicholas D; Neumann, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Glial tumors have been heavily studied and sequenced, leading to scores of findings about altered genes. This explosion in knowledge has not been matched with clinical success, but efforts to understand the synergies between drivers of glial tumors may alleviate the situation. We present a novel molecular classification system that captures the combinatorial nature of relationships between alterations in these diseases. We use this classification to mine for enrichment of variants of unknown significance, and demonstrate a method for segregating unknown variants with functional importance from passengers and SNPs. PMID:26776195

  18. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  19. Applicability of an empirical law to predict significant sea-wave heights from microseisms along the Western Ligurian Coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Scafidi, Davide; Cutroneo, Laura; Gallino, Stefano; Capello, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The use of microseisms with appropriate predictive laws is a reliable method for estimating such sea-wave parameters as period and significant height. Through the use of opportune predictive laws calibrated with measurements obtained from wave buoys, it is possible to determine the significant height of the wave as a function of the spectral energy-content of the microseism. In this paper we will present a procedure that utilises microseisms recorded by a micro network of five seismic stations to predict the significant height of waves, and its uncertainty, along the western Ligurian coast (Italy). The calibration and validation of the procedure was performed using wave measurements obtained from a wave buoy off Capo Mele (Imperia, Italy) over a two and a half year period. The differences between the significant heights measured by the wave buoy and the empirical predictions were less than 10 cm (corresponding to 10% of the mean measured value) for 47% of the data and less than 20 cm (corresponding to 20% of the mean measured value) for 72%.

  20. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  1. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M.; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B.; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form “The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice.” Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (“white”; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, “nice,” versus the incongruous associated condition, “yellow”). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to

  2. Prevalence, significance and predictive value of antiphospholipid antibodies in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sipeki, Nora; Davida, Laszlo; Palyu, Eszter; Altorjay, Istvan; Harsfalvi, Jolan; Antal Szalmas, Peter; Szabo, Zoltan; Veres, Gabor; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence and stability of different antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) and their association with disease phenotype and progression in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. METHODS: About 458 consecutive patients [Crohn’s disease (CD): 271 and ulcerative colitis (UC): 187] were enrolled into a follow-up cohort study in a tertiary IBD referral center in Hungary. Detailed clinical phenotypes were determined at enrollment by reviewing the patients’ medical charts. Disease activity, medical treatment and data about evolvement of complications or surgical interventions were determined prospectively during the follow-up. Disease course (development f complicated disease phenotype and need for surgery), occurrence of thrombotic events, actual state of disease activity according to clinical, laboratory and endoscopic scores and accurate treatment regime were recorded during the follow-up, (median, 57.4 and 61.6 mo for CD and UC). Sera of IBD patients and 103 healthy controls (HC) were tested on individual anti-β2-Glycoprotein-I (anti-β2-GPI IgA/M/G), anti-cardiolipin (ACA IgA/M/G) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT IgA/M/G) antibodies and also anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA IgA/G) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a subgroup of CD (n = 198) and UC patients (n = 103), obtaining consecutive samples over various arbitrary time-points during the disease course, we evaluated the intraindividual stability of the APLA status. Additionally, we provide an overview of studies, performed so far, in which significance of APLAs in IBD were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with CD had significantly higher prevalence of both ACA (23.4%) and anti-PS/PT (20.4%) antibodies than UC (4.8%, P < 0.0001 and 10.2%, P = 0.004) and HC (2.9%, P < 0.0001 and 15.5%, P = NS). No difference was found for the prevalence of anti-β2-GPI between different groups (7.2%-9.7%). In CD, no association was found between APLA and ASCA

  3. Can urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostrane and malonaldehyde predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aging?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qinghao; Wang, Jiawan; Wu, Anshi; Zhang, Rujin; Li, Lei; Yue, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about oxidative stress in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aging. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostane:creatinine (U8-isoPG:Cr) and malonaldehyde:creatinine (UMDA:Cr) to predict short-term POCD in elderly patients undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. 72 patients aged above 65 years were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Each patient underwent cognitive testing to determine POCD performed by an investigator before surgery and 1 week after surgery. Morning urine was collected at baseline, 1, 2, and 7 days postoperatively. U8-isoPG was performed using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and UMDA levels were measured by chemiluminescence detection. Creatinine levels were also analyzed if differences in the oxidative biomarkers were observed in the urine creatinine concentration. (1). Of 72 patients who completed cognitive testing, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was detected in 29.2 % (n = 21) of patients in 7 days. (2) U8-isoPG:Cr levels in 7 days postoperatively were significantly higher in POCD patients compared with the non-POCD group (p = 0.01). When measuring change from baseline, U8-isoPG:Cr levels were higher than that of control groups (p = 0.01). (3) UMDA:Cr levels were significantly elevated in 1 and 2 days postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.05). U8-isoPG:Cr level seems to be a valuable marker to detect lipid peroxidation early in POCD patients. However, it will also be important to take into account or reduce potential confounders to improve the identification of changes in the status of oxidative stress as a marker for POCD. PMID:23380806

  4. Serum NX-DCP as a New Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Hirotaka; Momose, Kenji; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finding a noninvasive method to predict liver fibrosis using inexpensive and easy-to-use markers is important. Objectives: We aimed to clarify whether NX-des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (NX-DCP) could become a new noninvasive model to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) related liver disease. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on a consecutive group of 101 patients who underwent liver biopsy for HCV-related liver disease at Kobe University Hospital. Laboratory measurements were performed on the same day as the biopsy. Factors associated with significant fibrosis (F3-4) were assessed by multivariate analyses. A comparison of predictive ability between multivariate factors and abovementioned noninvasive models was also performed. Results: Increase in serum NX-DCP was significantly related to increase in fibrosis stage (P = 0.006). Moreover, NX-DCP was a multivariate factor associated with the presence of significant fibrosis F 3-4 (median 21 of F0-2 group vs. median 22 of F3-4 group with P = 0.002). The AUC of NX-DCP showed no significant differences compared with those of the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), modified-APRI, the Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), the Lok index, the Hui score, cirrhosis discriminating score (CDS) and the Pohl score (P > 0.05). Conclusions: NX-DCP correlated positively with fibrosis stage and could discriminate well between HCV-related patients with or without significant fibrosis. Moreover, NX-DCP had a similar predictive ability to the abovementioned models, and thereby could be a new noninvasive prediction tool for fibrosis. PMID:25788955

  5. A critical review of predictive models for the onset of significant void in forced-convection subcooled boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Dorra, H.; Lee, S.C.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1993-06-01

    This predictive models for the onset of significant void (OSV) in forced-convection subcooled boiling are reviewed and compared with extensive data. Three analytical models and seven empirical correlations are considered in this review. These models and correlations are put onto a common basis and are compared, again on a common basis, with a variety of data. The evaluation of their range of validity and applicability under various operating conditions are discussed. The results show that the correlations of Saha-Zuber seems to be the best model to predict OSV in vertical subcooled boiling flow.

  6. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  7. Undercontrolled temperament at age 3 predicts disordered gambling at age 32: a longitudinal study of a complete birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; Moffitt, Terrie E; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-05-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  8. Learning-based prediction of gestational age from ultrasound images of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Namburete, Ana I L; Stebbing, Richard V; Kemp, Bryn; Yaqub, Mohammad; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Alison Noble, J

    2015-04-01

    We propose an automated framework for predicting gestational age (GA) and neurodevelopmental maturation of a fetus based on 3D ultrasound (US) brain image appearance. Our method capitalizes on age-related sonographic image patterns in conjunction with clinical measurements to develop, for the first time, a predictive age model which improves on the GA-prediction potential of US images. The framework benefits from a manifold surface representation of the fetal head which delineates the inner skull boundary and serves as a common coordinate system based on cranial position. This allows for fast and efficient sampling of anatomically-corresponding brain regions to achieve like-for-like structural comparison of different developmental stages. We develop bespoke features which capture neurosonographic patterns in 3D images, and using a regression forest classifier, we characterize structural brain development both spatially and temporally to capture the natural variation existing in a healthy population (N=447) over an age range of active brain maturation (18-34weeks). On a routine clinical dataset (N=187) our age prediction results strongly correlate with true GA (r=0.98,accurate within±6.10days), confirming the link between maturational progression and neurosonographic activity observable across gestation. Our model also outperforms current clinical methods by ±4.57 days in the third trimester-a period complicated by biological variations in the fetal population. Through feature selection, the model successfully identified the most age-discriminating anatomies over this age range as being the Sylvian fissure, cingulate, and callosal sulci. PMID:25624045

  9. Age of first words predicts cognitive ability and adaptive skills in children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Jessica; Chlebowski, Colby; Fein, Deborah A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring useful language by age 5 has been identified as a strong predictor of positive outcomes in individuals with ASD. This study examined the relationship between age of language acquisition and later functioning in children with ASD (n = 119). First word acquisition at a range of ages was probed for its relationship to cognitive ability and adaptive behaviors at 52 months. Results indicated that although producing first words predicted better outcome at every age examined, producing first words by 24 months was a particularly strong predictor of better outcomes. This finding suggests that the historic criterion for positive prognosis (i.e., “useful language by age 5”) can be updated to a more specific criterion with an earlier developmental time point. PMID:22673858

  10. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  11. Predicting healthy older adult's brain age based on structural connectivity networks using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Jin, Cong; Fu, Zhenrong; Zhang, Baiwen; Bin, Guangyu; Wu, Shuicai

    2016-03-01

    Brain ageing is followed by changes of the connectivity of white matter (WM) and changes of the grey matter (GM) concentration. Neurodegenerative disease is more vulnerable to an accelerated brain ageing, which is associated with prospective cognitive decline and disease severity. Accurate detection of accelerated ageing based on brain network analysis has a great potential for early interventions designed to hinder atypical brain changes. To capture the brain ageing, we proposed a novel computational approach for modeling the 112 normal older subjects (aged 50-79 years) brain age by connectivity analyses of networks of the brain. Our proposed method applied principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the redundancy in network topological parameters. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) improved by hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is established to model the relation among principal components (PCs) and brain age. The predicted brain age is strongly correlated with chronological age (r=0.8). The model has mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.29 years. Therefore, we believe the method can provide a possible way to quantitatively describe the typical and atypical network organization of human brain and serve as a biomarker for presymptomatic detection of neurodegenerative diseases in the future. PMID:26718834

  12. Predicting Curriculum and Test Performance at Age 11 Years from Pupil Background, Baseline Skills and Phonological Awareness at Age 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-01-01

    Background: Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive…

  13. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age…

  14. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  15. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  16. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  17. Prediction of the effects of thermal ageing on the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, B. Z.; Yurchenko, E. V.; Morozov, A. M.; Chistyakov, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    A new method has been proposed for prediction of the effects of thermal ageing on the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. The method is based on the test results for materials in two conditions, namely, aged at temperatures of temper embrittlement and annealed after irradiation. The prediction is based on the McLean's equation and the dependencies describing thermally activated and radiation-enhanced phosphorus diffusion. Experimental studies have been carried out for estimation of thermal ageing of the WWER-1000 RPV 2Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel. The ductile to brittle transition temperature shift ΔTk due to phosphorus segregation has been estimated on the basis of experimental data processed by the proposed method for the time t = 5 × 105 h (more than 60 years of operation) for the base and weld metals of the WWER-1000 RPV.

  18. Predicting Cytotoxic T-cell Age from Multivariate Analysis of Static and Dynamic Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Rivet, Catherine A.; Hill, Abby S.; Lu, Hang; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell transfer therapy relies upon in vitro expansion of autologous cytotoxic T cells that are capable of tumor recognition. The success of this cell-based therapy depends on the specificity and responsiveness of the T cell clones before transfer. During ex vivo expansion, CD8+ T cells present signs of replicative senescence and loss of function. The transfer of nonresponsive senescent T cells is a major bottleneck for the success of adoptive T-cell transfer therapy. Quantitative methods for assessing cellular age and responsiveness will facilitate the development of appropriate cell expansion and selection protocols. Although several biomarkers of lymphocyte senescence have been identified, these proteins in isolation are not sufficient to determine the age-dependent responsiveness of T cells. We have developed a multivariate model capable of extracting combinations of markers that are the most informative to predict cellular age. To acquire signaling information with high temporal resolution, we designed a microfluidic chip enabling parallel lysis and fixation of stimulated cell samples on-chip. The acquisition of 25 static biomarkers and 48 dynamic signaling measurements at different days in culture, integrating single-cell and population based information, allowed the multivariate regression model to accurately predict CD8+ T-cell age. From surface marker expression and early phosphorylation events following T-cell receptor stimulation, the model successfully predicts days in culture and number of population doublings with R2 = 0.91 and 0.98, respectively. Furthermore, we found that impairment of early signaling events following T cell receptor stimulation because of long term culture allows prediction of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD27 expression levels and the number of population divisions in culture from a limited subset of signaling proteins. The multivariate analysis highlights the information content of both averaged biomarker values and

  19. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  20. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs. PMID:26414954

  1. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-05-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  2. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  3. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  4. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  5. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  6. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  7. Dental age estimation and different predictive ability of various tooth types in the Czech population: data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Velemínská, Jana; Pilný, Ales; Cepek, Miroslav; Kot'ová, Magdaléna; Kubelková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Dental development is frequently used to estimate age in many anthropological specializations. The aim of this study was to extract an accurate predictive age system for the Czech population and to discover any different predictive ability of various tooth types and their ontogenetic stability during infancy and adolescence. A cross-sectional panoramic X-ray study was based on developmental stages assessment of mandibular teeth (Moorrees et al. 1963) using 1393 individuals aged from 3 to 17 years. Data mining methods were used for dental age estimation. These are based on nonlinear relationships between the predicted age and data sets. Compared with other tested predictive models, the GAME method predicted age with the highest accuracy. Age-interval estimations between the 10th and 90th percentiles ranged from -1.06 to +1.01 years in girls and from -1.13 to +1.20 in boys. Accuracy was expressed by RMS error, which is the average deviation between estimated and chronological age. The predictive value of individual teeth changed during the investigated period from 3 to 17 years. When we evaluated the whole period, the second molars exhibited the best predictive ability. When evaluating partial age periods, we found that the accuracy of biological age prediction declines with increasing age (from 0.52 to 1.20 years in girls and from 0.62 to 1.22 years in boys) and that the predictive importance of tooth types changes, depending on variability and the number of developmental stages in the age interval. GAME is a promising tool for age-interval estimation studies as they can provide reliable predictive models. PMID:24466642

  8. Prediction of radionuclide aging in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Roig, M; Vidal, M; Rauret, G; Rigol, A

    2007-01-01

    The aging of soil-pollutant interaction, which may lead to an increase in pollutant fixation, is the main driving force in the natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Here a test was evaluated to predict the aging of radiostrontium and radiocesium in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas. After contamination, soils were maintained at various temperatures for up to 12 mo, with or without drying-wetting (DW) cycles. Changes in the quantity of radionuclide reversibly sorbed over time were monitored using an extraction test (1 mol L(-1) NH(4)Cl; 10 mL g(-1); 16 h). The fixed fraction could not be predicted from soil properties controlling the sorption step. Aging was not as relevant for Sr as for Cs. The time elapsed since contamination was the main factor responsible for the slight (up to 1.3-fold) decreases in Sr extraction yields. The additional effect of DW cycles was negligible. Instead, all factors accelerated Cs aging due to the enhancement of Cs trapping by clay interlayer collapse, with up to 20-fold increases in Cs fixation. The DW cycles also caused secondary effects on the Cs-specific sorption pool, which were beneficial or detrimental depending on the soil type. Extraction yields from laboratory aged samples agreed with those from field samples taken a few years after the Chernobyl accident. These results confirm the prediction capacity of the laboratory test and its usefulness in risk assessment exercises and in the design of intervention actions, particularly because neither fixation nor aging were related to the soil properties, such as clay content. PMID:17526873

  9. Preschool Anxiety Disorders Predict Different Patterns of Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity at School-Age

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kimberly L. H.; Angold, Adrian; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Copeland, William E.; Gaur, Pooja; Pelphrey, Kevin; Song, Allen W.; Egger, Helen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation. Methods Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces. Results A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders. PMID:25625285

  10. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  11. Prediction of Drug Clearance in Premature and Mature Neonates, Infants, and Children ≤2 Years of Age: A Comparison of the Predictive Performance of 4 Allometric Models.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of 4 allometric models to predict clearance in pediatric ages ranging from premature neonates to children ≤2 years of age. Four allometric models were used to predict clearances of 28 drugs in children from preterm neonates to 2 years of age (n = 564). The 4 models are (1) basal metabolic rate-dependent model; (2) age-dependent exponent model; (3) an allometric model based on kidney and liver weights as well as kidney and liver blood flow; and (4) an allometric model based on a fixed exponent of 0.75. The predictive performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the predicted clearance of the studied drugs with the observed clearance in an individual child. The results of the study indicated that the 3 new proposed models predicted the mean clearance of the drugs with reasonable accuracy (≤50% prediction error). On the other hand, the exponent of 0.75 produced substantial prediction error. Predicted individual clearance values were ≥50% in approximately 30% of the children by the proposed 3 methods and 73% by exponent 0.75. The 3 new proposed allometric models can predict mean clearances of drugs in children from premature neonates to ≤2 years of age with reasonable accuracy and are of practical value during pediatric drug development. PMID:26437918

  12. Predictions of the onset of mini ice age in the 25th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Predictions of the ir-regularty in the 11 year heartbeat of the sun due to asyncronous of the two layered dynamo effect would result in mini ice age as in the Maunder minimum.The onset of this event is expected in the begining of 25th solar cycle and would go to its maximum in the 26th solar cycle.The minimum temperature is expected in 2028 due to the fall of solar activity by 60 % termed as solar hibernation.The predictions are based on the observations obtained by the Royal Greenwich observatory since 1874. Keywords: Dynamo effect,munder minimum,Solar hybernation

  13. The Clinical Significance of MiR-148a as a Predictive Biomarker in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masanobu; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Balaguer, Francesc; Hur, Keun; Toiyama, Yuji; Castells, Antoni; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Aim Development of robust prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is imperative for advancing treatment strategies for this disease. We aimed to determine whether expression status of certain miRNAs might have prognostic/predictive value in CRC patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies. Methods We studied a cohort of 273 CRC specimens from stage II/III patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy and stage IV patients subjected to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. In a screening set (n = 44), 13 of 21 candidate miRNAs were successfully quantified by multiplex quantitative RT-PCR. In the validation set comprising of the entire patient cohort, miR-148a expression status was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, and its promoter methylation was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Lastly, we analyzed the associations between miR-148a expression and patient survival. Results Among the candidate miRNAs studied, miR-148a expression was most significantly down-regulated in advanced CRC tissues. In stage III and IV CRC, low miR-148a expression was associated with significantly shorter disease free-survival (DFS), a worse therapeutic response, and poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, miR-148a methylation status correlated inversely with its expression, and was associated with worse survival in stage IV CRC. In multivariate analysis, miR-148a expression was an independent prognostic/predictive biomarker for advanced CRC patients (DFS in stage III, low vs. high expression, HR 2.11; OS in stage IV, HR 1.93). Discussion MiR-148a status has a prognostic/predictive value in advanced CRC patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, which has important clinical implications in improving therapeutic strategies and personalized management of this malignancy. PMID:23056401

  14. ALDOSTERONE DYSREGULATION WITH AGING PREDICTS RENAL-VASCULAR FUNCTION AND CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer M.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N.; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal- and cardio-vascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1,124 visits) in a Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression-to-stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics, and the renal-vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β= -4.60, p<0.0001) and higher SASSI (β= -58.63, p=0.001) predicted lower RPF and a blunted RPF response to sodium loading and AngII infusion. We observed a continuous, independent, multivariate-adjusted interaction between age and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (p<0.05). Higher SASSI and lower RPF independently predicted higher Framingham Risk Score (p<0.0001) and together displayed an additive effect. Aldosterone regulation and age may interact to mediate renal-vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal-vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease. PMID:24664291

  15. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M; Messiah, Sarah E

    2016-04-01

    Background One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body mass index (BMI) among a multicultural sample of caregivers who were predominantly low-income and foreign-born.Methods A total of 980 caregivers (72% Hispanic, 71% born outside of the United States) of preschool-age children (N= 1,105) were asked if their child was normal weight, overweight, or obese. Answers were compared to actual child BMI percentile category via chi-square analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of accurate perception of child BMI percentile category.Results More than one third of preschoolers were either overweight (18.4%) or obese (16.5%). The majority (92%) of caregivers of an overweight/obese child inaccurately perceived that their child was in a normal BMI category. Overall, foreign-born caregivers were significantly less likely to accurately perceive their child's BMI percentile category versus U.S.-born caregivers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.88). Specifically, those born in South America (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.36-0.98), Central America/Mexico (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.41-0.85), and Caribbean Hispanic nations (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.83) were significantly less likely to accurately perceive their child's BMI category versus U.S.-born caregivers.Conclusions The results of this study suggest that foreign-born caregivers of U.S. preschool-age overweight/obese children in particular do not accurately perceive their child's BMI status. Health care professionals serving foreign-born caregivers may consider additional culturally appropriate healthy weight counseling for these families. PMID:26304710

  16. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  17. Evidence for a Significant Intermediate-Age Population in the M31 Halo from Main Sequence Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Smith, Ed; Kimble, Randy A.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, R. Michael; Vandenberg, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for a minor-axis field in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M3l), 51 arcmin (11 kpc) from the nucleus. These observations, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, are the deepest optical images yet obtained, attaining 50% completeness at m(sub v) = 30.7 mag. The CMD, constructed from approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) stars, reaches more than 1.5 mag fainter than the old main-sequence turnoff. Our analysis is based on direct comparisons to ACS observations of four globular clusters through the same filters, as well as chi square fitting to a finely-spaced grid of calibrated stellar-population models. We find that the M31 halo contains a major (approx. 30% by mass) intermediate-age (6-8 Gyr) metal-rich ([Fe/H] greater than -0.5) population, as well as a significant globular-cluster age (11-13.5 Gyr) metal-poor population. These findings support the idea that galaxy mergers played an important role in the formation of the M31 halo.

  18. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  19. Evaluation and clinical significance of the stomach age model for evaluating aging of the stomach-a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and established a simple model of cancer risk that can be applied to CAG surveillance. Methods Stomach Age was determined by FISH examination of telomere length in stomach biopsies. Δψm was also determined by flow cytometry. Sixty volunteers were used to confirm the linear relationship between telomere length and age while 120 subjects were used to build a mathematical model by a multivariate analysis. Overall, 146 subjects were used to evaluate the validity of the model, and 1,007 subjects were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage (calculated from the mathematical model). ROC curves were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage and to determine the cut-off point for Δage. Results We established that a tight linear relationship between the telomere length and the age. The telomere length was obvious different between patients with and without CAG even in the same age. Δψm decreased in individuals whose Stomach Age was greater than real age, especially in younger adults. A mathematical model of Stomach Age (real age + Δage) was successfully constructed which was easy to apply in clinical work. A higher Δage was correlated with a worse outcome. The criterion of Δage >3.11 should be considered as the cut-off to select the subgroup of patients who require endoscopic surveillance. Conclusion Variation in Stomach Age between individuals of the same biological age was confirmed. Attention should be paid to those with a greater Stomach Age, especially in younger adults. The Δage in the Simple Model can be used as a criterion to select CAG patients for gastric cancer surveillance. PMID:25057261

  20. Data on clinical significance of second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid in predicting preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Kesrouani, Assaad; Chalhoub, Elie; El Rassy, Elie; Germanos, Mirna; Khazzaka, Aline; Rizkallah, Jamale; Attieh, Elie; Aouad, Norma

    2016-12-01

    In this article second trimester amniotic fluid biomarkers are measured for correlation with preterm delivery. One additional milliliter of amniotic fluid is collected during amniocentesis for dosages of IL-6, MMP-9, CRP and glucose levels, along with maternal serum CRP and glucose. MMP-9 and Il-6 levels were measured with the corresponding Human Quantikine(R) ELISA Kit (R&D systems) according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Cut-off values for AF MMP-9 and IL-6 were fixed by the kit sensitivity thresholds. Data includes ROC curves for glucose (Fig. 1), IL-6 (Fig. 2) and MMP-9 (Fig. 3), aiming to search for sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of premature delivery. Statistical analyses are performed with SPSS v20.0 software. Statistical significance is determined using the Mann-Whitney and one way ANOVA test. The association with preterm delivery is performed using a two proportions test. Correlations are measured using the Pearson׳'s coefficient. A p value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The data is presented in the figures provided. Data relied on a previous publication "Prediction of preterm delivery by second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid" (A. Kesrouani, E. Chalhoub, E. El Rassy, M. Germanos, A. Khazzaka, J. Rizkallah, E. Attieh, N. Aouad, 2016) [1]. PMID:27626053

  1. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14–15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3–5 years

    PubMed Central

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Beuker, Karin T.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14–15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1½–5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, a non-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4–5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14–15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4–5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14–15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems. PMID:20390313

  2. Predictive significance of the overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with binge eating disorder: findings from a randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Gueorguieva, R.; Wilson, G. T.; Masheb, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Undue influence of body shape or weight on self-evaluation – referred to as overvaluation – is considered a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined the concurrent and predictive significance of overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with BED participating in a randomized clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method A total of 90 participants were randomly assigned to 6-month group treatments of CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout- and post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after completing treatments with reliably administered semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Participants categorized with overvaluation (n=52, 58%) versus without overvaluation (n=38, 42%) did not differ significantly in demographic features (age, gender and ethnicity), psychiatric co-morbidity, body mass index or binge eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating disorder psychopathology and poorer psychological functioning (higher depression and lower self-esteem) than the non-overvaluation group. Overvaluation of shape/weight significantly predicted non-remission from binge eating and higher frequency of binge eating at the 12-month follow-up, even after adjusting for group differences in depression and self-esteem levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concern commensurate with being obese or more frequent binge eating, but also is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress, and has negative prognostic significance for longer-term treatment outcomes. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity and treatment outcome. PMID:22967857

  3. New BPD predicts lung function at school age: Follow-up study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Eveliina; Dunder, Teija; Peltoniemi, Outi; Kaukola, Tuula; Marttila, Riitta; Hallman, Mikko

    2015-11-01

    New treatment practices have improved survival of preterm infants and decreased airway pathology in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aim was to investigate whether preterm birth, BPD, and the severity of BPD predict lung function in school children that are born in surfactant era. We studied pulmonary function of 88 school-aged children born very preterm (gestational age <32 weeks) and paired them with 88 age- and sex-matched controls born at term. Spirometry and diffusion capacity were recorded. We also performed a meta-analysis covering the era of antenatal corticosteroid and surfactant treatment. BPD was defined as oxygen dependence for ≥ 28 days and it was severity-graded by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (mild, none; moderate, FiO2 = 0.22-0.29; severe, FiO2 ≥ 0.30). Preterm children had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ) 86.4 ± 11.8 versus 94.9 ± 10.1 (mean % predicted ± SD; P < 0.001), and lower diffusion capacity (DLCO) 87.6 ± 13.9 versus 93.7 ± 12.0 (P = 0.005) compared with term controls. BPD group differed in both FEV1 (P = 0.037) and DLCO (P = 0.018) from those without BPD. For meta-analysis, search identified 210 articles. Together with present results, six articles met the inclusion criteria. FEV1 of no BPD, all BPD, and moderate to severe BPD groups differed from that in term controls by -7.4, -10.5, and -17.8%, respectively. According to meta-analysis and follow-up study, the adverse effects of prematurity on pulmonary function are still detectable in school-age. BPD was associated with reductions in both diffusion capacity and spirometry. New interventions are required to document a further decrease in the life-long consequences of prematurity. PMID:25589379

  4. Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Kutas, Marta; Schul, Rina

    2010-01-01

    During sentence comprehension, older adults are less likely than younger adults to predict features of likely upcoming words. A pair of experiments assessed whether such differences would extend to tasks with reduced working memory demands and time pressures. In Experiment 1, event-related brain potentials were measured as younger and older adults read short phrases cuing antonyms or category exemplars, followed three seconds later by targets that were either congruent or incongruent and, for congruent category exemplars, of higher or lower typicality. When processing the less expected low typicality targets, younger – but not older – adults elicited a prefrontal positivity (500–900 ms) that has been linked to processing consequences of having predictions disconfirmed. Thus, age-related changes in prediction during comprehension generalize across task circumstances. Analyses of individual differences revealed that older adults with higher category fluency were more likely to show the young-like pattern. Experiment 2 showed that these age-related differences were not due to simple slowing of language production mechanisms, as older adults generated overt responses to the cues as quickly as – and more accurately than – younger adults. However, older adults who were relatively faster to produce category exemplars in Experiment 2 were more likely to have shown predictive processing patterns in Experiment 1. Taken together, the results link prediction during language comprehension to language production mechanisms and suggest that although older adults can produce speeded language output on demand, they are less likely to automatically recruit these mechanisms during comprehension unless top-down circuitry is particularly strong. PMID:20728207

  5. Lymphocyte cAMP and ageing: significance of subset composition, plasma noradrenaline, regular physical training and long-term smoking.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J H; Gustafsson, F; Toft, J; Christensen, N J

    1996-11-01

    1. We studied 37 healthy men at rest in the supine. position to examine the effect of ageing, smoking and physical training of beta 2-adrenoceptor function, plasma catecholamines and the proportions of various lymphocyte subsets. 2. In 14 young subjects the proportion of natural killer cells was correlated with cAMP production in lymphocytes and inversely correlated with plasma noradrenaline level. 3. In 16 elderly non-smokers plasma noradrenaline was negatively correlated with the natural killer cell subset CD3-CD16+. Lymphocyte cAMP responses did not differ between young and elderly non-smokers, whereas plasma noradrenaline increased slightly but significantly with age. Physical training did not influence either plasma noradrenaline or adrenaline at rest or cAMP in lymphocytes. 4. In seven elderly long-term smokers cAMP production and the viability of lymphocytes were reduced. Plasma noradrenaline attained its highest values in long-term smokers. 5. It is concluded that cAMP production and plasma noradrenaline are related to lymphocyte subset composition. The greater the proportion of natural killer cells and related subsets, the higher is cAMP production and the lower is plasma noradrenaline. Thus, the inverse correlation between lymphocyte cAMP and plasma noradrenaline is indirect and most likely mediated by variability in lymphocyte subset composition. In elderly subjects, reduced cAMP production was observed in long-term smokers, and this abnormality was probably due to a reduced viability of lymphocytes and especially of natural killer cells. The negative correlation between the proportion of natural killer cells and plasma noradrenaline at rest contracts with a well-known mobilizing effect of adrenaline on natural killer cells. PMID:8942401

  6. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  7. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  8. Age-related prefrontal impairments implicate deficient prediction of future reward in older adults.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Ben; Heekeren, Hauke R; Li, Shu-Chen

    2015-08-01

    Foresighted decision-making depends on the ability to learn the value of future outcomes and the sequential choices necessary to achieve them. Using a 3-stage Markov decision task and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated age differences in the ability to extract state transition structures while learning to predict future reward. In younger adults learning was associated with enhanced activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In older adults (OA) we found no evidence for PFC recruitment. However, high-performing OA showed enhanced striatal activity, suggesting that they may engage in a model-free (experience-based) learning strategy. Change point analyses revealed that in younger adults learning was characterized by distinct and abrupt shifts in PFC activity, which were predictive of behavioral change points. In OA PFC activity was less pronounced and not predictive of behavior. Our findings suggest that age-related impairments in learning future reward value can be attributed to a deficit in extracting sequential state transition structures. This deficit may lead to myopic decisions in OA if contextual information has to be temporally integrated. PMID:26004018

  9. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  10. Predictive and prognostic significance of circulating endothelial cells in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong-mei; Zhang, Qin; Lv, Yan-ling; Ma, Xing-qun; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong-bing; Song, Yong

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic values of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 102 newly diagnosed advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study. The amount of CECs was enumerated by flow cytometry (CD45- CD31+ CD146+) at baseline. CEC counts of 56 patients were detected before and after two cycles of chemotherapy. We correlated the baseline and reduction of CECs after therapy with objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The CEC level was significantly higher in advanced NSCLC patients, ranging from 57 to 1300 cells/10(5) cells (mean ± SD = 299 ± 221 cells/10(5) cells), than in patients with benign lesions (205 ± 97 cells/10(5) cells) and healthy volunteers (117 ± 33 cells/10(5) cells). When the cutoff value of CEC counts was 210 cells/10(5) cells, there was no significant association between CEC counts and OR/PFS/OS of the enrolled patients. However, patients with CEC response after chemotherapy have more chances to achieve OR (P < 0.001), and such patients showed longer PFS (P = 0.048) and OS (P = 0.018) than those without CEC response. In the multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic roles of brain metastasis (HR 6.165, P = 0.001), and CEC response (HR 0.442, P = 0.044) were found. The CEC counts could be considered as diagnostic biomarker for advanced NSCLC patients. And the reduction of CECs after treatment might be more ideal than the baseline CEC counts as a predictive or prognostic factor in patients treated with chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:26084612

  11. Prediction of Massive Transfusion in Trauma Patients with Shock Index, Modified Shock Index, and Age Shock Index

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Spencer C. H.; Pao-Jen, Kuo; Shiun-Yuan, Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Liu, Hang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The shock index (SI) and its derivations, the modified shock index (MSI) and the age shock index (Age SI), have been used to identify trauma patients with unstable hemodynamic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate their use in predicting the requirement for massive transfusion (MT) in trauma patients upon arrival at the hospital. Participants: A patient receiving transfusion of 10 or more units of packed red blood cells or whole blood within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department was defined as having received MT. Detailed data of 2490 patients hospitalized for trauma between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2014, who had received blood transfusion within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department, were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System of a level I regional trauma center. These included 99 patients who received MT and 2391 patients who did not. Patients with incomplete registration data were excluded from the study. The two-sided Fisher exact test or Pearson chi-square test were used to compare categorical data. The unpaired Student t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Parameters including systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), hemoglobin level (Hb), base deficit (BD), SI, MSI, and Age SI that could provide cut-off points for predicting the patients’ probability of receiving MT were identified by the development of specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. High accuracy was defined as an area under the curve (AUC) of more than 0.9, moderate accuracy was defined as an AUC between 0.9 and 0.7, and low accuracy was defined as an AUC less than 0.7. Results: In addition to a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) and worse outcome, the patients requiring MT presented with a significantly higher HR and lower SBP, Hb, and BD, as well as significantly increased SI, MSI, and Age SI. Among these, only

  12. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M; Narendran, Parth

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population - the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  13. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  14. The age of predictable primary diamond sources in the northeastern Siberian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grakhanov, S. A.; Zinchuk, N. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) age was determined for zircons collected from 26 observation and sampling sites of diamonds and index minerals in the northeastern Siberian Platform. This part of the region hosts 15 low-diamondiferous Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlite fields, excluding the near economic Triassic Malokuonapskaya pipe in the Kuranakh field. Four epochs of kimberlite formation (Silurian, Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, Middle to Late Triassic, and Middle to Late Jurassic) of the Siberian Platform, including its northeastern part, are confirmed as a result of our studies. Most observation points, including economic Quaternary diamond placers, contain Middle to Late Triassic zircons, which confirms the abundant Late Triassic volcanism in this region. The positive correlation of diamonds and major index minerals of kimberlites (mostly, garnets) at some observation sites indicates the possible Triassic age of the predictable diamondiferous kimberlites.

  15. The significance of the Sun, Moon and celestial bodies to societies in the Carpathian basin during the Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    2011-06-01

    Celestial events often exerted a great or even decisive influence on the life of ancient communities. They may provide some of the foundations on which an understanding of the deeper meaning of mythologies, religious systems and even folk tales can be based. These influences are reflected and may be detected in the archaeological material as well. There is good evidence that celestial (especially solar and perhaps lunar) phenomena played a particularly important rôle in the worldview of prehistoric Europe. To reveal the social and ideational significance of concepts relating to the celestial bodies in the prehistory of the Carpathian Basin, complex investigations on orientations of houses and graves, prestige archaeological finds and iconography have been accomplished. The results indicate ideological and/or social changes, which developed into a likely organized ideological system in large part of Central Europe including the Carpathian Basin by the Late Bronze Age. It might also be the first period in prehistory when people became really interested in celestial phenomena.

  16. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  17. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  18. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  19. Learning impairments identified early in life are predictive of future impairments associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528

  20. Uremia-Associated Premature Aging of T Cells Does Not Predict Infectious Complications After Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dedeoglu, B; Meijers, R W J; Klepper, M; Hesselink, D A; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have prematurely aged T cell systems. We tested whether T cell aging parameters were associated with the risk of infections after renal transplantation (RTx). We studied 188 patients over 1 year. Peripheral T cells were analyzed before and at 3 and 6 mo after RTx for frequency of recent thymic emigrants, relative telomere length and differentiation status. These parameters were related to the occurrence of opportunistic and serious infections. Overall, 84 patients developed an infection. In this group, 50 developed an opportunistic infection and 53 developed a serious infection. T cell aging parameters assessed before RTx were not associated with infection risk. The memory T cells showed a decrease within the first 3 mo in both groups (p < 0.001). The CD4(+) memory T cells increased between 3 and 6 mo within the infection group (p = 0.015). The number of CD8(+) memory T cells increased in both groups (p < 0.001) but reached baseline levels only in the infection group. In the infection group, the CD8(+) CD28(null) T cell percentage increased between 3 and 6 mo (p = 0.024), tending to be higher than at baseline (p = 0.061). These differences in post-RTx dynamics resulted from infections. Parameters of uremia-associated premature aging of peripheral T cells do not predict posttransplant infections. PMID:26914971

  1. Coparenting Problems with Toddlers Predict Children's Symptoms of Psychological Problems at Age 7.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Tomo; Christopher, Caroline; Mann, Tanya; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether coparenting during toddlerhood predicts children's later symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, affective disorder, and somatic complaints. When children were 2 years old, 108 middle-class nonclinical families were observed in triadic interactions to assess two domains of dyadic coparenting (competitive and cooperative), as well as each parent's individual competitive behavior toward the spouse. Teachers and mothers reported children's symptoms of psychological problems at age 7. Independent of cooperative coparenting and each parents' individual harsh parenting, competitive coparenting predicted children's symptoms of ADHD and ODD. Interactions with child gender indicated that competitive coparenting predicted ADHD symptoms in boys (not in girls) and teacher-reported (not mother-reported) somatic complaints in girls (not in boys). ODD and ADHD symptoms were also predicted by fathers' (not mothers') individual competitive behaviors. The children of parents who were both low in competitive behaviors had the lowest teacher-rated symptoms of affective disorder. PMID:25663037

  2. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  3. Significance of Serum Cytokeratin-18 in Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis C Infected Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Zefzafy, Wafaa; Eltokhy, Hanan; Mohamed, Nagwa Abd El-Ghaffar; Abu-Zahab, Zakia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus is one of the most common etiologic agents of chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in which there is continuous inflammation and regeneration of hepatocytes. Cytokeratin-18 (CK18) has been suggested to play an important role in tumorigenesis of epithelial cancers. AIM: Estimation of CK18 serum levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C (CHCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and find the relationship between their levels, the severity of the disease and the development of HCC. METHODS: We measured serum levels of CK18 in 60 Egyptian patients (30 with CHCV & 30 with HCC) and 30 healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with HCC had highly significant increased CK18 levels compared with CHCV patients, healthy controls. Cytokeratin-18 among the three classes of Child-Pugh classification show highly significant gradual increase from child A to C. Furthermore, In HCC there were positive correlations between CK18 and with RBCs, ESR, and AFP. CONCLUSION: CK18 is a sensitive indicator of the severity of liver disease. Patients with CHCV infection can be followed up by measurement of its serum level which can predict the development of HCC. The combination of AFP and CK18 increased the sensitivity of detection for HCC.

  4. Predictive Significance of a New Prognostic Score for Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Interim-Positron Emission Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yu; Qu, Lili; Li, Yuekai; Liu, Dai; Lv, Xuemin; Han, Jiankui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that the objective treatment response of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was affected by many factors such as pathophysiological, biological, and pharmaceutical mechanisms. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the predictive significance of clinical prognostic factors and interim fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), and to find a new prognostic predictor significantly associated with DLBCL patients’ outcome. A total of 105 adult patients with DLBCL were reviewed. Each patient underwent an interim 18F-FDG PET/CT scan after the second chemotherapy cycle. The visual method based on the Deauville 5-point scale was used to evaluate the interim-PET/CT scans. The relationships among the prognostic factors, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed with Kaplan–Meier plots. The predictive value of the newly constructed prognostic score was analyzed with multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazard regression model). The visual analysis showed statistically significant differences in both PFS and OS between the patients with a negative interim-PET/CT and those with a positive interim-PET/CT. Advanced age, advanced stage, and DLBCL subtype were also significantly associated with outcome. A new prognostic score that composed of the above 4 factors was obtained. New prognostic score stratified patients into 4 risk groups with 3-year PFS of 98.5%, 73.9%, 11.1%, and 0%, and 3-year OS of 100%, 91.3%, 55.6%, and 0% (P < 0.001 for PFS and OS). Multivariate analysis showed that the new prognostic score had the greatest ability to predict relapse (P < 0.001) and death (P < 0.001). In DLBCL patients, interim 18F-FDG PET/CT can provide significant independent prognostic information. Our work illustrates that the new prognostic score has the strongest potential for accurately prognostication, for

  5. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  6. Prognostic and Predictive Significance of MYC and KRAS Alterations in Breast Cancer from Women Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Carolina Rosal Teixeira; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Rey, Juan Antonio; Carvalho, Antônio Alberto; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Khayat, André Salim; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Demachki, Sâmia; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical evolution. Several analyses have been performed to identify the risk factors for breast cancer progression and the patients who respond best to a specific treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether the hormone receptor expression, HER2 and MYC genes and their protein status, and KRAS codon 12 mutations may be prognostic or predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. Protein, gene and mutation status were concomitantly evaluated in 116 breast tumors from women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. We observed that MYC expression was associated with luminal B and HER2 overexpression phenotypes compared to luminal A (p<0.05). The presence of MYC duplication or polysomy 8, as well as KRAS mutation, were also associated with the HER2 overexpression subtype (p<0.05). MYC expression and MYC gain were more frequently observed in early-onset compared to late-onset tumors (p<0.05). KRAS mutation was a risk factor of grade 3 tumors (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that MYC amplification defined as MYC/nucleus ratio of ≥2.5 was a protective factor for chemotherapy resistance. On the other hand, age and grade 2 tumors were a risk factor. Additionally, luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative tumors presented increased odds of being resistant to chemotherapy relative to luminal A tumors. Thus, breast tumors with KRAS codon 12 mutations seem to present a worse prognosis. Additionally, MYC amplification may help in the identification of tumors that are sensitive to doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment. If confirmed in a large set of samples, these markers may be useful for clinical stratification and prognosis. PMID:23555992

  7. Significance of Vestibular Testing on Distinguishing the Nerve of Origin for Vestibular Schwannoma and Predicting the Preservation of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu-Bo; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Ji, Hong-Ming; Qu, Yan-Ming; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the nerve of origin for vestibular schwannoma (VS), as a method for predicting hearing prognosis, has not been systematically considered. The vestibular test can be used to investigate the function of the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) and the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN). This study aimed to preoperatively distinguish the nerve of origin for VS patients using the vestibular test, and determine if this correlated with hearing preservation. Methods: A total of 106 patients with unilateral VS were enrolled in this study prospectively. Each patient received a caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test, and cochlear nerve function test (hearing) before the operation and 1 week, 3, and 6 months, postoperatively. All patients underwent surgical removal of the VS using the suboccipital approach. During the operation, the nerve of tumor origin (SVN or IVN) was identified by the surgeon. Tumor size was measured by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The nerve of tumor origin could not be unequivocally identified in 38 patients (38/106, 35.80%). These patients were not subsequently evaluated. In 26 patients (nine females, seventeen males), tumors arose from the SVN and in 42 patients (18 females, 24 males), tumors arose from the IVN. Comparing with the nerve of origins (SVN and IVN) of tumors, the results of the caloric tests and VEMP tests were significantly different in tumors originating from the SVN and the IVN in our study. Hearing was preserved in 16 of 26 patients (61.54%) with SVN-originating tumors, whereas hearing was preserved in only seven of 42 patients (16.67%) with IVN-originating tumors. Conclusions: Our data suggest that caloric and VEMP tests might help to identify whether VS tumors originate from the SVN or IVN. These tests could also be used to evaluate the residual function of the nerves after surgery. Using this information, we might better predict the preservation of hearing for patients

  8. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  9. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  10. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  11. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  12. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  13. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  14. Percentage of Biopsy Cores Positive for Malignancy and Biochemical Failure Following Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in 3,264 Men: Statistical Significance Without Predictive Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Scott G. Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Martinez, Alvaro; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To define and incorporate the impact of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) into a predictive model of prostate cancer radiotherapy biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: The data of 3264 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Standard prognostic and treatment factors plus the number of biopsy cores collected and the number positive for malignancy by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were available. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (bF, Phoenix definition). Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed and expressed as a nomogram and the model's predictive ability assessed using the concordance index (c-index). Results: The cohort consisted of 21% low-, 51% intermediate-, and 28% high-risk cancer patients, and 30% had androgen deprivation with radiotherapy. The median PPC was 50% (interquartile range [IQR] 29-67%), and median follow-up was 51 months (IQR 29-71 months). Percentage of positive biopsy cores displayed an independent association with the risk of bF (p = 0.01), as did age, prostate-specific antigen value, Gleason score, clinical stage, androgen deprivation duration, and radiotherapy dose (p < 0.001 for all). Including PPC increased the c-index from 0.72 to 0.73 in the overall model. The influence of PPC varied significantly with radiotherapy dose and clinical stage (p = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses <66 Gy and palpable tumors showing the strongest relationship between PPC and bF. Intermediate-risk patients were poorly discriminated regardless of PPC inclusion (c-index 0.65 for both models). Conclusions: Outcome models incorporating PPC show only minor additional ability to predict biochemical failure beyond those containing standard prognostic factors.

  15. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy: A Retrospective Analysis of 7781 Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy.Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer.We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups.Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212-1.869, P <0.001), old age, male sex, high body mass index, medical comorbidity, total gastrectomy, and combined resection to be independent predictors of postoperative complications. Among these, only low PNI (OR = 4.279, 95% CI = 1.760-10.404, P = 0.001) and medical comorbidity were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. For long-term outcomes, low PNI was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival, but not recurrence (overall survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.383, 95% CI = 1.221-1.568, P < 0.001; recurrence-free survival: HR = 1.142, 95% CI = 0.985-1.325, P = 0.078).PNI can be used to predict patients at increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although PNI was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, the index was not associated with cancer recurrence. PMID:27149460

  16. Decoding simulated neurodynamics predicts the perceptual consequences of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianing V.; Wielaard, Jim; Smith, R. Theodore; Sajda, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in the developed world. Though substantial work has been done to characterize the disease, it is difficult to predict how the state of an individual’s retina will ultimately affect their high-level perceptual function. In this paper, we describe an approach that couples retinal imaging with computational neural modeling of early visual processing to generate quantitative predictions of an individual’s visual perception. Using a patient population with mild to moderate AMD, we show that we are able to accurately predict subject-specific psychometric performance by decoding simulated neurodynamics that are a function of scotomas derived from an individual’s fundus image. On the population level, we find that our approach maps the disease on the retina to a representation that is a substantially better predictor of high-level perceptual performance than traditional clinical metrics such as drusen density and coverage. In summary, our work identifies possible new metrics for evaluating the efficacy of treatments for AMD at the level of the expected changes in high-level visual perception and, in general, typifies how computational neural models can be used as a framework to characterize the perceptual consequences of early visual pathologies. PMID:22144563

  17. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  18. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  19. Prediction of individual subject's age across the human lifespan using diffusion tensor imaging: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Benson; Hasan, Khader M; Soares, Jair C

    2013-07-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging has the potential to be used as a neuroimaging marker of natural ageing and assist in elucidating trajectories of cerebral maturation and ageing. In this study, we applied a multivariate technique relevance vector regression (RVR) to predict individual subject's age using whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) from a cohort of 188 subjects aged 4-85 years. High prediction accuracy as derived from Pearson correlation coefficient of actual versus predicted age (FA - r=0.870 p<0.0001; MD - r=0.896 p<0.0001; AD - r=0.895 p<0.0001; RD - r=0.899 p<0.0001) was achieved. Cerebral white-matter regions that contributed to these predictions include; corpus callosum, cingulum bundles, posterior longitudinal fasciculus and the cerebral peduncle. A post-hoc analysis of these regions showed that FA follows a nonlinear rational-quadratic trajectory across the lifespan peaking at approximately 21.8 years. The MD, RD and AD volumes were particularly useful for making predictions using grey matter cerebral regions. These results suggest that diffusion tensor imaging measurements can reliably predict individual subject's age and demonstrate that FA cerebral maturation and ageing patterns follow a non-linear trajectory with a noteworthy peaking age. These data will contribute to the understanding of neurobiology of cerebral maturation and ageing. Most notably, from a neuropsychiatric perspective our results may allow differentiation of cerebral changes that may occur due to natural maturation and ageing, and those due to developmental or neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23501046

  20. Predictive significance of detectable cardiac troponin I measured with a contemporary-sensitive assay in a real life experience

    PubMed Central

    Bonfanti, Laura; Lippi, Giuseppe; Ciullo, Irene; Meschi, Tiziana; Ticinesi, Andrea; Aloe, Rosalia; Di Spigno, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin (cTn) testing has reduced the likelihood of erroneous discharge of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the emergency department (ED), but doubts remain about optimal clinical use. This study was planned for evaluating the predictive significance of cTn values between the limit of detection of the method and the 99th percentile in ED patients evaluated for suspected ACS. Methods In this retrospective study all hospital records of patients admitted over a 6-month period to the ED and with at least one cTnI value comprised between the limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL) and the 99th percentile of the assay (0.05 ng/mL) were analyzed. Results A total of 4,749 patients with cTnI value between 0.01–0.05 ng/mL were identified among 57,879 ED visits throughout the study period. Overall, 2,189 patients (46.1%) were discharged from the ED, 2,529 (53.25%) were admitted to the hospital and 31 (0.65%) died during ED stay. A total number of 289 patients out of 2,189 who were discharged (i.e., 13.2%) had additional ED visits within 30 days. Among these, 6 were diagnosed with ACS, representing 0.27% of patients discharged [negative predictive value (NPV) 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994–0.999] and 2.1% of those with second admission (NPV 0.979; 95% CI, 0.955–0.992). Only one of the 2,529 patients admitted to the hospital (i.e., 0.04%) developed an ACS during hospital stay. Conclusions The results of our retrospective study suggest that the suitability of using a contemporary-sensitive cTnI immunoassay assay in the context of an appropriate protocol represents a safe and effective strategy for ruling in and ruling out ACS in patients presenting to the ED. PMID:27500153

  1. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  2. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  3. Predictive parameters of Legionella pneumophila occurrence in hospital water: HPCs and plumbing system installation age.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Mirmohamadlou, Ali; Esmaeli, Davoud

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila can be relevant to the installation age and the presence of heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). This research illustrates L. pneumophila contamination of hospital water in accordance with the installation age and the presence of HPCs. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from hot and cold water systems and cultured on R2A and BCYE agar. L. pneumophila identification was done via specific biochemical tests. HPCs and L. pneumophila were detected in 96 and 37.3 % of the samples, respectively. The mean of HPCs density was 947 ± 998 CFU/ml; therefore, 52 % of the samples had higher densities than 500 CFU/ml. High densities of HPCs (>500 CFU/ml) led to colonization of L. pneumophila (≥1000 CFU/ml), mainly observed in cooling systems, gynecological, sonography, and NICU wards. Chi(2) test demonstrated that higher densities (>500 CFU/ml) of HPCs and L. pneumophila contamination in cold water were more frequent than warm water (OR: 2.3 and 1.49, respectively). Univariate regressions implied a significant difference between HPCs density and installation age in positive and negative tests of L. pneumophila (OR = 1.1, p < 0.001, OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Mann-Whitney U test implied the significant effects of HPCs and installation age on L. pneumophila occurrences (p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and multivariate linear regression revealed significant differences between L. pneumophila and HPCs densities (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.11, p = 0.02), but nonsignificant difference with installation age (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.0, p = 0.91). The occurrence of L. pneumophila, HPCs, and installation age are relevant; so, plumbing system renovation with appropriate materials and promotion of the effective efforts for hospital's water quality assurance is highly recommended. PMID:27573071

  4. Infant Gaze Following and Pointing Predict Accelerated Vocabulary Growth through Two Years of Age: A Longitudinal, Growth Curve Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2008-01-01

    We found that infant gaze following and pointing predicts subsequent language development. At ages 0 ; 10 or 0 ; 11, infants saw an adult turn to look at an object in an experimental setting. Productive vocabulary was assessed longitudinally through two years of age. Growth curve modeling showed that infants who gaze followed and looked longer at…

  5. Mothers' Cognitive References to 2-Year-Olds Predict Theory of Mind at Ages 6 and 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Devine, Rory T.; Marks, Alex; Hughes, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' mental-state references predict individual differences in preschoolers' false-belief (FB) understanding; less is known about the origins of corresponding variation in school-age children. To address this gap, 105 children completed observations with their mothers at child ages 2 and 6, three FB tasks and a verbal comprehension…

  6. Purchase or Pirate: Is Ethical Ideology or Age More Effective at Predicting Acquisition Choice for Online Music?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    A study using 454 respondents recruited through SurveyMonkey were used to quantitatively test whether age or ethical position is better able to predict purchasing rates for digital music acquisition. The respondents had an age range from 18 to 80 and lived in the United States. The sample had a diverse and representative geographic and economic…

  7. A risk score for the prediction of advanced age-related macular degeneration: Development and validation in 2 prospective cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to develop an eye specific model which used readily available information to predict risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) as our training dataset, which consisted of the 4,507 participants (contributing 1,185 affected v...

  8. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; W.G. Ernst; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  9. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  10. Temperament, age and weather predict social interaction in the sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rebecca E; Broster, John C; Barnes, Kirsty; Browne, William J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the social relationships between individual sheep, and factors that influence this, through the novel application of the statistical multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) model. In study one 49 ewes (ranging between 1 and 8 years old) were fitted with data loggers, which recorded when pairs of sheep were within 4m or less of each other, within a social group, for a total of 6days. In study two proximity data were collected from 45 ewes over 17days, as were measures of ewe temperament, weight and weather. In study 1 age difference significantly influenced daily contact time, with sheep of the same age spending an average of 20min 43s together per day, whereas pairs with the greatest difference in age spent 16min 33s together. Maximum daily temperature also significantly affected contact time, being longer on hotter days (34min 40s hottest day vs. 18min 17s coolest day), as did precipitation (29min 33s wettest day vs. 10min 32s no rain). Vocalisation in isolation, as a measure of temperament, also affected contacts, with sheep with the same frequency of vocalisations spending more time together (27min 16s) than those with the greatest difference in vocalisations (19min 36s). Sheep behaviour in the isolation box test (IBT) was also correlated over time, but vocalisations and movement were not correlated. Influences of age, temperature and rain on social contact are all well-established and so indicate that MMMC modelling is a useful way to analyse social structures of the flock. While it has been demonstrated that personality factors affect social relationships in non-human animals, the finding that vocalisation in isolation influences pair social contact in sheep is a novel one. PMID:27542918

  11. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. PMID:26979897

  12. Prediction of plantar soft tissue stiffness based on sex, age, bodyweight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-02-01

    15% of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients suffer high risk of ulceration and 85% of the amputation involving DM population is caused by non-healing ulcers. These findings elucidate the fact that foot ulcer can result in major amputation especially to the DM and elderly population. Therefore, early diagnosis of abnormally stiffened plantar soft tissue is needed to prevent the catastrophic tissue damage. In order to differentiate between normal and pathological tissues, a threshold reference value that defines healthy tissue is required. The objective of this study is to perform a multivariate analysis to estimate the healthy plantar tissue stiffness values based on the individuals physical attributes such as bodyweight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their age and sex. 100 healthy subjects were recruited. Indentation was performed on 2nd metatarsal head pad at 3 different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. The results showed the important influences of BW, height and BMI in determining the plantar tissue stiffness. On the other hand, age and sex only play minimal roles. The study can be further extended to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed predictive model by evaluating several other related parameters such as body fat content, footwear usage, frequency of sports participation, etc. PMID:26474035

  13. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  14. Calendar ageing analysis of a LiFePO4/graphite cell with dynamic model validations: Towards realistic lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasketa-Zabala, E.; Gandiaga, I.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L. M.; Villarreal, I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims at establishing a methodology for a comprehensive calendar ageing predictive model development, focusing specially on validation procedures. A LFP-based Li-ion cell performance degradation was analysed under different temperature and SOC storage conditions. Five static calendar ageing conditions were used for understanding the ageing trends and modelling the dominant ageing phenomena (SEI growth and the resulting loss of active lithium). The validation process included an additional test under other constant operating conditions (static validation) and other four tests under non-constant impact factors operating schemes within the same experiment (dynamic validation), in response to battery stress conditions in real applications. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results as the residuals are always below 1% for experiments run for 300-650 days. The model is able to predict dynamic behaviour close to real operating conditions and the level of accuracy corresponds to a root-mean-square error of 0.93%.

  15. Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: Data from the GuidAge Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Francesca; Epelbaum, Stephane; Coley, Nicola; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Hampel, Harald; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Lista, Simone; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic trials, it is crucial to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its prodromal stage. We assessed the accuracy of the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) compared to other cognitive tests to predict AD dementia in subjects with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment. Subjects from the placebo group of the GuidAge trial over 70 years old and without clinical signs of dementia at baseline who completed the 5-year follow-up free of dementia (n = 840) or developed AD dementia (n = 73) were included in our study. Among all the tests, the sum of the 3 free recall of the FCSRT (FCSRT-FR) and the sum of free and cued recall (FCSRT-TR) yielded the best results to predict AD dementia occurrence (all p values <0.05 for comparison of FCSRT-FR ROC and MMSE, CDRsb, and CVF ROCs). FCSRT-FR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.799 (95% CI 0.738-0.85) and the optimal cut-off was 20 (se 68.06% , sp 81.43% , PPV 23.90% , NPV 96,75%). Concerning FCSRT-TR, the AUC was 0.776 and the optimal cut-off was 42 (se 62.5% , sp 82.26% , PPV 23.20% and NPV 96.24%). This study sets the framework for implementing the FCSRT in clinical and therapeutic trials for efficient subject selection. PMID:26402073

  16. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior. PMID:24264938

  17. Prediction of aging degradation of cast stainless steel components in LWR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.

    1992-03-01

    A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The ``saturation`` impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common ``predicted lower-bound` J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

  18. Prediction of aging degradation of cast stainless steel components in LWR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.

    1992-03-01

    A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The saturation'' impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common predicted lower-bound' J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

  19. Socioeconomic factors from midlife predict mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later; Findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Taking into account our rapidly ageing population, older people are of particular interest in studying health inequalities. Most studies of older persons only include measures of current socioeconomic status (SES) and do not take into account data from earlier stages of life. In addition, only classic SES measures are used, while alternative measures, such as car ownership and house ownership, might equally well predict health. The present study aims to examine the effect of midlife socioeconomic factors on mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later. Methods Data were from 4,809 men and women aged 33–65 years who participated in the Reykjavik Study (1967–1992) and who were re-examined in old age in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) -Reykjavik Study (2002–2006). Results Education and occupation predicted mobility limitation and depressed mood. Independently, home and car ownership and the availability of housing features predicted mobility limitation. Shortages of food in childhood and lack of a car in midlife predicted depressed mood. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors from midlife and from childhood affect mobility limitation and depressed mood in old age. Prevention of health problems in old age should begin as early as midlife. PMID:23379351

  20. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with

  1. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures.

    PubMed

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs - but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genesPDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this "Buccal-Cell-Signature" correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  2. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  3. Hematological Indices in Malian Children Change Significantly During a Malaria Season and with Increasing Age: Implications for Malaria Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Diakite, Mahamadou; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diouf, Ababacar; Konate, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul S; Doumbia, Saibou; Diakite, Seidina; Traore, Karim; Doumbouya, Mory; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M; Long, Carole A

    2016-08-01

    Standard hematological indices are commonly used in malaria epidemiological studies to measure anemia prevalence and calculate blood parasite densities. In Africa, few studies have investigated how these indices change during a malaria transmission season and with increasing age. To address these knowledge gaps, we collected blood from 169 healthy Malian children aged 3-12 years before (May 2010) and after (January 2011) a transmission season. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), white blood cell (WBC) count, and WBC subsets were measured in paired blood samples, and the data were stratified by month (May, January) and age group (3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 years). From May to January, RBC count (4.53-4.70 × 10(6)/μL; P < 0.0001), Hb level (11.5-11.9 g/dL; P < 0.0001), and Ht (37.1-39.2%; P < 0.0001) increased, and WBC count (6.46-5.96 × 10(3)/μL; P = 0.0006) decreased. From May to January, the prevalence of WBC subsets also changed: 35-43% neutrophils, 6.5-7.6% monocytes, and 53-45% lymphocytes (P < 0.001). These seasonal changes were not associated with the number of malaria episodes experienced in the interim or the presence of RBC polymorphisms. In May, Hb (11.2, 11.4, and 11.8 g/dL; P = 0.0013) and Ht (36.5%, 36.7%, and 38.1%; P = 0.0154) increased and WBC count (8.04, 6.43, and 5.76 × 10(3)/μL; P < 0.0001) decreased with age group; similar differences were observed in January. These data suggest that season- and age-based reference values for hematological indices are needed to better estimate anemia prevalence and parasite density in malaria epidemiological studies. PMID:27296389

  4. Cycle ageing analysis of a LiFePO4/graphite cell with dynamic model validations: Towards realistic lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasketa-Zabala, E.; Gandiaga, I.; Martinez-Laserna, E.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L. M.; Villarreal, I.

    2015-02-01

    The present investigation work compares cycling ageing behaviour upon constant operation conditions (static tests) with degradation under non-constant schemes (dynamic tests), through a novel methodology for ageing model dynamic validation. A LFP-based Li-ion cell performance loss is analysed using a DOD and C-rate stress factors Ah-throughput-domain characterisation method, and represented using a semi-empirical model. The proposed stepwise validation approach enables assessing the static ageing tests acceleration factor and systematically improving the ageing model. The result is a simple but comprehensive model. The predictions root-mean-square error, under dynamic cycling operation conditions, is just 1.75%.

  5. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  6. Significance of vapor phase chemical reactions on CVD rates predicted by chemically frozen and local thermochemical equilibrium boundary layer theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by vapor-phase chemical reactions on CVD rates by comparing the results of two extreme theories developed to predict CVD mass transport rates in the absence of interfacial kinetic barrier: one based on chemically frozen boundary layer and the other based on local thermochemical equilibrium. Both theories consider laminar convective-diffusion boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers and include thermal (Soret) diffusion and variable property effects. As an example, Na2SO4 deposition was studied. It was found that gas phase reactions have no important role on Na2SO4 deposition rates and on the predictions of the theories. The implications of the predictions of the two theories to other CVD systems are discussed.

  7. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18–39, 40–64, 65 + years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of −0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of −0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81–1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  8. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18-39, 40-64, 65 +  years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of -0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of -0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81-1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  9. The tectonic significance of pre-Scandian 40Ar/39Ar phengite cooling ages in the Caledonides of western Norway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, T.B.; Berry, H.N., IV; Lux, D.R.; Andresen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-Silurian continental-margin deposits in western Norway, non-conformably overlying allochthonous continental orthogneisses retain Ordovician 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages for phengites, implying either rapid cooling immediately after a Late Ordovician orogenic event, or less likely, a slow cooling following an Early Ordovician or older orogeny. The Dalsfjord Suite-H??yvik Group basement-cover pair are probably a lateral equivalent to Late Proterozoic sandstones ('sparagmites') covering the Jotun Nappe gneisses of the Middle Allochthon in central-south Norway. The H??yvik Group underwent polyphase deformation, greenschist-facies metamorphism (Tmax <450??C) and exhumation prior to deposition of the unconformably overlying Wenlockian continental-margin deposits of the Herland Group. The H??yvik Group was only weakly metamorphosed during obduction of the Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite and the Scandian continental collision between Baltica and Laurentia. Phengitic white micas from the H??yvik Group yield cooling ages of 446.1 ?? 3.0, 449.1 ?? 2.2 and 447.5 ?? 4.0 Ma, respectively, identical within experimental error. One sample gives a plateau over 72% of the gas analysed, whereas the other samples were slightly disturbed after initial cooling, as indicated by systematically lower apparent ages at low experimental extraction temperatures. Minor 40Ar loss probably occurred during subsequent Scandian deformation and late to post-orogenic extension. The H??yvik Group rocks were unroofed before the Wenlock time (423-428 Ma) and cooled through the temperature for argon retention in phengite at c. 447 ?? 4 Ma, indicating a maximum cooling rate between 14 and 22??C/Ma-1 through Ashgill and Llandovery times before being subjected to low-grade metamorphism during the Scandian orogeny. Rapid pre-Scandian cooling, combined with peak metamorphic conditions of 450??C or less, may indicate that the Dalsfjord-H??yvik basement-cover pair were affected by an orogenic event during the Late

  10. Age, origin, and significance of an unconformity that predates island-arc volcanism in the northern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Robert J.; Moores, Eldridge M.

    1981-11-01

    The paleogeographic position of rocks of the northern Sierra Nevada relative to North America has long been the topic of debate. A detailed study of the Lakes Basin region of the northern Sierra Nevada substantiates that the Shoo Fly Complex, of early Paleozoic age, was folded and unconformably overlain by an island-arc sequence in late Paleozoic time. Microfossils recovered during the study represent the first in situ fauna ever collected from the Shoo Fly Complex and provide an Ordovician-Silurian lower limit on the early deformation. Late Jurassic (Nevadan) deformation strongly affected all rocks in the region. Regional considerations suggest that mid-Paleozoic deformation may have been widespread in the Sierra Nevada and could indicate an early phase of an eastward-prograding suture that ultimately resulted in emplacement of the Roberts Mountain allochthon of the Great Basin. *Present address: Union Oil Research Center, Box 76, Brea, California 92621

  11. Longitudinal Change in Happiness during Aging: The Predictive Role of Positive Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Holahan, Charles J.; Velasquez, Katherine E.; North, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed hierarchical linear modeling to document the time course of happiness across 20 years from average ages of 66 to 86 among 717 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted. In addition, the study examined the role of positive expectancies about aging, assessed at an average age of 61, in enhancing happiness in aging. The results…

  12. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  13. Incorporation of Half-Cycle Theory Into Ko Aging Theory for Aerostructural Flight-Life Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Tran, Van T.; Chen, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The half-cycle crack growth theory was incorporated into the Ko closed-form aging theory to improve accuracy in the predictions of operational flight life of failure-critical aerostructural components. A new crack growth computer program was written for reading the maximum and minimum loads of each half-cycle from the random loading spectra for crack growth calculations and generation of in-flight crack growth curves. The unified theories were then applied to calculate the number of flights (operational life) permitted for B-52B pylon hooks and Pegasus adapter pylon hooks to carry the Hyper-X launching vehicle that air launches the X-43 Hyper-X research vehicle. A crack growth curve for each hook was generated for visual observation of the crack growth behavior during the entire air-launching or captive flight. It was found that taxiing and the takeoff run induced a major portion of the total crack growth per flight. The operational life theory presented can be applied to estimate the service life of any failure-critical structural components.

  14. Assessment of MRI-Based Automated Fetal Cerebral Cortical Folding Measures in Prediction of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Awate, S.P.; Licht, D.J.; Clouchoux, C.; du Plessis, A.J.; Avants, B.B.; Vossough, A.; Gee, J.C.; Limperopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging. We compared the accuracy of the prediction of gestational age by these cortical folding measureswiththeaccuracyofpredictionbybrainvolumemeasurementandbyapreviouslyreportedsemiquantitativevisualscaleofbrain maturity. Regression models were constructed, and measurement biases and variances were determined via a cross-validation procedure. RESULTS The cortical folding measures are accurate in the estimation and prediction of gestational age (mean of the absolute error, 0.43 ± 0.45 weeks) and perform better than (P = .024) brain volume (mean of the absolute error, 0.72 ± 0.61 weeks) or sonography measures (SDs approximately 1.5 weeks, as reported in literature). Prediction accuracy is comparable with that of the semiquantitative visual assessment score (mean, 0.57 ± 0.41 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative cortical folding measures such as global average curvedness can be an accurate and reliable estimator of gestational age and brain maturity for healthy fetuses in the third trimester and have the potential to be an indicator of brain-growth delays for at-risk fetuses and preterm neonates. PMID:26045578

  15. Prediction of hardness minimum locations during natural aging in an aluminum alloy 6061-T6 friction stir weld

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Choo, Hahn; Feng, Zhili; Withers, Prof Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a simple model that can predict the evolution of hardness distribution as a function of natural aging time in a heat-treatable 6061-T6 Al alloy plate subjected to friction stir welding (FSW). First, two dimensional thermal distributions were simulated as a function of time in the FSW plate by finite element modeling. Second, the hardness changes during natural aging were measured as a function of aging time for a number of Al specimens that had been previously isothermally heat-treated to different hold temperatures in order to determine the natural aging kinetics. Finally, the simulated temperature profiles and the natural aging kinetics were correlated to predict the hardness profiles in the FSW plate. The predicted hardness variations are consistent with measured hardness profiles in that the location of minimum hardness moves away from the centerline as the aging time and/or heat input increases. The hardness variation was also related to the location of failure in cross-weld tensile samples.

  16. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  17. US/UK second level panel discussions on the health and value of: Ageing and lifetime predictions (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G

    2011-01-18

    Many healthy physics, engineering, and materials exchanges are being accomplished in ageing and lifetime prediction that directly supports US and UK Stockpile Management Programs. Lifetime assessment studies of silicon foams under compression - Joint AWE/LANLlLLNL study of compression set in stress cushions completed. Provides phenomenological prediction out to 50 years. Polymer volatile out-gassing studies - New exchange on the out-gassing of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) using isotopic {sup 13}C labeling studies to interrogate mechanistic processes. Infra-red (IR) gas cell analytical capabilities developed by AWE will be used to monitor polymer out-gassing profiles. Pu Strength ageing Experiments and Constitutive Modeling - In recently compared modeling strategies for ageing effects on Pu yield strength at high strain rates, a US/UK consensus was reached on the general principle that the ageing effect is additive and not multiplicative. The fundamental mechanisms for age-strengthening in Pu remains unknown. Pu Surface and Interface Reactions - (1) US/UK secondment resulted in developing a metal-metal oxide model for radiation damaged studies consistent with a Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential; and (2) Joint US/UK collaboration to study the role of impurities in hydride initiation. Detonator Ageing (wide range of activities) - (1) Long-term ageing study with field trials at Pantex incorporating materials from LANL, LLNL, SNL and AWE; (2) Characterization of PETN growth to detonation process; (3) Detonator performance modeling; and (4) Performance fault tree analysis. Benefits are a unified approach to lifetime prediction that Includes: materials characterization and the development of ageing models through improved understanding of the relationship between materials properties, ageing properties and detonator performance.

  18. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  19. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  20. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative. PMID:25801548

  1. Aberrant expression of CXCR4 significantly contributes to metastasis and predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Liang, S-X; Huang, W-H; Zhang, H-W; Li, X-L; Xie, L-H; Du, C-W; Zhang, G-J

    2014-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer is known for its visceral metastasis. We have found that CXCR4 is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer and is associated with visceral metastasis. We further investigated whether CXCR4 is a prognostic factor affecting survival following visceral metastasis in breast cancer patients. Our results indicate that increased CXCR4 expression among breast cancer patients with visceral metastasis was positively correlated with poor overall survival (P<0.001). Silencing of CXCR4 was associated with a decrease in the tumorigenic properties of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, caused reversion of EMT and suppression of MMP-9, increased apoptosis, and caused a reduced incidence of tumor lung metastasis in mice. These results are indicative of CXCR4 having a predictive role in patients with visceral metastasis and indicate that shRNA knock down of CXCR4 might be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent breast cancer metastasis when CXCR4 is overexpressed. PMID:24256053

  2. Predicting the risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, V. Shane; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Geda, Yonas E.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to develop risk scores for the progression from cognitively normal (CN) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We recruited into a longitudinal cohort study a randomly selected, population-based sample of Olmsted County, MN, residents, aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004. At baseline and subsequent visits, participants were evaluated for demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological measures, and were classified as CN, MCI, or dementia. Using baseline demographic and clinical variables in proportional hazards models, we derived scores that predicted the risk of progressing from CN to MCI. We evaluated the ability of these risk scores to classify participants for MCI risk. Results: Of 1,449 CN participants, 401 (27.7%) developed MCI. A basic model had a C statistic of 0.60 (0.58 for women, 0.62 for men); an augmented model resulted in a C statistic of 0.70 (0.69 for women, 0.71 for men). Both men and women in the highest vs lowest sex-specific quartiles of the augmented model's risk scores had an approximately 7-fold higher risk of developing MCI. Adding APOE ε4 carrier status improved the model (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We have developed MCI risk scores using variables easily assessable in the clinical setting and that may be useful in routine patient care. Because of variability among populations, validation in independent samples is required. These models may be useful in identifying patients who might benefit from more expensive or invasive diagnostic testing, and can inform clinical trial design. Inclusion of biomarkers or other risk factors may further enhance the models. PMID:25788555

  3. Compensatory effects of pointing and predictive cueing on age-related declines in visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the visuospatial working memory performance of young and older adults would improve if they used a multimodal as compared with a unimodal encoding strategy, and whether or not visual cues would add to this effect. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with trials consisting of an array of squares and an array of circles. They were instructed to point at one type of figure (multimodal encoding strategy) and only to observe the other (unimodal encoding strategy). After each trial, an immediate location recognition test of one of the two arrays followed. In Experiment 2, the same task was used, but a cue was provided, either before or after the encoding phase, indicating which of the two arrays would be tested. Our results showed that a multimodal, as compared with a unimodal, encoding strategy improved visuospatial working memory performance in both young and older adults (Exp. 1), and that adding visual cues to the multimodal but not to the unimodal encoding strategy improved older adults' performance up to the level of young adults (Exp. 2). In both age groups, cueing after encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the second array was tested. However, cueing before encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the first array of the figure sequence was tested. These results suggest that pointing together with predictive cueing can have beneficial effects on visuospatial working memory, which is especially important for older adults. PMID:27126873

  4. Age of First Words Predicts Cognitive Ability and Adaptive Skills in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Jessica; Chlebowski, Colby; Fein, Deborah A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring useful language by age 5 has been identified as a strong predictor of positive outcomes in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined the relationship between age of language acquisition and later functioning in children with ASD (n = 119). First word acquisition at a range of ages was probed for its…

  5. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  6. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  7. Predicting Commitment in Adult and Traditional-Age Students: Applying Rusbult's Investment Model to the Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cini, Marie A.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    Rusbult's Investment Model, a theoretical model of commitment based on notions of social exchange and interdependence theory, was used to predict college commitment in traditional-age and adult college students. A questionnaire assessing rewards, costs, investments, alternatives, and commitment to college was administered to 216 traditional-age…

  8. Can Inhibition at Preschool Age Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Social Difficulties in Third Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Shawn; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether deficits in inhibitory control in preschool-aged children are predictive of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and certain social difficulties in middle childhood, specifically third grade. Although many studies have examined the concurrent relationships among disinhibition, ADHD and social…

  9. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  10. Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

  11. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  14. Acanthosis nigricans predicts the clustering of metabolic syndrome components in Hispanic elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Skipper, Betty; Leggott, John; Sebesta, Emilie; Glew, Robert; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatologic condition associated with hyperinsulinemia, a marker of insulin resistance that is the principal abnormality in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of AN with the clustering of MetS components. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban school-based health center in New Mexico. Students without diabetes were evaluated for AN, a family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and MetS components. The clustering of MetS components by BMI category and AN status was assessed by comparing the group means of summed average z-scores of fasting insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure among the students. A multivariate model with BMI category and AN status controlling for Tanner stage was performed to identify the variables associated with the clustering of MetS components. Results Complete data were available for 90 children (age, 9.7 ± 1.4 years; 94 % Hispanic; 60 % female). In multivariate modeling of MetS cluster z-score, significant differences were found between the students with BMI < 85th percentile [−0.27; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = − 0.42 to − 0.11] and (a) the students with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile with AN (0.74; 95 % CI = 0.17 – 1.31) and (b) the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile with AN (0.86; 95 % CI = 0.54 – 1.18). No significant differences in the MetS cluster z-score were seen between the students with BMI < 85th percentile and those with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile without AN (0.24; 95 % CI = − 0.33 to 0.81) or those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile without AN (0.31; 95 % CI = − 0.13 to 0.75). Conclusions Overweight/obese Hispanic elementary school-aged children with AN exhibit clustering of MetS components and could benefit from early intervention. PMID:23329755

  15. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  16. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  17. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (< ~ 63 μm) of alluvial deposits that sit above the sand and gravel bars of the channel floor, but below the expansive flat surface generally referred to as the floodplain. Variously described as benches, bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over

  18. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  19. Coronary flow reserve estimated by positron emission tomography to diagnose significant coronary artery disease and predict cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Naya, Masanao; Tamaki, Nagara; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death in Japan. Coronary angiography is useful to assess the atherosclerotic burden in CAD patients, but its ability to predict whether patients will respond favorably to optimal medical therapy and revascularization is limited. The measurement of the fractional flow reserve with angiography is a well-validated method for identifying ischemic vessels. However, neither an anatomical assessment nor a functional assessment can delineate microvasculature or estimate its function. The quantitative coronary flow reserve (CFR) estimated from sequential myocardial perfusion images obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) during stress provides an accurate index of hyperemic reactivity to vasodilatory agents in the myocardium. In fact, there is growing evidence that the CFR reflects disease activity in the entire coronary circulation, including epicardial coronary artery stenosis, diffuse atherosclerosis, and microvascular dilatory function. Importantly, reduced CFR is observed even in patients without flow-limiting coronary stenosis, and its evaluation can improve the risk stratification of patients at any stage of CAD. This review focuses on the application of CFR estimated by cardiac PET for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with CAD. PMID:25744627

  20. Validity of VO(2 max) in predicting blood volume: implications for the effect of fitness on aging.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Ludwig, D A

    2000-09-01

    A multiple regression model was constructed to investigate the premise that blood volume (BV) could be predicted using several anthropometric variables, age, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)). To test this hypothesis, age, calculated body surface area (height/weight composite), percent body fat (hydrostatic weight), and VO(2 max) were regressed on to BV using data obtained from 66 normal healthy men. Results from the evaluation of the full model indicated that the most parsimonious result was obtained when age and VO(2 max) were regressed on BV expressed per kilogram body weight. The full model accounted for 52% of the total variance in BV per kilogram body weight. Both age and VO(2 max) were related to BV in the positive direction. Percent body fat contributed <1% to the explained variance in BV when expressed in absolute BV (ml) or as BV per kilogram body weight. When the model was cross validated on 41 new subjects and BV per kilogram body weight was reexpressed as raw BV, the results indicated that the statistical model would be stable under cross validation (e.g., predictive applications) with an accuracy of +/- 1,200 ml at 95% confidence. Our results support the hypothesis that BV is an increasing function of aerobic fitness and to a lesser extent the age of the subject. The results may have implication as to a mechanism by which aerobic fitness and activity may be protective against reduced BV associated with aging. PMID:10956267

  1. Validity of VO(2 max) in predicting blood volume: implications for the effect of fitness on aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A multiple regression model was constructed to investigate the premise that blood volume (BV) could be predicted using several anthropometric variables, age, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)). To test this hypothesis, age, calculated body surface area (height/weight composite), percent body fat (hydrostatic weight), and VO(2 max) were regressed on to BV using data obtained from 66 normal healthy men. Results from the evaluation of the full model indicated that the most parsimonious result was obtained when age and VO(2 max) were regressed on BV expressed per kilogram body weight. The full model accounted for 52% of the total variance in BV per kilogram body weight. Both age and VO(2 max) were related to BV in the positive direction. Percent body fat contributed <1% to the explained variance in BV when expressed in absolute BV (ml) or as BV per kilogram body weight. When the model was cross validated on 41 new subjects and BV per kilogram body weight was reexpressed as raw BV, the results indicated that the statistical model would be stable under cross validation (e.g., predictive applications) with an accuracy of +/- 1,200 ml at 95% confidence. Our results support the hypothesis that BV is an increasing function of aerobic fitness and to a lesser extent the age of the subject. The results may have implication as to a mechanism by which aerobic fitness and activity may be protective against reduced BV associated with aging.

  2. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicts interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277

  3. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  4. Significance of time awake for predicting pilots' fatigue on short-haul flights: implications for flight duty time regulations.

    PubMed

    Vejvoda, Martin; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Plath, Gernot; Maass, Hartmut; Tritschler, Kristjof; Basner, Mathias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    European regulations restrict the duration of the maximum daily flight duty period for pilots as a function of the duty start time and the number of scheduled flights. However, late duty end times that may include long times awake are not specifically regulated. In this study, fatigue levels in pilots finishing their duty late at night (00:00-01:59 hour) were analysed and compared with pilots starting their duty early (05:00-06:59 hour). Fatigue levels of 40 commercial short-haul pilots were studied during a total of 188 flight duty periods, of which 87 started early and 22 finished late. Pilots used a small handheld computer to maintain a duty and sleep log, and to indicate fatigue levels immediately after each flight. Sleep logs were checked with actigraphy. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were more fatigued at the end of their duty than pilots on early-starting flight duty periods, despite the fact that preceding sleep duration was longer by 1.1 h. Linear mixed-model regression identified time awake as a preeminent factor predicting fatigue. Workload had a minor effect. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were awake longer by an average of 5.5 h (6.6 versus 1.1 h) before commencing their duty than pilots who started early in the morning. Late-finishing flights were associated with long times awake at a time when the circadian system stops promoting alertness, and an increased, previously underestimated fatigue risk. Based on these findings, flight duty limitations should consider not only duty start time, but also the time of the final landing. PMID:25040665

  5. Predictive diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and personalized therapeutic strategy in women of fertile age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has a high risk for malignant transformation and relapses; existing mini-invasive treatments may lead to irrevocable endometrium destruction. The aims were to analyze receptor systems in endometrial hyperplasia, to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonography, sonoelastography for diagnosis and treatment control, and to develop treatment algorithm. Materials and methods We included 313 women (20–45 years), assessed into the following: group 1 (n = 112) with glandular cystic hyperplasia, group 2 (n = 98) endometrial polyps, and group 3 (n = 103) atypical hyperplasia; and 82 controls who have undergone hysteroscopy before in vitro fertilization in tubal origin infertility were also included. Patients underwent clinical examination, transvaginal ultrasound, immunohistochemical study, and hormonal therapy/hysteroresectoscopy. Results In patients with glandular hyperplasia, we registered increase of endometrium estrogen receptors (75.6% in the epithelium and 30.9% in the stroma; in controls, 43.3% and 29.6%, respectively); in polyps, there was a significant estrogen receptor increase in the stroma (48.2% vs 29.6% in controls), and in atypical hyperplasia, progesterone receptors significantly increased in the stroma. Ki-67 increased (40% to 50%) in the epithelium without changes in the stroma. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 85% for early detection of endometrial pathology and prediction outcome of intervention, and sonoelastography has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 83% for polyp diagnosis. Personalized treatment was effective in 88.8%, relapse was diagnosed in 11.2% after 6 months, and conservative treatment of atypical hyperplasia was effective in 45%: in 25.8%, ablative hysteroresectoscopy was performed, while in 22.6% with comorbidities, hystero/oophorectomies were performed. Conclusions The evaluation of receptor status with ultrasound data in patients with endometrial

  6. Developmental genes significantly afflicted by aberrant promoter methylation and somatic mutation predict overall survival of late-stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Yang, Xue; Cheng, Shujun; Wang, Guiqi; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is an exceedingly complicated process, which involves multi-level dysregulations, including genomics (majorly caused by somatic mutation and copy number variation), DNA methylomics, and transcriptomics. Therefore, only looking into one molecular level of cancer is not sufficient to uncover the intricate underlying mechanisms. With the abundant resources of public available data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, an integrative strategy was conducted to systematically analyze the aberrant patterns of colorectal cancer on the basis of DNA copy number, promoter methylation, somatic mutation and gene expression. In this study, paired samples in each genomic level were retrieved to identify differentially expressed genes with corresponding genetic or epigenetic dysregulations. Notably, the result of gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes with corresponding aberrant promoter methylation or somatic mutation were both functionally concentrated upon developmental process, suggesting the intimate association between development and carcinogenesis. Thus, by means of random walk with restart, 37 significant development-related genes were retrieved from a priori-knowledge based biological network. In five independent microarray datasets, Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analyses both confirmed that the expression of these genes was significantly associated with overall survival of Stage III/IV colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26691761

  7. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bostancic, Chelsea; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah; Galbreath, Robert; Lief, Jonathan; Gutman, Sarah E.

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive {sup 125}I patients and 57 hormone-naive {sup 103}Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes ({sup 125}I 28.1% and {sup 103}Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients <65 years vs. {>=}65 years old (38.5% vs. 16.3%). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, patient age (p < 0.001) and isotope (p = 0.002) were significant predictors for spike. Conclusion: In low-risk prostate cancer, PSA spikes are most common in patients implanted with {sup 125}I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients.

  8. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  9. Predicting school readiness from neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years after respiratory distress syndrome in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    PATRIANAKOS-HOOBLER, ATHENA I; MSALL, MICHAEL E; HUO, DEZHENG; MARKS, JEREMY D; PLESHA-TROYKE, SUSAN; SCHREIBER, MICHAEL D

    2010-01-01

    AIM To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. METHOD Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal outcomes at the age of 2 years were defined as neurosensory disability (cerebral palsy, blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no neurosensory disability but Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental or performance developmental index scores <70). School readiness (assessed at a mean age of 5y 6mo, SD 1y) was determined using neurodevelopmental assessments of motor, sensory, receptive vocabulary, perceptual, conceptual, and adaptive skills. RESULTS The mean birthweight of the cohort (57 males, 64 females) was 987g (SD 374), and the mean gestational age was 27.3 weeks (SD 2.6). At the age of 2 years, the neurodevelopmental classification was ‘disabled’ in 11% and ‘delayed’ in 23%. At the age of 5 years 6 months, intensive special education was required for 11% and some special education for 21%. Disability and delay at the age of 2 years were 92% and 50% predictive of lack of school readiness respectively, whereas only 15% of children who were normal at the age of 2 years were not school ready at the later assessment. Children with delay at 2 years were more likely to need special education if they were socially disadvantaged. INTERPRETATION Without preschool developmental supports, preterm survivors living in poverty will require more special education services. PMID:20002128

  10. A risk score for predicting 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Fabio; Cavallini, Claudio; Verdecchia, Paolo; Morici, Nuccia; Del Pinto, Maurizio; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Antonicelli, Roberto; Murena, Ernesto; Bossi, Irene; De Servi, Stefano; Savonitto, Stefano

    2015-07-15

    Approximately 1/3 of patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are ≥75 years of age. Risk stratification in these patients is generally difficult because supporting evidence is scarce. The investigators developed and validated a simple risk prediction score for 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age presenting with NSTE ACS. The derivation cohort was the Italian Elderly ACS trial, which included 313 patients with NSTE ACS aged ≥75 years. A logistic regression model was developed to predict 1-year mortality. The validation cohort was a registry cohort of 332 patients with NSTE ACS meeting the same inclusion criteria as for the Italian Elderly ACS trial but excluded from the trial for any reason. The risk score included 5 statistically significant covariates: previous vascular event, hemoglobin level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, and elevated troponin level. The model allowed a maximum score of 6. The score demonstrated a good discriminating power (C statistic = 0.739) and calibration, even among subgroups defined by gender and age. When validated in the registry cohort, the scoring system confirmed a strong association with the risk for all-cause death. Moreover, a score ≥3 (the highest baseline risk group) identified a subset of patients with NSTE ACS most likely to benefit from an invasive approach. In conclusion, the risk for 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age with NSTE ACS is substantial and can be predicted through a score that can be easily derived at the bedside at hospital presentation. The score may help in guiding treatment strategy. PMID:25978978

  11. Early immune recovery after autologous transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients: predictive factors and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Valtola, Jaakko; Varmavuo, Ville; Ropponen, Antti; Selander, Tuomas; Kuittinen, Outi; Kuitunen, Hanne; Keskinen, Leena; Vasala, Kaija; Nousiainen, Tapio; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Jantunen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    Limited data is available about the factors affecting early immune recovery or its clinical significance after autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). We prospectively analyzed factors affecting early immune recovery and outcome among 72 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. Absolute lymphocyte count 15 d after auto-SCT (ALC-15) ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was associated with the use of plerixafor (p = 0.004), the number of CD34(+) cells (p = 0.015), and CD34(+) CD38(-) cells (p = 0.005) in the grafts. ALC-15 ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.021). In patients with aggressive histology, ALC-15 ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L was beneficial in regard to both progression-free survival (p = 0.015) and overall survival (p = 0.002). Early immune recovery seems to be important in transplanted patients with NHL and, therefore, an easy and affordable method for disease-related risk analysis. Patients with aggressive histology and slow immune recovery may need additional post-transplant treatment. PMID:26763346

  12. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  13. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen L.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Henson, Rik; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier; McCarrey, Anna; Price, Darren; Taylor, Jason; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Dixon, Marie; Barnes, Dan; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  14. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  15. Prediction of Preadolescent Overweight and Poor Cardiometabolic Outcome in Children up to 6 Years of Age: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, Alet; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Heijmans, Martijn W; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Twisk, Jos WR; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic risk estimations may enable targeting primary prevention of overweight and overweight-related adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life, potentially serving as a valuable addition to universal primary prevention. This approach seems particularly promising in young children, as body mass index (BMI) changes at a young age are highly predictive of these outcomes, and parental lifestyle interventions at a young age are associated with improved long-term outcome. Objective This paper describes the design of our study, which aims to develop digitized tools that can be implemented in the Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) system or by pediatricians for children up to 6 years of age. These tools will enable (1) dynamically predicting the development of overweight, hypertension or prehypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, and high total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio by early adolescence and (2) identifying children who are likely to have poor cardiometabolic outcome by the age of 5-6 years and by the age of 10 years. Methods Data will be obtained from the Generation R (n=7893) and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA; n=3963) cohorts, two Dutch prenatally recruited cohorts. We will select candidate predictors that can be assessed during the first visit and/or during subsequent visits to the CHC center or pediatrician, including sex; parental age, education level, and BMI; smoking exposure; ethnicity; birth weight; gestational age; breastfeeding versus formula feeding; and growth data through the age of 6 years. We will design dynamic prediction models that can be updated with new information obtained during subsequent CHC visits, allowing each measurement to be added to the model. Performance of the model will be assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Finally, the model will be validated both internally and externally using the combined cohort data and then converted into a computer

  16. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  17. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Alcantara, Pino; Li, Linna; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ≤68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  18. GxE interactions between FOXO genotypes and drinking tea are significantly associated with prevention of cognitive decline in advanced age in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2015-04-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles. PMID:24895270

  19. Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

    2007-03-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

  20. Challenges of incorporating gene expression data to predict HCC prognosis in the age of systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The recurrence of HCC after curative treatments is currently a major hurdle. Identification of subsets of patients with distinct prognosis provides an opportunity to tailor therapeutic approaches as well as to select the patients with specific sub-phenotypes for targeted therapy. Thus, the development of gene expression profiles to improve the prediction of HCC prognosis is important for HCC management. Although several gene signatures have been evaluated for the prediction of HCC prognosis, there is no consensus on the predictive power of these signatures. Using systematic approaches to evaluate these signatures and combine them with clinicopathologic information may provide more accurate prediction of HCC prognosis. Recently, Villanueva et al[13] developed a composite prognostic model incorporating gene expression patterns in both tumor and adjacent tissues to predict HCC recurrence. In this commentary, we summarize the current progress in using gene signatures to predict HCC prognosis, and discuss the importance, existing issues and future research directions in this field. PMID:22912544

  1. The significance of antral follicle size prior to stimulation in predicting ovarian response in a multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocol.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiaohong; Chen, Cai; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Qilin; Yang, Ping; Hu, Jun; Wang, Cong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of ovarian responses prior to stimulation is not only useful for patient counseling, but also important in tailoring the optimal dosage of gonadotrophin for individual patients. By prospectively study of 214 women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment, we obtained data supporting that antral follicle size could be an additional valuable predictive marker other than the antral follicle count (AFC) in predicting ovarian response. Our studies revealed that AFC achieved the best predictive value in relation to the number of oocyte obtained, followed by antral follicle size, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and body mass index (BMI). Unlike AFC, antral follicle size was noted to be negatively correlated with the dosage (R = -0.493) and duration (R = -0.465) of rFSH stimulation. Antral follicle size was also found with higher negative regression coefficient (B = -0.661) as compared with that of basal FSH concentration (B = -0.326) and BMI (b = -0.281). More importantly, women with antral follicle size 6-7 mm showed significantly higher AFC, oocytes retrieved, fertilized oocytes and grade I/II embryos along with much lower transfer cycle cancellation rate (7.5% vs. 16-17%). Together, our data suggest that basal antral follicle size could be a valued predictive marker in women with IVF-ET treatment, in which women with antral follicle size 6-7 mm are likely predisposed to better IVF-ET outcomes. PMID:23330011

  2. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. PMID:26562059

  3. CREB-binding protein (CBP) levels in the rat hippocampus fail to predict chronological or cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Coletta, Christopher E.; Perez, Evelyn V.; Kim, David H.; Gallagher, Michela; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Rapp, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Normal cognitive aging is associated with deficits in memory processes dependent on the hippocampus, along with large-scale changes in the hippocampal expression of many genes. Histone acetylation can broadly influence gene expression and has been recently linked to learning and memory. We hypothesized that cAMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), a key histone acetyltransferase, may contribute to memory decline in normal aging. Here, we quantified CBP protein levels in the hippocampus of young, aged unimpaired and aged impaired rats, classified on the basis of spatial memory capacity documented in the Morris water maze. First, CBP-immunofluorescence was quantified across the principal cell layers of the hippocampus using both low and high resolution laser scanning imaging approaches. Second, digital images of CBP immunostaining were analyzed by a multi-purpose classifier algorithm (WND-CHARM) with validated sensitivity across many types of input materials. Finally, CBP protein levels in the principal subfields of the hippocampus were quantified by quantitative western blotting. CBP levels were equivalent as a function of age and cognitive status in all analyses. The sensitivity of the techniques used was substantial, sufficient to reveal differences across the principal cell fields of the hippocampus, and to correctly classify images from young and aged animals independent of CBP-immunoreactivity. The results are discussed in the context of recent evidence suggesting that CBP decreases may be most relevant in conditions of aging that, unlike normal cognitive aging, involve significant neuron loss. PMID:22884549

  4. Post Eclosion Age Predicts the Prevalence of Midgut Trypanosome Infections in Glossina

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P.; Lehane, Michael J.; Haines, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    The teneral phenomenon, as observed in Glossina sp., refers to the increased susceptibility of the fly to trypanosome infection when the first bloodmeal taken is trypanosome-infected. In recent years, the term teneral has gradually become synonymous with unfed, and thus fails to consider the age of the newly emerged fly at the time the first bloodmeal is taken. Furthermore, conflicting evidence exists of the effect of the age of the teneral fly post eclosion when it is given the infected first bloodmeal in determining the infection prevalence. This study demonstrates that it is not the feeding history of the fly but rather the age (hours after eclosion of the fly from the puparium) of the fly when it takes the first (infective) bloodmeal that determines the level of fly susceptibility to trypanosome infection. We examine this phenomenon in male and female flies from two distinct tsetse clades (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina palpalis palpalis) infected with two salivarian trypanosome species, Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense using Fisher's exact test to examine differences in infection rates. Teneral tsetse aged less than 24 hours post-eclosion (h.p.e.) are twice as susceptible to trypanosome infection as flies aged 48 h.p.e. This trend is conserved across sex, vector clade and parasite species. The life cycle stage of the parasite fed to the fly (mammalian versus insect form trypanosomes) does not alter this age-related bias in infection. Reducing the numbers of parasites fed to 48 h.p.e., but not to 24 h.p.e. flies, increases teneral refractoriness. The importance of this phenomenon in disease biology in the field as well as the necessity of employing flies of consistent age in laboratory-based infection studies is discussed. PMID:22087240

  5. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  6. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  7. Term-tissue specific models for prediction of gene ontology biological processes using transcriptional profiles of aging in drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zou, Sige; Song, Jiuzhou

    2008-01-01

    Background Predictive classification on the base of gene expression profiles appeared recently as an attractive strategy for identifying the biological functions of genes. Gene Ontology (GO) provides a valuable source of knowledge for model training and validation. The increasing collection of microarray data represents a valuable source for generating functional hypotheses of uncharacterized genes. Results This study focused on using support vector machines (SVM) to predict GO biological processes from individual or multiple-tissue transcriptional profiles of aging in Drosophila melanogaster. Ten-fold cross validation was implemented to evaluate the prediction. One-tail Fisher's exact test was conducted on each cross validation and multiple testing was addressed using BH FDR procedure. The results showed that, of the 148 pursued GO biological processes, fifteen terms each had at least one model with FDR-adjusted p-value (Adj.p) <0.05 and six had the values between 0.05 and 0.25. Furthermore, all these models had the prediction sensitivity (SN) over 30% and specificity (SP) over 80%. Conclusion We proposed the concept of term-tissue specific models indicating the fact that the major part of the optimized prediction models was trained from individual tissue data. Furthermore, we observed that the memberships of the genes involved in all the three pursued children biological processes on mitochondrial electron transport could be predicted from the transcriptional profiles of aging (Adj.p < 0.01). This finding may be important in biology because the genes of mitochondria play a critical role in the longevity of C. elegans and D. melanogaster. PMID:18307794

  8. Prediction of RNA binding proteins comes of age from low resolution to high resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Networks of protein-RNA interactions is likely to be larger than protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction networks because RNA transcripts are encoded tens of times more than proteins (e.g. only 3% of human genome coded for proteins), have diverse function and localization, and are controlled by proteins from birth (transcription) to death (degradation). This massive network is evidenced by several recent experimental discoveries of large numbers of previously unknown RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Meanwhile, more than 400 non-redundant protein-RNA complex structures (at 25% sequence identity or less) have been deposited into the protein databank. These sequences and structural resources for RBPs provide ample data for the development of computational techniques dedicated to RBP prediction, as experimentally determining RNA-binding functions is time-consuming and expensive. This review compares traditional machine-learning based approaches with emerging template-based methods at several levels of prediction resolution ranging from two-state binding/non-binding prediction, to binding residue prediction and protein-RNA complex structure prediction. The analysis indicates that the two approaches are complementary and their combinations may lead to further improvements. PMID:23872922

  9. Early clinical signs in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy predict an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at age 6 hours

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An early clinical score predicting an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) or moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may allow rapid triage of infants for therapeutic hypothermia. We aimed to determine if early clinical examination could predict either an abnormal aEEG at age 6 hours or moderate-severe HIE presenting within 72 hours of birth. Methods Sixty infants ≥ 36 weeks gestational age were prospectively enrolled following suspected intrapartum hypoxia and signs of encephalopathy. Infants who were moribund, had congenital conditions that could contribute to the encephalopathy or had severe cardio-respiratory instability were excluded. Predictive values of the Thompson HIE score, modified Sarnat encephalopathy grade (MSEG) and specific individual signs at age 3–5 hours were calculated. Results All of the 60 infants recruited had at least one abnormal primitive reflex. Visible seizures and hypotonia at 3–5 hours were strongly associated with an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (specificity 88% and 92%, respectively), but both had a low sensitivity (47% and 33%, respectively). Overall, 52% of the infants without hypotonia at 3–5 hours had an abnormal 6-hour aEEG. Twelve of the 29 infants (41%) without decreased level of consciousness at 3–5 hours had an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (sensitivity 67%; specificity 71%). A Thompson score ≥ 7 and moderate-severe MSEG at 3–5 hours, both predicted an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (sensitivity 100 vs. 97% and specificity 67 vs. 71% respectively). Both assessments predicted moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72 hours after birth (sensitivity 90%, vs. 88%, specificity 92% vs. 100%). The 6-hour aEEG predicted moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72 hours (sensitivity 75%, specificity 100%) but with lower sensitivity (p = 0.0156) than the Thompson score (sensitivity 90%, specificity 92%). However, all infants with a normal 3- and 6-hour aEEG with moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72

  10. Long-Range Prediction of Population by Sex and Age in Each DistrictBased on Fuzzy Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik; Kim, Gwan

    This paper proposes a method of predicting the population by sex and age for each of 402 districts over a long-range period in the Kansai region, Japan, by applying fuzzy theories. First, to predict the total social increase for 402 districts by directly taking into consideration of differences in factors of migration in each district, nine rules or domains were set up by using the migration rate and the total social increase in each district as the premise variables. Regression models were constructed in the consequences which use various socioeconomic indicators as explaining variables. The future value of the total social increase in each district can be obtained by weighting the values calculated from the estimated regression models with the membership values denoting the degree of belonging to each rule. Second, a method to estimate the social increase by sex and age in each district is proposed based on fuzzy clustering method for dealing with long-range socioeconomic changes in population migration by sex, age and district. All the samples of the migration ratio were classified into the same nine domains. By applying Fuzzy c-Means on districts belonged to each domain, all samples were classified into 20 clusters. The future migration ratio in each district can be estimated by weighting the migration pattern in each cluster with the values of membership function denoting the degree of belonging to each cluster. Results of the validity test of the constructed population model based on the proposed methods are also presented. It has been shown that it becomes possible to predict the population by sex, age and district over a long-range period by using the proposed method.

  11. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  12. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  13. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  14. Self-Paced Study Time as a Cue for Recall Predictions across School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann-Biencourt, Anja; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ackerman, Rakefet; Koriat, Asher

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on metacognition indicates that monitoring is sometimes based itself on the feedback from control operations. Evidence for this pattern has not only been shown in adults but also in elementary schoolchildren. To explore whether this finding can be generalized to a wide range of age groups, 160 participants from first to eighth grade…

  15. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  16. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  17. BUILDING REALISTIC BIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR PREDICTING SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE AGED POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics is a major function of the liver and is important in maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of the organism. The degree to which aging affects hepatic metabolism is not known. The expression of XMEs, in part, determines the fate of the...

  18. Age at diagnosis predicts deterioration in glycaemic control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Mark A; Lind, Marcus; Raman, Sripriya; Patton, Susana R; Lipska, Kasia J; Fridlington, Amanda G; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Wu, Yue; Spertus, John A; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor glycemic control early in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases the risk for microvascular complications. However, predictors of deteriorating control after diagnosis have not been described, making it difficult to identify high-risk patients and proactively provide aggressive interventions. Objective We examined whether diagnostic age, gender, and race were associated with deteriorating glycemic control during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Participants 2218 pediatric patients with T1DM. Methods We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of pediatric patients with T1DM from the Midwest USA, 1993–2009, evaluating within-patient glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) trajectories constructed from all available HbA1c values within 5 years of diagnosis. Results 52.6% of patients were male; 86.1% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. The mean diagnostic age was 9.0±4.1 years. The mean number of HbA1c values/year/participant was 2.4±0.9. HbA1c trajectories differed markedly across age groups, with older patients experiencing greater deterioration than their younger counterparts (p<0.001). HbA1c trajectories, stratified by age, varied markedly by race (p for race×diagnostic age <0.001). Non-Hispanic African-American patients experienced higher initial HbA1c (8.7% vs 7.6% (71.6 vs 59.6 mmol/mol); p<0.001), and greater deterioration in HbA1c than non-Hispanic Caucasian patients across diagnostic ages (rise of 2.04% vs 0.99% per year (22.3 vs 10.8 mmol/mol/year); p<0.0001). Conclusions Older diagnostic age and black race are major risk factors for deterioration in glycemic control early in the course of T1DM. These findings can inform efforts to explore the reasons behind these differences and develop preventive interventions for high-risk patients. PMID:25452876

  19. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  20. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict head circumference at age 2 in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S.; Kuban, Karl CK; O’Shea, T. Michael; Westra, Sjirk; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess how well early ultrasound lesions in preterm newborns predict reduced head circumference at two years, we followed 923 children born before the 28th week of gestation who were not microcephalic then until they were 2 years old. Two independent sonologists agreed on the presence/absence of four lesions, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), moderate/severe ventriculomegaly, an echodense lesion, and an echolucent lesion. Each also recorded the size, laterality and location. 6% of children who had a normal ultrasound scan were microcephalic compared to 15% who had IVH, 19% who had an echolucent lesion, and in 20% who had ventriculomegaly. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for microcephaly associated with different ultrasound images were IVH: 1.5 (0.9, 2.4), ventriculomegaly: 2.7 (1.6, 4.8), an echodense lesion 1.4 (0.8, 2.3), and an echolucent lesion: 2.8 (1.4, 5.4). Ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion had very similar low positive predictive values (24% and 27%) and high negative predictive values (91% and 90%) for microcephaly. Ventriculomegaly had a higher sensitivity for microcephaly than did an echolucent lesion (24% vs 16%). Focal white-matter damage, as characterized by an echolucent lesion, and diffuse white-matter damage, as suggested by ventriculomegaly, predict an increased risk of microcephaly. PMID:20724751

  1. Autonomic Regulation on the Stroop Predicts Reading Achievement in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; Carrere, Sybil; Siler, Chelsea; Jones, Stephanie; Bowie, Bonnie; Cooke, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, a parasympathetic index) both at rest and during challenge, to assess if variations in cardiovascular activity measured during a Stroop task could be used to predict reading achievement in typically developing children. Reading achievement was examined using the Peabody…

  2. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  3. Sex differences of anthropometric indices of obesity by age among Iranian adults in northern Iran: A predictive regression model

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Background and Objectives: The biological variation of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with age may vary by gender. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional relationship of anthropometric measures with age and sex. Methods: The data were collected from a population-based cross-sectional study of 1800 men and 1800 women aged 20-70 years in northern Iran. The linear and quadratic pattern of age on weight, height, BMI and WC and WHR were tested statistically and the interaction effect of age and gender was also formally tested. Results: The quadratic model (age2) provided a significantly better fit than simple linear model for weight, BMI and WC. BMI, WC and weight explained a greater variance using quadratic form for women compared with men (for BMI, R2=0.18, p<0.001 vs R2=0.059, p<0.001 and for WC, R2=0.17, p<0.001 vs R2=0.047, p<0.001). For height, there is an inverse linear relationship while for WHR, a positive linear association was apparent by aging, the quadratic form did not add to better fit. Conclusion: These findings indicate the different patterns of weight gain, fat accumulation for visceral adiposity and loss of muscle mass between men and women in the early and middle adulthood. PMID:26644878

  4. Imageability predicts the age of acquisition of verbs in Chinese children*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weiyi; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; McDonough, Colleen; Tardif, Twila

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are harder to learn than nouns in English and in many other languages, but are relatively easy to learn in Chinese. This paper evaluates one potential explanation for these findings by examining the construct of imageability, or the ability of a word to produce a mental image. Chinese adults rated the imageability of Chinese words from the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (Tardif et al., in press). Imageability ratings were a reliable predictor of age of acquisition in Chinese for both nouns and verbs. Furthermore, whereas early Chinese and English nouns do not differ in imageability, verbs receive higher imageability ratings in Chinese than in English. Compared with input frequency, imageability independently accounts for a portion of the variance in age of acquisition (AoA) of verb learning in Chinese and English. PMID:18937878

  5. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2010-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. Cognitive interference was strongly associated with poorer performance on all 3 cognitive constructs, whereas distress was only modestly associated with lower working memory. The results suggest that cognitive process related to stress is an important predictor of cognitive function in advanced age. PMID:16953715

  6. Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Munson, Jeffrey; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. ASD exhibits great variability in outcomes, with some individuals remaining nonverbal and others exhibiting average or above average function. Cognitive ability contributes to heterogeneity in autism and serves as a modest predictor of later function. We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years. The predictive strength of this brain measure increases over time, and exceeds the predictive strength of a measure of cognitive ability, used here for comparison. These findings have theoretical implications and may eventually lead to neural measures that allow early prediction of developmental outcomes as well as more individually tailored clinical interventions, with the potential for greater effectiveness in treating children with ASD. PMID:23734230

  7. Prediction of troponin-T degradation using color image texture features in 10d aged beef longissimus steaks.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Berg, E P; Newman, D J; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Maddock Carlin, K R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to use digital color image texture features to predict troponin-T degradation in beef. Image texture features, including 88 gray level co-occurrence texture features, 81 two-dimension fast Fourier transformation texture features, and 48 Gabor wavelet filter texture features, were extracted from color images of beef strip steaks (longissimus dorsi, n = 102) aged for 10d obtained using a digital camera and additional lighting. Steaks were designated degraded or not-degraded based on troponin-T degradation determined on d 3 and d 10 postmortem by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis (STEPWISE regression model) and artificial neural network (support vector machine model, SVM) methods were designed to classify protein degradation. The d 3 and d 10 STEPWISE models were 94% and 86% accurate, respectively, while the d 3 and d 10 SVM models were 63% and 71%, respectively, in predicting protein degradation in aged meat. STEPWISE and SVM models based on image texture features show potential to predict troponin-T degradation in meat. PMID:24200578

  8. Age at the onset of senescence in birds and mammals is predicted by early-life performance

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Guillaume; Gimenez, Olivier; Charmantier, Anne; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2010-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that traits involved in maturity, reproduction and survival correlate along a fast–slow continuum of life histories. Evolutionary theories and empirical results indicate that senescence-related traits vary along this continuum, with slow species senescing later and at a slower pace than fast species. Because senescence patterns are typically difficult to estimate from studies in the wild, here we propose to predict the associated trait values in the frame of life-history theory. From a comparative analysis based on 81 free-ranging populations of 72 species of birds and mammals, we find that a nonlinear combination of fecundity, age at first reproduction and survival over the immature stage can account for ca two-thirds of the variance in the age at the onset of actuarial senescence. Our life-history model performs better than a model predicting the onset based on generation time, and it only includes life-history traits during early life as explanatory variables, i.e. parameters that are both theoretically expected to shape senescence and are measurable within relatively short studies. We discuss the good-fit of our life-history model to the available data in the light of current evolutionary theories of senescence. We further use it to evaluate whether studies that provided no evidence for senescence lasted long enough to include the onset of senescence. PMID:20427343

  9. Quantifying garnet-melt trace element partitioning using lattice-strain theory: assessment of statistically significant controls and a new predictive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, David S.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2007-12-01

    As a complement to our efforts to update and revise the thermodynamic basis for predicting garnet-melt trace element partitioning using lattice-strain theory (van Westrenen and Draper in Contrib Mineral Petrol, this issue), we have performed detailed statistical evaluations of possible correlations between intensive and extensive variables and experimentally determined garnet-melt partitioning values for trivalent cations (rare earth elements, Y, and Sc) entering the dodecahedral garnet X-site. We applied these evaluations to a database containing over 300 partition coefficient determinations, compiled both from literature values and from our own work designed in part to expand that database. Available data include partitioning measurements in ultramafic to basaltic to intermediate bulk compositions, and recent studies in Fe-rich systems relevant to extraterrestrial petrogenesis, at pressures sufficiently high such that a significant component of majorite, the high-pressure form of garnet, is present. Through the application of lattice-strain theory, we obtained best-fit values for the ideal ionic radius of the dodecahedral garnet X-site, r 0(3+), its apparent Young’s modulus E(3+), and the strain-free partition coefficient D 0(3+) for a fictive REE element J of ionic radius r 0(3+). Resulting values of E, D 0, and r 0 were used in multiple linear regressions involving sixteen variables that reflect the possible influence of garnet composition and stoichiometry, melt composition and structure, major-element partitioning, pressure, and temperature. We find no statistically significant correlations between fitted r 0 and E values and any combination of variables. However, a highly robust correlation between fitted D 0 and garnet-melt Fe Mg exchange and D Mg is identified. The identification of more explicit melt-compositional influence is a first for this type of predictive modeling. We combine this statistically-derived expression for predicting D 0 with the new

  10. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  11. Orbitofrontal Cortex Volume in Area 11/13 Predicts Reward Devaluation, But Not Reversal Learning Performance, in Young and Aged Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Thome, Alex; Plange, Kojo; Engle, James R.; Trouard, Theodore P.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2014-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala are both necessary for decisions based on expected outcomes. Although behavioral and imaging data suggest that these brain regions are affected by advanced age, the extent to which aging alters appetitive processes coordinated by the OFC and the amygdala is unknown. In the current experiment, young and aged bonnet macaques were trained on OFC- and amygdala-dependent tasks that test the degree to which response selection is guided by reward value and can be adapted when expected outcomes change. To assess whether the structural integrity of these regions varies with levels of performance on reward devaluation and object reversal tasks, volumes of areas 11/13 and 14 of the OFC, central/medial (CM), and basolateral (BL) nuclei of the amygdala were determined from high-resolution anatomical MRIs. With age, there were significant reductions in OFC, but not CM and BL, volume. Moreover, the aged monkeys showed impairments in the ability to associate an object with a higher value reward, and to reverse a previously learned association. Interestingly, greater OFC volume of area 11/13, but not 14, was significantly correlated with an animal's ability to anticipate the reward outcome associated with an object, and smaller BL volume was predictive of an animal's tendency to choose a higher value reward, but volume of neither region correlated with reversal learning. Together, these data indicate that OFC volume has an impact on monkeys' ability to guide choice behavior based on reward value but does not impact ability to reverse a previously learned association. PMID:25057193

  12. Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma predict poor outcome, regardless of the age.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting-Xun; Liang, Jin-Hua; Miao, Yi; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Lei; Gong, Qi-Xing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is defined as patients older than 50 years alone. However, recent studies showed young patients with sound immune status could also be affected. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and outcomes of patients with EBV positive DLBCL in the different age groups using different EBER cut-off values. The prevalence of EBV positive DLBCL was 14.0% (35/250) and 10.4% (26/250) for EBER cut-off of 20% and 50%, respectively. With both EBER cut-off values, patients with EBV DLBCL shared many unfavorable prognostic characteristics, regardless of age. EBV positive patients, both in the elderly and young groups, showed significantly worse overall survival and progression-free survival than negative cases. Moreover, no significant differences of outcomes were identified between different age groups with EBV positive DLBCL. In conclusion, EBV positive DLBCL patients, regardless of age, shared similar poor prognostic features and showed worse outcome than negative cases. We suggest that the age criterion of EBV positive DLBCL of the elderly, and possibly the name itself, be modified in future. PMID:26202875

  13. Predicting language and social outcomes at age 5 for later-born siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Malesa, Elizabeth; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Yoder, Paul; Warren, Zachary; Walden, Tedra; Stone, Wendy L

    2013-09-01

    The relation between early joint attention (in which a child coordinates attention between another person and an object or event) and later language and social outcomes was examined in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD) and younger siblings of children with typical development (Sibs-TD). Initial levels of joint attention (at a mean age of 15 months) as well as growth in levels of joint attention (between 15 months and 34 months) were used as potential predictors of outcomes at age 5. The results revealed that initial levels of initiating joint attention (IJA) were associated with language skills at outcome. In addition, growth of responding to joint attention (RJA) was associated with social skills at age 5. These patterns of associations were not significantly different between the Sibs-TD and Sibs-ASD groups. Although the Sibs-ASD group had lower joint attention scores than the Sibs-TD group at younger ages, significant group differences were not found for most measures at age 5. PMID:22751752

  14. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in ¸ earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  15. The prognostic significance of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and PIN1 in minor salivary gland carcinoma: β-catenin predicts overall survival.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Thurnher, Dietmar; Seemann, Rudolf; Brunner, Markus; Kadletz, Lorenz; Ghanim, Bahil; Aumayr, Klaus; Heiduschka, Gregor; Lill, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinoma is a rare and heterogeneous type of cancer. Molecular prognostic and predictive markers are sparse. The aim of this study was to identify new prognostic and predictive markers in minor salivary gland carcinoma. 50 tissue samples of carcinomas of the minor salivary glands (adenoid cystic carcinoma n = 23, mucoepidermoid carcinoma n = 12, adenocarcinoma n = 10, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma n = 2, salivary duct carcinoma n = 1, clear cell carcinoma n = 1, basal cell carcinoma n = 1) were immunohistochemically stained for β-catenin, cyclin D1 and PIN1. Expression patterns were analyzed and correlated to clinical outcome of 37 patients with complete clinical data. High expression of membranous β-catenin was linked to significantly better overall survival in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (log rank test, χ (2) = 13.3, p = .00397, Bonferroni corrected p = .024). PIN1 and cyclin D1 did not show any significant correlation to patients' clinical outcome. Expression of β-catenin in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands significantly correlates with better overall survival. Hence, evaluation of β-catenin might serve as a clinical prognostic marker. PMID:25801951

  16. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żelaźniewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Trần Trọng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along

  17. Joint Analyses of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data in Research on Aging: Implications for Predicting Health and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the “joint models” (JM). An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM), has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes, which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here, we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused) applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  18. Sex differences in cognitive ageing: testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode.

    PubMed

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Kolm, Niclas; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-12-01

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphism in age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory. PMID:24120565

  19. Comparing Record Dynamics Predictions with Simulations and Experiments of Aging Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    We describe the spontaneous off-equilibrium relaxation process known as aging in a simple, real-space model: Kinetic constraints bind on-lattice particles together in ``clusters,'' where a phenomenological function of size controls their lifetime. But once a cluster breaks down, its particles can move independently in space, a process akin to ``cage breaking,'' to join other clusters.Known properties of glassy systems emerge, such as spatial heterogeneity and record dynamics. Here we compare our simple model with recent molecular dynamics studies of hard-sphere colloids.We find agreement with the scaling properties of the particles mean square displacement, and the aging properties of the interface energy, of the intermediate scattering function, and of the probability density function of the particle displacements occurring within different time windows. These properties are related to an underlying Poisson process which describes the salient events or quakes which correspond to the break up of clusters and give a coarse-grained description of the model dynamics, confirmed by re-analysis of experimental data. SB acknowledges support from NSF with DMR-grant #1207431, and thanks SDU for its hospitality and the Villum Foundation for support.

  20. Predicting the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Age of Onset through Modelling Genetic Risk Variants with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  1. A 5-year survey of biopsy proven kidney diseases in Lebanon: significant variation in prevalence of primary glomerular diseases by age, population structure and consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Karnib, Hussein H.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Aftimos, Georges; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Saad, Reem; Gemayel, Elias; Masri, Badiaa; Assaad, Shafika; Badr, Kamal F.; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Differences in epidemiology of kidney disease across the Middle East may arise from variations in indication for biopsy, environmental exposure and socio-economic status. The Lebanese population is composed of different ethnicities, with distinct ancestry and religion, enabling comparison of their effect on the prevalence of kidney disease within a confined geographic setting and uniform practices. Here we report 5 years’ detailed epidemiology of renal diseases, based on histological diagnosis, in a sample from three large pathology centres in Lebanon. Methods. Records of renal biopsies analysed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital and the Institut National de Pathologie from January 2003 till December 2007 were retrospectively examined. We recorded the following data for each patient: age, gender, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. Religious affiliation and parents’ consanguinity were recorded when feasible. Results. The mean age at renal biopsy was 36.76 ± 20 years (range 1–84). The most common diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN; 20%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.2%). While there were no differences in age, gender or indications for biopsy among different religious affiliations, mesangioproliferative GN was significantly more frequent among Muslims (P = 0.039) and offspring of consanguineous unions (P = 0.036). On the other hand, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was most prevalent in Christians (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Variation in the distribution of diagnoses between Muslim and Christian groups likely reflects differences in population structure and ancestry. In particular, the increased prevalence of mesangioproliferative GN among offspring of consanguineous unions in Muslims suggests a recessive genetic component to this disease which may be identified via homozygosity mapping. These findings have important

  2. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J C; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Dantuma, Nico P; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  3. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J. C.; Van Leeuwen, Fred W.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  4. Predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory periodontology: 'the 5Ps age' has already started.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Matarasso, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An impressive progress in dentistry has been recorded in the last decades. In order to reconsider guidelines in dentistry, it is required to introduce new concepts of personalised patient treatments: the wave of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine is rapidly incoming in dentistry. Worldwide dentists have to make a big cultural effort in changing the actual 'reactive' therapeutic point of view, belonging to the last century, into a futuristic 'predictive' one. The first cause of tooth loss in industrialised world is periodontitis, a Gram-negative anaerobic infection whose pathogenesis is genetically determined and characterised by complex immune reactions. Chairside diagnostic tests based on saliva, gingival crevicular fluid and cell sampling are going to be routinely used by periodontists for a new approach to the diagnosis, monitoring, prognosis and management of periodontal patients. The futuristic '5Ps' (predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory periodontology) focuses on early integrated diagnosis (genetic, microbiology, host-derived biomarker detection) and on the active role of the patient in which networked patients will shift from being mere passengers to responsible drivers of their health. In this paper, we intend to propose five diagnostic levels (high-tech diagnostic tools, genetic susceptibility, bacterial infection, host response factors and tissue breakdown-derived products) to be evaluated with the intention to obtain a clear picture of the vulnerability of a single individual to periodontitis in order to organise patient stratification in different categories of risk. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology may soon become an important part of efforts to improve worldwide periodontal health in developed nations as well as in the underserved communities, resource-poor areas and poor countries. The use of LOC devices for periodontal inspection will allow patients to be screened for periodontal diseases in settings other than the

  5. Developmental Risk and Young Children’s Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Arbona, Anita Pedersen y; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised of 137 typically developing children and 94 children with developmental delays were examined during mildly frustrating laboratory tasks across the preschool period (ages 3–5). Results indicated that children with delays had greater use of maladaptive strategies (distraction, distress venting) and lower use of adaptive strategies (constructive coping) than typically developing children. For both groups, strategies had similar rates of growth across time; maladaptive strategies decreased and adaptive strategies increased. The intercept of strategy use, but not the slope, was found to mediate the relation between developmental risk and externalizing behaviors. Findings support that dysregulation, rather than the developmental risk, may be responsible for the high levels of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:21107675

  6. Prognostic significance of electrical alternans versus signal averaged electrocardiography in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armoundas, A. A.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Ruskin, J. N.; Garan, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) and measurement of microvolt level T wave alternans as predictors of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. DESIGN: Analysis of new data from a previously published prospective investigation. SETTING: Electrophysiology laboratory of a major referral hospital. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: 43 patients, not on class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug treatment, undergoing invasive electrophysiological testing had SAECG and T wave alternans measurements. The SAECG was considered positive in the presence of one (SAECG-I) or two (SAECG-II) of three standard criteria. T wave alternans was considered positive if the alternans ratio exceeded 3.0. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inducibility of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation during electrophysiological testing, and 20 month arrhythmia-free survival. RESULTS: The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing was 84% (p < 0.0001). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 60%; p < 0.29) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.10) was a statistically significant predictor of electrophysiological testing. SAECG, T wave alternans, electrophysiological testing, and follow up data were available in 36 patients while not on class I or III antiarrhythmic agents. The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of arrhythmia-free survival was 86% (p < 0.030). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 65%; p < 0.21) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.48) was a statistically significant predictor of arrhythmia-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: T wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival, while SAECG was not a statistically significant predictor. Although these results need to be confirmed in prospective clinical studies, they suggest that T wave alternans may serve as a non-invasive probe for screening high risk populations for malignant ventricular

  7. Predicting ejaculate quality and libido in male ostriches: effect of season and age.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Maud; Malecki, Irek A; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, Paulina K; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Cloete, Schalk W P

    2014-12-10

    The success of artificial breeding program depends largely on the reproductive performance of males. Male performance can vary with season and age impacting on quality and quantity of semen collected for artificial insemination purposes and therefore fertility of inseminated females. We examined variation in semen output and male libido of seven male ostriches (aged 2-5 years) over a period of 24 months. We collected ejaculates using a dummy female and measured semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate, sperm motility and morphology) and male libido (willingness to mount the dummy). A total of 1006 ejaculates were collected. Across months, the volume of semen (mean ± SEM) ranged from 1.03 ± 0.12 mL to 1.85 ± 0.07 mL, the sperm concentration from 3.21 ± 0.12 × 10(9)/mL to 4.16 ± 0.74 × 10(9)/mL, and the number of spermatozoa from 3.42 ± 0.28 × 10(9) to 7.66 ± 0.47 × 10(9). The largest volume of ejaculates and the highest number of sperm were collected in spring. Ejaculates with higher number of normal sperm were also collected in spring-early summer, whereas ejaculates with higher numbers of live abnormal and dead sperm were collected in winter. Sperm motility was relatively constant over months, despite a reduction in summer (January-February), while male libido peaked in winter (June-July) and spring (October-November). Furthermore, we observed high individual variation between males for all variables tested, except for motility. These results indicate that collections conducted in spring yield higher number of spermatozoa, when the libido of males is also at a maximum. Therefore in this species seasonal variation in semen quality should be considered in breeding programmes by artificial insemination to maximise fertility. PMID:25282554

  8. Predictive significance of DNA damage and repair biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercolani, Cristiana; Pizzuti, Laura; Lauro, Luigi Di; Sergi, Domenico; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Dattilo, Rosanna; Botti, Claudio; Fabi, Alessandra; Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Mentuccia, Lucia; Marinelli, Camilla; Iezzi, Laura; Gamucci, Teresa; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Barba, Maddalena; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage is regulated by the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways. We investigated the association between phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks that trigger the ATM-Chk2 cascade, and phosphorylated Chk1 (pChk1), with pathological complete response (pCR) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. γ-H2AX and pChk1 were retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of pretreatment biopsies related to 66 patients. In fifty-three tumors hormone receptor status was negative in both the diagnostic biopsies and residual cancers, whereas in 13 cases there was a slight hormone receptor expression that changed after chemotherapy. Internal validation was carried out. In the entire cohort elevated levels of γ-H2AX, but not pChk1, were associated with reduced pCR rate (p = 0.009). The association tested significant in both uni- and multivariate logistic regression models (OR 4.51, 95% CI: 1.39–14.66, p = 0.012, and OR 5.07, 95% CI: 1.28–20.09, p = 0.021, respectively). Internal validation supported the predictive value of the model. The predictive ability of γ-H2AX was further confirmed in the multivariate model after exclusion of tumors that underwent changes in hormone receptor status during chemotherapy (OR 7.07, 95% CI: 1.39–36.02, p = 0.018). Finally, in residual diseases a significant decrease of γ-H2AX levels was observed (p < 0.001). Overall, γ-H2AX showed ability to predict pCR in TNBC and deserves larger, prospective studies. PMID:26544894

  9. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  10. Experiences of Women Who Underwent Predictive BRCA 1/2 Mutation Testing Before the Age of 30.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Kate; Murray, Alexandra; McAllister, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative interview study focuses on the experiences of a sample of British female BRCA 1/2 carriers who had predictive testing before the age of 30, which is the minimum age for breast screening in the UK. Following appropriate informed consent procedures participants were recruited through the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with seven participants, transcribed in full and analyzed using thematic analysis. The motives for testing and perceived advantages described by participants were similar to those identified in previous studies with older participants, such as increased awareness and knowledge and feeling more in control. However some of the perceived disadvantages were specific to younger women, including feeling pressured to make important life decisions earlier than they would have liked, such as about family planning and risk reducing surgery. Participants also reported feeling abandoned or forgotten because of lack of ongoing clinical contact, or feeling "stuck waiting" for screening to begin. However, none felt that these disadvantages were a reason to regret having testing. Findings in this small study suggest that having BRCA 1/2 predictive testing can have positive outcomes for young women even though they may be unable to access interventions such as breast screening. However it may be helpful to encourage young women during pre-test counseling to explore the decisions and choices they may face. These young women could benefit from ongoing support and follow up and increased interaction with healthcare professionals. PMID:25983051

  11. Childhood Brain Insult: Can Age at Insult Help Us Predict Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Rick; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Jacobs, Rani

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the impact of early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to be less significant than for later brain injuries, consistent with the notion that the young brain is more flexible and able to reorganize in the context of brain insult. This study aimed to evaluate this notion by comparing cognitive and behavioural outcomes for…

  12. Predicting the ageing and the long-term durability of organic polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Rivaton, Agnès; Thérias, Sandrine; Chambon, Sylvain; Manceau, Matthieu; Gaume, Julien

    2010-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on conductive polymers exhibit a unique combination of properties which include low cost, flexibility and large surface processability. Organic photovoltaic could then prevail for some applications alongside silicon, such as nomad or indoor. To achieve this objective, the sustainability of the initial properties in conditions of use of the cell is required, since it could be a lock to the emergence of these devices in the market. The polymers used in solar cells are indeed known to exhibit low resistance to environmental constraints, in particular to the combined action of sunlight, oxygen and water. We present recent results on both the accelerated artificial and the natural outdoors ageing of MDMO-PPV (Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-Phenylenevinylene) and P3HT/PCBM blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) (methano-fullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) ([60] PCBM). The influence of various parameters such as the temperature and the presence of oxygen were studied. The modifications of the chemical structure of both the components of the blend were monitored by spectroscopic analysis (infrared, UV-visible), the morphology of the blends was analysed by AFM and XRD and the photovoltaic performances all along the exposure were recorded. Two important results have been pointed out: on one hand, the Achilles heel of the chemical structure of MDMO-PPV and P3HT under the impact of light has been evidenced. On the other hand, it has been shown that P3HT:PCBM blends are much more stable than MDMO:PCBM blends whatever the conditions of ageing are. Results show that a convenient encapsulation can ensure a promising lifetime of P3HT/PCBM blends in real conditions of use. This work also focuses on this last point and proposes to study and try to understand the behavior of the materials used in the active layer when submitted to photoaging and thermal aging in the absence of oxygen. To fulfil very good encapsulation, glass

  13. Do depressive traits and hostility predict age-related decline in general intelligence?

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Barefoot, John Calvin; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence. PMID:22973515

  14. Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Barefoot, John Calvin; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence. PMID:22973515

  15. Predictive value of pyramidal lobe, percentage thyroid uptake and age for ablation outcome after 15 mCi fixed dose of radioiodine-131 in Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Unaiza; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to find out the efficacy of fixed 15 mCi radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) dose and predictive values of various factors for inducing hypothyroidism in Graves’ disease (GD). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study conducted from January 2012 till August 2014. Patients with GD who had a technetium-99m thyroid scan, thyroid antibodies, received fixed 15 mCi RAI and did follow endocrine clinics for at least 6 months were selected. RAI was considered successful if within 6 months of RAI therapy patients developed hypothyroidism. Results: Of the 370 patients with GD who had RAI during study period, 210 (57%) qualified study criteria. Mean age of patients was 48 ± 15 years with female: male ratio of 69:31, positive thyroid antibodies in 61%, means thyroid uptake of 15.09 ± 11.23%, and presence of pyramidal lobe in 40% of total population. Hypothyroidism was achieved in 161 (77%) patients while 49 (23%) patients failed to achieve it (remained either hyperthyroid or euthyroid on antithyroid medication). Patients who became hypothyroid were significantly younger with higher proportion of presence of thyroid antibodies and pyramidal lobe and lower percentage thyroid uptake than those who failed. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (odds ratio; OR = 2.074), pyramidal lobe (OR = 3.317), thyroid antibodies (OR = 8.198), and percentage thyroid uptake (OR = 3.043) were found to be significant prognostic risk factors for post-RAI hypothyroidism. Gender was found to have nonsignificant association with the development of hypothyroidism. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed age <42 years and thyroid uptake <15% as threshold values for the development of post-RAI hypothyroidism. Conclusion: We conclude that fixed (15 mCi) RAI dose is highly effective in rendering hypothyroidism in patients with GD. Age (≤42 years), thyroid uptake (≤15%) and presence of pyramidal lobe are strong predictors of hypothyroidism and must be

  16. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in & cedil;earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  17. End-of-Discharge and End-of-Life Prediction in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Electrochemistry-Based Aging Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2016-01-01

    As batteries become increasingly prevalent in complex systems such as aircraft and electric cars, monitoring and predicting battery state of charge and state of health becomes critical. In order to accurately predict the remaining battery power to support system operations for informed operational decision-making, age-dependent changes in dynamics must be accounted for. Using an electrochemistry-based model, we investigate how key parameters of the battery change as aging occurs, and develop models to describe aging through these key parameters. Using these models, we demonstrate how we can (i) accurately predict end-of-discharge for aged batteries, and (ii) predict the end-of-life of a battery as a function of anticipated usage. The approach is validated through an experimental set of randomized discharge profiles.

  18. Advanced Age and Disease Predict Lack of Symptomatic Improvement after Endovascular Iliac Treatment in Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Roland; Brownson, Kirstyn E.; Hall, Michael R.; Kuwahara, Go; Vasilas, Penny; Dardik, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endovascular angioplasty and stent placement is currently the most frequent treatment for iliac artery occlusive disease. However, despite a successful endovascular procedure, some patients do not experience symptomatic improvement and satisfaction with their care. This study seeks to identify patient-related factors associated with lack of symptomatic improvement after endovascular iliac artery treatment in male veterans. Methods: Retrospective review of patients treated with endovascular methods for iliac artery occlusive disease between January 2008 and July 2012 at VA Connecticut Healthcare System. Symptomatic improvement on the first post-operative visit was evaluated, with bilateral treatments counted separately. Results: Sixty-two patients had 91 iliac arteries treated with angioplasty and stent placement. Forty-seven (52 percent) legs had critical limb ischemia, and 77 (85 percent) had at least two-vessel distal runoff. Angiographic success was 100 percent. Patient-reported symptomatic improvement at the first post-operative visit was 55 percent (50/91). Lack of symptomatic improvement correlated with older age (OR 1.09 [1.03-1.17], p = 0.008), presence of critical limb ischemia (OR 3.03 [1.09-8.65], p = 0.034), and need for additional surgical intervention (OR 5.61 [1.65-17.36], p = 0.006). Survival, primary and secondary patency, and freedom from restenosis were comparable between patients who reported symptomatic improvement and those who did not. Conclusions: Despite angiographically successful revascularization, patients who are older or have critical limb ischemia who are treated with isolated endovascular iliac artery intervention are more likely to require additional interventions and less likely to experience symptomatic improvement. These patients may need more extensive infra-inguinal revascularization than isolated iliac angioplasty and stent placement, despite a preserved ankle-brachial index. Quality of life needs to be measured

  19. The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) predicts significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Maud; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Nayagam, Shevanthi; Khalil, Mustapha; Suso, Penda; Lloyd, Jo; Goldin, Robert; Njai, Harr-Freeya; Ndow, Gibril; Taal, Makie; Cooke, Graham; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Vray, Muriel; Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Njie, Ramou; Mallet, Vincent; Thursz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Simple and inexpensive non-invasive fibrosis tests are highly needed but have been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using liver histology as a gold standard, we developed a novel index using routine laboratory tests to predict significant fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection in The Gambia, West Africa. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the novel index, Fibroscan, aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and Fib-4 in Gambian patients with CHB (training set) and also in French and Senegalese CHB cohorts (validation sets). Results Of 135 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB who had liver biopsy, 39% had significant fibrosis (Metavir fibrosis stage ≥F2) and 15% had cirrhosis (F4). In multivariable analysis, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis. Consequently, GGT-to-platelet ratio (GPR) was developed. In The Gambia, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the GPR was significantly higher than that of APRI and Fib-4 to predict ≥F2, ≥F3 and F4. In Senegal, the AUROC of GPR was significantly better than Fib-4 and APRI for ≥F2 (0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.86) and better than Fib-4 and Fibroscan for ≥F3 (0.93, 0.87 to 0.99). In France, the AUROC of GPR to diagnose ≥F2 (0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85) and F4 (0.87, 0.76 to 0.98) was equivalent to that of APRI and Fib-4. Conclusions The GPR is a more accurate routine laboratory marker than APRI and Fib-4 to stage liver fibrosis in patients with CHB in West Africa. The GPR represents a simple and inexpensive alternative to liver biopsy and Fibroscan in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26109530

  20. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  1. PREDICTING STEEP ESCALATIONS IN ALCOHOL USE OVER THE TEENAGE YEARS: AGE-RELATED VARIATIONS IN KEY SOCIAL INFLUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary C. K.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Toumbourou, John W.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Young, Ross McD.; Haynes, Michele A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study examined how family, peer and school factors are related to different trajectories of adolescent alcohol use at key developmental periods. Design Latent Class Growth Analysis was used to identify trajectories based on five waves of data (from Grade 6 - age 12 to Grade 11 – age 17), with predictors at Grade 5, Grade 7, and Grade 9 included as covariates. Setting Adolescents completed surveys during school hours. Participants 808 students in Victoria, Australia. Measurements Alcohol use trajectories were based on self-reports of 30 day frequency of alcohol use. Predictors included sibling alcohol use, attachment to parents, parental supervision, parental attitudes favorable to adolescent alcohol use, peer alcohol use, and school commitment. Findings 8.2% showed steep escalation in alcohol use. Relative to non-users, steep escalators were predicted by age-specific effects for low school commitment at Grade 7 (p = .031) and parental attitudes at Grade 5 (p = .003), and age-generalized effects for sibling alcohol use (ps = .001/.012/.033 at Grade 5/7/9) and peer alcohol use (ps = .041/.001/.001 at Grade 5/7/9). Poor parental supervision was associated with steep escalators at Grade 9 (p < .001) but not the other grades. Attachment to parents was unrelated to alcohol trajectories. Conclusions Parental disapproval of alcohol use before transition to high school, low school commitment at transition to high school, and sibling and peer alcohol use during adolescence are associated with higher risk of steep escalations in alcohol use. PMID:23834266

  2. Significance of the whole rock Re-Os ages in cryptically and modally metasomatised cratonic peridotites: Constraints from HSE-Se-Te systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luguet, Ambre; Behrens, Melanie; Pearson, D. Graham; König, Stephan; Herwartz, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    the 187Os/188Os signatures, indicating TRD eruption ages identical with those of the SP. By contrast, the PP and GP, which suffered significant BMS ± PGM addition, have 187Os/188Os considerably shifted toward more radiogenic values. As a result, unrealistically young TRD eruption ages are obtained that cannot be used to constrain the time frame of the stabilisation of the cratonic roots and the mechanisms of craton formation. The Se-Te and incompatible HSE (i.e., Pt, Pd) are powerful geochemical tools to assess the robustness of the Re-Os isotopic system in mantle peridotites. Specifically, Se/Te and Pd/Ir ratios provide complementary insights into the complex metasomatic history of mantle peridotites. The Se/Te ratio is very sensitive to Os-free PGM metasomatism producing highly variable Se/Te >15 at low, relatively constant Pd/Ir< 0.4 but does not affect the 187Os/188Os systematics. This contrasts with BMS metasomatism, where Pd/Ir becomes more variable (>0.4), at constant but low Se/Te <10 and which is accompanied by modification of the Os isotopic composition of the host peridotite. As they are sensitive indicators of BMS ± PGM metasomatism, HSE, Se and Te should be systematically considered when investigating the timing of stabilisation of lithospheric mantle and its petrogenetic history. This would allow a more robust assessment of the Re-Os ages obtained and provide firmer constraints on the evolution and formation of Archean cratons and early Earth dynamics.

  3. Maternal 75-g OGTT glucose levels as predictive factors for large-for-gestational age newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brankica, Krstevska; Valentina, Velkoska Nakova; Slagjana, Simeonova Krstevska; Sasha, Jovanovska Mishevska

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our goal was to investigate which glucose measurement from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has more capability of predicting large for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods The study group consisted of 118 consecutively pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, patients of Outpatients Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders Clinic. All were prospectively screened for GDM between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy and followed to delivery. Outcome measures included: patients' ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI before delivery, FPG, 1 and 2 hour OGTT glucose values, haemoglobin A1c at third trimester, gestational week of delivery, mode of delivery and baby birth weight. Results From 118 pregnancies, 78 (66.1%) women were with GDM, and 40 (33.9%) without GDM. There were statistically significant differences (30.7 versus 5.0%, p < 0.01) between LGA newborns from GDM and control group, respectively. Gestation week of delivery and fasting glucose levels were independent predictors for LGA (Beta = 0.58 and Beta = 0.37 respectively, p < 0.01). Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were compared for the prediction of LGA (0.782 (0.685-0.861) for fasting, 0.719 (0.607-0.815) for 1-hour and 0.51 (0.392-0.626) for 2-hour OGTT plasma glucose levels). Conclusion Fasting and 1-hour plasma glucose levels from OGTT may predict LGA babies in GDM pregnancies. PMID:26909480

  4. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  5. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  6. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents. PMID:27457431

  7. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  8. Prognostic significance of electrical alternans versus signal averaged electrocardiography in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Armoundas, A; Rosenbaum, D; Ruskin, J; Garan, H; Cohen, R

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the accuracy of signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) and measurement of microvolt level T wave alternans as predictors of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias.
Design—Analysis of new data from a previously published prospective investigation.
Setting—Electrophysiology laboratory of a major referral hospital.
Patients and interventions—43 patients, not on class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug treatment, undergoing invasive electrophysiological testing had SAECG and T wave alternans measurements. The SAECG was considered positive in the presence of one (SAECG-I) or two (SAECG-II) of three standard criteria. T wave alternans was considered positive if the alternans ratio exceeded 3.0.
Main outcome measures—Inducibility of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation during electrophysiological testing, and 20 month arrhythmia-free survival.
Results—The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of electrophysiological testing was 84% (p < 0.0001). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 60%; p < 0.29) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.10) was a statistically significant predictor of electrophysiological testing. SAECG, T wave alternans, electrophysiological testing, and follow up data were available in 36 patients while not on class I or III antiarrhythmic agents. The accuracy of T wave alternans in predicting the outcome of arrhythmia-free survival was 86% (p < 0.030). Neither SAECG-I (accuracy 65%; p < 0.21) nor SAECG-II (accuracy 71%; p < 0.48) was a statistically significant predictor of arrhythmia-free survival. 
Conclusions—T wave alternans was a highly significant predictor of the outcome of electrophysiological testing and arrhythmia-free survival, while SAECG was not a statistically significant predictor. Although these results need to be confirmed in prospective clinical studies, they suggest that T wave alternans may serve as a non-invasive probe for screening high risk

  9. The future ``Golden Age`` of predictive models for surface water quality and ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.

    1998-02-01

    This paper is based on a Simon W. Freese lecture given at the ASCE North American Water and Environment Congress `96, Anaheim, California, on June 24, 1996. The role of water quality modeling in providing input to the decision-making process through understanding, dialogue, and consensus is discussed. The evolution of models is seen in three stages. During the first stage (1925 to about 1980), all sources (point, nonpoint, and sediment) were external to the model, but only point sources were directly linked to the originating input During the second stage (about 1980 to 1990), sediment models were coupled to the water column and hydrodynamic and watershed models were linked. A link was then established from watershed models to the input of the watershed. During the third stage (currently under way), airshed models are being incorporated with expansion to include other aspects of aquatic ecosystem. The Chesapeake Bay is used as an illustration. Issues of model credibility and confirmation are discussed; ultimately, the scientific and engineering community decides on the suitability of a modeling framework. The growth in model size over the history of modeling has been significant and parallels the increase in computing power. Future modeling challenges lie ahead in the areas of watershed models, airshed-watershed-estuarine-coastal ocean models, and whole ecosystem, living resources models. The success of water quality models will not necessarily be due to bigness and complexity but rather to increases in understanding, which can contribute to building consensus in water quality management decision-making.

  10. Oxidative Damage, Platelet Activation, and Inflammation to Predict Mobility Disability and Mortality in Older Persons: Results From the Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Kanaya, Alka M.; Patrignani, Paola; Tacconelli, Stefania; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tognoni, Gianni; Harris, Tamara B.; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background. Inflammation, oxidative damage, and platelet activation are hypothesized biological mechanisms driving the disablement process. The aim of the present study is to assess whether biomarkers representing these mechanisms predicted major adverse health-related events in older persons. Methods. Data are from 2,234 community-dwelling nondisabled older persons enrolled in the Health Aging and Body Composition study. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation (ie, urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α), platelet activation (ie, urinary levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2), and inflammation (serum concentrations of interleukin-6) were considered as independent variables of interest and tested in Cox proportional hazard models as predictors of (severe) mobility disability and overall mortality. Results. The sample’s (women 48.0%, whites 64.3%) mean age was 74.6 (SD 2.9) years. During the follow-up (median 11.4 years), 792 (35.5%), 269 (12.0%), and 942 (42.2%) events of mobility disability, severe mobility disability, and mortality occurred, respectively. Only interleukin-6 showed significant independent associations with the onset of all the study outcomes. Higher levels of urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 independently predicted increased risk of death (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.19 and hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.23, respectively). No significant interactions of gender, race, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and antiplatelet drugs were detected on the studied relationships. Conclusions. The inflammatory marker interleukin-6 is confirmed to be a robust predictor for the onset of negative health-related events. Participants with higher urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 presented a higher mortality risk. PMID:22389462

  11. Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Park, Yikyung; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lacey, James V.; Pee, David; Greenlee, Robert T.; Buys, Saundra S.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Rosner, Bernard; Gail, Mitchell H.; Hartge, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. Methods and Findings Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP]), we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI); the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort) the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.04) for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97–1.19) for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11–1.29). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power) were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57–0.59), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66–0.70) for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. Conclusions These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and

  12. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    PubMed

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters. PMID:10368918

  13. Water age prediction and its potential impacts on water quality using a hydrodynamic model for Poyang Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hengda; Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Sauvage, Sabine; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The water quality in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has deteriorated steadily in recent years and local governments have made efforts to manage the potential eutrophication. In order to investigate the transport and retention processes of dissolved substances, the hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was applied by using the concept of water age. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured water level, discharge, and inundation area. The water age in Poyang Lake was significantly influenced by the variations of hydrological conditions. The annual analysis revealed that the largest averaged water age was observed during the wet year (2010) with 28.4 days at Hukou, the junction of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. In the normal season (April), the youngest age with 9.1 days was found. The spatial distribution of water quality derived from the remote sensing images suggested that a higher chlorophyll-a concentration, lower turbidity, and smaller water age in the eastern area of Poyang Lake might threaten the regional aquatic health. The particle tracking simulation reproduced the trajectories of the dissolved substances, indicating that the water mass with greater nutrient loading would further lead to potential environmental problems in the east lake. Moreover, the water transfer ability would be weakened due to dam (Poyang Project) construction resulting in the rising water levels in periods of regulation. Generally, this study quantified an indicative transport timescale, which could help to better understand the complex hydrodynamic processes and manage wetland ecosystems similar to Poyang Lake. PMID:27023820

  14. In vivo imaging of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of albumin: first observations of significantly reduced clearance and liver deposition properties in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Ayumi; Ogura, Akihiro; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Nozaki, Satoshi; Urano, Sayaka; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Kurbangalieva, Almira; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-06-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with various diseases, especially during aging and the development of diabetes and uremia. To better understand these biological processes, investigation of the in vivo kinetics of AGEs, i.e., analysis of trafficking and clearance properties, was carried out by molecular imaging. Following the preparation of Cy7.5-labeled AGE-albumin and intravenous injection in BALB/cA-nu/nu mice, noninvasive fluorescence kinetics analysis was performed. In vivo imaging and fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that non-enzymatic AGEs were smoothly captured by scavenger cells in the liver, i.e., Kupffer and other sinusoidal cells, but were unable to be properly cleared from the body. Overall, these results highlight an important link between AGEs and various disorders associated with them, which may serve as a platform for future research to better understand the processes and mechanisms of these disorders. PMID:26932508

  15. Does self-rated health predict death in adults aged 50 years and above in India? Evidence from a rural population under health and demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Juvekar, Sanjay; Sambhudas, Somnath; Lele, Pallavi; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Berkman, Lisa; Tollman, Steve; Ng, Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Background The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of adults in developing countries. We examine the role of self-rated health (SRH) in predicting mortality and assess how socio-demographic and other disability measures influence this association. Methods In 2007, a shortened SAGE questionnaire was administered to 5087 adults aged ≥50 years under the Health Demographic Surveillance System in rural Pune district, India. Respondents rated their own health with a single global question on SRH. Disability and well-being were assessed using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index, Health State Score and quality-of-life score. Respondents were followed up every 6 months till June 2011. Any change in spousal support, migration or death during follow-up was updated in the SAGE dataset. Results In all, 410 respondents (8%) died in the 3-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was higher with bad/very bad SRH [hazard ratio (HR) in men: 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93–4.87; HR in women: 1.64, 95% CI: 0.94–2.86], independent of age, disability and other covariates. Disability measure (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index) and absence of spousal support were also associated with increased mortality risk. Conclusion Our findings confirm an association between bad/very bad SRH and mortality for men, independent of age, socio-demographic factors and other disability measures, in a rural Indian population. This association loses significance in women when adjusted for disability. Our study highlights the strength of nesting cross-sectional surveys within the context of the Health Demographic Surveillance System in studying the role of SRH and mortality. PMID:23175517

  16. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  17. The Predictive and Prognostic Significance of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bassullu, Nuray; Turkmen, Ilknur; Dayangac, Murat; Yagiz Korkmaz, Pinar; Yasar, Reyhan; Akyildiz, Murat; Yaprak, Onur; Tokat, Yaman; Yuzer, Yildiray; Bulbul Dogusoy, Gulen

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common fatal cancer and an important healthcare problem worldwide. There are many studies describing the prognostic and predictive effects of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erb-B2) and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR), transmembrane tyrosine kinases that influence cell growth and proliferation in many tumors. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the expression levels of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation with other clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods Fifty HCC cases were stained immunohistochemically with these markers. Correlations between the markers and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed. Results No membranous c-erb-B2 staining was seen, whereas cytoplasmic positivity was present in 92% of HCC samples, membranous EGFR was observed in 40%, PI3K was found in all samples, and mTOR was seen in 30%, whereas reduced or absent PTEN expression was observed in 56% of samples and loss of p27 was seen in 92% of the cases. c-erb-B2 and mTOR overexpression, as well as reduced expression of p27, all correlated with multiple tumors (P = 0.041, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). P27 loss, and mTOR and EGFR positivity were significantly correlated with AFP (P = 0.047, P = 0.004, and P = 0.008, respectively). Angiolymphatic invasion was more commonly seen in EGFR- and ERCC1-positive cases (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005). EGFR was also correlated with histological grade (P = 0.039). No significant correlations were found among PTEN , PI3K, and the clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free or overall survival rates showed significant differences among therapy modalities, AFP levels, angiolymphatic or lymph node invasions, and ERCC1 and p27 expression levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions c-erb-B2, EGFR, mTOR, ERCC1 overexpression levels, and loss of p27 may play roles in

  18. Headache in children: young age at onset does not imply a harmful etiology or predict a harsh headache disability.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Sarit; Gordon, Shirie; Schiff, Aharon; Shahar, Eli

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare headache etiology, type, and burden and the learning and behavioral profile in children with early-onset (under 6 years) and late-onset (8-12 years) headaches. The study included 133 patients, 35 in the early-onset group and 98 in the late-onset group. Headache diagnosis was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders -II (ICHD-II) criteria. Learning profile and behavioral problems were assessed by parental reports. Tension headache was the most common diagnosis in the early-onset headache group (51.4%). No significant differences were found between the age groups with regard to headache etiology, disability, abnormal neuroimaging results, school performance, or attention problems. Nevertheless, the early-onset group patients had a significantly higher prevalence of behavioral problems: 25.7% versus 11.2% (P < .02). The authors suggest that early age of headache onset does not imply a harmful etiology or a relentless headache disability or burden. PMID:22914375

  19. JAK2 p.V617F allele burden in myeloproliferative neoplasms one month after allogeneic stem cell transplantation significantly predicts outcome and risk of relapse

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Thoralf; Edelmann, Anja; Siebolts, Udo; Krahl, Rainer; Nehring, Claudia; Jäkel, Nadja; Cross, Michael; Maier, Jacqueline; Niederwieser, Dietger; Wickenhauser, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The risk profile and prognosis of patients with myelofibrosis is well described by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System risk categorization. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is considered for intermediate-2/high risk disease. However, indicators of prognosis after transplantation are still lacking. Seventy simultaneously collected pairs of trephine and blood samples were quantified for JAK2 p.V617F allele burden to compare test sensitivity. The course of 30 patients with JAK2 p.V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasia was correlated with allele burden after transplantation. Monitoring can be performed on full blood samples as well as trephine biopsies, provided that techniques with ample sensitivity (0.01% to 0.001%) are available. Measurement of allele burden on day 28 after transplantation discriminates two prognostic groups: patients with a JAK2 p.V617F allele burden >1% have a significantly higher risk of relapse of JAK2 p.V617F positive neoplasia (P=0.04) and a poorer overall survival (P<0.01). In conclusion, measurement of JAK2 p.V617F allele burden early after transplantation is an important predictive parameter in monitoring patients following this treatment. As this might provide an important tool in early management of imminent early relapse it will be important to define consensus guidelines for optimal monitoring. PMID:23300178

  20. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H.; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Oldgren, Jonas; Siegbahn, Agneta; Stewart, Ralph A.H.; White, Harvey D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which is currently estimated by clinical characteristics. The cardiac biomarkers N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin high-sensitivity (cTn-hs) are independently associated with risk of stroke in AF. Our objective was to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve prognostication of stroke in patients with AF. Methods and results A new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 701 patients with AF and biomarkers levels determined at baseline, median follow-up of 1.9 years. Biomarkers and clinical variables significantly contributing to predicting stroke or systemic embolism were assessed by Cox-regression and each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. External validation was performed in 1400 patients with AF, median follow-up of 3.4 years. The most important predictors were prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, NT-proBNP, cTn-hs, and age, which were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) stroke risk score. The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score in both the derivation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.62, P < 0.001) and the external validation cohort (0.66 vs. 0.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, the ABC-stroke score consistently provided higher c-indices in several important subgroups. Conclusion A novel biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in AF was successfully developed and internally validated in a large cohort of patients with AF and further externally validated in an independent AF cohort. The ABC-stroke score performed better than the presently used clinically based risk score and may provide improved decision support in AF. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT00412984, NCT00799903. PMID:26920728

  1. Perinatal and sociodemographic factors at birth predicting conduct problems and violence to age 18 years: comparison of Brazilian and British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rates of conduct problems and violence in Brazil. Methods Prospective population-based birth cohort studies were conducted in Pelotas, Brazil (N = 3,618) and Avon, Britain (N = 4,103). Eleven perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers during the perinatal period. Conduct problems were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers at age 11, and violence in self-report questionnaires completed by adolescents at age 18. Results Conduct problems were predicted by similar risk factors in Brazil and Britain. Female violence was predicted by several of the same risk factors in both countries. However, male violence in Brazil was associated with only one risk factor, and several risk factor associations were weaker in Brazil than in Britain for both females and males. Almost 20% of the higher risk for conduct problems in Brazil compared to Britain was explained by differential exposure to risk factors. The percentage of the cross-national difference in violence explained by early risk factors was 15% for females and 8% for males. Conclusions A nontrivial proportion of cross-national differences in antisocial behaviour are related to perinatal and sociodemographic conditions at the start of life. However, risk factor associations are weaker in Brazil than in Britain, and influences in other developmental periods are probably of particular importance for understanding male youth violence in Brazil. PMID:25471542

  2. Pretreatment cytogenetics add to other prognostic factors predicting complete remission and long-term outcome in patients 60 years of age or older with acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 8461

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.; Archer, Kellie J.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Ruppert, Amy S.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Vardiman, James W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Baer, Maria R.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Koduru, Prasad R.; Ning, Yi; Mayer, Robert J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative prognostic significance of cytogenetics in 635 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients 60 years of age or older treated on front-line protocols. Classification trees and tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA) were used to identify important cytogenetic groups, and their prognostic significance was then assessed in multivariable analysis (MVA). Overall, 48.5% achieved complete remission (CR); 6.6% survived at 5 years. Complex karyotypes with at least 3 abnormalities (complex ≥ 3) and a group including “rare aberrations” predicted lower CR rates (25% and 30%) versus other patients (56%). Compared with complex ≥ 3, the odds of CR were significantly higher for noncomplex karyotypes without rare aberrations on MVA. Cytogenetically, complex ≥ 5 predicted inferior disease-free survival on TSSA, remaining significant on MVA together with white blood cell count (WBC), sex, and age. For survival, complex ≥ 5, rare aberrations, and core-binding factor (CBF) abnormalities were prognostic (P < .001), with 5-year survivals of 0%, 0%, and 19.4%, respectively, and 7.5% for remaining patients. Together with WBC, marrow blasts, sex, and age, the cytogenetic groups remained significant on MVA. In conclusion, pretreatment cytogenetics adds to other prognostic factors in older AML patients. Patients with complex ≥ 5 appear to benefit minimally from current treatment and are better suited for investigational therapy or supportive care. (Blood. 2006;108:63-73) PMID:16522815

  3. ABCG2, Cytogenetics, and Age Predict Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Daniela; Tiribelli, Mario; Geromin, Antonella; Cerno, Michela; Zanini, Francesca; Michelutti, Angela; Fanin, Renato

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ABGG2 protein overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may be associated with poor response to therapy and increased relapse risk. Few data are available in patients with AML undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), particularly when in complete remission (CR). We analyzed 105 patients with AML who underwent allogeneic SCT in CR evaluating the role of ABCG2 and other pretransplantation features on subsequent transplantation outcomes. Factors negatively associated with leukemia-free survival (LFS) were unfavorable cytogenetics (3-year LFS 48% versus 80%, P = .0035) and ABCG2 positivity (65% versus 80%, P = .045). Three-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in the whole population was 20%; a higher incidence of relapse was associated with adverse cytogenetics (41% versus 16%, P = .018), ABCG2 overexpression (29% versus 15%, P = .04), and, marginally, age > 50 years (30% versus 14%, P = .06). We grouped patients according to the combination of these 3 risk factors: no patient relapsed within 3 years from SCT in the group without risk factors, whereas the 3-year CIR was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2% to 25%) in the group with 1 risk factor and 47% (95% CI, 31% to 70%) in patients with 2 or 3 risk factors (P = .00005). In conclusion, allogeneic SCT does not seem to abrogate the negative prognosis associated with ABCG2 overexpression at diagnosis, specifically in terms of a higher relapse risk. ABCG2, age, and cytogenetics can predict AML relapse after SCT in patients who undergo transplantation while in CR. PMID:27178373

  4. Predictive factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients under 21 years of age and a meta-analysis of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Ji, Qing-Hai; Yang, Shu-Wen; Wei, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The influence of predictors for recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival was analyzed retrospectively in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients under 21 years of age who underwent primary surgical treatment and who had a pathological diagnosis of DTC between 1983 and 2012 at Fudan University Cancer Hospital. Recurrences were retrospectively analyzed using a Cox regression model for the hazard ratio (HR) according to the clinicopathological features. A meta-analysis was performed with respect to the potential predictors for recurrence from current related studies. In the present study, there were 146 young patients aged from 7 to 20 years, with a female/male ratio of 2.65/1. Female gender was the only factor significantly associated with recurrence according to univariate (HR = 2.812, P = 0.037) and multivariate (HR = 4.107, P = 0.024) Cox regression analyses. Meta-analyses revealed that multifocality (HR = 1.91, P < 0.05) and presentation at diagnosis (HR = 1.39, P < 0.05) were highly associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. However, female gender and other factors, such as age (≤10 vs. 11-20 years), PTC (PTC vs. FTC), extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, total thyroidectomy (total vs. less than total), radioiodine therapy, and radiation history, were not associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. In conclusion, multifocality and presentation at diagnosis are strong predictive factors of recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival. We recommend studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up to verify the influence of predictors for disease recurrence in young patients. PMID:26695148

  5. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A.; Knüppel, Sven; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Quirós, J. Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hedblad, Bo; Wallström, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Middleton, Lefkos; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. Methods We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). Results Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63–0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI  = 0.56–0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score. PMID:23874419

  6. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  7. Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…

  8. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, Jeffrey J. Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-08-15

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing {sup 3}H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor

  9. [Studies on the clinical significance concerning the changes in serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin levels in aged patients with chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Y; Kamiya, K; Koyama, M; Asaka, M; Matsushima, T; Myazaki, T; Kamiya, T

    1988-03-01

    Of 86 cases of aged patients with chronic gastritis treated with Trimebutine or Flutazolam, we evaluated the changes of serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin levels in their clinical courses from the points of the correlation with severity of chronic gastritis, aging phenomenon and the changes of symptom and endoscopic findings. In order to elucidate the multidimensional interrelation among these items, we used Hayashi's quantification theory II as a conventional analysis method. In aged patients, generally, although the serum gastrin levels were rather high compared with younger generation, the serum pepsinogen-I levels were consistently low throughout their clinical courses. There were some correlation between the levels of serum gastrin and the severity of chronic gastritis. When the drugs were effective on improving the condition of the disease, the level of gastrin revealed gradual decrease. These changes of gastrin were more typical in patients treated with Trimebutine. PMID:2898425

  10. Cretaceous age of the upper part of the McCoy Mountains Formation, southeastern California and southwestern Arizona, and its tectonic significance: reconciliation of paleobotanical and paleomagnetic evidence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, P.; Page, V.M.; Hamilton, W.; Howard, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The upper part of the 7-km-thick McCoy Mountains Formation in southeastern California contains fossil angiosperm wood that closely resembles the genus Paraphyllanthoxylon, which is known only from strata of late Early Cretaceous and younger age. This wood, in conjunction with geologic field relations, supports previous interpretations that the upper part of the McCoy Mountains Formation is of late Early Cretaceous and/or Late Cretaceous age, in contrast to a more recent interpretation that the entire formation is of Jurassic age. Alternatives are therefore needed to the recent hypothesis that deposition, deformation, and metamorphism of the McCoy Mountains Formation were related to movement on the Jurassic Mojave-Sonora megashear. -Authors

  11. Symptomatology and Coping Resources Predict Self-Care Behaviors in Middle to Older Age Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Lucinda J.; Grant, Joan S.; Gordon, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of heart failure (HF) and coping resources, such as social support and social problem-solving, may influence self-care behaviors. Research regarding the influence of HF symptomatology characteristics and components of social support and social problem-solving on self-care is limited. Objective. To identify predictors of HF self-care behaviors using characteristics of HF symptomatology, components of social support and social problem-solving, and demographic and clinical factors. Methods. Using a cross-sectional, correlational predictive design, a convenience sample (N = 201) of outpatients with HF answered self-report surveys. Multiple linear regression with stepwise variable selection was conducted. Results. Six predictors of HF self-care were identified: race, symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, New York Heart Association Class HF, rational problem-solving style, and social network (β = 34.265, R2 = 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Assessing the influence of race on self-care behaviors in middle to older age patients with HF is important. Clinical assessment that focuses on symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, and HF Class might also impact self-care behaviors in this population. Rational problem-solving skills used and evaluation of the size of and satisfaction with one's social network may be appropriate when assessing self-care. PMID:26618000

  12. Ovarian Function, Not Age, Predicts the Benefit from Ovarian Suppression or Ablation for Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Shusen; Shi, Yanxia; An, Xin; Xu, Fei; Yuan, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The role of adjuvant ovarian suppression or ablation (OS/OA) in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine which patients might benefit from the addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen. We analyzed the data of 2065 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinomas who were treated at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center from 2000 to 2008. The five-year disease-free survival rate (DFSR) and overall survival rate (OSR) were compared by menstrual status and treatment. Compared with patients older than forty years of age, patients younger than forty years old had significant lower DFSRs and OSRs. The addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen increased the DFSR and OSR of patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy, regardless of their age at diagnosis. Patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy are the main beneficiaries of an adjuvant OS/OA. PMID:26866810

  13. The significance of Rb-Sr glauconite ages, Bonneterre Formation, Missouri: Late Devonian-Early Mississippian brine migration in the midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J.; Kish, S.A. )

    1992-09-01

    In his comment on the paper by Stein and Kish (1991), Seidemann suggests that Rb-Sr glauconite dates from Missouri (and particularly those from the Magmont Mine in the Viburnum Trend) do not provide useful age information due to the 'mixing' of common strontium with radiogenic strontium in glauconites. In this reply the original authors address the points brought up by Seidemann and again provide some quantitative limits on the degree to which the addition of common strontium can affect calculated ages of minerals with high Rb/Sr ratios.

  14. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  15. Predicting vision gains with anti-VEGF therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients by using low-luminance vision

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Ronald E P; Shapiro, Howard; Stoilov, Ivaylo

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims To evaluate baseline low-luminance visual acuity (LLVA) as a predictor of visual acuity improvement in patients with neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) receiving antivascular endothelial growth factor A (anti-VEGF) therapy. Methods In the HARBOR trial, 1084 treatment-naïve patients ≥50 years of age with subfoveal wAMD received intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 or 2.0 mg monthly or as needed. To measure LLVA, patients read a normally illuminated ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) chart with a neutral density filter placed in front of the study eye. Patients were assigned into quartiles based on the magnitude of the difference between best-corrected visual acuity under optimal luminance (BCVA) and LLVA (BCVA–LLVA gap). The association between mean change in BCVA from baseline and BCVA–LLVA gap at baseline was analysed using a general linear model. Results A smaller baseline BCVA–LLVA gap predicted significantly higher BCVA gains over 24 months (p<0.0001 at each month; Pearson correlation), even after controlling for baseline BCVA or stratifying by treatment arm. Patients in the smallest baseline BCVA–LLVA gap quartile gained an average of +13.4 letters compared with +2.4 letters for patients in the widest baseline BCVA–LLVA gap quartile. At months 12 and 24, the smallest baseline BCVA–LLVA gap quartile had the highest proportion of ≥15−≥30-letter gain, and the widest baseline BCVA–LLVA gap quartile had the highest proportion of ≥15-/≥30-letter loss (p<0.0001; Fisher's exact test). Conclusions The baseline BCVA–LLVA gap is a significant predictor of visual acuity response to anti-VEGF treatment in patients with wAMD. Trial registration number NCT00891735; Post-results. PMID:26541435

  16. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  17. Lifetime History of Major Depression Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldbacher, Edie M.; Bromberger, Joyce; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Methods Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Results Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06–3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99–3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models. Conclusions This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women. PMID:19188528

  18. On the origin and tectonic significance of the intra-plate events of Grenvillian-type age in South America: A discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, Umberto G.; Fraga, Leda Maria; Reis, Nelson; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the available evidence of intra-plate tectonic episodes of "Grenvillian-type age", affecting the South-American continent, assessing their possible causal correlation with the tectonic processes occurring within the orogenic belts active at their margins. For the Amazonian Craton, the active margin is represented by the Rondonian-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts. However, active margins of similar age are not recognized for the São Francisco and the Rio de La Plata Cratons, and the intra-plate events over them could be reflections of the Kibaran, Irumide or Namaqua orogenic collisions in Africa. Grenvillian-type age events over the Amazonian Craton can be described in four different aspects: shearing and tectonic reactivation along zones of weakness, cratogenic granitic magmatism, alkaline ring complexes, and pervasive regional heating in some localized regions. The first of them may reflect the compressional stresses at active margins, however the others may have different origins. Within the type-region of the K'Mudku tectono thermal episode, mylonites and pseudotachylites cut across the regional granitoid and metamorphic rocks. These shear belts developed under low-to-moderate temperature conditions, that induced resetting of K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral ages. In the São Francisco Craton, extensional and compressional events of Grenvillian-type age are well registered by the structural features exhibited by the sedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup. For example, in Bahia state, an Appalachian-style structure is observed, with large synclines and anticlines extending along hundreds of kilometers. The major difference between the Amazonian and the Congo-São Francisco Cratons is related to heat originated from the Earth's interior. Amazonia exhibits very large areas heated up to 350-400 °C, where the K'Mudku thermo-tectonic episodes were detected. In addition, Amazonia comprises a large amount of cratogenic granitic

  19. Temperamental Qualities at Age Three Predict Personality Traits in Young Adulthood: Longitudinal Evidence from a Birth Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avshalom; Silva, Phil A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied whether behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to personality traits at age 18 after identifying 5 temperament groups (undercontrolled, inhibited, confident, reserved, and well-adjusted). Results pointed to continuities across time. (DR)

  20. The number of elevated cytokines/chemokines in pre-clinical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis predicts time to diagnosis in an age-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin D.; O’Donnell, Colin I.; Hueber, Wolfgang; Majka, Darcy S.; Lazar, Ann A.; Derber, Lezlie A.; Gilliland, William R.; Edison, Jess D.; Norris, Jill M.; Robinson, William H.; Holers, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) biomarker elevations were evaluated and utilized to develop a model for the prediction of time to future diagnosis of seropositive RA. Methods Stored samples from 73 military seropositive RA cases (and controls) from pre-RA diagnosis (mean 2.9 samples per case; samples collected a mean of 6.6 years prior-to-diagnosis) were tested for rheumatoid factor (RF) isotypes, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, 14 cytokines/chemokines (bead-based assay) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Pre-clinical positivity of anti-CCP and/or 2 or more RF isotypes was >96% specific for future RA. In pre-clinical RA, levels of the following were positive in a significantly greater proportion of RA cases versus controls: interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, fibroblast growth factor-2, Flt-3 ligand, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma induced protein-10, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and CRP. Also, increasing numbers of elevated cytokines/chemokines were present in cases nearer to the time of diagnosis. RA cases ≥40 years-old at diagnosis had a higher proportion of samples positive for cytokines/chemokines 5-10 years prior-to-diagnosis, compared to cases <40 at diagnosis (p<0.01). In regression modeling using only case samples positive for autoantibodies highly specific for future RA, increasing numbers of cytokines/chemokines predicted decreased time-to-diagnosis, and the predicted time-to-diagnosis based on cytokines/chemokines was longer in older compared to younger cases. Conclusions Autoantibodies, cytokines/chemokines and CRP are elevated in the pre-clinical period of RA development. In pre-clinical autoantibody positive cases, the number of elevated cytokines/chemokines predicts the time of diagnosis of future RA in an age-dependent manner. PMID:20597112

  1. Differential Prediction of Alcohol vs. Hard Drug Use Levels in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Youth Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    Recent national surveys have found marked increases in the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among adolescents. To investigate differential prediction of alcohol versus hard drug use amoung youths, 6% of the youths, aged 10-19, from a Pennsylvania county school system (N=1,689) were assessed on the HEW Community Youth Program Impact Scales. The 12…

  2. Developing a Comprehensive Model of Risk and Protective Factors That Can Predict Spelling at Age Seven: Findings from a Community Sample of Victorian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serry, Tanya Anne; Castles, Anne; Mensah, Fiona K.; Bavin, Edith L.; Eadie, Patricia; Pezic, Angela; Prior, Margot; Bretherton, Lesley; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to develop a risk model that can best predict single-word spelling in seven-year-old children when they were aged 4 and 5. Test measures, personal characteristics and environmental influences were all considered as variables from a community sample of 971 children. Strong concurrent correlations were found…

  3. PREDICTION OF SEROTONERGIC TREATMENT EFFICACY USING AGE OF ONSET AND TYPE A/B TYPOLOGIES OF ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Roache, John D.; Wang, Yanmei; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Johnson, Bankole A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that ondansetron was efficacious at treating early-onset (≤25 years old) but not late-onset (≥26 years old) alcoholics in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n = 321 enrolled patients, 271 of them randomized). Randomized participants underwent 11 weeks of treatment with ondansetron (1, 4, or 16 µg/kg twice daily; n = 67, 77, and 71, respectively) or identical placebo (n = 56), plus weekly standardized group cognitive behavioral therapy. Methods For this study, we reanalyzed the original sample to determine whether the Type A/B typological classification predicts ondansetron treatment response. In this comparative analysis, k-means clustering was applied to 19 baseline measures of drinking behavior, psychopathology, and social functioning, similar to those used by Babor in the original typological derivation. A two-factor solution described robustly two groups phenomenologically consistent with Type A/B classification. Subjects were subdivided into early- and late-onset alcoholics. Results Seventy-two percent of Type B subjects had early-onset alcoholism; 67% of Type A subjects had late-onset alcoholism. The A/B typology better discriminated two clusters based upon baseline severity of alcoholism. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05) for Type B alcoholics to respond to ondansetron (4 µg/kg); however, Type A alcoholics receiving ondansetron showed no beneficial effect. Early-vs. late-onset classification predicted ondansetron response substantially better than Type A/B classification, which did not add to the prediction of treatment outcome. Further analyses showed that ondansetron was effective in the 33% of Type A alcoholics with early-onset alcoholism but ineffective in the 28% of Type B alcoholics with late-onset alcoholism. Conclusions Type A/B classification best discriminates alcoholic subtypes based upon baseline severity. Early- vs. late-onset classification is, however, a better

  4. Action Imitation at 1 ½ Years is Better Than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjølberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children’s nonverbal skills and language were gathered for 42,517 children aged 18 months and for 28,107 of the same children at 36 months. Panel analysis of latent variables revealed that imitative actions, language comprehension, and language production uniquely contributed to predicting late development of language production, while pointing gestures did not. It is suggested that the results can be explained by underlying symbolic representational skills at 18 months. PMID:23033814

  5. The significance of Rb-Sr glauconite ages, Bonneterre Formation, Missouri; Late Devonian-Early Mississippian brine migration in the midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J. ); Kish, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Rb-Sr mean model ages of 370 {plus minus} 10 Ma for glauconites from the Cambrian lower Bonneterre Formation in southern and central Missouri are in excellent agreement with a Rb-Sr isochron age of 359 {plus minus} 22 Ma for glauconites from the Magmont mine (Viburnum Trend) in the southeast Missouri lead district. The lower Bonneterre and Magmont mines ages probably reflect isotopic resetting, most likely associated with dolomitization and/or Mississippi Valley-type ore formation in the southeast Missouri lead district. The temporal relation between widespread dolomitization and ore formation in Missouri is unclear, but mounting evidence for two Devonian disturbances permits the following interpretation: (1) a Devonian timing (380-400 Ma) for widespread dolomitization, and (2) a Late Devonian-Early Mississippian timing (360-370 Ma) for ore formation in southeast Missouri. Late Devonian-Early Mississippian fluids associated with the earliest stages of collisional tectonics and metamorphism to the south and southeast may have been important in the formation of southeast Missouri ore deposits. These tectonically driven waters may themselves have been the Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids, entering Missouri by way of the Black Warrior basin and Reelfoot rift and/or the Arkoma basin. Alternatively, the movement of orogenic fluids hundreds of kilometers distant may have initiated and distally influenced the migration of more locally derived Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids. Broad regions of Missouri and adjacent areas experienced heating and crustal flexing in the Late Devonian, and consequently, preservation of elevated temperatures in Mississippi Valley-type fluids as they move great lateral distances may not be necessary for ore formation in southeast Missouri.

  6. The impact of ageing on adipose structure, function and vasculature in the B6D2F1 mouse: evidence of significant multisystem dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Anthony J; Henson, Grant D; Hart, Corey R; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel D; Bramwell, R Colton; Enz, Ryley A; Morgan, R Garrett; Reihl, Kelly D; Hazra, Sugata; Walker, Ashley E; Richardson, Russell S; Lesniewski, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The critical influence of the white adipose tissue (WAT) on metabolism is well-appreciated in obesity, but adipose tissue dysfunction as a mechanism underlying age-associated metabolic dysfunction requires elucidation. To explore this possibility, we assessed metabolism and measures of epididymal (e)WAT mitochondria and artery function in young (6.1 ± 0.4 months) and old (29.6 ± 0.2 months) B6D2F1 mice. There were no group differences in average daily oxygen consumption, fasted blood glucose or plasma free fatty acids, but fasted plasma insulin and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR%) were higher in the old (∼50–85%, P < 0.05). Tissue mass (P < 0.05) and adipocyte area were lower (∼60%) (P < 0.01) and fibrosis was greater (sevenfold, P < 0.01) in eWAT with older age. The old also exhibited greater liver triglycerides (∼60%, P < 0.05). The mitochondrial respiratory oxygen flux after the addition of glutamate and malate (GM), adenosine diphosphate (d), succinate (S) and octanoyl carnitine (O) were one- to twofold higher in eWAT of old mice (P < 0.05). Despite no change in the respiratory control ratio, substrate control ratios of GMOd/GMd and GMOSd/GMd were ∼30–40% lower in old mice (P < 0.05) and were concomitant with increased nitrotyrosine (P < 0.05) and reduced expression of brown adipose markers (P < 0.05). Ageing reduced vascularity (∼50%, P < 0.01), angiogenic capacity (twofold, P < 0.05) and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (∼50%, P < 0.05) in eWAT. Finally, endothelium-dependent dilation was lower (P < 0.01) in isolated arteries from eWAT arteries of the old mice. Thus, metabolic dysfunction with advancing age occurs in concert with dysfunction in the adipose tissue characterized by both mitochondrial and arterial dysfunction. PMID:25038241

  7. Age-Related Increase in Food Spilling by Laboratory Mice May Lead to Significant Overestimation of Actual Food Consumption: Implications for Studies on Dietary Restriction, Metabolism, and Dose Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Marlene E.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals. PMID:22451471

  8. Impact of Colic Pain as a Significant Factor for Predicting the Stone Free Rate of One-Session Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Treating Ureter Stones: A Bayesian Logistic Regression Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Doo Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Dae Hun; Han, Jang Hee; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Jung, Hae Do; Kown, Jong Kyou; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Joo Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate colic pain as a prognostic pretreatment factor that can influence ureter stone clearance and to estimate the probability of stone-free status in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) patients with a ureter stone. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,418 patients who underwent their first SWL between 2005 and 2013. Among these patients, 551 had a ureter stone measuring 4–20 mm and were thus eligible for our analyses. The colic pain as the chief complaint was defined as either subjective flank pain during history taking and physical examination. Propensity-scores for established for colic pain was calculated for each patient using multivariate logistic regression based upon the following covariates: age, maximal stone length (MSL), and mean stone density (MSD). Each factor was evaluated as predictor for stone-free status by Bayesian and non-Bayesian logistic regression model. Results After propensity-score matching, 217 patients were extracted in each group from the total patient cohort. There were no statistical differences in variables used in propensity- score matching. One-session success and stone-free rate were also higher in the painful group (73.7% and 71.0%, respectively) than in the painless group (63.6% and 60.4%, respectively). In multivariate non-Bayesian and Bayesian logistic regression models, a painful stone, shorter MSL, and lower MSD were significant factors for one-session stone-free status in patients who underwent SWL. Conclusions Colic pain in patients with ureter calculi was one of the significant predicting factors including MSL and MSD for one-session stone-free status of SWL. PMID:25902059

  9. "It's Mine!" Does Sharing with Siblings at Age 3 Predict Sharing with Siblings, Friends, and Unfamiliar Peers at Age 6?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Naomi; Ensor, Rosie; Marks, Alex; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Studies of children's prosocial behavior typically focus on prosocial acts with a specific partner (e.g., a friend, peer, or sibling), and comparisons of prosociality in different contexts are rare. To address this gap, the current study examined predictive links among children's spontaneous sharing (a common and…

  10. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  11. Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Predicts Immune Recovery, Death, and Loss to Follow-Up Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jessica; Mwale, Jonas; Marx, Melissa A.; Goma, Fastone M.; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the association of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with CD4+ T cell count recovery, death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected adults in Zambia. We compared baseline characteristics of patients by sex and age at ART initiation [categorized as 16–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older]. We used the medication possession ratio to assess adherence and analysis of covariance to measure the adjusted change in CD4+ T cell count during ART. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of age with death and LTFU. In a secondary analysis, we repeated models with age as a continuous variable. Among 92,130 HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, the median age was 34 years and 6,281 (6.8%) were aged ≥50 years. Compared with 16–29 year olds, 40–49 year olds (–46 cells/mm3), 50–59 year olds (–53 cells/mm3), and 60+ year olds (–60 cells/mm3) had reduced CD4+ T cell gains during ART. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for death was increased for individuals aged ≥40 years (AHR 1.25 for 40–49 year olds, 1.56 for 50–59 year olds, and 2.97 for 60+ year olds). Adherence and retention in care were poorest among 16–29 year olds but similar in other groups. As a continuous variable, a 5-year increase in age predicted reduced CD4+ T cell count recovery and increased risk of death. Increased age at ART initiation was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, while age <30 years was associated with a higher likelihood of being lost to follow-up. HIV treatment guidelines should consider age-specific recommendations. PMID:24998881

  12. Significance of new potassium-argon ages from the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Marvin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of volcanic-sedimentary strata are widely distributed within central Utah. We believe that these volcanic and stratified sedimentary rocks, known by different formational names in different parts of this region, are, in fact, segments of one and the same suite of rocks that formed during the early and middle Tertiary. Potassium-argon ages indicate that both the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations formed during the late Eocene to middle Oligocene. The geochronology and stratigraphic relations are stong evidence that the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations are correlative, and that they are one and the same depositional unit. We recognize two sequences of repeated deformation: one that occurred prior to deposition and consolidation of the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, and a second that occurred after these formations were emplaced, in essence, after early Oligocene time. In our view, multiple episodes of salt diapirism explain the structural complexity in central Utah. -from Authors

  13. Effects of breed, sex, and age on the variation and ability of fecal near-infrared reflectance spectra to predict the composition of goat diets.

    PubMed

    Walker, J W; Campbell, E S; Lupton, C J; Taylor, C A; Waldron, D F; Landau, S Y

    2007-02-01

    The effects of breed, sex, and age of goats on fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy-predicted percentage juniper in the diet were investigated, as were spectral differences in feces from goats differing in estimated genetic merit for juniper consumption. Eleven goats from each breed, sex, and age combination, representing 2 breeds (Angora and meat-type), 3 sex classifications (female, intact male, and castrated male), and 2 age categories [adult and kid (less than 12 mo of age)] were fed complete, pelleted rations containing 0 or 14% juniper. After 7 d on the same diet, fecal samples were collected for 3 d, and the spectra from the 3 replicate samples were averaged. Fecal samples were assigned to calibration or validation data sets. In a second experiment, Angora and meat goats with high or low estimated genetic merit for juniper consumption were fed the same diet to determine the effect of consumer group on fecal spectra. Feces were scanned in the 1,100- to 2,500-nm range with a scanning reflectance monochromator. Fecal spectra were analyzed for the difference in spectral characteristics and for differences in predicted juniper in the diet using internal and independent calibration equations. Internal calibration had a high precision (R(2) = 0.94), but the precision of independent validations (r(2) = 0.56) was low. Spectral differences were affected by diet, sex, breed, and age (P < 0.04). However, diet was the largest source of variation in spectral differences. Predicted percentage of juniper in the diet also showed that diet was the largest source of variation, accounting for 95% of the variation in predictions from internal calibrations and 51% of the variation in independent validations. Predictions from independent calibrations readily detected differences (P < 0.001) in the percentage of juniper in the 2 diets, and the predicted differences were similar to the actual differences. Predicted juniper in the diet was also affected by sex. Feces from

  14. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for chemical weathering fluxes within the critical zone (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Huber, Juliane; Leopold, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  15. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for the relief and the interflow within the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.; Huber, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  16. Epidemiological prediction of the distribution of insects of medical significance: comparative distributions of fleas and sucking lice on the rat host Rattus norvegicus in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X H; Guo, X G

    2011-12-01

    Determining the distribution patterns of ectoparasites is important for predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases. A simple epidemiological model was used to compare the distributions of two different taxa of ectoparasitic insects, sucking lice (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and fleas (Insecta: Anoplura), on the same rodent host, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae), in Yunnan Province, China. Correlations between mean abundance and prevalence were determined. Both fleas and sucking lice were aggregated on their hosts, and sucking lice showed a higher degree of aggregation than fleas. The prevalence of both fleas and sucking lice increased with log-transformed mean abundance and a highly linear correlation and modelling efficiency of predicted prevalence against observed prevalence were obtained. The results demonstrate that prevalence can be explained simply by mean abundance. PMID:21453420

  17. Prognostic significance of two sub-categorization methods for the treatment of binge eating disorder: negative affect and overvaluation predict, but do not moderate, specific outcomes.

    PubMed

    Masheb, R M; Grilo, C M

    2008-04-01

    Given the absence of known predictors and moderators for binge eating disorder (BED) treatment outcome and recent findings regarding meaningful sub-categorizations of BED patients, we tested the predictive validity of two subtyping methods. Seventy-five overweight patients with BED who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBTgsh) and behavioral weight loss (BWLgsh)) were categorized in two ways. First, a cluster analytic approach yielded dietary-negative affect (29%) and pure dietary (71%) subtypes. Second, research conventions for categorizing patients based upon shape or weight self-evaluation yielded clinical overvaluation (51%) and subclinical overvaluation (49%) subtypes. At the end of treatment, participants subtyped as dietary-negative affect reported more frequent binge episodes compared to the pure dietary subtype, and those with clinical overvaluation reported greater eating disorder psychopathology compared to the subclinical overvaluation group. Neither method predicted binge remission, depressive symptoms, or weight loss. Neither sub-categorization moderated the effects of guided self-help CBT and BWL treatments on any BED outcomes, suggesting that these two specific treatments perform comparably across BED subtypes. In conclusion, dietary-negative affect subtyping and overvaluation subtyping each predicted, but did not moderate, specific and important dimensions of BED treatment outcome. PMID:18328464

  18. The Predictive Impact of Biological and Sociocultural Factors on Executive Processing: The Role of Age, Education, and Frequency of Reading and Writing Habits.

    PubMed

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura D; Cardoso, Caroline O; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth I; Fonseca, Rochele P

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of education and age on executive functions (EF) has been widely studied, the influence of daily cognitive stimulation on EF has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH) of healthy adults could predict their performance on measures of inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition speed, inhibitory control, and set shifting were assessed using speed, accuracy, and discrepancy scores on the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and Hayling Test. Demographic characteristics and the FRWH were assessed using specialized questionnaires. Regression analyses showed that age and the FRWH predicted speed and accuracy on the TMT. The FRWH predicted both speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test, for which speed and accuracy scores were also partly explained by age and education, respectively. Surprisingly, only the FRWH was associated with Hayling Test discrepancy scores, considered one of the purest EF measures. This highlights the importance of regular cognitive stimulation over the number of years of formal education on EF tasks. Further studies are required to investigate the role of the FRWH so as to better comprehend its relationship with EF and general cognition. PMID:26111081

  19. Effects of Multimedia Social Stories on Knowledge of Adult Outcomes and Opportunities among Transition-Aged Youth with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Sharon; Test, David

    2011-01-01

    Students with significant cognitive disabilities typically experience poor post-school outcomes as adults. Federal legislation and recent research reflect the importance of teaching self-determination skills as a strategy to improve post-school outcomes. However, the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2) reported that individuals with…

  20. Evaluating RNAlater® as a preservative for using near-infrared spectroscopy to predict Anopheles gambiae age and species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito age and species identification is a crucial determinant of the efficacy of vector control programs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has previously been applied successfully to rapidly, non-destructively, and simultaneously determine the age and species of freshly anesthetized African mala...

  1. Age Acquisition Norms from Elderly Spanish People: Characteristics and the Prediction of Word Recognition Performance in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Samartino, Tamara; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Age of acquisition is possibly the single most potent variable affecting lexical access. It is also a variable that determines the retention or loss of words in patients who have suffered brain injury, and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. But the norms of age of acquisition currently available have largely been obtained from university…

  2. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  3. Predicting Vocabulary Growth in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study From 2;6 to 21 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. Method A sample of 519 participants (240 with SLI; 279 unaffected) received an average of 7 annual assessments for a total of 3,012 latent trait Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) observations. Unconditional and conditional multilevel growth models were estimated to evaluate growth trajectories and predictor relationships over time. Results Children with SLI had lower levels of receptive vocabulary throughout the age range assessed. They did not close the gap with age peers. Children with higher nonverbal IQs had better PPVT performance, as did children of mothers with higher education. Child gender showed an advantage for young girls that leveled out with age and then became an advantage for boys from ages 10 to 21 years. All child