Science.gov

Sample records for age skin type

  1. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  2. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  3. The aging skin.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, W F

    1997-01-01

    In the past, sun exposure has been an integral part of the American life style. Along with increased leisure time, outdoor recreational sports, and sun bathing has come greater exposure to the sun. The cumulative effects of unprotected sun exposure coupled with the changes in the ozone layer have resulted in a large photodamaged population and an epidemic of the most dangerous skin cancer, malignant melanoma. Photodamage begins early, with a child's first unprotected sun exposure. Clinical studies show that 50% of an individual's ultraviolet light exposure occurs before the age of 18 years. This damage from acute and chronic ultraviolet light exposure has produced the explosion of skin cancers. Over the next 4 years, it is expected that skin cancer will become the most common type of cancer, and malignant melanoma will become the leading cause of death from skin cancer. This growing hazard to the public has profound medical and psychological ramifications. This paper will focus on prevention, identification, evaluation and treatment of photodamage to skin, as well as skin cancer. Special emphasis will be given to the National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program.

  4. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  5. Skin mirrors human aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies.

  6. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  7. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  8. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  9. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  10. Melatonin and human skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review. PMID:23467217

  11. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  12. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against ... Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ...

  13. A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF SKIN TAGS IN RELATION TO OBESITY, TYPE 2 DIABETIS MELLITUS, AGE, AND SEX

    PubMed Central

    El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ibrahim, Magdy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (STs) have been investigated as a marker of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), yet the relation of STs to obesity is still a matter of controversy. Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relation of number, size and color of STs to obesity, diabetes, sex and age in one study. Methods: The study included 245 nondiabetic (123 males and 122 females) and 276 diabetic (122 males and 154 females) subjects. We recorded age, sex, body mass index (BMI), relevant habits, STs color, size, and number in different anatomical sites. Results: The presence and the mean number of STs was more in obese than nonobese participants (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively) and was not affected by sex. However, the number increased significantly with age. The presence of mixed-color STs was related to obese (P < 0.001) participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that only BMI was significantly associated with the mixed-color STs (OR = 3.5, P < 0.001). The association of DM (OR = 1.7) with mixed-color STs was nonsignificant (P = 0.073). Neither age nor sex had any association with mixed-color STs. Within cases that developed mixed-color STs, the multivariate analysis showed that only BMI had a significant correlation to the number of STs (beta = 0.256, P = 0.034). Conclusion: The study showed that not only the number but also the presence of mixed-color ST was related to obesity, but not to diabetes. The presence of mixed-color STs in nondiabetic subjects needs close inspection of BMI. PMID:21965846

  14. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  15. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research.

  16. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research. PMID:26743051

  17. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  18. Can proton pump inhibitors accentuate skin aging?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Jowkar, Farideh

    2010-02-01

    Skin aging has long been important to human beings and in recent years this field has received tremendous attention by both researchers and the general population. Cutaneous aging includes two distinct phenomena, intrinsic aging and photoaging, and is characterized mainly by the loss of collagen fibers from dermis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed gastric acid-reducing agents that are usually consumed for long periods in some conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We suggest that PPIs can accentuate skin aging by two mechanisms. First, through increasing intralysosomal PH, PPIs can suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) processing and consequently decrease its secretion. Second, through inhibiting MNK, a P-type ATPase with steady-state localization at the trans-Golgi network, PPIs can hamper copper transport and consequently curb lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:20470945

  19. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  20. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Jin; Lee, Sung-Nae; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jihyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; Kim, Min Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-07-01

    Rutin, a quercetin glycoside is a member of the bioflavonoid family which is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the anti‑aging effects of rutin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human skin. We examined the effects of rutin using a cell viability assay, senescence-associated-β-galactosidase assay, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in vitro. To examine the effects of rutin in vivo, rutin‑containing cream was applied to human skin. A double-blind clinical study was conducted in 40 subjects aged between 30-50 years and divided into control and experimental groups. The test material was applied for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks, dermal density, skin elasticity, the length and area of crow's feet, and number of under-eye wrinkles following the application of either the control or the rutin-containing cream were analyzed. Rutin increased the mRNA expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and decreased the mRNA expression of matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) in HDFs. We verified that ROS scavenging activity was stimulated by rutin in a dose‑dependent manner and we identified that rutin exerted protective effects under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, rutin increased skin elasticity and decreased the length, area and number of wrinkles. The consequences of human aging are primarily visible on the skin, such as increased wrinkling, sagging and decreased elasticity. Overall, this study demonstrated the biological effects of rutin on ROS-induced skin aging. PMID:27220601

  1. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging.

  2. Electrical properties of human skin as aging biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Simić-Krstić, Jovana B; Kalauzi, Aleksandar J; Ribar, Srdjan N; Matija, Lidija R; Misevic, Gradimir N

    2014-09-01

    A non-invasive bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and Cole-Cole impedance model parameters (R0, R∞, τ and α) were used to analyze electrical properties of intact and stripped human skin for both gender subjects divided into younger and older age groups. R0, R∞ and τ significantly increased while α significantly decreased with age in stripped skin for both genders (p<0.031). Using pooled data with respect to age, gender and skin stripping, R0, R∞ and τ values were shown to increase with age (p<0.0034), R0, τ and α were different between genders (p<0.024) and R0, R∞ and τ decreased with skin stripping (p<0.000008). All of four Cole-Cole parameters were age dependent with specific differences observed for genders and intact and stripped skin layers. Therefore, Cole-Cole parameters, obtained by non-invasive BIS measurements, are a new type of age dependent biomarkers.

  3. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  4. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Peres, P S; Terra, V A; Guarnier, F A; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2011-05-01

    The impact of chronological aging and photoaging on the skin is particularly concerning, especially when oxidative stress is involved. This article provides evidence of quantitative and qualitative differences in the oxidative stress generated by chronological aging and photoaging of the skin in HRS/J hairless mice. Analysis of the results revealed an increase in lipid peroxides as the skin gets older and in photoaged skin (10.086 ± 0.70 η MDA/mg and 14.303 ± 1.81 η MDA/mg protein, respectively), although protein oxidation was only verified in chronological aged skin (15.449 ± 0.99 η protein/mg protein). The difference between both skin types is the decay in the capacity of lipid membrane turnover revealed by the dislocation of older skin to the left in the chemiluminescence curve. Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidation processes was verified by the decrease in total antioxidant capacity of chronological and photoaged skins. Although superoxide dismutase remained unchanged, catalase increased in the 18 and 48-week-old skin groups and decreased in irradiated mice, demonstrating that neither enzyme is a good parameter to determine oxidative stress. The differences observed between chronological and photoaging skin represent a potential new approach to understanding the phenomenon of skin aging and a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21356598

  5. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Peres, P S; Terra, V A; Guarnier, F A; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2011-05-01

    The impact of chronological aging and photoaging on the skin is particularly concerning, especially when oxidative stress is involved. This article provides evidence of quantitative and qualitative differences in the oxidative stress generated by chronological aging and photoaging of the skin in HRS/J hairless mice. Analysis of the results revealed an increase in lipid peroxides as the skin gets older and in photoaged skin (10.086 ± 0.70 η MDA/mg and 14.303 ± 1.81 η MDA/mg protein, respectively), although protein oxidation was only verified in chronological aged skin (15.449 ± 0.99 η protein/mg protein). The difference between both skin types is the decay in the capacity of lipid membrane turnover revealed by the dislocation of older skin to the left in the chemiluminescence curve. Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidation processes was verified by the decrease in total antioxidant capacity of chronological and photoaged skins. Although superoxide dismutase remained unchanged, catalase increased in the 18 and 48-week-old skin groups and decreased in irradiated mice, demonstrating that neither enzyme is a good parameter to determine oxidative stress. The differences observed between chronological and photoaging skin represent a potential new approach to understanding the phenomenon of skin aging and a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Age-dependent biomechanical properties of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Lelonkiewicz, Monika; Wieczorowski, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The skin fulfills one of its most important functions, that is protection from mechanical injuries, due to the mechanism of reversible deformation of the structure. Human skin is a complex living material but in biomechanical tests it reveals its homogeneous nature. Biomechanical skin parameters change with time. Results of thickness measurements, where the skin was subjected to pressure, revealed that the Young's modulus increased linearly with age. The process of ageing is the reason why the skin becomes thinner, stiffer, less tense and less flexible. Skin tension measured during in vivo uniaxial load and the elasticity modulus are higher in children than in elderly adults. Furthermore, mean ultimate skin deformation before bursting is 75% for newborns and 60% for the elderly. Several types of the main lines were distinguished on the skin. The static lines, described by Langer, correspond to the lines of maximum tension, the Kraissl's lines correspond to the movements of the skin during muscle work, whereas the Borges lines are the relaxed skin tension lines. Biomechanical tests of the human skin help to quantify the effectiveness of dermatological products, detect skin diseases, schedule and plan surgical and dermatological interventions and treatments. PMID:24353490

  7. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-07-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as "adipocyte-myofibroblast transition" (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  8. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as “adipocyte-myofibroblast transition” (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  9. Skin aging, gene expression and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Bischof, Johannes; Richter, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    The human epidermis provides a very effective barrier function against chemical, physical and microbial insults from the environment. This is only possible as the epidermis renews itself constantly. Stem cells located at the basal lamina which forms the dermoepidermal junction provide an almost inexhaustible source of keratinocytes which differentiate and die during their journey to the surface where they are shed off as scales. Despite the continuous renewal of the epidermis it nevertheless succumbs to aging as the turnover rate of the keratinocytes is slowing down dramatically. Aging is associated with such hallmarks as thinning of the epidermis, elastosis, loss of melanocytes associated with an increased paleness and lucency of the skin and a decreased barrier function. As the differentiation of keratinocytes is strictly calcium dependent, calcium also plays an important role in the aging epidermis. Just recently it was shown that the epidermal calcium gradient in the skin that facilitates the proliferation of keratinocytes in the stratum basale and enables differentiation in the stratum granulosum is lost in the process of skin aging. In the course of this review we try to explain how this calcium gradient is built up on the one hand and is lost during aging on the other hand. How this disturbed calcium homeostasis is affecting the gene expression in aged skin and is leading to dramatic changes in the composition of the cornified envelope will also be discussed. This loss of the epidermal calcium gradient is not only specific for skin aging but can also be found in skin diseases such as Darier disease, Hailey-Hailey disease, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, which might be very helpful to get a deeper insight in skin aging. PMID:25262846

  10. Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, P U; Rein, G

    2001-01-01

    Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modifications which manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique among mammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitive to environmental stress. Major environmental factors have been recognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysical properties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substances do affect skin, which is also sensitive to endogenous hormone levels. Factors as diverse as ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pollution, wounds, infections, traumatisms, anoxya, cigarette smoke, and hormonal status have a role in increasing the rate of accumulation of molecular modifications and have thus been termed 'factors of ageing'. All these factors share as a common feature, the capability to directly or indirectly induce one of the steps of the micro-inflammatory cycle, which includes the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells. This triggers a process leading to the accumulation of damages in the skin resulting in skin ageing since ICAM-1 expression provokes recruitment and diapedesis of circulating immune cells, which digest the extracellular matrix (ECM) by secreting collagenases, myeloperoxidases and reactive oxygen species. The activation of these lytic processes provokes random damage to resident cells, which in turn secrete prostaglandines and leukotrienes. These signaling molecules induce the degranulation of resident mast cells which release the autacoid histamine and the cytokine TNF-alpha thus activating endothelial cells lining adjacent capillaries which release P-selectin and synthesize ICAM-1. This closes a self-maintained micro-inflammatory cycle, which results in the accumulation of ECM damage, i.e. skin aging. In this paper we review the evidence that two factors able to induce macroscopical and molecular modifications in the skin, protein glycation and stretch, activate the micro-inflammatory cycle. We further present

  11. Skin Ageing: Natural Weapons and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Binic, Ivana; Lazarevic, Viktor; Ljubenovic, Milanka; Mojsa, Jelena; Sokolovic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The fact that the skin is the most visible organ makes us aware of the ageing process every minute. The use of plant extracts and herbs has its origins in ancient times. Chronological and photo-ageing can be easily distinguished clinically, but they share important molecular features. We tried to gather the most interesting evidence based on facts about plants and plant extracts used in antiaging products. Our main idea was to emphasize action mechanisms of these plant/herbal products, that is, their “strategies” in fighting skin ageing. Some of the plant extracts have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin. There are some plants that can affect skin elasticity and tightness. Certainly, there is a place for herbal principles in antiaging cosmetics. On the other hand, there is a constant need for more evaluation and more clinical studies in vivo with emphasis on the ingredient concentration of the plant/herbal products, its formulation, safety, and duration of the antiaging effect. PMID:23431351

  12. Opioids and skin homeostasis, regeneration and ageing - What's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, Paul L; Dancik, Yuri; Neumann, Christine; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2016-08-01

    What has the opioid receptor system, known for beneficial as well as disastrous effects in the central nervous system, to do with skin? The question is appropriate considering the fact that the nervous system and the skin both derive from the ectoderm. As part of the skin neuroendocrine system, the opioid receptor system exemplifies the closeness between the nervous system and the skin. Overexpression of the δ-opioid receptor in keratinocytes yields dysregulation of involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin, proteins essential to the integrity of the skin barrier. The μ-opioid receptor ligand β-endorphin, produced in the pituitary gland and a variety of skin cells, promotes wound healing via regulation of cytokeratin 16 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in keratinocytes. These and other published results discussed in this viewpoint are evidence for the fundamental role of the skin opioid receptor system in skin homeostasis, regeneration and ageing. While considerable progress in understanding the opioid receptors' function on the cellular level has been made, there is a need to link these results to physiological observations for the development of local skin therapies. PMID:27060353

  13. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  14. Skin tumors in aging Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Adeleh; Loya, Theresa; Lee, Jeffrey L

    2002-06-01

    We report 25 cases of skin neoplasm observed among 30 Long Evans rats serving as controls in a psychosocial behavioral study conducted in the Vivarium at Charles R. Drew University, Los Angeles, CA. The animals were 10 weeks old at the beginning of the study. All the skin tumors developed at 18 to 26 months of age and slowly enlarged over a period of 9 months. Multiple nodules occurred in 8 males and 6 females. None of the tumors regressed. The tumors were located around the hind leg and dorso-medial area and measured 1 to 2 cm. Physical examination revealed firm well demarcated dermal masses. Most of the tumor nodules were intradermal, and some had a central ulcerated or keratin-filled core. Microscopic examination performed on some of the tumors showed findings of classic Keratoacanthoma, whereas others showed histologic features suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. These findings indicate a high rate (83%) of spontaneous skin neoplasms among aging Long Evans rats. To our knowledge, such a high rate of skin neoplasms in aged rodents has not been described in the literature. Furthermore, further studies should be undertaken to confirm these findings and to assess whether these rodents might serve as a model for studying the alterations in the immune system with aging.

  15. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article. PMID:12884471

  16. Oxidative stress in aging human skin.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  17. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  18. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  19. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  20. Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina; Carija, Antoanela; Karlica, Dobrila; Marasović, Dujomir

    2010-09-01

    The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hypopigmentations. Therapeutic modalities imply photoprotection with sunscreens that prevent sunburns and block ultraviolet irradiation. Other modalities include use of retinoids which regulate gene transcription with subsequent cellular differentiation and proliferation. The topical and peroral administration of network antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and glutathione, enhance antiaging effect. The other antioxidants such as green tea, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, selenium and resveratrol, have also antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid and azelaic acid can reduce signs of aging. Studies confirm the efficacy of these topical agents in combination with superficial and/or medium depth or deep peeling agents for photodamaged skin treatment. Indications for type of chemical peels according to various clinical diagnosis are done, as well as advantages and disadvantages of different types of chemical peels. PMID:20977120

  1. Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina; Carija, Antoanela; Karlica, Dobrila; Marasović, Dujomir

    2010-09-01

    The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hypopigmentations. Therapeutic modalities imply photoprotection with sunscreens that prevent sunburns and block ultraviolet irradiation. Other modalities include use of retinoids which regulate gene transcription with subsequent cellular differentiation and proliferation. The topical and peroral administration of network antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and glutathione, enhance antiaging effect. The other antioxidants such as green tea, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, selenium and resveratrol, have also antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid and azelaic acid can reduce signs of aging. Studies confirm the efficacy of these topical agents in combination with superficial and/or medium depth or deep peeling agents for photodamaged skin treatment. Indications for type of chemical peels according to various clinical diagnosis are done, as well as advantages and disadvantages of different types of chemical peels.

  2. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  3. [Place your bets, the die is cast ... the skin at the retiring age today and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Lesuisse, M; Saint-Léger, D; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2014-01-01

    Senescence of people represents a global expression of obsolescence of their organs, tissues, cells and constitutive molecules. Skin, similarly to any other organ, is ageing in particular ways. Over the past century, the time effects on skin have been expressed differently. Skin of any individual presently engaged in the Third Age looks different from that of his/her line ancestral. What is the expected future? The Third Age population is expanding and skin problems call for a variety of management procedures. Prevention of the diverse types of skin ageing has made tremendous progresses particularly in the field of preventive and corrective dermocosmetology. The future should further speed up such trends. PMID:25065247

  4. Aging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin care.

    PubMed

    Prahl, S; Kueper, T; Biernoth, T; Wöhrmann, Y; Münster, A; Fürstenau, M; Schmidt, M; Schulze, C; Wittern, K-P; Wenck, H; Muhr, G-M; Blatt, T

    2008-01-01

    The functional loss of mitochondria represents an inherent part in modern theories trying to explain the cutaneous aging process. The present study shows significant age-dependent differences in mitochondrial function of keratinocytes isolated from skin biopsies of young and old donors. Our data let us postulate that energy metabolism shifts to a predominantly non-mitochondrial pathway and is therefore functionally anaerobic with advancing age. CoQ10 positively influences the age-affected cellular metabolism and enables to combat signs of aging starting at the cellular level. As a consequence topical application of CoQ10 is beneficial for human skin as it rapidly improves mitochondrial function in skin in vivo. PMID:19096122

  5. Stiffening of Human Skin Fibroblasts with Age

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christian; Wetzel, Franziska; Kueper, Thomas; Malsen, Anke; Muhr, Gesa; Jaspers, Soeren; Blatt, Thomas; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Käs, Josef A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in mechanical properties are an essential characteristic of the aging process of human skin. Previous studies attribute these changes predominantly to the altered collagen and elastin organization and density of the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that individual dermal fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in stiffness during aging in vivo. With the laser-based optical cell stretcher we examined the viscoelastic biomechanics of dermal fibroblasts isolated from 14 human donors aged 27 to 80. Increasing age was clearly accompanied by a stiffening of the investigated cells. We found that fibroblasts from old donors exhibited an increase in rigidity of ∼60% with respect to cells of the youngest donors. A FACS analysis of the content of the cytoskeletal polymers shows a shift from monomeric G-actin to polymerized, filamentous F-actin, but no significant changes in the vimentin and microtubule content. The rheological analysis of fibroblast-populated collagen gels demonstrates that cell stiffening directly results in altered viscoelastic properties of the collagen matrix. These results identify a new mechanism that may contribute to the age-related impairment of elastic properties in human skin. The altered mechanical behavior might influence cell functions involving the cytoskeleton, such as contractility, motility, and proliferation, which are essential for reorganization of the extracellular matrix. PMID:20959083

  6. Non-invasive, investigative methods in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Longo, C; Ciardo, S; Pellacani, G

    2015-12-01

    A precise and noninvasive quantification of aging is of outmost importance for in vivo assessment of the skin aging "stage", and thus acts to minimize it. Several bioengineering methods have been proposed to objectively, precisely, and non-invasively measure skin aging, and to detect early skin damage, that is sub-clinically observable. In this review we have described the most relevant methods that have emerged from recently introduced technologies, aiming at quantitatively assessing the effects of aging on the skin.

  7. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  8. NF-κB accumulation associated with COL1A1 transactivators defects during chronological aging represses type I collagen expression through a -112/-61-bp region of the COL1A1 promoter in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Nicolas; Beauchef, Gallic; Hervieu, Magalie; Oddos, Thierry; Demoor, Magali; Boumediene, Karim; Galéra, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    The aging process, especially of the skin, is governed by changes in the epidermal, dermo-epidermal, and dermal compartments. Type I collagen, which is the major component of dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), constitutes a prime target for intrinsic and extrinsic aging-related alterations. In addition, under the aging process, pro-inflammatory signals are involved and collagens are fragmented owing to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activities, and fibroblasts are no longer able to properly synthesize collagen fibrils. Here, we demonstrated that low levels of type I collagen detected in aged skin fibroblasts are attributable to an inhibition of COL1A1 transcription. Indeed, on one hand, we observed decreased binding activities of specific proteins 1 and 3, CCAAT-binding factor, and human collagen-Krüppel box, which are well-known COL1A1 transactivators acting through the -112/-61-bp promoter sequence. On the other hand, the aging process was accompanied by elevated amounts and binding activities of NF-κB (p65 and p50 subunits), together with an increased number of senescent cells. The forced expression of NF-κB performed in young fibroblasts was able to establish an old-like phenotype by repressing COL1A1 expression through the short -112/-61-bp COL1A1 promoter and by elevating the senescent cell distribution. The concomitant decrease of transactivator functions and increase of transinhibitor activity is responsible for ECM dysfunction, leading to aging/senescence in dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  10. Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study.

    PubMed

    Sangvik, Maria; Olsen, Renate Slind; Olsen, Karina; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers risk autoinfection; however, knowledge about the factors that make specific strains successful colonizers is limited. This study was undertaken to identify the most successful S. aureus clones in nasal carriers and compare their distribution among host groups. The population structure of S. aureus isolates from healthy adults was investigated by spa typing 1,981 isolates from persistent and intermittent nasal carriers participating in a health survey. In the baseline screening (1,113 isolates), the most common spa types were t012 (8.4%), t084 (7.6%), and t065 (4.9%). Three large spa clonal complexes (spa CC012, spa CC065, and spa CC084) comprised 62.4% of the isolates. In multivariate models adjusted for age and smoking status, male sex was associated with higher risk for spa type t084 (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.77), and lower risk of spa type t012 (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.92) colonization. The prevalence of spa type t012 decreased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03), with a prevalence almost twice as high in the youngest group (age 30 to 44 years, prevalence = 11.1%) as in the oldest group (age, 60 to 87 years; prevalence = 5.6%). Among baseline isolates, spa type t084 had a twofold-higher prevalence among intermittent carriers than among persistent carriers (10.6% versus 5.5%; P = 0.04). In summary, the two most prevalent spa types found in this study were significantly associated with age and/or gender. This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus.

  11. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  12. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  13. Age-related differences in human skin proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Carrino, David A; Calabro, Anthony; Darr, Aniq B; Dours-Zimmermann, Maria T; Sandy, John D; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Sorrell, J Michael; Hascall, Vincent C; Caplan, Arnold I

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that versican, decorin and a catabolic fragment of decorin, termed decorunt, are the most abundant proteoglycans in human skin. Further analysis of versican indicates that four major core protein species are present in human skin at all ages examined from fetal to adult. Two of these are identified as the V0 and V1 isoforms, with the latter predominating. The other two species are catabolic fragments of V0 and V1, which have the amino acid sequence DPEAAE as their carboxyl terminus. Although the core proteins of human skin versican show no major age-related differences, the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of adult skin versican are smaller in size and show differences in their sulfation pattern relative to those in fetal skin versican. In contrast to human skin versican, human skin decorin shows minimal age-related differences in its sulfation pattern, although, like versican, the GAGs of adult skin decorin are smaller than those of fetal skin decorin. Analysis of the catabolic fragments of decorin from adult skin reveals the presence of other fragments in addition to decorunt, although the core proteins of these additional decorin catabolic fragments have not been identified. Thus, versican and decorin of human skin show age-related differences, versican primarily in the size and the sulfation pattern of its GAGs and decorin in the size of its GAGs. The catabolic fragments of versican are detected at all ages examined, but appear to be in lower abundance in adult skin compared with fetal skin. In contrast, the catabolic fragments of decorin are present in adult skin, but are virtually absent from fetal skin. Taken together, these data suggest that there are age-related differences in the catabolism of proteoglycans in human skin. These age-related differences in proteoglycan patterns and catabolism may play a role in the age-related changes in the physical properties and injury response of human skin. PMID:20947661

  14. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen.

  15. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen. PMID:19954332

  16. Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Schagen, Silke K.; Zampeli, Vasiliki A.; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin has been reported to reflect the general inner-health status and aging. Nutrition and its reflection on skin has always been an interesting topic for scientists and physicians throughout the centuries worldwide. Vitamins, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids and a variety of plant extracts have been reported to possess potent anti-oxidant properties and have been widely used in the skin care industry either as topically applied agents or oral supplements in an attempt to prolong youthful skin appearance. This review will provide an overview of the current literature “linking” nutrition with skin aging. PMID:23467449

  17. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  18. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits.

  19. Clinical implications of aging skin: cutaneous disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Berardesca, Enzo; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    treatment. Individual susceptibility to specific types of contact dermatitis changes over the lifetime, and seborrheic dermatitis is substantially more prevalent in the elderly. It is not uncommon for older patients to have multiple impairments, with the potential for cognitive dysfunction as well as impaired vision, hearing, or mobility. In addition, they may not have adequate housing or nutrition, or the financial resources necessary for adequate compliance. Physicians must take into consideration the patient's physical ability to comply with the recommended therapy as well as socioeconomic factors that may impact on compliance. Simple topical regimens are preferable wherever possible in order to maximize compliance and, therefore, efficacy. Extra effort may be necessary to ensure that instructions are accurately followed and that ongoing compliance with the regimen prescribed is actually achieved. Management of dermatologic disorders in the elderly is often less than optimal, due to the fact that the special needs and limitations of this population are not adequately considered. Treatments should consider the intrinsic differences between younger and older patients that may impact on diagnosis and therapy choice. The aged patient is often afflicted with numerous co-morbidities that can influence the choice of therapy. Skin integrity in the elderly is compromised, and safety concerns are increased with the long-term use of any medication prescribed. In addition, the prevalence of polypharmacy in the aged population substantially increases the risk of cutaneous drug reactions, which can profoundly complicate accurate diagnosis of dermatologic disorders. The aged population also needs to be more closely monitored because of increased fragility of the skin and the physical limitations that may hinder compliance with prescribed regimens. PMID:19222248

  20. Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Szabo, G.; Flynn, E.; Goldwyn, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Clinical and histologic stigmata of aging are much more prominent in habitually sun-exposed skin than in sun-protected skin, but other possible manifestations of actinically induced aging are almost unexplored. We have examined the interrelation of chronologic and actinic aging using paired preauricular (sun-exposed) and postauricular (sun-protected) skin specimens. Keratinocyte cultures derived from sun-exposed skin consistently had a shorter in vitro lifespan but increased plating efficiency compared with cultures derived from adjacent sun-protected skin of the same individual, confirming a previous study of different paired body sites. Electron microscopic histologic sections revealed focal abnormalities of keratinocyte proliferation and alignment in vitro especially in those cultures derived from sun-exposed skin and decreased intercellular contact in stratified colonies at late passage, regardless of donor site. One-micron histologic sections of the original biopsy specimens revealed no striking site-related keratinocyte alterations, but sun-exposed specimens had fewer epidermal Langerhans cells (p less than 0.001), averaging approximately 50 percent the number in sun-protected skin, a possible exaggeration of the previously reported age-associated decrease in this cell population. These data suggest that sun exposure indeed accelerates aging by several criteria and that, regardless of mechanism, environmental factors may adversely affect the appearance and function of aging skin in ways amenable to experimental quantitation.

  1. New insights in photoaging, UVA induced damage and skin types.

    PubMed

    Battie, Claire; Jitsukawa, Setsuko; Bernerd, Françoise; Del Bino, Sandra; Marionnet, Claire; Verschoore, Michèle

    2014-10-01

    UVA radiation is the most prevalent component of solar UV radiation; it deeply penetrates into the skin and induces profound alterations of the dermal connective tissue. In recent years, the detrimental effects of UVA radiation were more precisely demonstrated at cellular and molecular levels, using adequate methods to identify biological targets of UVA radiation and the resulting cascade impairment of cell functions and tissue degradation. In particular gene expression studies recently revealed that UVA radiation induces modulation of several genes confirming the high sensitivity of dermal fibroblasts to UVA radiation. The major visible damaging effects of UVA radiation only appear after years of exposure: it has been clearly evidenced that they are responsible for more or less early signs of photoageing and photocarcinogenesis. UVA radiation appears to play a key role in pigmented changes occurring with age, the major sign of skin photoaging in Asians. Skin susceptibility to photoaging alterations also depends on constitutive pigmentation. The skin sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated to be linked to skin color type. PMID:25234829

  2. Understanding metabolic pathways for skin anti-aging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Rosemarie; Mullins, Lisa A; Jarrold, Bradley B

    2009-07-01

    Global gene expression profiling provides a useful means to identify key aspects of the skin aging process, and provides information to help develop new skin technologies. Important aspects of skin aging that can be addressed include skin hydration, barrier, matrix, pigmentation and antioxidant capacity. Human skin equivalent cultures allow topical application of test compounds, combinations and products to their stratum corneum surface and measurement of predictive biomarkers. Using this in vitro biomarker approach, it is possible to detect skin barrier enhancement in response to the compounds niacinamide and hexamidine, matrix effects to the peptides Pal-KT and Pal-KTTKS, and hydration and matrix responses to niacinamide and N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:19623777

  3. Assessment of skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wee, L K; Chong, T K; Quee, D K

    1997-01-01

    Ninety normal individuals were included in this study on skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation. Skin types were recorded using Fitzpatrick's classification, skin colours were measured using the Minolta Chromameter CR-300, and cutaneous responses to UV radiation were measured in terms of minimal erythema dose (MED) to UVA, UVB and the immediate pigment darkening dose to UVA (IPDDA). Skin colour measurements were taken from the right cheek to represent facultative skin colours, and from the buttock to represent constitutive skin colours. The colours measured were expressed by the L x a x b colour space. Skin types and some colour parameters (L and b from covered parts of body) correlated fairly well with the minimal erythema doses (MED) to UVA and UVB. Skin colour measurements are more objective than skin type assessment and could be better markers of photosensitivity. However, there is still considerable overlap in MEDs for persons with different skin colours, and further studies of these parameters are warranted. Our MEDs are higher than other reports on similar skin types and skin colours. This could be due to differences in methodology, genetic make-up or acclimatization from chronic sun exposure. This illustrates the importance of local controls for each institution dealing with photosensitive disorders.

  4. The pecking order of skin Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) as long-term markers of glycemic damage and risk factors for micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease progression in Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Vincent M; Genuth, Saul; Sell, David R

    2016-08-01

    To date more than 20 glycation products were identified, of which ~15 in the insoluble human skin collagen fraction. The goal of this review is to streamline 30 years of research and ask a set of important questions: in Type 1 diabetes which glycation products correlate best with 1) past mean glycemia 2) reversibility with improved glycemic control, 2) cross-sectional severity of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy and 3) the future long-term risk of progression of micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease. The trio of glycemia related glycation markers furosine (FUR)/fructose-lysine (FL), glucosepane and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) emerges as extraordinarily strong predictors of existing and future microvascular disease progression risk despite adjustment for both past and prospective A1c levels. X(2) values are up to 25.1, p values generally less than 0.0001, and significance remains after adjustment for various factors such as A1c, former treatment group, log albumin excretion rate, abnormal autonomic nerve function and LDL levels at baseline. In contrast, subclinical cardiovascular progression is more weakly correlated with AGEs/glycemia with X(2) values < 5.0 and p values generally < 0.05 after all adjustments. Except for future carotid intima-media thickness, which correlates with total AGE burden (MG-H1, pentosidine, fluorophore LW-1 and decreased collagen solubility), adjusted FUR and Collagen Fluorescence (CLF) are the strongest markers for future coronary artery calcium deposition, while cardiac hypertrophy is associated with LW-1 and CLF adjusted for A1c. We conclude that a robust clinical skin biopsy AGE risk panel for microvascular disease should include at least FUR/FL, glucosepane and MG-H1, while a macrovascular disease risk panel should include at least FL/FUR, MG-H1, LW-1 and CLF.

  5. The pecking order of skin Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) as long-term markers of glycemic damage and risk factors for micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease progression in Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Vincent M; Genuth, Saul; Sell, David R

    2016-08-01

    To date more than 20 glycation products were identified, of which ~15 in the insoluble human skin collagen fraction. The goal of this review is to streamline 30 years of research and ask a set of important questions: in Type 1 diabetes which glycation products correlate best with 1) past mean glycemia 2) reversibility with improved glycemic control, 2) cross-sectional severity of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy and 3) the future long-term risk of progression of micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease. The trio of glycemia related glycation markers furosine (FUR)/fructose-lysine (FL), glucosepane and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) emerges as extraordinarily strong predictors of existing and future microvascular disease progression risk despite adjustment for both past and prospective A1c levels. X(2) values are up to 25.1, p values generally less than 0.0001, and significance remains after adjustment for various factors such as A1c, former treatment group, log albumin excretion rate, abnormal autonomic nerve function and LDL levels at baseline. In contrast, subclinical cardiovascular progression is more weakly correlated with AGEs/glycemia with X(2) values < 5.0 and p values generally < 0.05 after all adjustments. Except for future carotid intima-media thickness, which correlates with total AGE burden (MG-H1, pentosidine, fluorophore LW-1 and decreased collagen solubility), adjusted FUR and Collagen Fluorescence (CLF) are the strongest markers for future coronary artery calcium deposition, while cardiac hypertrophy is associated with LW-1 and CLF adjusted for A1c. We conclude that a robust clinical skin biopsy AGE risk panel for microvascular disease should include at least FUR/FL, glucosepane and MG-H1, while a macrovascular disease risk panel should include at least FL/FUR, MG-H1, LW-1 and CLF. PMID:27342131

  6. A novel method of skin closure for aging or fragile skin.

    PubMed

    Lipnik, Morris J

    2015-10-01

    A novel method of skin closure is detailed for surgical removal of tumors in patients with aging or thin and fragile skin. A polyethylene film with an acrylate adhesive was used as an adjunct to the dermis to help provide stability for suturing. Cases are presented with clinical photographs to demonstrate how this technique may prevent wound complications in elderly patients or those with fragile skin.

  7. Polarized Light for Measuring a Human Skin Feature Indicating Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Vashpanov, Yuriy A.; Jung, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Su; Kwack, Kae-Dal; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2009-09-01

    The textures of skin on the back of the hand of many men of different ages are analyzed to determine their changes with age. The analysis shows that the textures are segmented by many lines of different lengths and orientations, and the size and number of segments in the skin surface change with age; that is the size increases while the number decreases. As a result, the texture becomes less complex with age. However, the addition of wrinkles from the age of 50 onwards for certain groups of people makes the texture appear somewhat complex.

  8. Glycated Reconstructed Human Skin as a Platform to Study the Pathogenesis of Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Pennacchi, Paula Comune; de Almeida, Maíra Estanislau Soares; Gomes, Octávio Luís Alves; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; de Araújo Crepaldi, Maria Clara; Dos Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2015-09-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins are common factors in the pathophysiology of a number of disorders related to aging. The skin generation of AGEs occurs mainly through nonenzymatic glycation reactions of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the dermis. The AGEs have been touted as one of the factors responsible for healing impairment and loss of elasticity of healing skin, affecting growth, differentiation, and cellular motility, as well as cytokines response, metalloproteinases expression, and vascular hemostasis. In this study, we generated an in vitro full-thickness reconstructed skin based on a glycated collagen matrix dermal compartment to evaluate the effects of glycation on dermal ECM and ultimately on the epidermis. Epidermal differentiation and stratification patterns and the glycation-induced ECM changes were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels. In this study, we reported for the first time that changes in the dermal matrix caused by collagen I in vitro glycation processes also affect the epidermal compartment. We demonstrated that glycation of collagen induces expression of carboxymethyllysine in dermal and epidermal compartments and, consequently, an aging phenotype consisting of poor stratification of epidermal layers and vacuolization of keratinocyte cytoplasm. Increased expression of cell-cell adhesion markers, such as desmoglein and E-cadherin in glycated skins, is observed in the stratum spinosum, as well as an increased compression of dermal collagen matrix. We also submitted our 3D model of reconstructed glycated skin to screening of anti-AGE molecules, such as aminoguanidine, which prevented the glycated morphological status. Controlled human studies investigating the effects of anti-AGE strategies against skin aging are largely missing. In this context, we proposed the use of skin equivalents as an efficient model to investigate cellular interactions and ECM changes in the aging skin, and to

  9. Glycated Reconstructed Human Skin as a Platform to Study the Pathogenesis of Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Pennacchi, Paula Comune; de Almeida, Maíra Estanislau Soares; Gomes, Octávio Luís Alves; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; de Araújo Crepaldi, Maria Clara; Dos Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2015-09-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins are common factors in the pathophysiology of a number of disorders related to aging. The skin generation of AGEs occurs mainly through nonenzymatic glycation reactions of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the dermis. The AGEs have been touted as one of the factors responsible for healing impairment and loss of elasticity of healing skin, affecting growth, differentiation, and cellular motility, as well as cytokines response, metalloproteinases expression, and vascular hemostasis. In this study, we generated an in vitro full-thickness reconstructed skin based on a glycated collagen matrix dermal compartment to evaluate the effects of glycation on dermal ECM and ultimately on the epidermis. Epidermal differentiation and stratification patterns and the glycation-induced ECM changes were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels. In this study, we reported for the first time that changes in the dermal matrix caused by collagen I in vitro glycation processes also affect the epidermal compartment. We demonstrated that glycation of collagen induces expression of carboxymethyllysine in dermal and epidermal compartments and, consequently, an aging phenotype consisting of poor stratification of epidermal layers and vacuolization of keratinocyte cytoplasm. Increased expression of cell-cell adhesion markers, such as desmoglein and E-cadherin in glycated skins, is observed in the stratum spinosum, as well as an increased compression of dermal collagen matrix. We also submitted our 3D model of reconstructed glycated skin to screening of anti-AGE molecules, such as aminoguanidine, which prevented the glycated morphological status. Controlled human studies investigating the effects of anti-AGE strategies against skin aging are largely missing. In this context, we proposed the use of skin equivalents as an efficient model to investigate cellular interactions and ECM changes in the aging skin, and to

  10. Age-related changes in skin topography and microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Marsaut, David; Sainthillier, Jean Marie; Nouveau, Stéphanie; Gharbi, Tijani; de Lacharriere, Olivier; Humbert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    Skin topography and microvasculature undergo characteristic changes with age. Although several non-invasive bioengineering methods are currently available to measure them quantitatively, few publications have referred to their relationship with age in different anatomical sites. This study was carried out to observe the age-related changes of the skin topography and skin microcirculation. The microrelief was assessed with special processing software from scanning by interference fringe profilometry of silicone replicas performed on two sites (volar forearm and back of hand) on 50 female volunteers (aged 20-74 years who consisted of ten probands in each decade). The superficial vascular network of both sites was assessed by videocapillaroscopy, and the subpapillary vascular plexus was studied with laser Doppler flowmetry. Skin color, which is affected by blood flow, was observed by colorimeter. The skin roughness and the mean height between peak and valley increased with age. There were statistically significant differences between the evaluated sites. This study also shows that the capillary loops in the dermal papillae decrease but the subpapillary plexus increase with age. The interference fringe profilometry associated with videocapillaroscopy may be useful and accurate to measure the efficacy of medical or cosmetic products to delay skin aging.

  11. [The role of oxidative stress in skin aging].

    PubMed

    Kozina, L S; Borzova, I V; Arutiunov, V A; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    The review covers the literature proving that ROS formation in aging overbalances the antioxidant defense system potential of the skin structure (horny layer, epidermis and dermis). It has been shown that ROS are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory processes and allergic responses in the skin. The role of ROS and antioxidant systems in the cell-mediated responses associated with the MAP kinase activity in the skin is discussed. Special attention is paid to the ultraviolet irradiation exposure, which accounts for its genotoxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects on the skin.

  12. How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone Video library Find a dermatologist How to select anti-aging skin care products Dermatologists share their ... make a noticeable difference. When shopping for sunscreen, select one that offers all of the following: Broad ...

  13. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  14. Opinions regarding skin ageing in the elderly inhabitants of Bialystok, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases constitute an essential health and aesthetic problem in the elderly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the elderly residents of public nursing homes and participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, Poland surrounding the factors influencing skin ageing, the awareness of skin conditions in agening skin, and the impact of skin ageing on the volunteers. The study was performed from April to June 2015 in Bialystok, in two groups: among 100 public nursing home residents (PNH) and 100 members of University of the Third Age (U3A), (all over 60 years old). The study made use of a diagnostic survey conducted via a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Nearly half of those surveyed (42.5%; n = 85) sunbathed in the past, while 28.0% (n = 56) of those surveyed now take part in this type of leisure activity. More than half of respondents (53.0%; n = 106) protected their skin using special protective preparations. A majority of Bialystok inhabitants surveyed (80.5%; n = 161) noticed the features of skin ageing. They reported birthmarks, fungal infections and bedsores as the main skin problems of the old age. Nearly half (40%) of respondents assessed their knowledge as average and 26.0% as poor. The study showed some statistical differences in the knowledge and awareness between the residents of public nursing homes and the students of the University of the Third Age, e.g., the use of the Internet by the U3A group for finding out information. There is a desire to receive education in the field of the agening skin conditions/diseases among the elderly because their level of knowledge is relatively poor. Education of seniors in this area can increase their awareness of the basic principles of skin care and prevention marking of skin ageing. The benefits of greater knowledge of seniors about the conditions of agening skin can help reduce the medical burden and reduce the incidence on certain skin diseases. Furthermore, there is a

  15. Opinions regarding skin ageing in the elderly inhabitants of Bialystok, Poland.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases constitute an essential health and aesthetic problem in the elderly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the elderly residents of public nursing homes and participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, Poland surrounding the factors influencing skin ageing, the awareness of skin conditions in agening skin, and the impact of skin ageing on the volunteers. The study was performed from April to June 2015 in Bialystok, in two groups: among 100 public nursing home residents (PNH) and 100 members of University of the Third Age (U3A), (all over 60 years old). The study made use of a diagnostic survey conducted via a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Nearly half of those surveyed (42.5%; n = 85) sunbathed in the past, while 28.0% (n = 56) of those surveyed now take part in this type of leisure activity. More than half of respondents (53.0%; n = 106) protected their skin using special protective preparations. A majority of Bialystok inhabitants surveyed (80.5%; n = 161) noticed the features of skin ageing. They reported birthmarks, fungal infections and bedsores as the main skin problems of the old age. Nearly half (40%) of respondents assessed their knowledge as average and 26.0% as poor. The study showed some statistical differences in the knowledge and awareness between the residents of public nursing homes and the students of the University of the Third Age, e.g., the use of the Internet by the U3A group for finding out information. There is a desire to receive education in the field of the agening skin conditions/diseases among the elderly because their level of knowledge is relatively poor. Education of seniors in this area can increase their awareness of the basic principles of skin care and prevention marking of skin ageing. The benefits of greater knowledge of seniors about the conditions of agening skin can help reduce the medical burden and reduce the incidence on certain skin diseases. Furthermore, there is a

  16. Modeling and verification of melanin concentration on human skin type.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Aletta E; Smit, Jacoba E

    2012-01-01

    Lasers are used in the minimalistic or noninvasive diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders. Less laser light reaches the deeper skin layers in dark skin types, due to its higher epidermal melanin concentration compared with lighter skin. Laser-tissue interaction modeling software can correct for this by adapting the dose applied to the skin. This necessitates an easy and reliable method to determine the skin's type. Noninvasive measurement of the skin's melanin content is the best method. However, access to samples of all skin types is often limited and skin-like phantoms are used instead. This study's objective is to compare experimentally measured absorption features of liquid skin-like phantoms representing Skin Types I-VI with a realistic skin computational model component of ASAP(®). Sample UV-VIS transmittance spectra were measured from 370 to 900 nm and compared with simulated results from ASAP(®) using the same optical parameters. Results indicated nonmonotonic absorption features towards shorter wavelengths, which may allow for more accurate ways of determining melanin concentration and expected absorption through the epidermal layer. This suggests possible use in representing optical characteristics of real skin. However, a more comprehensive model and phantoms are necessary to account for the effects of sun exposure.

  17. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    PubMed

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. PMID:26834030

  18. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-01-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  19. CCN1 contributes to skin connective tissue aging by inducing age-associated secretory phenotype in human skin dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2011-08-01

    Dermal connective tissue collagen is the major structural protein in skin. Fibroblasts within the dermis are largely responsible for collagen production and turnover. We have previously reported that dermal fibroblasts, in aged human skin in vivo, express elevated levels of CCN1, and that CCN1 negatively regulates collagen homeostasis by suppressing collagen synthesis and increasing collagen degradation (Quan et al. Am J Pathol 169:482-90, 2006, J Invest Dermatol 130:1697-706, 2010). In further investigations of CCN1 actions, we find that CCN1 alters collagen homeostasis by promoting expression of specific secreted proteins, which include matrix metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines. We also find that CCN1-induced secretory proteins are elevated in aged human skin in vivo. We propose that CCN1 induces an "Age-Associated Secretory Phenotype", in dermal fibroblasts, which mediates collagen reduction and fragmentation in aged human skin.

  20. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase blockade prevents age-induced skin structure and function defects.

    PubMed

    Tiganescu, Ana; Tahrani, Abd A; Morgan, Stuart A; Otranto, Marcela; Desmoulière, Alexis; Abrahams, Lianne; Hassan-Smith, Zaki; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Mark S; Amrein, Kurt; Lavery, Gareth G; Stewart, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess adversely affects skin integrity, inducing thinning and impaired wound healing. Aged skin, particularly that which has been photo-exposed, shares a similar phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated age-induced expression of the GC-activating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Here, we determined 11β-HSD1 levels in human skin biopsies from young and older volunteers and examined the aged 11β-HSD1 KO mouse skin phenotype. 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in aged human and mouse skin and in PE compared with donor-matched photo-protected human biopsies. Age-induced dermal atrophy with deranged collagen structural organization was prevented in 11β-HSD1 KO mice, which also exhibited increased collagen density. We found that treatment of HDFs with physiological concentrations of cortisol inhibited rate-limiting steps in collagen biosynthesis and processing. Furthermore, topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitor treatment accelerated healing of full-thickness mouse dorsal wounds, with improved healing also observed in aged 11β-HSD1 KO mice. These findings suggest that elevated 11β-HSD1 activity in aging skin leads to increased local GC generation, which may account for adverse changes occurring in the elderly, and 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of age-associated impairments in dermal integrity and wound healing.

  1. The analysis of aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2010-11-01

    Aging is a very important issue not only in dermatology, but also in cosmetic science. Cutaneous aging involves both chronological and photoaging aging process. The chronological aging is induced with the passage of time. And the photoaging skin is the extrinsic aging caused by sun exposure. The aim of this study is to use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in vivo to assess intrinsic-age-related and photo-age-related difference. The changes of dermal collagen are measured in quantitively. The algorithm that we used automatically produced the transversal dermal map from MPM. Others, the texture of dermis are analyzed by Fourier transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. And the object extraction in textured images is proposed based on the method in object edge extraction, and the aim of it is to detect the object hidden in the skin texture in difference aging skin. The result demonstrates that the approach is effective in detecting the object in epidermis and dermis textured image in different aging skin. It could help to further understand the aging mechanism.

  2. Molecular-level insights into aging processes of skin elastin.

    PubMed

    Mora Huertas, Angela C; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Heyroth, Frank; Heinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is characterized by different features including wrinkling, atrophy of the dermis and loss of elasticity associated with damage to the extracellular matrix protein elastin. The aim of this study was to investigate the aging process of skin elastin at the molecular level by evaluating the influence of intrinsic (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (sun exposure) on the morphology and susceptibility of elastin towards enzymatic degradation. Elastin was isolated from biopsies derived from sun-protected or sun-exposed skin of differently aged individuals. The morphology of the elastin fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis and label-free quantification allowed identifying differences in the cleavage patterns of the elastin samples after enzymatic digestion. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to visualize differences between the samples and to determine the contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic aging to the proteolytic susceptibility of elastin. Moreover, the release of potentially bioactive peptides was studied. Skin aging is associated with the decomposition of elastin fibers, which is more pronounced in sun-exposed tissue. Marker peptides were identified, which showed an age-related increase or decrease in their abundances and provide insights into the progression of the aging process of elastin fibers. Strong age-related cleavage occurs in hydrophobic tropoelastin domains 18, 20, 24 and 26. Photoaging makes the N-terminal and central parts of the tropoelastin molecules more susceptible towards enzymatic cleavage and, hence, accelerates the age-related degradation of elastin. PMID:27569260

  3. Skin aging and oxidative stress: Equol's anti-aging effects via biochemical and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lephart, Edwin D

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health. Botanicals, as active ingredients, represent one of the largest categories used in dermatology and cosmeceuticals to combat skin aging. An emerging botanical is equol, a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule found in plants and food products and via gastrointestinal metabolism from precursor compounds. Introductory sections cover oxygen, free radicals (ROS), oxidative stress, antioxidants, human skin aging, cellular/molecular ROS events in skin, steroid enzymes/receptors/hormonal actions and genetic factors in aging skin. The main focus of this review covers the characteristics of equol (phytoestrogenic, antioxidant and enhancement of extracellular matrix properties) to reduce skin aging along with its anti-aging skin influences via reducing oxidative stress cascade events by a variety of biochemical/molecular actions and mechanisms to enhance human dermal health. PMID:27521253

  4. Gadd45b deficiency promotes premature senescence and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Magimaidas, Andrew; Madireddi, Priyanka; Maifrede, Silvia; Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    The GADD45 family of proteins functions as stress sensors in response to various physiological and environmental stressors. Here we show that primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from Gadd45b null mice proliferate slowly, accumulate increased levels of DNA damage, and senesce prematurely. The impaired proliferation and increased senescence in Gadd45b null MEFs is partially reversed by culturing at physiological oxygen levels, indicating that Gadd45b deficiency leads to decreased ability to cope with oxidative stress. Interestingly, Gadd45b null MEFs arrest at the G2/M phase of cell cycle, in contrast to other senescent MEFs, which arrest at G1. FACS analysis of phospho-histone H3 staining showed that Gadd45b null MEFs are arrested in G2 phase rather than M phase. H2O2 and UV irradiation, known to increase oxidative stress, also triggered increased senescence in Gadd45b null MEFs compared to wild type MEFs. In vivo evidence for increased senescence in Gadd45b null mice includes the observation that embryos from Gadd45b null mice exhibit increased senescence staining compared to wild type embryos. Furthermore, it is shown that Gadd45b deficiency promotes senescence and aging phenotypes in mouse skin. Together, these results highlight a novel role for Gadd45b in stress-induced senescence and in tissue aging. PMID:27105496

  5. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of μa and μs' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that μa ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and μs' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  6. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  7. "...Rewritten in the skin": clues to skin biology and aging from inherited disease.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Raymond J

    2015-06-01

    The growing diversity of heritable skin diseases, a practical challenge to clinicians and dermato-nosologists alike, has nonetheless served as a rich source of insight into skin biology and disease mechanisms. I summarize below some key insights from the recent gene-driven phase of research on Werner syndrome, a heritable adult progeroid syndrome with prominent dermatologic features, constitutional genomic instability, and an elevated risk of cancer. I also indicate how new insights into skin biology, disease, and aging may come from unexpected sources.

  8. Characterization of Skin Aging-Associated Secreted Proteins (SAASP) Produced by Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Intrinsically Aged Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Waldera Lupa, Daniel M; Kalfalah, Faiza; Safferling, Kai; Boukamp, Petra; Poschmann, Gereon; Volpi, Elena; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Bernerd, Francoise; Haag, Laura; Huebenthal, Ulrike; Fritsche, Ellen; Boege, Fritz; Grabe, Niels; Tigges, Julia; Stühler, Kai; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited more frequently nuclear foci positive for p53 binding protein 1 and promyelocytic leukemia protein reminiscent of 'DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS)'. Formation of such foci was neither accompanied by increased DNA double strand breaks, nor decreased cell viability, nor telomere shortening. However, it was associated with the development of a secretory phenotype, indicating incipient cell senescence. By quantitative analysis of the entire secretome present in conditioned cell culture supernatant, combined with a multiplex cytokine determination, we identified 998 proteins secreted by intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture. Seventy of these proteins exhibited an age-dependent secretion pattern and were accordingly denoted 'skin aging-associated secreted proteins (SAASP)'. Systematic comparison of SAASP with the classical senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) revealed that matrix degradation as well as proinflammatory processes are common aspects of both conditions. However, secretion of 27 proteins involved in the biological processes of 'metabolism' and 'adherens junction interactions' was unique for NHDFs isolated from intrinsically aged skin. In conclusion, fibroblasts isolated from intrinsically aged skin exhibit some, but not all, molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence. Most importantly, they secrete a unique pattern of proteins that is distinct from the canonical SASP and might reflect specific processes of skin aging

  9. Characterization of Skin Aging-Associated Secreted Proteins (SAASP) Produced by Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Intrinsically Aged Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Waldera Lupa, Daniel M; Kalfalah, Faiza; Safferling, Kai; Boukamp, Petra; Poschmann, Gereon; Volpi, Elena; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Bernerd, Francoise; Haag, Laura; Huebenthal, Ulrike; Fritsche, Ellen; Boege, Fritz; Grabe, Niels; Tigges, Julia; Stühler, Kai; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited more frequently nuclear foci positive for p53 binding protein 1 and promyelocytic leukemia protein reminiscent of 'DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS)'. Formation of such foci was neither accompanied by increased DNA double strand breaks, nor decreased cell viability, nor telomere shortening. However, it was associated with the development of a secretory phenotype, indicating incipient cell senescence. By quantitative analysis of the entire secretome present in conditioned cell culture supernatant, combined with a multiplex cytokine determination, we identified 998 proteins secreted by intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture. Seventy of these proteins exhibited an age-dependent secretion pattern and were accordingly denoted 'skin aging-associated secreted proteins (SAASP)'. Systematic comparison of SAASP with the classical senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) revealed that matrix degradation as well as proinflammatory processes are common aspects of both conditions. However, secretion of 27 proteins involved in the biological processes of 'metabolism' and 'adherens junction interactions' was unique for NHDFs isolated from intrinsically aged skin. In conclusion, fibroblasts isolated from intrinsically aged skin exhibit some, but not all, molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence. Most importantly, they secrete a unique pattern of proteins that is distinct from the canonical SASP and might reflect specific processes of skin aging.

  10. Epidemiology of “fragile skin”: results from a survey of different skin types

    PubMed Central

    Haftek, Marek; Coutanceau, Christine; Taïeb, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of “fragile skin” in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived “fragile skin” across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US) were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218), Caucasian South skin (n=1,695), Asian skin (n=1,500), and Black skin (n=500). The main survey question was “In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?” Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual’s skin were also evaluated. Results A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question “In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?” in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, “fragile skin” was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001). Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of “fragile skin” was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001), regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting “fragile skin” were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of “fragile skin” was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type) in the previous 12 months. Conclusion Whilst these findings need to be confirmed through objective evaluation, the current survey demonstrated that “fragile skin” is perceived to occur in a substantial proportion of individuals from any given country, particularly in the age range of 15–34 years, regardless of

  11. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin. PMID:7560349

  12. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin.

  13. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). In older subjects, further VC did not occur until the highest infused dose of NA (10−2m: −70 ± 5%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). When cutaneous arterioles are sensitized to NA by direct cooling, young skin exhibits the capacity to further constrict to NA in a dose-dependent manner. However, older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  14. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  15. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  16. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  17. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality.

    PubMed

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation - NCTF(®) (New Cellular Treatment Factor) - includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example.

  18. Could aging human skin use a connective tissue growth factor boost to increase collagen content?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Noelynn; Sternlicht, Mark; Gerritsen, Karin; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2010-02-01

    The roles of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), both well-known collagen production stimulators, were examined in skin aging. Aged skin and fibroblasts exhibited a coordinate decrease in CTGF, TGF-beta, and type I procollagen expression and content. CTGF knockdown and TGF-beta blockade in normal dermal fibroblasts reduced procollagen expression, whereas overexpressing CTGF increased procollagen by a TGF-beta/Smad signaling-dependent mechanism without involving Smad2/3.

  19. Sugar Sag: Glycation and the Role of Diet in Aging Skin.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H P; Katta, R

    2015-11-01

    First described in the context of diabetes, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed through a type of non-enzymatic reaction called glycation. Increased accumulation of AGEs in human tissue has now been associated with end stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and, recently, skin aging. Characteristic findings of aging skin, including decreased resistance to mechanical stress, impaired wound healing, and distorted dermal vasculature, can be in part attributable to glycation. Multiple factors mediate cutaneous senescence, and these factors are generally characterized as endogenous (e.g., telomere shortening) or exogenous (e.g., ultraviolet radiation exposure). Interestingly, AGEs exert their pathophysiological effects from both endogenous and exogenous routes. The former entails the consumption of sugar in the diet, which then covalently binds an electron from a donor molecule to form an AGE. The latter process mostly refers to the formation of AGEs through cooking. Recent studies have revealed that certain methods of food preparation (i.e., grilling, frying, and roasting) produce much higher levels of AGEs than water-based cooking methods such as boiling and steaming. Moreover, several dietary compounds have emerged as promising candidates for the inhibition of glycation-mediated aging. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the critical role of glycation in skin aging and highlight preliminary studies on dietary strategies that may be able to combat this process. PMID:27224842

  20. Relationship between skin response to ultraviolet exposure and skin color type.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, S; Sok, J; Bessac, E; Bernerd, F

    2006-12-01

    Sun exposure is responsible for detrimental damage ranging from sunburn to photoaging and skin cancer. This damage is likely to be influenced by constitutive pigmentation. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and skin color type was analyzed on 42 ex vivo skin samples objectively classified from light to dark skin, based on their values of individual typology angle (ITA) determined by colorimetric parameters. The biologically efficient dose (BED) was determined for each sample by quantifying sunburn cells after exposure to increasing doses of UV solar-simulated radiation. Typical UV-induced biologic markers, other than erythema, such as DNA damage, apoptosis and p53 accumulation, were analyzed. A statistically significant correlation was found between ITA and BED and, ITA and DNA damage. Interestingly, DNA lesions were distributed throughout the whole epidermal layers and the uppermost dermal cells in light, intermediate and tanned skin while they were restricted to suprabasal epidermal layers in brown or dark skin. Our data support, at the cellular level, the relationship between UV sensitivity and skin color type. They emphasize the impact of DNA damage accumulation in basal layer in relation to the prevalence of skin cancer.

  1. Age-Associated Increase in Skin Fibroblast-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Contributes to Reduced Collagen Levels in Elderly Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Lei, Dan; Swindell, William R; Xia, Wei; Weng, Shinuo; Fu, Jianping; Worthen, Christal A; Okubo, Toru; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2015-09-01

    Production of type I collagen declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and impaired function. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a pleiotropic lipid mediator that is synthesized from arachidonic acid by the sequential actions of cyclooxygenases (COX) and PGE synthases (PTGES). PGE2 inhibits collagen production by fibroblasts in vitro. We report that PTGES1 and COX2 progressively increase with aging in sun-protected human skin. PTGES1 and COX2 mRNA were increased 3.4-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively, in the dermis of elderly (>80 years) versus young (21-30 years) individuals. Fibroblasts were the major cell source of both enzymes. PGE2 levels were increased 70% in elderly skin. Fibroblasts in aged skin display reduced spreading due to collagen fibril fragmentation. To investigate the relationship between spreading and PGE2 synthesis, fibroblasts were cultured on micropost arrays or hydrogels of varying mechanical compliance. Reduced spreading/mechanical force resulted in increased expression of both PTGES1 and COX2 and elevated levels of PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by diclofenac enhanced collagen production in skin organ cultures. These data suggest that reduced spreading/mechanical force of fibroblasts in aged skin elevates PGE2 production, contributing to reduced collagen production. Inhibition of PGE2 production may be therapeutically beneficial for combating age-associated collagen deficit in human skin.

  2. The effect of skin aging on the percutaneous penetration of chemicals through human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Roskos, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    Despite much research into the mechanisms of cutaneous aging and the identification of significant age-associated biological and biophysical changes within the skin, the question how does aging affect percutaneous absorption (PA) in vivo remains unanswered. The author has made in vivo measurements of PA in young (18-40 years) and old (> 65 years) subjects. Standard radiotracer methodology was employed and PA was quantified from the urinary excretion profiles of {sup 14}C radiolabel (corrected for incomplete renal elimination). Testosterone (TST), estradiol (EST), hydrocortisone (HC), benzoic acid (BA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAFF) have been studied. Penetration of HC, BA, ASA, and CAFF were significantly lower in aged subjects whereas TST and EST absorption were not distinguishable from the young controls. Thus it appears that aging can affect PA in vivo and that relatively hydrophilic compounds may be most sensitive. Work was done to elucidate whether the observations were related to documented skin aging changes. Cutaneous microcirculation efficiency suspected to decline with increasing age, could not be correlated with the observed penetration changes. However, in vivo infrared spectroscopic studies of aged stratum corneum (SC) reveal a decreased amount of epidermal lipid. The diminished lipid content implies a diminished dissolution medium for compounds administered to the skin surface. They hypothesize that the compounds most affected by a loss of SC lipids would be those compounds whose overall solubility is lowest (compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients, eg., HC, BA, ASA and CAFF). Conversely, a diminished lipid content may not affect dissolution into the SC of highly lipophilic compounds (e.g., TST and EST).

  3. Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (P<0.05) from 36.53±4.39 to 48.69±5.46 with 33.29% increment at the end of the treatment. Biophysical characteristics of skin revealed that skin hydration was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 40.91±7.01 to 58.55±6.08 corneometric units (43.12% increment) and the water was able to contain within the stratum corneum without any increased in transepidermal water loss. In the in vitro safety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit.

  4. Optical characters and texture maps of skin and the aging mechanism by use of multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Huang, Yudian; Xu, Xiaohui

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complicated biological process affecting different constituents of skin, which can be divided into two types: the chronological aging and the photo-aging. The two cutaneous aging processes often co-exist accompanying with each other. The effects are often overlapped including changes in epithelium and dermis. The degeneration of collagen is a major factor in dermal alteration with aging. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with its high resolution imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) with its depth resolved imaging were used to study the anti-aging dermatology in vivo. It was attempted to make the optical parameter and texture feature to evaluate the process of aging skin using mathematical image processing. The links among optical parameter, spectrum and texture feature in collagen with aging process were established to uncover mechanism of aging skin.

  5. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen.

  6. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen. PMID:27649952

  7. Spatial summation of thermal sensations depends on skin type and skin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Petrini, Laura; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which spatial summation (SS) of thermal senses is affected by skin type and skin thermal sensitivity. A total of 19 healthy subjects underwent measurements of warm- and cold-sensation threshold (WST and CST) with a large (9 cm(2)) and small (2.25 cm(2)) stimulation area, within the glabrous (palm) and hairy skin (dorsal surface) of the hand. SS of WST was also measured in warm-sensitive and warm-insensitive hairy skin sites. WST and CST significantly increased as stimulation area decreased (at a similar amount), in both hairy and glabrous skin. SS of CST in the glabrous skin was larger than that of hairy skin. A significant SS of WS existed in both warm-sensitive and warm-insensitive sites but the amount of SS was larger in warm-insensitive sites. Sex did not affect any of the factors tested. The similar amount of SS for WST and CST suggest that despite possible differences in receptor density, these two sub-systems share common features. Based on the stimulation areas used herein and on receptive-field (RF) sizes, SS of WST and CST appears to occur within RF of a single neuron. The larger magnitude of SS in the glabrous than hairy skin might suggest a larger integration of sensory information from the former, possibly due to a greater functional role of the palm.

  8. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating an Oral Anti-aging Skin Care Supplement for Treating Photodamaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Monya L.; Hino, Peter D.; Moigne, Anne Le; Dispensa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate an anti-aging skin care supplement on the appearance of photodamaged skin. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Following a one-month washout period, subjects received two anti-aging skin care formula tablets (total daily dose: marine complex 210mg, vitamin C 54mg, zinc 4mg) or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Subjects were restricted from products/procedures that may affect the condition/appearance of skin, including direct facial sun or tanning bed exposure. Participants utilized a standardized facial cleanser and SPF15 moisturizer. Setting: Single study center (Texas, United States; June-November 2007). Participants: Healthy women aged 35 to 60 years (mean, 50 years), Fitzpatrick skin type I-IV, modified Glogau type II—III. Measurements: Subjects were assessed at Weeks 6, 12, and 16 on clinical grading (0-10 VAS), bioinstrumentation, digital photography, and self-assessments. Analysis of variance with treatment in the model was used for between-group comparisons (alpha P≤0.05). Results: Eighty-two anti-aging skin care formula subjects and 70 placebo subjects completed the study. Significant differences in change from baseline to Week 16 scores were observed for clinical grading of overall facial appearance (0.26; P<0.0001), radiant complexion (0.59; P<0.0001), periocular wrinkles (0.08; P<0.05), visual (0.56; P<0.0001) and tactile (0.48; P<0.0001) roughness, and mottled hyperpigmentation (0.15; P<0.001) favoring the subjects in the anti-aging skin care supplement group. Ultrasound skin density (Week 16) was significantly reduced for placebo versus anti-aging skin care supplement group (-1.4% vs. 0%; P<0.01). Other outcomes were not significant. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms possibly related to the anti-aging skin care supplement (n=1) and placebo (n=2) were observed. Conclusion: Women with photodamaged skin receiving anti-aging skin care supplement showed significant improvements in the appearance of facial

  9. Changes of skin collagen orientation associated with chronological aging as probed by polarized-FTIR micro-imaging.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Thuong; Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Sebiskveradze, David; Feru, Jezabel; Terryn, Christine; Manfait, Michel; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Piot, Olivier

    2014-05-21

    During chronological skin aging, alterations in dermal structural proteins cause morphological modifications. Modifications are probably due to collagen fiber (type I collagen) rearrangement and reorientation with aging that have not been researched until now. FTIR microspectroscopy appears as an interesting method to study protein structure under normal and pathological conditions. Associated with a polarizer, this vibrational technique permits us to probe collagen orientation within skin tissue sections, by computing the ratio of integrated intensities of amide I and amide II bands. In this study, we used the polarized-FTIR imaging to evaluate molecular modifications of dermal collagen during chronological aging. The data processing of polarized infrared data revealed that type I collagen fibers become parallel to the skin surface in aged skin dermis. Our approach could find innovative applications in dermatology as well as in cosmetics.

  10. Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types, Inc.® - Site Map - Privacy/Permissions Policy Website Design and Development by AIMG About Ichthyosis About Ichthyosis Types of Ichthyosis What is Ichthyosis? Meet Our Families Publications for Managing Ichthyosis New Parent Information Resources Tools & Tips for Living with Ichthyosis Financial ...

  11. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, β-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Epidermal Stem Cell Damage Mediated Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Panich, Uraiwan; Sittithumcharee, Gunya; Rathviboon, Natwarath

    2016-01-01

    Skin is the largest human organ. Skin continually reconstructs itself to ensure its viability, integrity, and ability to provide protection for the body. Some areas of skin are continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stressors that can inflict direct and indirect damage to skin cell DNA. Skin homeostasis is maintained by mesenchymal stem cells in inner layer dermis and epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in the outer layer epidermis. Reduction of skin stem cell number and function has been linked to impaired skin homeostasis (e.g., skin premature aging and skin cancers). Skin stem cells, with self-renewal capability and multipotency, are frequently affected by environment. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a major cause of stem cell DNA damage, can contribute to depletion of stem cells (ESCs and mesenchymal stem cells) and damage of stem cell niche, eventually leading to photoinduced skin aging. In this review, we discuss the role of UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in the skin stem cell aging in order to gain insights into the pathogenesis and develop a way to reduce photoaging of skin cells. PMID:27148370

  13. Reactive molecule species and antioxidative mechanisms in normal skin and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, Ute; Seelinger, Günter; Bauer, Georg; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Schempp, Christoph M

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which may exist as radicals or nonradicals, as well as reactive sulfur species and reactive carbon species, play a major role in aging processes and in carcinogenesis. These reactive molecule species (RMS), often referred to as 'free radicals' or oxidants, are partly by-products of the physiological metabolism. When RMS concentrations exceed a certain threshold, cell compartments and cells are injured and destroyed. Endogenous physiological mechanisms are able to neutralize RMS to some extent, thereby limiting damage. In the skin, however, pollutants and particularly UV irradiation are able to produce additional oxidants which overload the endogenous protection system and cause early aging, debilitation of immune functions, and skin cancer. The application of antioxidants from various sources in skin care products and food supplements is therefore widespread, with increasingly effective formulations being introduced. The harmful effects of RMS (aside from impaired structure and function of DNA, proteins, and lipids) are: interference with specific regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways in cell metabolism, resulting in chronic inflammation, weakening of immune functions, and degradation of tissue. Important control mechanisms are: MAP-kinases, the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the antagonistic transcription factors nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and, especially important, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases which degrade dermal connective tissue. Recent research, however, has revealed that RMS and in particular ROS/RNS are apparently also produced by specific enzyme reactions in an evolutionarily adapted manner. They may fulfill important physiologic functions such as the activation of specific signaling chains in the cell metabolism, defense against infectious pathogens, and regulation of the immune system. Normal physiological conditions are characterized by

  14. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  15. Elevated cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) promotes skin aging via upregulation of IL-1β in chronically sun-exposed human skin.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhaoping; Okubo, Toru; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J; Quan, Taihao

    2014-02-01

    Chronic exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes premature skin aging, which is characterized by reduced type I collagen production and increased fragmentation of the dermal collagenous extracellular matrix. This imbalance of collagen homeostasis is mediated, in part, by elevated expression of the matricellular protein cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), in dermal fibroblasts, the primary collagen producing cell type in human skin. Here, we report that the actions of CCN1 are mediated by induction of interleukin 1β (IL-1β). CCN1 and IL-1β are strikingly induced by acute UV irradiation, and constitutively elevated in sun-exposed prematurely aged human skin. Elevated CCN1 rapidly induces IL-1β, inhibits type I collagen production, and upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-1, which degrades collagen fibrils. Blockade of IL-1β actions by IL-1 receptor antagonist largely prevents the deleterious effects of CCN1 on collagen homeostasis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCN1 significantly reduces induction of IL-1β by UV irradiation, and thereby partially prevents collagen loss. These data demonstrate that elevated CCN1promotes inflammaging and collagen loss via induction of IL-1β and thereby contributes to the pathophysiology of premature aging in chronically sun-exposed human skin.

  16. Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-05-01

    Age perception is a better biomarker of skin aging than chronological age. However, the optical cues that determine the perception of human skin age are difficult to assess given the complex interactions between light and the multi layered structure of the skin. The aim of the present study is to clarify the independent contribution of both diffuse and specular reflection components to the skin age perception. First, according to our results, subjects were able to estimate the age of skin only by using the diffuse reflection component. Moreover, we showed that inclusion of the specular reflection component added on average 5 years to their age estimation. Second, by artificially manipulating the specular component, we concluded that the luminance distribution affects the perceived age of the skin.

  17. William J. Cunliffe Scientific Awards. Characteristics and pathomechanisms of endogenously aged skin.

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2007-01-01

    The skin, being in direct contact with several environmental factors (e.g. UV irradiation), does not only undergo endogenous aging, which has to do with the 'biological clock' of the skin cells per se, but also exogenous aging. While exogenous skin aging has been extensively studied, the pathomechanisms of endogenous skin aging remain far less clear. Endogenous skin aging reflects reduction processes, which are common in internal organs. These processes include cellular senescence and decreased proliferative capacity, decrease in cellular DNA repair capacity and chromosomal abnormalities, loss of telomeres, point mutations of extranuclear mtDNA, oxidative stress and gene mutations. As a consequence, aged skin in nonexposed areas shows typical characteristics including fine wrinkles, dryness, sallowness and loss of elasticity. Recent data have illustrated that lack of hormones occurring with age may also contribute to the aging phenotype. Improvement of epidermal skin moisture, elasticity and skin thickness, enhanced production of surface lipids, reduction of wrinkle depth, restoration of collagen fibers and increase of the collagen III/I ratio have been reported after hormone replacement therapy or local estrogen treatment in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, an in vitro model of endogenous skin aging consisting of human SZ95 sebocytes which were incubated under a hormone-substituted environment illustrated that hormones at age- and sex-specific levels were able to alter the development of cells by regulating their transcriptome. In conclusion, among other factors the hormone environment plays a distinct role in the generation of aged skin.

  18. FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury How you can eliminate the health risk to ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some skin products contain mercury and pose a threat to your health, the ...

  19. Basal level of autophagy is increased in aging human skin fibroblasts in vitro, but not in old skin.

    PubMed

    Demirovic, Dino; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular autophagy (AP) is a stress response that is enhanced under conditions of limitation of amino acids, growth factors and other nutrients, and also when macromolecules become damaged, aggregated and fibrillated. Aging is generally accompanied by an increase in intracellular stress due to all the above factors. Therefore, we have compared the basal levels of AP in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing aging and replicative senescence in vitro, and ex vivo in the skin biopsies from the photo-protected and photo-exposed area of the arms of 20 healthy persons of young and old ages. Immunofluorescence microscopy, employing antibodies against a specific intracellular microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3) as a well established marker of AP, showed a 5-fold increase in the basal level of LC3 in near senescent human skin fibroblasts. However, no such age-related increase in LC3 fluorescence and AP could be detected in full thickness skin sections from the biopsies obtained from 10 healthy young (age 25 to 30 yr) and 10 old (age 60 to 65 yr) donors. Furthermore, there was no difference in the basal level of LC3 in the skin sections from photo-protected and photo-exposed areas of the arm. Thus, in normal conditions, the aging phenotype of the skin cells in culture and in the body appears to be different in the case of AP.

  20. Basal Level of Autophagy Is Increased in Aging Human Skin Fibroblasts In Vitro, but Not in Old Skin

    PubMed Central

    Demirovic, Dino; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I. S.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular autophagy (AP) is a stress response that is enhanced under conditions of limitation of amino acids, growth factors and other nutrients, and also when macromolecules become damaged, aggregated and fibrillated. Aging is generally accompanied by an increase in intracellular stress due to all the above factors. Therefore, we have compared the basal levels of AP in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing aging and replicative senescence in vitro, and ex vivo in the skin biopsies from the photo-protected and photo-exposed area of the arms of 20 healthy persons of young and old ages. Immunofluorescence microscopy, employing antibodies against a specific intracellular microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3) as a well established marker of AP, showed a 5-fold increase in the basal level of LC3 in near senescent human skin fibroblasts. However, no such age-related increase in LC3 fluorescence and AP could be detected in full thickness skin sections from the biopsies obtained from 10 healthy young (age 25 to 30 yr) and 10 old (age 60 to 65 yr) donors. Furthermore, there was no difference in the basal level of LC3 in the skin sections from photo-protected and photo-exposed areas of the arm. Thus, in normal conditions, the aging phenotype of the skin cells in culture and in the body appears to be different in the case of AP. PMID:25950597

  1. Skin wound healing in different aged Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Evelina; Malagoli, Davide; Franchini, Antonella

    2013-08-01

    Xenopus froglets can perfectly heal skin wounds without scarring. To explore whether this capacity is maintained as development proceeds, we examined the cellular responses during the repair of skin injury in 8- and 15-month-old Xenopus laevis. The morphology and sequence of healing phases (i.e., inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling) were independent of age, while the timing was delayed in older frogs. At the beginning of postinjury, wound re-epithelialization occurred in form of a thin epithelium followed by a multilayered epidermis containing cells with apoptotic patterns and keratinocytes stained by anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) antibody. The inflammatory response, early activated by recruitment of blood cells immunoreactive to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, iNOS, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, persisted over time. The dermis repaired by a granulation tissue with extensive angiogenesis, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and anti-α-SMA positive myofibroblasts. As the healing progressed, wounded areas displayed vascular regression, decrease in cellularity, and rearrangement of provisional matrix. The epidermis restored to a prewound morphology while granulation tissue was replaced by a fibrous tissue in a scar-like pattern. The quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated an up-regulated expression of Xenopus suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (XSOCS-3) and Xenopus transforming growth factor-β2 (XTGF-β2) soon after wounding and peak levels were detected when granulation tissue was well developed with a large number of inflammatory cells. The findings indicate that X. laevis skin wound healing occurred by a combination of regeneration (in epidermis) and repair (in dermis) and, in contrast to froglet scarless wound healing, the growth to a more mature adult stage is associated with a decrease in regenerative capacity with scar-like tissue formation.

  2. Quantitative analysis on collagen morphology in aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2011-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was employed for monitoring the structure changes of mouse dermis collagen in the intrinsic- or the extrinsic-age-related processes in vivo. The characteristics of textures in different aging skins were uncovered by fast Fourier transform in which the orientation index and bundle packing of collagen were quantitatively analyzed. Some significant differences in collagen-related changes are found in different aging skins, which can be good indicators for the statuses of aging skins. The results are valuable to the study of aging skin and also of interest to biomedical photonics.

  3. Circadian clocks in rat skin and dermal fibroblasts: differential effects of aging, temperature and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Cristina; Liu, Taole; Malan, André; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    As a peripheral tissue localized at the interface between internal and external environments, skin performs functions which are critical for the preservation of body homeostasis, in coordination with environmental changes. Some of these functions undergo daily variations, such as temperature or water loss, suggesting the presence of time-keeping mechanisms. Rhythmic functions are controlled by a network of circadian oscillators present virtually in every cell and coordinated by the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are generated by conserved transcriptional-translational feedback loops involving several clock genes, among which Per1 and Per2 play a central role. Here we characterize clock activity in skin of the transgenic Per1-luciferase rat during postnatal development and adulthood, by real-time recording of bioluminescence in explants and primary dermal fibroblasts, and report marked transformation in circadian properties, from early life to aging. Using primary dermal fibroblast cultures we provide evidence that melatonin treatment phase dependently increases the amplitude of circadian oscillations and that ambient temperature impacts on their period, with slight overcompensation. Together, these findings demonstrate that skin contains a self-sustained circadian clock undergoing age-dependent changes. Dermal fibroblasts, one of the major skin cell types, also exhibit robust, yet specific, circadian rhythmicity which can be fine-tuned by both internal (melatonin) and external (temperature) factors.

  4. In vivo skin biophysical behaviour and surface topography as a function of ageing.

    PubMed

    Pailler-Mattei, C; Debret, R; Vargiolu, R; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

    2013-12-01

    Normal skin ageing is characterised by an alteration of the underlying connective tissue with measurable consequences on global skin biophysical properties. The cutis laxa syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is considered as an accelerated ageing process since patients appear prematurely aged due to alterations of dermal elastic fibres. In the present study, we compared the topography and the biomechanical parameters of normal aged skin with an 17 year old cutis laxa patient. Skin topography analyses were conducted on normal skin at different ages. The results indicate that the skin relief highly changes as a function of ageing. The cutaneous lines change from a relatively isotropic orientation to a highly anisotropic orientation. This reorganisation of the skin relief during the ageing process might be due to a modification of the skin mechanical properties, and particularly to a modification of the dermis mechanical properties. A specific bio-tribometer, based on the indentationtechnique under light load, has been developed to study the biophysical properties of the human skin in vivo through two main parameters: the physico-chemical properties of the skin surface, by measuring the maximum adhesion force between the skin and the bio-tribometer; and the bulk mechanical properties. Our results show that the pull-off force between the skin and the biotribometer as well as the skin Young's modulus decrease with age. In the case of the young cutis laxa patient, the results obtained were similar to those observed for aged individuals. These results are very interesting and encouraging since they would allow the monitoring of the cutis laxa skin in a standardised and non-invasive way to better characterize either the evolution of the disease or the benefit of a treatment.

  5. Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  6. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  7. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  8. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion.

  9. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  10. Characterizing facial skin ageing in humans: disentangling extrinsic from intrinsic biological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (R z ) and luminance (L (*)),  β = -0.507, R (2) = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing.

  11. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology. PMID:24817918

  12. Low-temperature atmospheric plasma increases the expression of anti-aging genes of skin cells without causing cellular damages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Jae-Koo; Hong, Jin-woo; Kim, Gyoo-cheon

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to employ various types of plasma in the field of skin care have increased consistently because it can regulate many biochemical reactions that are normally unaffected by light-based therapy. One method for skin rejuvenation adopted a high-temperature plasma generator to remove skin epithelial cells. In this case, the catalyzing effects of the plasma were rarely used due to the high temperature. Hence, the benefits of the plasma were not magnified. Recently, many types of low-temperature plasma devices have been developed for medical applications but their detailed functions and working mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the effect of low-temperature microwave plasma on skin cells. Treatment with low-temperature plasma increased the expression of anti-aging genes in skin cells, including collagen, fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, the plasma treatment did not cause cell death, but only induced slight cell growth arrest at the G2 phase. Although the cells treated with low-temperature plasma showed moderate growth arrest, there were no signs of thermal or genetic damage of skin cells. Overall, this low-temperature microwave plasma device induces the expressions of some anti-aging-related genes in skin cells without causing damage.

  13. Combined treatment for skin rejuvenation and soft-tissue augmentation of the aging face.

    PubMed

    Beer, Kenneth R

    2011-02-01

    Multiple types of anti-aging treatments are required to address the various etiologies of facial aging. Soft-tissue augmentation provides a minimally invasive option for patients seeking to look younger. However, due to changes in facial skin, musculature, fat and bone, anti-aging treatment requires a multifaceted approach. Injectable fillers may be combined with neurotoxins to resolve superficial wrinkles and restore facial volume. These modalities may be used with laser resurfacing or chemical peels to address epidermal and superficial dermal problems. Combining injectable soft-tissue augmentation treatments allows clinicians and patients to take advantage of the benefits of each modality and to address the multiple effects of facial aging. This review is based on clinical experience and a MEDLINE search for articles about volume replacement and soft-tissue augmentation. It provides a rationale that supports the use of combination techniques/products for soft-tissue augmentation.

  14. [The usefulness of protective creams on fragile and aged skin].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, Justo; Guerrero Palmero, Alberto; Muñoz Bueno, Ana Maria; Esquius i Carbonell, Jacint; Rosell Moreno, Carmen

    2005-06-01

    The ADDERMIS protective cream has these properties: it prevents skin maceration, exercises a regenerative effect, has bacteriostatic and bactericide activity, possesses a noted anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the risk of mycotic infections. Its application is indicated for use in cases of: skin lesions, such as bed sores or leg ulcers, which require the use of a barrier product; dermatitis lesions in zones of skin folds or due to diaper use; to prevent friction zones; fragile skin; peeling, zones where cracks in the skin appear...and to use for cases of incontinence when diapers are required.

  15. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  16. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  17. Collagen peptide and vitamin C additively attenuate age-related skin atrophy in Sod1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Toda, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kenji; Tometsuka, Chisa; Ogura, Takayuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Age-related skin thinning is correlated with a decrease in the content of collagen in the skin. Accumulating evidence suggests that collagen peptide (CP) and vitamin C (VC) transcriptionally upregulate type I collagen in vivo. However, the additive effects of CP and VC on age-related skin changes remain unclear. We herein demonstrate that CP and a VC derivative additively corrected age-related skin thinning via reduced oxidative damage in superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1)-deficient mice. Co-treatment with these compounds significantly normalized the altered gene expression of Col1a1, Has2, and Ci1, a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, in Sod1(-/-) skin. The in vitro analyses further revealed that collagen oligopeptide, a digestive product of ingested CP, significantly promoted the bioactivity of the VC derivative with respect to the migration and proliferation of Sod1(-/-) fibroblasts. These findings suggest that combined treatment with CP and VC is effective in cases of age-related skin pathology.

  18. Skin autofluorescence is associated with past glycaemic control and complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Genevieve, M; Vivot, A; Gonzalez, C; Raffaitin, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Gin, H; Rigalleau, V

    2013-09-01

    As skin autofluorescence (AF) can assess subcutaneous accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), this study aimed to investigate whether it was linked to glycaemic control and complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Using the AGE Reader™, AF was measured in T1DM patients referred to Haut-Levêque Hospital (Bordeaux, France); data on their HbA1c levels measured every 6months as far back as the last 5years were also collected. The association of AF with the patients' past glucose control, based on their latest HbA1c values, and the means of the last five and 10 HbA1c values, and with diabetic complications was also examined by linear regression analysis. The sample included 300 patients: 58% were male; the mean age was 49 (SD 17) years and the mean diabetes duration was 21 (SD 13) years. The median skin AF measurement was 2.0 [25th-75th percentiles: 1.7-2.4] arbitrary units (AU), and this was associated with age (β=0.15 per 10years, P<0.001) and diabetes duration (β=0.17 per 10years, P<0.001). After adjusting for age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the skin AF measurement was also related to the means of the last five and 10 HbA1c values (β=0.10 per 1% of HbA1c, P=0.005, and β=0.13 per 1% of HbA1c, P=0.001, respectively). In addition, the skin AF was associated with retinopathy (P<0.001), albuminuria (P<0.001) and decreased eGFR (P<0.001). In conclusion, the skin AF is related to the long-term glucose control and diabetic complications. PMID:23643347

  19. Skin autofluorescence is associated with past glycaemic control and complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Genevieve, M; Vivot, A; Gonzalez, C; Raffaitin, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Gin, H; Rigalleau, V

    2013-09-01

    As skin autofluorescence (AF) can assess subcutaneous accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), this study aimed to investigate whether it was linked to glycaemic control and complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Using the AGE Reader™, AF was measured in T1DM patients referred to Haut-Levêque Hospital (Bordeaux, France); data on their HbA1c levels measured every 6months as far back as the last 5years were also collected. The association of AF with the patients' past glucose control, based on their latest HbA1c values, and the means of the last five and 10 HbA1c values, and with diabetic complications was also examined by linear regression analysis. The sample included 300 patients: 58% were male; the mean age was 49 (SD 17) years and the mean diabetes duration was 21 (SD 13) years. The median skin AF measurement was 2.0 [25th-75th percentiles: 1.7-2.4] arbitrary units (AU), and this was associated with age (β=0.15 per 10years, P<0.001) and diabetes duration (β=0.17 per 10years, P<0.001). After adjusting for age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the skin AF measurement was also related to the means of the last five and 10 HbA1c values (β=0.10 per 1% of HbA1c, P=0.005, and β=0.13 per 1% of HbA1c, P=0.001, respectively). In addition, the skin AF was associated with retinopathy (P<0.001), albuminuria (P<0.001) and decreased eGFR (P<0.001). In conclusion, the skin AF is related to the long-term glucose control and diabetic complications.

  20. Enhancing structural support of the dermal microenvironment activates fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes in aged human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Wang, Frank; Shao, Yuan; Rittié, Laure; Xia, Wei; Orringer, Jeffrey S; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-03-01

    The dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) provides strength and resiliency to skin. The ECM consists mostly of type I collagen fibrils, which are produced by fibroblasts. Binding of fibroblasts to collagen fibrils generates mechanical forces, which regulate cellular morphology and function. With aging, collagen fragmentation reduces fibroblast-ECM binding and mechanical forces, resulting in fibroblast shrinkage and reduced function, including collagen production. Here, we report that these age-related alterations are largely reversed by enhancing the structural support of the ECM. Injection of dermal filler, cross-linked hyaluronic acid, into the skin of individuals over 70 years of age stimulates fibroblasts to produce type I collagen. This stimulation is associated with localized increase in mechanical forces, indicated by fibroblast elongation/spreading, and mediated by upregulation of type II TGF-β receptor and connective tissue growth factor. Interestingly, enhanced mechanical support of the ECM also stimulates fibroblast proliferation, expands vasculature, and increases epidermal thickness. Consistent with our observations in human skin, injection of filler into dermal equivalent cultures causes elongation of fibroblasts, coupled with type I collagen synthesis, which is dependent on the TGF-β signaling pathway. Thus, fibroblasts in aged human skin retain their capacity for functional activation, which is restored by enhancing structural support of the ECM.

  1. The relationship of immediate pigment darkening to minimal erythemal dose, skin type, and eye color.

    PubMed

    Agin, P P; Desrochers, D L; Sayre, R M

    1985-10-01

    Immediate pigment darkening (IPD) was recorded in over 1,300 volunteers participating in routine sun protection factor (SPF) testing. Medical history obtained included skin type, hair color, eye color, sunburn sensitivity, tanning ability, and current medications. The presence of IPD and the energy needed to produce it were recorded immediately following exposure to a filtered 2500 W xenon are solar simulator. Minimal erythemal dose (MED) values were recorded 16-24 hours post-exposure. The average MED was lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. The IPD dose was also lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. However, the average IPD dose was greater than the MED for skin type I and lower than the MED for skin type IV. For skin types II and III, the average IPD dose and MED were almost equivalent. For skin type I, 64% required equivalent or greater energy to produce IPD than their MED, and 30% showed no IPD at energy levels sufficient to produce erythema, whereas all skin type IV's had a measurable IPD response. For volunteers of skin type II and III showing no measurable IPD, the predominant eye color was blue or green (74%). Sunscreen usage altered the IPD response for all 4 skin types.

  2. Mitochondrial common deletion mutation and extrinsic skin ageing in German and Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Natsumi; Vierkoetter, Andrea; Kraemer, Ursula; Sugiri, Dorothee; Matsui, Mary; Yamamoto, Ai; Krutmann, Jean; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-07-01

    The mitochondrial common deletion (CD) mutation is induced by oxidative stress. One main source of oxidative stress is the error-prone process of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondria. Another important source is the exposure to environmental factors, which further induces oxidative stress in the cells. For human skin, the primary damaging environmental factor is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is able to induce CD mutations and the characteristic extrinsic skin ageing signs. Traditionally, levels of UV exposure differ between German and Japanese populations, as tanned skin represents beauty and health in Western cultures, whereas photo-protected skin is considered ideal in Asia. We hypothesize that (i) this cultural-related UV exposure pattern might be reflected by CD concentrations in environmentally exposed skin and (ii) CD concentrations in environmentally exposed areas might be associated with the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing. In this study, we determined the concentration of CD in skin from the neck (environmentally exposed area) and the buttock (environmentally protected area) of 22 German and 46 Japanese women between 30 and 70 years of age. We evaluated skin ageing signs by a validated clinical score, and exposure to environmental factors, such as UV exposure and smoking, was assessed using a questionnaire-based interview. Higher levels of CD were detected in neck skin than in buttock skin in both German and Japanese women. CD also increased with age in the neck skin. German women had higher CD concentrations in the neck skin than Japanese women. The CD concentrations in the buttock skin samples were similar in both populations. These findings suggest higher environmental UV exposure resulted in higher levels of CD in the skin of German women compared with Japanese women. However, only in Japanese women were the signs of extrinsic skin ageing associated with higher CD concentrations in the neck skin, in agreement with the hypothesis

  3. Polysaccharide Extracted from Laminaria japonica Delays Intrinsic Skin Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longyuan; Tan, Jia; Yang, Xiaomei; Tan, Haitao; Xu, Xiaozhen; You, Manhang; Qin, Wu; Huang, Liangzhao; Li, Siqi; Mo, Manqiu; Wei, Huifen; Li, Jing; Tan, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of topically applied Laminaria polysaccharide (LP) on skin aging. We applied ointment containing LP (10, 25, and 50 μg/g) or vitamin E (10 μg/g) to the dorsal skin of aging mice for 12 months and young control mice for 4 weeks. Electron microscopy analysis of skin samples revealed that LP increased dermal thickness and skin collagen content. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease- (TIMP-) 1 expression was upregulated while that of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1 was downregulated in skin tissue of LP-treated as compared to untreated aging mice. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was higher in aging skin than in young skin, while LP treatment suppressed phospho-JNK expression. LP application also enhanced the expression of antioxidative enzymes in skin tissue, causing a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels relative to those in untreated aging mice. These results indicate that LP inhibits MMP-1 expression by preventing oxidative stress and JNK phosphorylation, thereby delaying skin collagen breakdown during aging. PMID:27143987

  4. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  5. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  6. Age-Associated Skin Conditions and Diseases: Current Perspectives and Future Options.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan; Sterry, Wolfram; Hodin, Michael W; Griffiths, Tamara W; Watson, Rachel E B; Hay, Roderick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2016-04-01

    The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS), a global, not-for-profit organization representing 157 dermatological societies worldwide, has identified the consequences of skin aging as one of the most important grand challenges in global skin health. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation, wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. Environmental (e.g., pollution) and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, sunbed use) negatively affect skin health. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging. Preventive skin care includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Continuous sun protection from early childhood onward is most important, to avoid extrinsic skin damage and skin cancer. Exposure to irritants, allergens, or other molecules damaging the skin must be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Public health approaches are needed to implement preventive and basic skin care worldwide to reach high numbers of dermatological patients and care receivers. Education of primary caregivers and implementation of community dermatology are successful strategies in resource-poor countries. Besides specialist physicians, nurses and other health care professionals play important roles in preventing and managing age-related skin conditions in developing as well as in developed countries. Healthy skin across the life course leads to better mental and emotional health, positive impact on social engagement, and healthier, more active, and productive lives.

  7. Skin delivery of kojic acid-loaded nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Gonçalez, M L; Corrêa, M A; Chorilli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil-O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  8. Skin Delivery of Kojic Acid-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, M. L.; Corrêa, M. A.; Chorilli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  9. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Lally, James S; Ford, Rebecca J; Bujak, Adam L; Brar, Ikdip K; Kemp, Bruce E; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a structural deterioration of skin that compromises its barrier function, healing, and susceptibility to disease. Several lines of evidence show that these changes are driven largely by impaired tissue mitochondrial metabolism. While exercise is associated with numerous health benefits, there is no evidence that it affects skin tissue or that endocrine muscle-to-skin signaling occurs. We demonstrate that endurance exercise attenuates age-associated changes to skin in humans and mice and identify exercise-induced IL-15 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial function in aging skin. We show that exercise controls IL-15 expression in part through skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of metabolism, and that the elimination of muscle AMPK causes a deterioration of skin structure. Finally, we establish that daily IL-15 therapy mimics some of the anti-aging effects of exercise on muscle and skin in mice. Thus, we elucidate a mechanism by which exercise confers health benefits to skin and suggest that low-dose IL-15 therapy may prove to be a beneficial strategy to attenuate skin aging.

  10. Morphometric skin characteristics dependent on chronological and biological age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Mariette E C; Gunn, David A; Catt, Sharon D; van Ginkel, Michael; de Craen, Anton J M; Hudson, Nicole M; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2012-12-01

    The effect of chronological age on skin characteristics is readily visible, and its underlying histological changes have been a field of study for several years. However, the effect of biological age (i.e. a person's rate of ageing compared to their chronological age) on the skin has so far only been studied in facial photographs. Skin biopsies obtained from middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings that are genetically enriched for longevity were compared to their partners who represent the general Dutch population. Though of the same chronological age, the offspring were previously observed to be of a younger biological age than their partners. The biopsies were analysed on several aspects epidermal and elastic fibre morphology. We investigated whether these skin characteristics were dependent on chronological age, familial longevity (the difference between the offspring and partners) and Framingham heart risk scores, adjusted for external stressors. A decreased thickness and flattening of the epidermis as well as an increased amount of elastic fibres in the reticular dermis were observed with chronological age (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), but no effect of familial longevity was found. The Framingham heart risk score was associated with some skin characteristics. A slower rate of skin ageing does not mark offspring from nonagenarian siblings. Epidermal and elastic fibre morphometric characteristics are not a potential marker for familial longevity in middle-aged subjects enriched for familial longevity.

  11. A review of ageing and an examination of clinical methods in the assessment of ageing skin. Part 2: Clinical perspectives and clinical methods in the evaluation of ageing skin.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, T M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2008-10-01

    With the advancement of skin research, today's consumer has increased access to technological information about ageing skin and hair care products. As a result, there is a rapidly increasing demand for proof of efficacy of these products. Recognizing these demands has led to the development and validation of many clinical methods to measure and quantify ageing skin and the effects of anti-ageing treatments. Many of the current testing methods used to research and evaluate anti-ageing product claim to employ sophisticated instruments alongside more traditional clinical methods. Intelligent use of combined clinical methods has enabled the development of technologically advanced consumer products providing enhanced efficacy and performance. Of non-invasive methods for the assessment and quantification of ageing skin, there is a plethora of tools available to the clinical researcher as defined by key clinically observed ageing parameters: skin roughness and surface texture; fine lines and wrinkles; skin pigmentation; skin colour; firmness and elasticity; hair loss; and proliferative lesions. Furthermore, many clinical procedures for the evaluation of ageing skin treatments are combined with invasive procedures, which enable added-value to claims (such as identification and alteration of biochemical markers), particularly in those cases where perception of product effect needs additional support. As discussed herein, clinical methods used in the assessment of skin ageing are many and require a disciplined approach to their use in such investigations.

  12. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation.

  13. Hedgehog signaling maintains hair follicle stem cell phenotype in young and aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure; Stoll, Stefan W; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2009-12-01

    Skin hair follicles (HF) contain bulge stem cells (SC) that regenerate HFs during hair cycles, and repair skin epithelia following injury. As natural aging is associated with decreased skin repair capacity in humans, we have investigated the impact of age on human scalp HF bulge cell number and function. Here, we isolated human bulge cells, characterized as CD200+/KRT15+/KRT19+ cells of the HF, by dissection-combined CD200 selection in young and aged human skin. Targeted transcriptional profiling indicates that KRT15, KRT19, Dkk3, Dkk4, Tcf3, S100A4, Gas1, EGFR and CTGF/CCN2 are also preferentially expressed by human bulge cells, compared to differentiated HF keratinocytes (KC). Our results demonstrate that aging does not alter expression or localization of these HF SC markers. In addition, we could not detect significant differences in HF density or bulge cell number between young and aged human scalp skin. Interestingly, hedgehog (Hh) signaling is activated in human bulge cells in vivo, and down-regulated in differentiated HF KCs, both in young and aged skin. In addition, activation of Hh signaling by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of transcription factor Gli1 induces transcription of HF SC markers KRT15, KRT19, and Gas1, in cultured KCs. Together with previously reported knock-out mouse results, these data suggest a role for Hh signaling in maintaining bulge cell phenotype in young and aged human skin.

  14. Damage from periorbital ageing to the multilayered structures and resilience of the skin in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Hu, Chien-Ming; Wei, Po-Li; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ageing dynamically disrupts the multilayered supporting components of the skin that are held together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Skin specimens from 33 female Chinese patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty were divided into three age groups and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Elastica-van Gieson (EVG) stains, western blotting, surface electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical tension analysis. The SEM density (skin surface topology) showed a negative linear relationship with age. The triangular pattern of the skin surface in the younger group gradually broke down into quadrangular and irregular patterns in the older group. Collagens and elastic fibres in the dermis showed anisotropy and decreased density in the older groups compared with the younger group, especially in the papillary dermis. Anisotropy means that physical properties differ according to the direction of measurement. E-cadherin and integrin αv (whose functions are to bind epidermal and dermal elements respectively) increased and decreased, respectively, in the oldest group. Skin resilience decreased significantly in this group under repetitive stress. In conclusion, a loss of skin surface textures, integrin αv expressions, epidermal-dermal connections and dermal compactness led to the multilayered structure of the skin becoming separated. This in turn decreased resilience during ageing. These findings may therefore explain why aged skins cannot tolerate repetitive facial expressions, and why this action produces further dynamic wrinkles. PMID:23441675

  15. Functional analysis of keratinocytes in skin color using a human skin substitute model composed of cells derived from different skin pigmentation types.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Hachiya, Akira; Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Visscher, Marty O; Boissy, Raymond E

    2007-09-01

    Skin color is one of the most distinct features in the human race. To assess the mechanisms of skin color variation, human skin substitutes (HSS) were constructed by grafting mixtures of cultured keratinocytes and melanocytes from a combination of donor skin types, together with light skin derived fibroblasts, into chambers inserted onto the back skin of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The resulting complexion coloration of the HSS was relatively darker and lighter when dark and light skin derived keratinocytes, respectively, were combined with melanocytes derived from either light or dark skin. The melanin content in the epidermis and the maturation stage of melanosomes in basal keratinocytes were significantly increased in the HSS composed of dark compared to light skin derived keratinocytes. In addition, the ratio of individual/clustered melanosomes in recipient keratinocytes was increased in the former as opposed to the latter HSS. The genetic expression of endothelin-1, proopiomelanocortin, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, GP100, and MART1 were increased in HSS composed of dark vs. light skin derived keratinocytes. These data suggest that our HSS is a promising melanogenic model that demonstrates the role of the keratinocyte in regulating in part both melanogenesis and distribution of transferred melanosomes.

  16. Influence of age and sun exposure on the biophysical properties of the human skin: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Adhoute, H; de Rigal, J; Marchand, J P; Privat, Y; Leveque, J L

    1992-06-01

    The physical properties of the skin were measured by using noninvasive methods on 72 people displaying various levels of solar elastosis on the neck. The physical parameters measured were the skin extensibility, the elastic recovery, the skin colour, the skin thickness and the electrical conductance. The correlation between the above parameters, the clinical grades of elastosis and the chronological age of each subject were studied using two different statistical approaches. They both showed that elastotic skin is less elastic, dryer, darker, more erythematous and less yellowish than the nonexposed skin. The similarities and differences between the properties of elastotic skin and purely chronologically aged skin are discussed. PMID:1300143

  17. Detection of galectin-3 and localization of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in human chronic skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Daniel; Elliott, Christopher G; Forbes, Thomas L; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2014-02-01

    The matricellular protein galectin-3 (Gal-3) is upregulated in excisional skin repair in rats where it has been shown to modulate the inflammatory phase of repair. Recent research into kidney pathology has implicated Gal-3 as a receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE), resulting in the binding and clearance of these molecules. AGEs are thought to contribute to defective skin repair in diabetic patients as well as a result of the normal aging process. However, the distribution and localization of Gal-3 and AGEs has never been performed in human chronic skin wound tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, the localization of Gal-3 and AGEs in tissue isolated from chronic wounds and non-involved skin from the same patient was investigated. Of the 16 patients from which tissue was isolated, 13 had type II diabetes, one had type I diabetes and 2 patients without diabetes were also examined. In non-involved dermis, Gal-3 was detected strongly in the epidermis and in the vasculature. However, at the wound edge and in the wound bed, the level of Gal-3 labelling was greatly reduced in both the epidermis and vasculature. Labelling of serial sections for Gal-3 and AGE demonstrated that where Gal-3 immunoreactivity is reduced in the epidermis and vasculature, there is a concomitant increase in the level of AGE staining. Interestingly, similar labelling patterns were evident in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The results from our study demonstrate an inverse correlation between Gal-3 and AGEs localization, suggesting that Gal-3 may protect against accumulation of AGEs in wound healing.

  18. [Intrinsic skin aging. A critical appraisal of the role of hormones].

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Ch C

    2003-09-01

    Intrinsic skin aging is determined primarily by genetic factors and hormonal status. It reflects the same degenerative process seen in other organs. Skin function is one of the parameters most influenced by aging. The hormonal influences include reduced pituitary, adrenal and gonadal secretion. The hormonal changes of aging lead to the development of a specific body and skin phenotype. Individuals in developed lands spend up to a third of their life (women-post-menopausal) or perhaps 20 years (men-partial androgen deficiency of the aging man, PADAM) with oestrogen or androgen deficiency. Other hormones whose levels decrease with aging include melatonin, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone und insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Since the skin not only fulfils a protective function for the organism but is also an active peripheral endocrine organ, which even releases effective hormones in the circulation, local hormone substitution could become interesting in the future.

  19. Effects of intrinsic aging and photodamage on skin dyspigmentation: an explorative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Gabor; Trojahn, Carina; D'Alessandro, Brian; Patwardhan, Sachin; Canfield, Douglas; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Photoaging is associated with increasing pigmentary heterogeneity and darkening of skin color. However, little is known about age-related changes in skin pigmentation on sun-protected areas. The aim of this explorative study was to measure skin color and dyspigmentation using image processing and to evaluate the reliability of these parameters. Twenty-four volunteers of three age-groups were included in this explorative study. Measurements were conducted at sun-exposed and sun-protected areas. Overall skin-color estimates were similar among age groups. The hyper- and hypopigmentation indices differed significantly by age groups and their correlations with age ranged between 0.61 and 0.74. Dorsal forearm skin differed from the other investigational areas (p<0.001). We observed an increase in dyspigmentation at all skin areas, including sun-protected skin areas, already in young adulthood. Associations between age and dyspigmentation estimates were higher compared to color parameters. All color and dyspigmentation estimates showed high reliability. Dyspigmentation parameters seem to be better biomarkers for UV damage than the overall color measurements.

  20. [Molecular Mechanisms of Functional Activity Decreasing of the Skin Cells With Its Aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Linkova, N S; Kukanova, E O; Orlova, O A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the pool of signaling molecules that regulate the functional activity of the skin cells. Molecules of apoptosis and cells skin aging are p53, p21, p15, Cdk 4/6 and Bcl-2. Inflammation in skin fibroblasts are realized through the cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1, ICAM-1, matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1,2,3,9, transcription factor NF-κB and activator protein AP-1. An important role in the aging of skin cells play neuroimmunoendocrine signaling molecules--melatonin, serotonin, skin fibroblast proliferation marker chromogranin A and CD98hc. Age-related changes in the activity of immune cells of the skin is associated with impaired expression of cluster of differentiation of T-lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD11) and dendritic cells (CD83⁺). These signaling molecules produced by the fibroblasts of the skin, regulate the activity of immune cells involved in the cascade of reactions associated with inflammatory responses, proliferation, apoptosis and cell regeneration. Based on these data nowadays new highly selective approaches to the diagnosis of the skin and the creation of cosmetic agents for the prevention of aging are developed. PMID:27530044

  1. [Molecular Mechanisms of Functional Activity Decreasing of the Skin Cells With Its Aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Linkova, N S; Kukanova, E O; Orlova, O A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the pool of signaling molecules that regulate the functional activity of the skin cells. Molecules of apoptosis and cells skin aging are p53, p21, p15, Cdk 4/6 and Bcl-2. Inflammation in skin fibroblasts are realized through the cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1, ICAM-1, matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1,2,3,9, transcription factor NF-κB and activator protein AP-1. An important role in the aging of skin cells play neuroimmunoendocrine signaling molecules--melatonin, serotonin, skin fibroblast proliferation marker chromogranin A and CD98hc. Age-related changes in the activity of immune cells of the skin is associated with impaired expression of cluster of differentiation of T-lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD11) and dendritic cells (CD83⁺). These signaling molecules produced by the fibroblasts of the skin, regulate the activity of immune cells involved in the cascade of reactions associated with inflammatory responses, proliferation, apoptosis and cell regeneration. Based on these data nowadays new highly selective approaches to the diagnosis of the skin and the creation of cosmetic agents for the prevention of aging are developed.

  2. Targeting Senescent Cells: Possible Implications for Delaying Skin Aging: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Michael C; Demaria, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are induced by a wide variety of stimuli. They accumulate in several tissues during aging, including the skin. Senescent cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, a phenomenon called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which are thought to contribute to the functional decline of the skin as a consequence of aging. Due to the potential negative effects of the SASP in aged organisms, drugs that selectively target senescent cells represent an intriguing therapeutic strategy to delay aging and age-related diseases. Here, we review studies on the role of senescent cells in the skin, with particular emphasis on the age-related mechanisms and phenotypes associated with excessive accumulation of cellular senescence. We discuss the aberrant behavior of senescent cells in aging and how the different signaling pathways associated with survival and secretion of senescent cells can be engaged for the development of targeted therapies.

  3. Novel Low Fluence Combination Laser Treatment of Solar Lentigines in Type III Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females) were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement). Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians’ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin. PMID:26865789

  4. Peptide Regulation of Skin Fibroblast Functions during Their Aging In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Drobintseva, A O; Orlova, O A; Kuznetsova, E P; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2016-05-01

    The effect peptides KE, KED, AED and AEDG on proliferation (Ki-67), regeneration and aging (CD98hc), apoptosis (caspase-3), and extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP-9) in skin fibroblasts during their aging in culture were studied by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. All studied peptides inhibited MMP-9 synthesis that increases during aging of skin fibroblasts and enhanced the expression of Ki-67 and CD98hc that are less intensively synthesized during cell aging. Peptides AED and AEDG suppressed caspase-dependent apoptosis that increases during aging of cell cultures. PMID:27259496

  5. Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics. PMID:20676309

  6. Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics.

  7. p53 Induces skin aging by depleting Blimp1+ sebaceous gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Nakasaki, M; Todorova, D; Lake, B; Yuan, C-Y; Jamora, C; Xu, Y

    2014-03-27

    p53 is an important inducer of organismal aging. However, its roles in the aging of skin remain unclear. Here we show that mice with chronic activation of p53 develop an aging phenotype in the skin associated with a reduction of subcutaneous fat and loss of sebaceous gland (SG). The reduction in the fat layer may result from the decrease of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity accompanied by elevated expression of energy expenditure genes, and possibly as compensatory effects, leading to the elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, an inducer of sebocyte differentiation. In addition, Blimp1(+) sebocytes become depleted concomitantly with an increase in cellular senescence, which can be reversed by PPARγ antagonist (BADGE) treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that p53-mediated aging of the skin involves not only thinning through the loss of subdermal fat, but also xerosis or drying of the skin through declining sebaceous gland activity.

  8. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA deletions serve as biomarkers of aging in the skin, but are typically absent in nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Eshaghian, Alex; Vleugels, Ruth A; Canter, Jeffrey A; McDonald, Michel A; Stasko, Thomas; Sligh, James E

    2006-02-01

    The potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and in cutaneous photoaging was explored using a genetic approach. Tumors and photodamaged tumor-free "margin" skin were obtained from NMSC patients undergoing excision and the mtDNA from these specimens was screened for the presence of deletions using long extension PCR. mtDNA deletions were abundant in margin tissue specimens from older patients and their number correlated with the patient age. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of mtDNA deletions in tumors and margins. Fewer deletions were detected in the tumors than the margins and the tumors often had no deletions, implying a potential selection for full-length mtDNA or perhaps a protective role for mtDNA deletions in the process of tumorigenesis. The observed mtDNA deletions from skin were often unreported (19 of 21 deletions), but typically shared structural features with mtDNA deletions reported in other tissues. Some mtDNA deletions were detected from the skin of multiple individuals, including 3,715 and 6,278-base pair (bp) deletions, whose frequencies approached that of the previously well-characterized 4977-bp "common" deletion. These data support the use of mtDNA mutations as biomarkers of photoaging in the skin.

  10. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women’s reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods We compared menopausal age in two groups of women – with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies— participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups’ age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. PMID:24886424

  11. In vivo study of age-related changes in the optical properties of the skin.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, S V

    2010-03-01

    The optical properties of the skin (absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, refractive index) may serve to characterize the skin and are important for correct light dosimetry in many optical diagnostic procedures and laser treatments especially photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. We determined in vivo the optical properties of tissues near the wrist, elbow and knee in subjects of different ages using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, having in view the establishment of laser system types for the laser treatment of posttraumatic lesions in subjects of different ages. Diffuse reflection of light from biological tissue is due to the variation in refractive index of tissular and cellular components and the surrounding medium and depends on the wavelength of the incident optical radiation. The diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissues tested showed two maxima localized at lamda(M1) is approximately 610 nm and lambda(M2) is approximately 675 nm. Laser systems which emit radiation at these wavelengths are not efficient for the treatment of joints, regardless of the subject's age. The deep tissues have a strong absorption in the range 630-700 nm, which indicates that for treating posttraumatic lesions we can use laser systems such as the He-Ne laser, the GaAlAs laser, and the InGaAlAs laser. Using Kramers-Kronig analysis of the diffuse reflectance spectra, the optical parameters n(omega) and k(omega) were determined. The age-dependent changes in these optical parameters of tissue must be taken into consideration and the use of laser treatments or optical diagnosis methods must be based on a knowledge of these properties and of the optical radiation parameters.

  12. Decline of lymphatic vessel density and function in murine skin during aging.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Sinem; Buschle, Dorina; Luciani, Paola; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Detmar, Michael; Proulx, Steven T

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic vessels play important roles in the pathogenesis of many conditions that have an increased prevalence in the elderly population. However, the effects of the aging process on the lymphatic system are still relatively unknown. We have applied non-invasive imaging and whole-mount staining techniques to assess the lymphatic vessel function and morphology in three different age groups of mice: 2 months (young), 7 months (middle-aged), and 18 months (aged). We first developed and validated a new method to quantify lymphatic clearance from mouse ear skin, using a lymphatic-specific near-infrared tracer. Using this method, we found that there is a prominent decrease in lymphatic vessel function during aging since the lymphatic clearance was significantly delayed in aged mice. This loss of function correlated with a decreased lymphatic vessel density and a reduced lymphatic network complexity in the skin of aged mice as compared to younger controls. The blood vascular leakage in the skin was slightly increased in the aged mice, indicating that the decreased lymphatic function was not caused by a reduced capillary filtration in aged skin. The decreased function of lymphatic vessels with aging might have implications for the pathogenesis of a number of aging-related diseases.

  13. Body Type Attractiveness Preferences of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Enid J.

    A study explored the relationship between body types and four attraction dimensions (physical, social, task, and communication) as perceived by older adults (mean age 68). Subjects, 35 males and 73 females in private residences and senior citizen centers, were shown three same-sex body silhouettes representing the older ectomorph, mesomorph, and…

  14. Inulin-type fructans in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Kieran M

    2007-11-01

    Worldwide, the population is aging, with estimates of 1 billion people aged 60 y or over within the next 20 y. With aging comes a reduction in overall health and increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. Mortality due to gastrointestinal infections is up to 400 times higher in the elderly compared with younger adults. Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota changes in old age, with an increased number of bacterial groups represented in the predominant elderly gut microbiota. This change in species "evenness" coincides with parallel changes in immune function, diet, and lifestyle and may contribute to disease susceptibility and severity in old age. The intestinal microbiota may thus be identified as an important target for improving health through reduced disease risk. Here, the application of prebiotics, especially the inulin-type fructans, and synbiotics (prebiotics combined with efficacious probiotic strains) will be discussed in terms of microbiota modulation and impact on disease risk in the aged population. Recent human intervention studies have confirmed the microbiota modulatory capability of the inulin-type fructans in the elderly and there is some evidence for reduced risk of disease. However, there is a need for more and larger human intervention studies to determine the efficacy of prebiotics in the elderly, particularly studies that take advantage of recent high resolution analytical methodologies like metabonomics, to shed light on possible prebiotic mechanisms of action.

  15. Transcriptome and ultrastructural changes in dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa resemble skin aging.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Jenny S; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Trost, Andrea; Weber, Manuela; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Bruckner, Daniela; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Bauer, Johann W; Breitenbach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The aging process of skin has been investigated recently with respect to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We have here observed striking phenotypic and clinical similarity between skin aging and recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is caused by recessive mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII,COL7A1. Ultrastructural changes, defects in wound healing, and inflammation markers are in part shared with aged skin. We have here compared the skin transcriptomes of young adults suffering from RDEB with that of sex- and age-matched healthy probands. In parallel we have compared the skin transcriptome of healthy young adults with that of elderly healthy donors. Quite surprisingly, there was a large overlap of the two gene lists that concerned a limited number of functional protein families. Most prominent among the proteins found are a number of proteins of the cornified envelope or proteins mechanistically involved in cornification and other skin proteins. Further, the overlap list contains a large number of genes with a known role in inflammation. We are documenting some of the most prominent ultrastructural and protein changes by immunofluorescence analysis of skin sections from patients, old individuals, and healthy controls.

  16. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  17. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    PubMed

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those. PMID:25555260

  18. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    PubMed

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those.

  19. The senile epidermis: environmental influences on skin ageing and cutaneous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, G S; Gilchrest, B A

    1990-04-01

    There is a wealth of new knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis and their interaction with senescence and environmental insults, particularly on the effects of UV irradiation on the skin. Innovations and advances in tissue culture techniques now permit in vitro studies of keratinocytes and other benign and malignant skin-derived cells. The ageing processes and cutaneous neoplasia, therefore, can now be studied at the cellular level. New insights regarding the interrelationship of ageing, environment and cutaneous neoplasia are close at hand. Depletion in the number of Langerhans cells and suppression of their function in ageing and UV-exposed skin may allow tumour cells to overcome the host's defence system. The potential increase in UV irradiation due to depletion of the ozone layer may increase the incidence of skin tumours. Carcinogenesis involves three distinct steps: initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion. The mechanism has been studied in mice, where it is suggested the c-ras oncogene may play an important role.

  20. N-Phenethyl caffeamide and photodamage: protecting skin by inhibiting type I procollagen degradation and stimulating collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Wen; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) light and pollutants. UV light is a well-known factor that causes various types of skin damage and premature aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage by activating the metalloproteinases that break down type I collagen. This study investigated the antioxidant and antiphotodamage activity and mechanisms of N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) in human skin fibroblasts. The results indicated that K36 demonstrated strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, which dose-dependently reduced the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS in human dermal fibroblasts. K36 prevented UVB-irradiation-induced type I collagen degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteins-1, -3, and -9 and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Furthermore, K36 elevated collagen synthesis in skin fibroblasts by inhibiting UVB-induced Smad7 overexpression. K36 downregulated the expression of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our results indicated that K36 exhibited antioxidant properties and prevented skin collagen degradation caused by UV exposure and the stimulation of collagen synthesis, which suggests the potential use of K36 in preventing photodamage. PMID:25019243

  1. N-Phenethyl caffeamide and photodamage: protecting skin by inhibiting type I procollagen degradation and stimulating collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Wen; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) light and pollutants. UV light is a well-known factor that causes various types of skin damage and premature aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage by activating the metalloproteinases that break down type I collagen. This study investigated the antioxidant and antiphotodamage activity and mechanisms of N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) in human skin fibroblasts. The results indicated that K36 demonstrated strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, which dose-dependently reduced the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS in human dermal fibroblasts. K36 prevented UVB-irradiation-induced type I collagen degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteins-1, -3, and -9 and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Furthermore, K36 elevated collagen synthesis in skin fibroblasts by inhibiting UVB-induced Smad7 overexpression. K36 downregulated the expression of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our results indicated that K36 exhibited antioxidant properties and prevented skin collagen degradation caused by UV exposure and the stimulation of collagen synthesis, which suggests the potential use of K36 in preventing photodamage.

  2. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  3. Using FLIM in the study of permeability barrier function of aged and young skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Choi, E. H.; Man, M. Q.; Crumrine, D.; Mauro, T.; Elias, P.

    2006-02-01

    Aged skin commonly is afflicted by inflammatory skin diseases or xerosis/eczema that can be triggered or exacerbated by impaired epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. It has been previously described a permeability barrier defect in humans of advanced age (> 75 years), which in a murine analog >18 mos, could be attributed to reduced lipid synthesis synthesis. However, the functional abnormality in moderately aged mice is due not to decreased lipid synthesis, but rather to a specific defect in stratum corneum (SC) acidification causing impaired lipid processing processing. Endogenous Na +/H + antiporter (NHE1) level was found declined in moderately aged mouse epidermis. This acidification defect leads to perturbed permeability barrier homeostasis through more than one pathways, we addressed suboptimal activation of the essential, lipid-processing enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase (BGC) is linked to elevated SC pH. Finally, the importance of the epidermis acidity is shown by the normalization of barrier function after exogenous acidification of moderately aged skin.

  4. Direct Conversion Provides Old Neurons from Aged Donor's Skin.

    PubMed

    Koch, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Modeling human neuronal aging at a cellular level remains challenging. Human neurons are accessible from iPSCs, but during reprogramming age-associated traits of somatic cells get lost. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Mertens et al. (2015) demonstrate that neurons obtained by direct cell conversion retain age-associated transcriptional traits and functional deficits of the donor cell population. PMID:26637936

  5. Lasers and cosmetic dermatologic surgery for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, T E

    2001-11-01

    Many topical agents and physical modalities have been used throughout the years to give the face a more youthful appearance. The goal has always been to effectively and consistently rejuvenate the face while minimizing the time of recovery and risk for complications. Because each person is unique, there is no one modality that is best for everyone. This article reviews some of the options available for treating photoaged skin in 2001. Various lasers (e.g., vascular lesion, pigmented lesion, hair removal, and resurfacing), botulinum A toxin, chemical peels, and various dermal and subcutaneous filler substances all are discussed.

  6. Skin care in the aging female: myths and truths

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Ushma S.

    2012-01-01

    I recently had the opportunity to visit a very relaxing and beautiful day spa during the middle-of-the-day break from the sessions at a Keystone meeting. I was having a very tranquil and restorative day, when I went in for my final treatment — a facial. The very chipper and cheerful esthetician began examining my skin and applying various creams, when I then heard her say something that nearly ruined my experience: she claimed that the topical treatment she was about to apply would, in her words, “cleanse my liver.” PMID:22293186

  7. Transcriptome and ultrastructural changes in dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa resemble skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Andrea; Weber, Manuela; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Bruckner, Daniela; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Bauer, Johann W.; Breitenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aging process of skin has been investigated recently with respect to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We have here observed striking phenotypic and clinical similarity between skin aging and recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is caused by recessive mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, COL7A1. Ultrastructural changes, defects in wound healing, and inflammation markers are in part shared with aged skin. We have here compared the skin transcriptomes of young adults suffering from RDEB with that of sex‐ and age‐matched healthy probands. In parallel we have compared the skin transcriptome of healthy young adults with that of elderly healthy donors. Quite surprisingly, there was a large overlap of the two gene lists that concerned a limited number of functional protein families. Most prominent among the proteins found are a number of proteins of the cornified envelope or proteins mechanistically involved in cornification and other skin proteins. Further, the overlap list contains a large number of genes with a known role in inflammation. We are documenting some of the most prominent ultrastructural and protein changes by immunofluorescence analysis of skin sections from patients, old individuals, and healthy controls. PMID:26143532

  8. Measuring hemoglobin amount and oxygen saturation of skin with advancing age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Midori; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Akiba, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    We measured the oxygen saturation of skin at various ages using our previously proposed method that can rapidly simulate skin spectral reflectance with high accuracy. Oxygen saturation is commonly measured by a pulse oximeter to evaluate oxygen delivery for monitoring the functions of heart and lungs at a specific time. On the other hand, oxygen saturation of skin is expected to assess peripheral conditions. Our previously proposed method, the optical path-length matrix method (OPLM), is based on a Monte Carlo for multi-layered media (MCML), but can simulate skin spectral reflectance 27,000 times faster than MCML. In this study, we implemented an iterative simulation of OPLM with a nonlinear optimization technique such that this method can also be used for estimating hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from the measured skin spectral reflectance. In the experiments, the skin reflectance spectra of 72 outpatients aged between 20 and 86 years were measured by a spectrophotometer. Three points were measured for each subject: the forearm, the thenar eminence, and the intermediate phalanx. The result showed that the oxygen saturation of skin remained constant at each point as the age varied.

  9. In vitro model adapted to the study of skin ageing induced by air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lecas, Sarah; Boursier, Elsa; Fitoussi, Richard; Vié, Katell; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie; Achard, Sophie

    2016-09-30

    More than a barrier against environmental agents, skin reflects individual health and is a visible sign of ageing with the progressive loss of skin integrity. In order to evaluate the consequences of an environmental complex mixture, with tobacco smoke (TS) as model, on cellular and morphological changes, a 3D skin model was used. Morphologically, tissue integrity was intact after one TS-exposure while the superficial layers were drastically reduced after two TS-exposures. However, TS modified epidermal organisation at the molecular level after just one exposure. A decrease in loricrin protein staining was showed in the epidermis, while production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1α, IL-18) and metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3) were stimulated. Oxidative stress was also illustrated with an increase in 4-HNE protein staining. Moreover, terminal differentiation, cell-cell junction and anchorage gene expression was down-regulated in our model after one TS-exposure. In conclusion, tobacco smoke impacted the fundamental functions of skin, namely tissue anchorage, cornification and skin desquamation. Oxidative stress resulted in skin ageing. The tissue was even reactive with the inflammatory pathways, after one TS-exposure. The 3D-RHE model is appropriate for evaluating the impact of environmental pollutants on skin ageing. PMID:27480279

  10. In vitro model adapted to the study of skin ageing induced by air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lecas, Sarah; Boursier, Elsa; Fitoussi, Richard; Vié, Katell; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie; Achard, Sophie

    2016-09-30

    More than a barrier against environmental agents, skin reflects individual health and is a visible sign of ageing with the progressive loss of skin integrity. In order to evaluate the consequences of an environmental complex mixture, with tobacco smoke (TS) as model, on cellular and morphological changes, a 3D skin model was used. Morphologically, tissue integrity was intact after one TS-exposure while the superficial layers were drastically reduced after two TS-exposures. However, TS modified epidermal organisation at the molecular level after just one exposure. A decrease in loricrin protein staining was showed in the epidermis, while production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1α, IL-18) and metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3) were stimulated. Oxidative stress was also illustrated with an increase in 4-HNE protein staining. Moreover, terminal differentiation, cell-cell junction and anchorage gene expression was down-regulated in our model after one TS-exposure. In conclusion, tobacco smoke impacted the fundamental functions of skin, namely tissue anchorage, cornification and skin desquamation. Oxidative stress resulted in skin ageing. The tissue was even reactive with the inflammatory pathways, after one TS-exposure. The 3D-RHE model is appropriate for evaluating the impact of environmental pollutants on skin ageing.

  11. Skin graft rejection in mice repopulated with marrow of the skin donor type: a Skn gene in a congenic line

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.E.; Mobraaten, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Genetically anemic W/Wv mice and lethally irradiated wild-type mice were cured and populated by grafted marrow cells from donor mice of three congenic lines that differed at non-H-2 histocompatibility loci. Tail skin from mice of the same congenic lines was grafted 3-4 weeks later. In two cases, the recipients behaved as expected, no longer rejecting skin syngeneic with the marrow graft that had repopulated them. However, B6-H-24c skin was rejected by WBB6F1-W/Wv mice that were cured with B6-H-24c marrow showing a mean survival time of 9.9 weeks. It was rejected somewhat faster, with a mean survival time of 5.9 weeks, by W/Wv mice cured with marrow from other types of donors. Results were more variable in lethally irradiated WBB6F1-+/+ recipients of B6-H-24c marrow, but they also rejected B6-H-24c skin. Both types of recipients remained chimeras after the skin was rejected, showing more than 90% of the B6-H-24c hemoglobin type. This is the first report of a Skn gene in a congenic line.

  12. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  13. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  14. Perlecan expression influences the keratin 15‐positive cell population fate in the epidermis of aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Michopoulou, Anna; André‐Frei, Valérie; Boulesteix, Sophie; Guicher, Christine; Dayan, Guila; Whitelock, John; Damour, Odile; Rousselle, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis is continuously renewed by stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Basal keratinocytes append the dermal‐epidermal junction, a cell surface‐associated, extracellular matrix that provides structural support and influences their behaviour. It consists of laminins, type IV collagen, nidogens, and perlecan, which are necessary for tissue organization and structural integrity. Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be involved in keratinocyte survival and differentiation. Aging affects the dermal epidermal junction resulting in decreased contact with keratinocytes, thus impacting epidermal renewal and homeostasis. We found that perlecan expression decreased during chronological skin aging. Our in vitro studies revealed reduced perlecan transcript levels in aged keratinocytes. The production of in vitro skin models revealed that aged keratinocytes formed a thin and poorly organized epidermis. Supplementing these models with purified perlecan reversed the phenomenon allowing restoration of a well‐differentiated multi‐layered epithelium. Perlecan down‐regulation in cultured keratinocytes caused depletion of the cell population that expressed keratin 15. This phenomenon depended on the perlecan heparan sulphate moieties, which suggested the involvement of a growth factor. Finally, we found defects in keratin 15 expression in the epidermis of aging skin. This study highlighted a new role for perlecan in maintaining the self‐renewal capacity of basal keratinocytes. PMID:26996820

  15. The Characterization of Varicella Zoster Virus Specific T Cells In Skin and Blood During Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vukmanovic-Stejic, Milica; Sandhu, Daisy; Seidel, Judith A.; Patel, Neil; Sobande, Toni O.; Agius, Elaine; Jackson, Sarah E.; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Mabbott, Neil A.; Lacy, Katie E.; Ogg, Graham; Nestle, Frank O; Krueger, James G.; Rustin, Malcolm H.A.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2015-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) re-activation increases during ageing. Although the effects of VZV re-activation are observed in the skin (shingles) the number or functional capacity of cutaneous VZV specific T cells have not been investigated. The numbers of circulating IFN-γ secreting VZV specific CD4+ T cells are significantly decreased in old subjects however other measures of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells, including proliferative capacity to VZV antigen stimulation and identification of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells with a MHC class II tetramer (epitope of IE-63 protein), were similar in both age groups. The majority of T cells in the skin of both age groups expressed CD69, a characteristic of skin resident T cells. VZV-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin compared to the blood in young and old subjects and their function was similar in both age groups. In contrast the number of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 on CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin of older humans. Therefore VZV-specific CD4+ T cells in the skin of older individuals are functionally competent. However their activity may be restricted by multiple inhibitory influences in situ. PMID:25734814

  16. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  17. Racial and ethnic differences in skin aging: implications for treatment with soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Racial and ethnic differences in the age of onset, severity, and anatomical features of facial aging have been described. In addition, increased melanocyte lability and fibroblast reactivity are functional features that are characteristic of skin of color. These differences should be considered when treating patients with soft tissue fillers in order to achieve optimal results. Signs of facial aging in individuals with skin of color tend to be most pronounced in the periorbital and midface region with less prominent features of skin aging in the upper third of the face and a decreased tendency toward perioral rhytides and radial lip lines. As such, volumization of the midface while preserving individual and ethnic ideals of beauty is a key goal. Important treatment considerations include minimization of inflammation, epidermal injury, and bruising, which can lead to aesthetically displeasing sequelae.

  18. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  19. Nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of human skin microbial diversity with age.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Han, Lei; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaokang; Xu, Jiru

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the composition and structure of skin microbiota differ with age, cutaneous bacteria were isolated from the axillary fossa of 37 healthy human adults in two age groups (old people and young adults). Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted and characterized by nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The excised gel bands were sequenced to identify bacterial categories. The total bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium spp. were further enumerated by quantitative PCR. There were no significant differences in the species diversity profiles between age groups. The similarity index was lower across age groups than that it was intra-group. This indicates that the composition of skin flora is more similar to others of the same age than across age groups. While Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria in both groups, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that skin bacterial composition differed by age. The copy number of total bacteria and Corynebacterium spp. were significantly lower in younger subjects, whereas there were no statistical differences in the quantity of Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These results suggest that the skin flora undergo both quantitative and qualitative changes related to aging. PMID:24656938

  20. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Philippe; Scior, Thomas; Do, Quoc Tuan

    2012-01-01

    In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. Reverse pharmacognosy was successfully applied to identify new natural compounds able to modulate testosterone levels. Among several in silico hits, honokiol was retained as a candidate as it has the greatest potential to become an active ingredient. This result was then validated in vitro on aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, which are two types of enzymes implicated in the degradation of free testosterone. Indeed, honokiol was identified as an inhibitor of aromatase, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 50 μM. In addition, honokiol was shown to be an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase type 1, with an IC50 of about 75 μM. Taken together, these data indicate that honokiol modulates testosterone levels, and its structure has the potential to serve as a lead for future designs of highly selective inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase type 1. PMID:23049247

  1. Reflection-Type Oil-Film Skin-Friction Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-film skin-friction meter for both flight and wind-tunnel applications uses internal reflection and is self-contained, compact unit. Contained in palm-sized housing, in which source of light, mirrors, and sensor mounted rigidly in alignment. Entire unit mounted rigidly under skin of aircraft or wind tunnel, eliminating any relative vibration between optical elements and skin of aircraft or wind tunnel. Meter primarily applicable to flight and wind-tunnel tests, also used in chemical-processing plants.

  2. A Case of Multifocal Skin Metastases from Lung Cancer Presenting with Vasculitic-type Cutaneous Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Nalan Akgul; Kiliçkap, Saadettin; Sene, Soner; Kacan, Turgut; Yucel, Birsen; Eren, Mehmet Fuat; Cihan, Sener

    2015-01-01

    Although cutaneous metastasis occurs usually at the terminal stage of the disease, it may be rarely concurrent with the diagnosis and may also present as the first sign of the illness. A 55-year-old male patient presented with vasculitic-type cutaneous nodular lesions and a necrotic distal phalangeal lesion developed over the last month. He was a tradesman and smoked 40 packets year. On physical examination, he was found to have multiple cutaneous lesions on the skin of the face, limbs, neck, scalp, dorsal side, fingers, subungual side, right leg, and feet. A skin lesion punch biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma metastasis was detected. He was diagnosed as having squamous cell lung cancer with bronchoscopic biopsy. Although it is very rare, cutaneous metastases that is concurrent with the diagnosis of lung cancer may be the first sign of the disease. In patients with suspicious skin lesions, the patient's age, smoking history, and other symptoms should be evaluated and a biopsy should be performed. PMID:25814739

  3. Potent therapeutic effect of melatonin on aging skin in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Eşrefoğlu, Mukaddes; Seyhan, Muammer; Gül, Mehmet; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Batçioğlu, Kadir; Uyumlu, Burçin

    2005-10-01

    It is generally agreed that one of the major contributors to skin aging is reactive oxygen species. As organisms reach advanced age, free radical generation increases and the activity of tissue antioxidant enzyme system decreases. Melatonin is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The present study was first aimed to determine the morphometric and biochemical changes caused by long-term pinealectomy in order to investigate the role of melatonin as skin architecture. Secondly, the effect of exogenous melatonin administration on these changes was determined. Rats were pinealectomized or sham operated (control) for 6 months. Half of the pinealectomized rats were treated with 4 mg/kg melatonin during the last month of the experiment. Pinealectomy resulted in important morphometric and biochemical changes in the back, abdominal and thoracic skin. The thickness of epidermis and dermis and the number of dermal papillae and hair follicles were reduced. Melatonin administration to pinealectomized rats significantly improved these alterations in all body areas (P < 0.005). On the contrary, in pinealectomized rats the levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased. Melatonin restored the levels of these enzymes. The pinealectomy-induced increases in lipid peroxidation in the abdominal and thoracic skin were significantly reduced by melatonin treatment (P < 0.005 and 0.01 respectively). These results suggest that melatonin is highly efficient anti-aging factor and, as melatonin levels decrease with age, melatonin treatment may reduce age-related skin changes. PMID:16150102

  4. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  5. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  6. Could tight junctions regulate the barrier function of the aged skin?

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Marek; Bílková, Zuzana; Muthný, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The skin is known to be the largest organ in human organism creating interface with outer environment. The skin provides protective barrier against pathogens, physical and chemical insults, and against uncontrolled loss of water. The barrier function was primarily attributed to the stratum corneum (SC) but recent studies confirmed that epidermal tight junctions (TJs) also play important role in maintaining barrier properties of the skin. Independent observations indicate that barrier function and its recovery is impaired in aged skin. However, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) values remains rather unchanged in elderly population. UV radiation as major factor of photoageing impairs TJ proteins, but TJs have great self-regenerative potential. Since it may be possible that TJs can compensate TEWL in elderly due to its regenerative and compensatory capabilities, important question remains to be answered: how are TJs regulated during skin ageing? This review provides an insight into TJs functioning as epidermal barrier and summarizes current knowledge about the impact of ageing on the barrier function of the skin and epidermal TJs.

  7. Effects of infrared radiation and heat on human skin aging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soyun; Shin, Mi Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Seo, Jo-Eun; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2009-08-01

    Sunlight damages human skin, resulting in a wrinkled appearance. Since natural sunlight is polychromatic, its ultimate effects on the human skin are the result of not only the action of each wavelength separately, but also interactions among the many wavelengths, including UV, visible light, and infrared (IR). In direct sunlight, the temperature of human skin rises to about 40 degrees C following the conversion of absorbed IR into heat. So far, our knowledge of the effects of IR radiation or heat on skin aging is limited. Recent work demonstrates that IR and heat exposure each induces cutaneous angiogenesis and inflammatory cellular infiltration, disrupts the dermal extracellular matrix by inducing matrix metalloproteinases, and alters dermal structural proteins, thereby adding to premature skin aging. This review provides a summary of current research on the effects of IR radiation and heat on aging in human skin in vivo.Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (2009) 14, 15-19; doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2009.7.

  8. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  9. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  10. Solar ultraviolet irradiation reduces collagen in photoaged human skin by blocking transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2004-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun reduces production of type I procollagen (COLI), the major structural protein in human skin. This reduction is a key feature of the pathophysiology of premature skin aging (photoaging). Photoaging is the most common form of skin damage and is associated with skin carcinoma. TGF-beta/Smad pathway is the major regulator of type I procollagen synthesis in human skin. We have previously reported that UV irradiation impairs transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smad signaling in mink lung epithelial cells. We have investigated the mechanism of UV irradiation impairment of the TGF-beta/Smad pathway and the impact of this impairment on type I procollagen production in human skin fibroblasts, the major collagen-producing cells in skin. We report here that UV irradiation impairs TGF-beta/Smad pathway in human skin by down-regulation of TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII). This loss of TbetaRII occurs within 8 hours after UV irradiation and precedes down-regulation of type I procollagen expression in human skin in vivo. In human skin fibroblasts, UV-induced TbetaRII down-regulation is mediated by transcriptional repression and results in 90% reduction of specific, cell-surface binding of TGF-beta. This loss of TbetaRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2/3 by TGF-beta, thereby reducing expression of type I procollagen. Preventing loss of TbetaRII by overexpression protects against UV inhibition of type I procollagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. UV-induced down-regulation of TbetaRII, with attendant reduction of type I procollagen production, is a critical molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of photoaging.

  11. Melanocytes in the Skin – Comparative Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Main Skin Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Ilmjärv, Sten; Porosaar, Orm; Silm, Helgi; Jaks, Viljar; Vasar, Eero; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes possess several functions besides a role in pigment synthesis, but detailed characteristics of the cells are still unclear. We used whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess differential gene expression of cultivated normal human melanocytes with respect to keratinocytes, fibroblasts and whole skin. The present results reveal cultivated melanocytes as highly proliferative cells with possible stem cell-like properties. The enhanced readiness to regenerate makes melanocytes the most vulnerable cells in the skin and explains their high risk of developing into malignant melanoma. PMID:25545474

  12. Skin colour variability in Basque boys aged 8-19 years.

    PubMed

    Rebato, E; Rosique, J; Gonzalez Apraiz, A

    1993-01-01

    Skin colour variation with increasing age was analysed using a cross-sectional sample of 796 Basque boys aged from 8 to 19 years. Measurements were taken at the upper inner arm and forehead by means of an EEL DS29 Digital Unigalvo reflectance spectrophotometer with a nine-filter head. Ontogenic changes of skin pigmentation were found to be statistically significant. The influence of the month in which measurements were taken on reflectance values has been studied. Comparisons with another similar study (Pembrokeshire, Wales population) were carried out.

  13. Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation. PMID:24002160

  14. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  16. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  17. Proteomic profiling reveals a catalogue of new candidate proteins for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Martin; Kocher, Thomas; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Trost, Andrea; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Richter, Klaus; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Studies of skin aging are usually performed at the genomic level by investigating differentially regulated genes identified through subtractive hybridization or microarray analyses. In contrast, relatively few studies have investigated changes in protein expression of aged skin using proteomic profiling by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, although this approach at the protein level is suggested to reflect more accurately the aging phenotype. We undertook such a proteomic analysis of intrinsic human skin aging by quantifying proteins extracted and fluorescently labeled from sun-protected human foreskin samples pooled from 'young' and 'old' men. In addition, we analyzed these candidate gene products by 1-D and 2-D western blotting to obtain corroborative protein expression data, and by both real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and microarray analyses to confirm expression at the mRNA level. We discovered 30 putative proteins for skin aging, including previously unrecognized, post-translationally regulated candidates such as phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) and carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1).

  18. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum (S. marianum) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone. PMID:27446338

  19. Effect of botanicals on inflammation and skin aging: analyzing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Amanda; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published "anti-inflammaging" additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made.

  20. Is rate of skin wound healing associated with aging or longevity phenotype?

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2011-12-01

    Wound healing (WH) is a fundamental biological process. Is it associated with a longevity or aging phenotype? In an attempt to answer this question, we compared the established mouse models with genetically modified life span and also an altered rate of WH in the skin. Our analysis showed that the rate of skin WH in advanced ages (but not in the young animals) may be used as a marker for biological age, i.e., to be indicative of the longevity or aging phenotype. The ability to preserve the rate of skin WH up to an old age appears to be associated with a longevity phenotype, whereas a decline in WH-with an aging phenotype. In the young, this relationship is more complex and might even be inversed. While the aging process is likely to cause wounds to heal slowly, an altered WH rate in younger animals could indicate a different cellular proliferation and/or migration capacity, which is likely to affect other major processes such as the onset and progression of cancer. As a point for future studies on WH and longevity, using only young animals might yield confusing or misleading results, and therefore including older animals in the analysis is encouraged.

  1. Treating skin tears in nursing home residents: a pilot study comparing four types of dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H; Gaskill, D; Nash, R

    1998-03-01

    A pilot study was conducted to compare four types of dressings used to treat skin tears in nursing home residents. Wounds treated with a non-occlusive dressing healed more quickly than those dressed with occlusive dressings. The results suggest that ease of use and product wastage are important considerations when treating skin tears. The pilot study also highlights the need for further research into skin tear management and the need for ongoing education for nurses regarding skin integrity risk assessment and product information.

  2. Age-related regional variations of human skin blood flow response to histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Brenner, Sarah

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess age-related regional variations in skin function, by measuring the cutaneous microvascular response to histamine. Histamine was topically applied to the back and forearm of young and aged volunteers, and the response was quantified utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry. Each group comprised of 14 volunteers. The cutaneous vascular response to histamine was significantly greater on the back than on the forearm of young healthy volunteers, whereas in aged ones the response over these two sites did not significantly differ. These observations indicate anatomical or functional differences between old and young skin as relates to regional variations. They may underlie some of the differences in the manifestations of disease processes in various age groups.

  3. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  4. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  5. Novel aspects of intrinsic and extrinsic aging of human skin: beneficial effects of soy extract.

    PubMed

    Südel, Kirstin M; Venzke, Kirsten; Mielke, Heiko; Breitenbach, Ute; Mundt, Claudia; Jaspers, Sören; Koop, Urte; Sauermann, Kirsten; Knussman-Hartig, Elke; Moll, Ingrid; Gercken, Günther; Young, Anthony R; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical and structural changes of the dermal connective tissue substantially contribute to the phenotype of aging skin. To study connective tissue metabolism with respect to ultraviolet (UV) exposure, we performed an in vitro (human dermal fibroblasts) and an in vivo complementary DNA array study in combination with protein analysis in young and old volunteers. Several genes of the collagen metabolism such as Collagen I, III and VI as well as heat shock protein 47 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 are expressed differentially, indicating UV-mediated effects on collagen expression, processing and degradation. In particular, Collagen I is time and age dependently reduced after a single UV exposure in human skin in vivo. Moreover, older subjects display a lower baseline level and a shorter UV-mediated increase in hyaluronan (HA) levels. To counteract these age-dependent changes, cultured fibroblasts were treated with a specific soy extract. This treatment resulted in increased collagen and HA synthesis. In a placebo-controlled in vivo study, topical application of an isoflavone-containing emulsion significantly enhanced the number of dermal papillae per area after 2 weeks. Because the flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction is the most reproducible structural change in aged skin, this soy extract appears to rejuvenate the structure of mature skin.

  6. Effects of Age, Gender, BMI, and Anatomical Site on Skin Thickness in Children and Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Rademaker, Marius; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Pinto, Teresa E.; Tregurtha, Sheryl; Faherty, Ann; Peart, Jane M.; Drury, Paul L.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and anatomical site on skin thickness in children and adults with diabetes. Methods We studied 103 otherwise healthy children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 5–19 years, and 140 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes aged 20–85 years. The thicknesses of both the dermis and subcutis were assessed using ultrasound with a linear array transducer, on abdominal and thigh skin. Results There was an age-related thickening of both dermis (p<0.0001) and subcutis (p = 0.013) in children and adolescents. Girls displayed a substantial pubertal increase in subcutis of the thigh (+54%; p = 0.048) and abdomen (+68%; p = 0.009). Adults showed an age-related decrease in dermal (p = 0.021) and subcutis (p = 0.009) thicknesses. Pubertal girls had a thicker subcutis than pubertal boys in both thigh (16.7 vs 7.5 mm; p<0.0001) and abdomen (16.7 vs 8.8 mm; p<0.0001). Men had greater thigh dermal thickness than women (1.89 vs 1.65 mm; p = 0.003), while the subcutis was thicker in women in thigh (21.3 vs 17.9 mm; p = 0.012) and abdomen (17.7 vs 9.8 mm; p<0.0001). In boys, men, and women, both dermis and subcutis were thicker on the abdomen compared to thigh; in girls this was only so for dermal thickness. In both children and adults, the skin (dermis and subcutis) became steadily thicker with increasing BMI (p<0.0001). Conclusions Skin thickness is affected by age, pubertal status, gender, BMI, and anatomical site. Such differences may be important when considering appropriate sites for dermal/subcutaneous injections and other transdermal delivery systems. PMID:24466182

  7. Ultraviolet radiation, aging and the skin: prevention of damage by topical cAMP manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Yan, Betty; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations. PMID:24838074

  8. Cytokine mRNA expression in normal skin of various age populations before and after engraftment onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Ullmann, Y; Shalagino, R; Weisinger, G

    1998-01-01

    Whether the impact of skin biological age on cytokine expression is a result of this tissue's proliferation potential or not is an important issue in dermatology. We investigated these questions by monitoring cytokine marker mRNA expression from human skin samples from healthy groups of individuals. The skin samples studied represented three age groups: fetal (17-21 weeks), young (18-35 years) and aged (76-88 years). Furthermore, upon skin transplantation of tissue from different age groups onto nude mice, we investigated whether cytokine marker RNA levels would change or normalize. Interestingly, both TNF-alpha and P53 mRNA showed a similar pattern of expression. Both were significantly higher in fetal skin (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively), and no difference was noted between aged versus young skin. In contrast to this, IL1-alpha mRNA was expressed at its lowest and highest levels in fetal and young skin, respectively. Following skin transplantation, cytokines and P53 mRNA expression were normalized to similar levels in all age groups. This study implies that when cytokine expression was determined directly at the mRNA level, post-natal expression was not significantly different at either age group. Furthermore, it seems that the environmental conditions surrounding the grafted human skin found on nude mice encouraged normalization of donor cytokine expression.

  9. Elderly and sun-affected skin. Distinguishing between changes caused by aging and changes caused by habitual exposure to sun.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and distinguish between skin changes produced by aging and changes produced by habitual exposure to sun. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched from 1969 to 1999 for articles on dermatoheliosis and sun-damaged skin. Surprisingly few were found comparing the difference between elderly skin and sun-damaged skin. A few articles focused on certain small aspects of sun-damaged skin. Many excellent articles described particular changes (e.g., actinic keratosis), but few covered all the changes due to aging and to sun. MAIN MESSAGE: Skin changes due to aging can be distinguished from those due to sun damage. All changes due to sun exposure can be grouped under the term dermatoheliosis; five parts of the skin are involved: epidermis (actinic keratosis), dermis (solar elastosis), blood vessels (telangiectasia), sebaceous glands (solar comedones), and melanocytes (diffuse or mottled brown patches). Habitual exposure to sun and a white skin are prerequisites for developing these changes. Knowing the difference between changes caused by sun and by aging can help physicians predict which patients are most likely to get skin cancers. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these common skin changes will help physicians diagnose and manage the skin abnormalities of elderly people and of people with dermatoheliosis. PMID:11421052

  10. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging.

  11. Free radical scavenging systems and the effect of peroxide damage in aged human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutman, R L; Cohen, M R; McAmis, W; Ramchand, C N; Sailer, V

    1987-01-01

    One prominent theory of aging postulates an accumulation of cell damage resulting from nonenzymatic chemical reactions between important cellular components and free radicals. Fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of psychiatric patients ranging in age from 22 to 70 were evaluated soon after adaptation to culture. No significant correlation was found between donor age and the detoxification enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) or susceptibility to damage by oxygen metabolites as measured by cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage.

  12. Type I antifreeze proteins expressed in snailfish skin are identical to their plasma counterparts.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert P; Fletcher, Garth L

    2005-10-01

    Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are usually small, Ala-rich alpha-helical polypeptides found in right-eyed flounders and certain species of sculpin. These proteins are divided into two distinct subclasses, liver type and skin type, which are encoded by separate gene families. Blood plasma from Atlantic (Liparis atlanticus) and dusky (Liparis gibbus) snailfish contain type I AFPs that are significantly larger than all previously described type I AFPs. In this study, full-length cDNA clones that encode snailfish type I AFPs expressed in skin tissues were generated using a combination of library screening and PCR-based methods. The skin clones, which lack both signal and pro-sequences, produce proteins that are identical to circulating plasma AFPs. Although all fish examined consistently express antifreeze mRNA in skin tissue, there is extreme individual variation in liver expression - an unusual phenomenon that has never been reported previously. Furthermore, genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that snailfish AFPs are products of multigene families that consist of up to 10 gene copies per genome. The 113-residue snailfish AFPs do not contain any obvious amino acid repeats or continuous hydrophobic face which typify the structure of most other type I AFPs. These structural differences might have implications for their ice-crystal binding properties. These results are the first to demonstrate a dual liver/skin role of identical type I AFP expression which may represent an evolutionary intermediate prior to divergence into distinct gene families.

  13. Interaction of hydration, aging, and carbon content of soil on the evaporation and skin bioavailability of munition contaminants.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, William G; Kammen, Harold O; Reddy, Gunda; Major, Michael A; Leach, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    Water plays a key role in enhancing the permeability of human skin to many substances. To further understand its ability to potentially increase the bioavailability of soil contaminants, artificial sweat was applied to excised pig skin prior to dosing with munition-contaminated soils. Skin was mounted in chambers to allow simultaneous measurement of evaporation and penetration and to control air flow, which changed the dwell time of skin surface water within a l-h period post application of test materials. Additional variables included type of compound, aging of spiked soil samples, and carbon content of soil. To this end, the evaporation and skin penetration of C-14 labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were determined from two soil types, Yolo, having 1.2% carbon, and Tinker, having 9.5% carbon. RDX soil samples aged 27 mo and 62 mo were compared to freshly spiked soils samples. Similarly, 26DNT samples aged 35-36 mo and TNT samples aged 18 mo were compared to freshly spiked samples. Approximately 10 microg/cm(2) of radiolabeled compound was applied in 10 mg/cm(2) of soil. Radiolabel recovered from the dermis and tissue culture media (receptor fluid) was summed to determine percent absorption from the soils. Radiolabel recovered from vapor traps determined evaporation. Mean skin absorption of all compounds was higher for low-carbon soil, regardless of soil age and skin surface water as affected by air flow conditions. For 26DNT, a simultaneous increase in evaporation and penetration with conditions that favored enhanced soil hydration of freshly prepared samples was consistent with a mechanism that involved water displacement of 26DNT from its binding sites. A mean penetration of 17.5 +/- 3.6% was observed for 26DNT in low-carbon soil, which approached the value previously reported for acetone vehicle (24 +/- 6%). 26DNT penetration was reduced to 0.35% under dryer conditions and to 0

  14. Interaction of hydration, aging, and carbon content of soil on the evaporation and skin bioavailability of munition contaminants.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, William G; Kammen, Harold O; Reddy, Gunda; Major, Michael A; Leach, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    Water plays a key role in enhancing the permeability of human skin to many substances. To further understand its ability to potentially increase the bioavailability of soil contaminants, artificial sweat was applied to excised pig skin prior to dosing with munition-contaminated soils. Skin was mounted in chambers to allow simultaneous measurement of evaporation and penetration and to control air flow, which changed the dwell time of skin surface water within a l-h period post application of test materials. Additional variables included type of compound, aging of spiked soil samples, and carbon content of soil. To this end, the evaporation and skin penetration of C-14 labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were determined from two soil types, Yolo, having 1.2% carbon, and Tinker, having 9.5% carbon. RDX soil samples aged 27 mo and 62 mo were compared to freshly spiked soils samples. Similarly, 26DNT samples aged 35-36 mo and TNT samples aged 18 mo were compared to freshly spiked samples. Approximately 10 microg/cm(2) of radiolabeled compound was applied in 10 mg/cm(2) of soil. Radiolabel recovered from the dermis and tissue culture media (receptor fluid) was summed to determine percent absorption from the soils. Radiolabel recovered from vapor traps determined evaporation. Mean skin absorption of all compounds was higher for low-carbon soil, regardless of soil age and skin surface water as affected by air flow conditions. For 26DNT, a simultaneous increase in evaporation and penetration with conditions that favored enhanced soil hydration of freshly prepared samples was consistent with a mechanism that involved water displacement of 26DNT from its binding sites. A mean penetration of 17.5 +/- 3.6% was observed for 26DNT in low-carbon soil, which approached the value previously reported for acetone vehicle (24 +/- 6%). 26DNT penetration was reduced to 0.35% under dryer conditions and to 0

  15. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics.

  16. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics. PMID:24794404

  17. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information about varicose and spider veins, including the causes, prevention, potential dangers, and ...

  18. Investigating the relationship between changes in collagen fiber orientation during skin aging and collagen/water interactions by polarized-FTIR microimaging.

    PubMed

    Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Happillon, Teddy; Bouland, Nicole; Fichel, Caroline; Diébold, Marie-Danièle; Angiboust, Jean-François; Manfait, Michel; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Piot, Olivier

    2015-09-21

    Upon chronological aging, human skin undergoes structural and molecular modifications, especially at the level of type I collagen. This macromolecule is one of the main dermal structural proteins and presents several age-related alterations. It exhibits a triple helical structure and assembles itself to form fibrils and fibers. In addition, water plays an important role in stabilizing the collagen triple helix by forming hydrogen-bonds between collagen residues. However, the influence of water on changes of dermal collagen fiber orientation with age has not been yet understood. Polarized-Fourier Transform Infrared (P-FTIR) imaging is an interesting biophotonic approach to determine in situ the orientation of type I collagen fibers, as we have recently shown by comparing skin samples of different ages. In this work, P-FTIR spectral imaging was performed on skin samples from two age groups (35- and 38-year-old on the one hand, 60- and 66-year-old on the other hand), and our analyses were focused on the effect of H2O/D2O substitution. Spectral data were processed with fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering in order to distinguish different orientations of collagen fibers. We demonstrated that the orientation was altered with aging, and that D2O treatment, affecting primarily highly bound water molecules, is more marked for the youngest skin samples. Collagen-bound water-related spectral markers were also highlighted. Our results suggest a weakening of water/collagen interactions with age. This non-destructive and label-free methodology allows us to understand better the importance of bound water in collagen fiber orientation alterations occurring with skin aging. Obtaining such structural information could find benefits in dermatology as well as in cosmetics.

  19. Directional variations of mechanical parameters in rat skin depending on maturation and age.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H G

    1981-06-01

    Mechanical properties of rat back skin at low loads and at failure were studied in 2 directions, e.g., perpendicular and longitudinal to body axis beginning with early maturation (from 1 week onwards) until senescence (at 24 mo). Anisotropic behavior, known for human skin, has also been found in rats. Surprisingly, the changes due to maturation and aging were not the same for one area of skin regardless of the direction. Ultimate extension was more influenced by the aging process in samples perpendicular to the body axis than in those parallel to body axis. Elongation at zero load, that means load not measurable under the described conditions, was higher in the longitudinal samples than in the perpendicular ones in young and very old animals, whereas this difference was absent in mature animals. In contrast, ultimate load, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were higher in perpendicular samples than in samples longitudinal to the body axis for young and very old, but not for mature animals. Elongation at low loads or low stresses shows a different pattern than at medium loads or medium stresses when both directions are compared. Apparently, elements contributing to the mechanical properties in the various directions are differently influenced by the maturation and aging processes. Moreover, the elements contributing to the changes at low loads react differently to the aging process from those responsible for the effects at medium and high loads.

  20. Sympathetic modulation of sensory nerve activity with age: human and rodent skin models.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Z; LeVasseur, S; Merhi, M; Helme, R D

    1997-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves serve an afferent role and mediate neurogenic components of inflammation and tissue repair via an axon reflex release of sensory peptides at sites of injury. Dysfunction of these nerves with age could contribute to delayed tissue healing. 2. Complementary animal and human skin models were used in the present studies to investigate changes in the modulation of sensory nerve function by sympathetic efferents during ageing. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to monitor neurogenic skin vascular responses. 3. The animal model used skin of the hind footpad of anaesthetized rats combined with electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve, while the human model comprised capsaicin electrophoresis to the volar surface of the forearm. Sympathetic modulation was effected by systemic phentolamine pretreatment in animals and local application in the human model. 4. The results obtained from the human model confirmed the reported decline in sensory nerve function and showed no change in sympathetic modulation with age. The results from the animal model confirm and expand results obtained from the human model. 5. The use of low (5 Hz) and high (15 Hz) frequency electrical stimulation (20 V, 2 ms for 1 min) revealed a preferential response of aged sensory nerves to low-frequency electrical stimulation parameters with differential sympathetic modulation that is dependent on the frequency of stimulation.

  1. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage. PMID:25333617

  2. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage.

  3. The transient receptor potential type vanilloid 1 suppresses skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Ann M.; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Zheng, Duo; Zhu, Feng; Ericson, Marna E; Ma, Wei-Ya; Yao, Ke; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Blockade of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is suggested as a therapeutic approach to pain relief. However, TRPV1 is a widely expressed protein whose function might be critical in various non-neuronal physiological conditions. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in many human epithelial cancers and is a potential target for anticancer drugs. Here we show that TRPV1 interacts with the EGFR leading to EGFR degradation. Notably, the absence of TRPV1 in mice results in a striking increase in skin carcinogenesis. The TRPV1 is the first membrane receptor shown to have a tumor-suppressing effect associated with the downregulation of another membrane receptor. The data suggest that even though a great deal of interest has focused on the TRPV1 as a target for pain relief, the chronic blockade of this pain receptor might increase the risk for cancer development. PMID:19155296

  4. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  5. Influence of season on some skin properties: winter vs. summer, as experienced by 354 Shanghaiese women of various ages.

    PubMed

    Qiu, H; Long, X; Ye, J C; Hou, J; Senee, J; Laurent, A; Bazin, R; Flament, F; Adam, A; Coutet, J; Piot, B

    2011-08-01

    The facial skin of 354 women, aged 18-80, living in Shanghai, was investigated over two successive 6-month periods, summer and winter. Results from clinical assessments indicate that aging signs, such as wrinkling and sagging, are unaffected over such period. However, physical measurements revealed alterations in some functional criteria of the skin, such as sebum output, skin colour, melanin content of pigmented spots, skin hydration, all being increased during summer. The relationships between all criteria, as well as technical or applied inferences/consequences from this study, are discussed.

  6. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal. PMID:24828108

  7. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal.

  8. Ten tips for treating acne vulgaris in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Spann, Candace Thornton

    2011-06-01

    During the 21st century, people with skin of color will account for a large portion of the US population. According to race projections from the US Census Bureau, persons of African American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American descent will make up nearly half of the total US population by the year 2050. Because of our changing demographics, it is important that all dermatologists become comfortable in treating skin of color. This article provides 10 practical pearls for management of acne vulgaris in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

  9. Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

  10. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  11. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  12. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  13. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  14. Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2013-10-01

    Reflex vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged skin due to a functional loss of adrenergic vasoconstriction. Bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for catecholamine synthesis, is reduced with aging. Locally administered BH4 increases vasoconstriction through adrenergic mechanisms in aged human skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, a pharmaceutical BH4) would augment vasoconstriction elicited by whole-body cooling and tyramine perfusion in aged skin. Ten healthy subjects (age 75 ± 2 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following ingestion. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer, 2) 5 mM BH4, and 3) 5 mM yohimbine + 1 mM propranolol (Y+P; to inhibit adrenergic vasoconstriction). Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasoconstriction was induced by lowering and then clamping whole-body skin temperature (Tsk) using a water-perfused suit. Following whole-body cooling, subjects were rewarmed and 1 mM tyramine was perfused at each site to elicit endogenous norepinephrine release from the perivascular nerve terminal. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as change from baseline (ΔCVC). Plasma BH4 was elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (43.8 ± 3 vs. 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml; P < 0.001). Sapropterin increased reflex vasoconstriction at the Ringer site at Tsk ≤ 32.5°C (P < 0.05). Local BH4 perfusion augmented reflex vasoconstriction at Tsk ≤ 31.5°C with placebo treatment only (P < 0.05). There was no treatment effect on reflex vasoconstriction at the BH4-perfused or Y+P-perfused sites. Sapropterin increased pharmacologically induced vasoconstriction at the Ringer site (-0.19 ± 0.03 vs. -0.08 ± 0.02 ΔCVC; P = 0.01). There was no

  15. Age Differences in Types of Interpersonal Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined age differences in topics that generate interpersonal tensions as well as relationship level characteristics that may account for variability in the content of interpersonal tensions. Participants aged 13 to 99 years (N = 184) diagramed their close and problematic social networks, and then provided open-ended descriptions of…

  16. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    PubMed Central

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Two types of extraction were performed and extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Extract obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE) showed higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than extract obtained by maceration (CR CAE)CR HAE demonstrated strong DPPH and Superoxide free radical scavenging activity whereas, ABTS scavenging activity of both the extracts were found to be similar. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of CR HAE was found to be more; indicating its strong antioxidant potentialIn vitro collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition activities were evaluated for both the extracts and CR HAE showed strong anti-collagenase and antielastase potential indicating its anti-aging abilityGC-MS analysis of CR HAE revealed the presence of various compounds mainly including Polymethoxyflavones. CR HAE exhibited promising antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activity and can be used as a potent antiwrinkle agent in anti-aging skin care formulations. Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (±) 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl) acryloyl)]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation

  17. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    PubMed Central

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Two types of extraction were performed and extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Extract obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE) showed higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than extract obtained by maceration (CR CAE)CR HAE demonstrated strong DPPH and Superoxide free radical scavenging activity whereas, ABTS scavenging activity of both the extracts were found to be similar. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of CR HAE was found to be more; indicating its strong antioxidant potentialIn vitro collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition activities were evaluated for both the extracts and CR HAE showed strong anti-collagenase and antielastase potential indicating its anti-aging abilityGC-MS analysis of CR HAE revealed the presence of various compounds mainly including Polymethoxyflavones. CR HAE exhibited promising antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activity and can be used as a potent antiwrinkle agent in anti-aging skin care formulations. Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (±) 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl) acryloyl)]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation Factor, MSD

  18. Use of Topical Rapamycin in Facial Angiofibromas in Indian Skin Type

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thakur, Parul; Pund, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Facial angiofibromas (FA) are the most visible cutaneous manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS), often resulting in stigmatization of the affected individuals. Recent studies have suggested that topical rapamycin may be an effective treatment for angiofibromas. Aim: To study the safety and efficacy of topical rapamycin in treatment of FA in Type IV–VI skin type. Materials and Methods: Five female patients with FA were included in the study, four of whom had TS, whereas one had isolated angiofibromas without systemic involvement. The age of the patients varied from 6 to 44 years. After baseline evaluation, they were advised to apply topical rapamycin (0.1–1%) in white soft paraffin base twice daily. Follow-up varied from 1 month to 6 months and is ongoing. Results: A sustained improvement was observed with respect to erythema, size as well as extent of the lesions as early as within 2 weeks of starting treatment. No side effects were observed. A correlation between duration of angiofibromas and effectiveness of treatment was noted. Conclusion: Topical rapamycin appears to be a safe and effective alternative to surgical or laser-based treatments in patients with FA. This treatment shows potential to be a first-line management for FA and appears safe to start in early childhood. PMID:26951710

  19. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2013-10-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation of BH4) would augment reflex vasodilation in aged human skin during hyperthermia. Nine healthy human subjects (76 ± 1 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following, ingestion of sapropterin for measurement of plasma BH4. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer's solution, 2) 10 mM BH4, and 3) 20 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit NOS. Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasodilation was induced using a water-perfused suit. At 1°C rise in oral temperature, mean body temperature was clamped and 20 mM l-NAME was perfused at each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated (CVC = LDF/MAP) and expressed as a percentage of maximum (%CVCmax 28 mM sodium nitroprusside and local heat 43°C). Plasma concentrations of BH4 were significantly elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (0 h: 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml vs. 3 h: 43.8 ± 3 pmol/ml; P < 0.001). Sapropterin increased NO-dependent vasodilation at control site (placebo: 14 ± 1 %CVCmax vs. sapropterin: 25 ± 4 %CVCmax; P = 0.004). Local BH4 administration increased NO-dependent vasodilation compared with control in placebo trials only (control: 14 ± 1 %CVCmax vs. BH4-treated: 24 ± 3 %CVCmax; P = 0.02). These data suggest oral sapropterin increases bioavailable BH4 in aged skin microvasculature sufficiently to increase NO synthesis through NOS and that sapropterin may be a viable intervention to

  20. Triple nanoemulsion potentiates the effects of topical treatments with microencapsulated retinol and modulates biological processes related to skin aging *

    PubMed Central

    Afornali, Alessandro; de Vecchi, Rodrigo; Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Dieamant, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Luciana Lima; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Feferman, Israel Henrique Stokfisz; Fabrício, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Lorencini, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sum of environmental and genetic factors affects the appearance and function of the skin as it ages. The identification of molecular changes that take place during skin aging provides biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Retinoic acid in different formulations has emerged as an alternative to prevent and repair age-related skin damage. OBJECTIVES To understand the effects of different retinoid formulations on the expression of genes associated with biological processes that undergo changes during skin aging. METHODS Ex-vivo skin samples were treated topically with different retinoid formulations. The modulation of biological processes associated with skin aging was measured by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS A formulation containing microencapsulated retinol and a blend of active ingredients prepared as a triple nanoemulsion provided the best results for the modulation of biological, process-related genes that are usually affected during skin aging. CONCLUSION This association proved to be therapeutically more effective than tretinoin or microencapsulated retinol used singly. PMID:24474102

  1. Non-invasive Measurement of Skin Autofluorescence as a Beneficial Surrogate Marker for Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temma, Jin; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Horie, Toru; Kuroda, Akio; Mori, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Motoyuki; Endo, Itsuro; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Skin autofluorescence (AF) was recently reported to represent tissue AGEs accumulation with a non-invasive method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association between AF value and diabetic vascular complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy and cervical atherosclerosis using the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a cross-sectional manner. AGEs accumulation was measured with AF reader. Clinical parameters were collected at the time of AF and IMT measurement. Max-IMT was correlated with age and AF (r=0.407, p=0.001), but not with HbA1c, GA, and pentosidine. Also, AF was not correlated with HbA1c, GA and pentosidine, but was correlated with age (r=0.560, p<0.001), duration of diabetes (r=0.256, p<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that AF, but not age, was an independent determinant of max-IMT. In conclusion, AF might be a beneficial surrogate marker for evaluating carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes non-invasively. J. Med. Invest. 62: 126-129, August, 2015.

  2. Non-invasive Measurement of Skin Autofluorescence as a Beneficial Surrogate Marker for Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temma, Jin; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Horie, Toru; Kuroda, Akio; Mori, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Motoyuki; Endo, Itsuro; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Skin autofluorescence (AF) was recently reported to represent tissue AGEs accumulation with a non-invasive method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association between AF value and diabetic vascular complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy and cervical atherosclerosis using the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a cross-sectional manner. AGEs accumulation was measured with AF reader. Clinical parameters were collected at the time of AF and IMT measurement. Max-IMT was correlated with age and AF (r=0.407, p=0.001), but not with HbA1c, GA, and pentosidine. Also, AF was not correlated with HbA1c, GA and pentosidine, but was correlated with age (r=0.560, p<0.001), duration of diabetes (r=0.256, p<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that AF, but not age, was an independent determinant of max-IMT. In conclusion, AF might be a beneficial surrogate marker for evaluating carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes non-invasively. J. Med. Invest. 62: 126-129, August, 2015. PMID:26399335

  3. A new cell-free bandage-type artificial skin for cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shigehisa; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Satoshi; Narisawa, Yutaka; Oshikata-Miyazaki, Ayumi; Miyauchi, Syohei; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Sawaguchi, Tomoya; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Toda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skin substitutes are widely used in skin wound management. However, no currently available products satisfy all the criteria of usability in emergency situations, easy handling, and minimal scar formation. To overcome these shortcomings, we designed a cell-free bandage-type artificial skin, named "VitriBand" (VB), using adhesive film dressing, silicone-coated polyethylene terephthalate film, and collagen xerogel membrane defined as a dried collagen vitrigel membrane without free water. We analyzed its advantages over in-line products by comparing VB with hydrocolloid dressing and collagen sponge. For evaluation, mice inflicted with full-thickness skin defects were treated with VB, hydrocolloid dressing, and collagen sponge. A plastic film group treated only with adhesive film dressing and silicone-coated polyethylene terephthalate film, and a no treatment group were also compared. VB promoted epithelization while inhibiting the emergence of myofibroblasts and inflammation in the regenerating tissue more effectively than the plastic film, hydrocolloid dressing, and collagen sponge products. We have succeeded in establishing a cell-free bandage-type artificial skin that could serve as a promising first-line medical biomaterial for emergency treatment of skin injuries in various medical situations.

  4. K6PC-5, a novel sphingosine kinase activator, improves long-term ultraviolet light-exposed aged murine skin.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2008-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine through a process catalysed by sphingosine kinase (SK), is a multifunctional mediator of a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. K6PC-5, which was recently synthesized as a novel SK activator, is expected to increase S1P levels. Indeed studies have already demonstrated that K6PC-5 exhibits anti-aging effects on intrinsic aged murine skin by increasing fibroblasts, collagen synthesis, dermal thickness, and epidermal differentiation. However, photoaging and intrinsic aging have highly different clinical and histopathological properties. In this study, we developed a photoaged murine model by exposing mice that were 56 weeks old to ultraviolet (UV)B and UVA radiation for 8 weeks. We then investigated whether K6PC-5, as an SK activator, had anti-aging effects on photoaged murine skin in addition to its effects on intrinsic aged murine skin and determined the mechanism. K6PC-5 increased dermal collagen density in photoaged skin through increases in fibroblasts and collagen production. Photoaged murine skin treated with K6PC-5 showed an increase in stratum corneum (SC) integrity with increased corneodesmosome density and an improvement in barrier recovery rate. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 remained unchanged. These results indicate that topical application of K6PC-5 improves photoaged skin by improving skin barrier and increasing fibroblast count and function. In conclusion, K6PC-5, as an S1P activator, improves long-term UV-exposed aged skin as well as intrinsic aged skin. PMID:18341573

  5. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  6. Skin Anti-Aging Activities of Bacteriochlorophyll a from Photosynthetic Bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the anti-aging skin effects of bacteriochlorophyll a isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides are first reported, with notably low cytotoxicity in the range of 1% to 14% in adding 0.00078 (% (w/w)) of the extracts, compared with the normal growth of both human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte cells without any treatment as a control. The highest production of procollagen from human fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk) was observed as 221.7 ng/ml with 0.001 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a, whereas 150 and 200 ng/ml of procollagen production resulted from addition of 0.001 (% (w/w)) of the photosynthetic bacteria. The bacteriochlorophylla- induced TNF-α production increased to 63.8%, which was lower secretion from HaCaT cells than that from addition of 0.00005 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a. Additionally, bacteriochlorophyll a upregulated the expression of genes related to skin anti-aging (i.e., keratin 10, involucrin, transglutaminase-1, and MMPs), by up to 4-15 times those of the control. However, crude extracts from R. sphaeroides did not enhance the expression level of these genes. Bacteriochlorophyll a showed higher antioxidant activity of 63.8% in DPPH free radical scavenging than those of water, ethanol, and 70% ethanol extracts (14.0%, 57.2%, and 12.6%, respectively). It was also shown that the high antioxidant activity could be attributed to the skin anti-aging effect of bacteriochlorophyll a, although R. sphaeroides itself would not exhibit significant anti-aging activities.

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense skin injury and promote wound healing through type I interferons.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Josh; Meller, Stephan; Conrad, Curdin; Di Nardo, Anna; Homey, Bernhard; Lauerma, Antti; Arai, Naoko; Gallo, Richard L; Digiovanni, John; Gilliet, Michel

    2010-12-20

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-producing cells that express intracellular toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 and recognize viral nucleic acids in the context of infections. We show that pDCs also have the ability to sense host-derived nucleic acids released in common skin wounds. pDCs were found to rapidly infiltrate both murine and human skin wounds and to transiently produce type I IFNs via TLR7- and TLR9-dependent recognition of nucleic acids. This process was critical for the induction of early inflammatory responses and reepithelization of injured skin. Cathelicidin peptides, which facilitate immune recognition of released nucleic acids by promoting their access to intracellular TLR compartments, were rapidly induced in skin wounds and were sufficient but not necessary to stimulate pDC activation and type I IFN production. These data uncover a new role of pDCs in sensing tissue damage and promoting wound repair at skin surfaces.

  8. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  9. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  10. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  11. Aging and photo-aging DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-exposure.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Chloé; Masson-Genteuil, Gwénaëlle; Ugolin, Nicolas; Sarrazy, Fanny; Sauvaigo, Sylvie

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of aging on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to aging, consequences of photo-exposure on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of aging and of chronic and/or acute photo-exposure on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-exposure disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-exposure induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB exposure and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental exposure on DNA repair pathways.

  12. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  13. Delayed-type skin reaction to the heparin-alternative danaparoid.

    PubMed

    Szolar-Platzer, C; Aberer, W; Kränke, B

    2000-11-01

    Eczematous, infiltrated plaques at the site of subcutaneously administered heparin appear to be common. Heparinoids cannot be recommended in general as a substitute for heparin or low molecular weight heparin because delayed-type skin reactions to these molecules can also occur, as demonstrated in this case report. PMID:11044823

  14. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  15. Myb via TGFβ is required for collagen type 1 production and skin integrity.

    PubMed

    Sampurno, Shienny; Cross, Ryan; Pearson, Helen; Kaur, Pritinder; Malaterre, Jordane; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Skin integrity requires an ongoing replacement and repair orchestrated by several cell types. We previously investigated the architecture of the skin of avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (Myb) knock-out (KO) embryos and wound repair in Myb(+/)(-) mice revealing a need for Myb in the skin, attributed to fibroblast-dependent production of collagen type 1. Here, using targeted Myb deletion in keratin-14 (K14) positive cells we reveal further Myb-specific defects in epidermal cell proliferation, thickness and ultrastructural morphology. This was associated with a severe deficit in collagen type 1 production, reminiscent of that observed in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Since collagen type 1 is a product of fibroblasts, the collagen defect observed was unexpected and appears to be directed by the loss of Myb with significantly reduced tumor growth factor beta 1 (Tgfβ-1) expression by primary keratinocytes. Our findings support a specific role for Myb in K14+ epithelial cells in the preservation of adult skin integrity and function. PMID:25807069

  16. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P <0.05); thus D-galactose induced sub-acutely aging mice models were duplicated successfully. Results also indicated that transplantation of ASCs could reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers such as MDA, SOD, and advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs); hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thickness of the dermis layer as well as the collagen content of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In addition, immunohistochemical assay showed that expression quantity of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In conclusion, ASCs can trace cell distribution successfully through bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control

  17. Mdm2-p53 signaling regulates epidermal stem cell senescence and premature aging phenotypes in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Hugh S; Donehower, Lawrence A; Lyle, Stephen; Jones, Stephen N

    2011-05-01

    The p53 transcription factor is activated by various types of cell stress or DNA damage and induces the expression of genes that control cell growth and inhibit tumor formation. Analysis of mice that express mutant forms of p53 suggest that inappropriate p53 activation can alter tissue homeostasis and life span, connecting p53 tumor suppressor functions with accelerated aging. However, other mouse models that display increased levels of wildtype p53 in various tissues fail to corroborate a link between p53 and aging phenotypes, possibly due to the retention of signaling pathways that negatively regulate p53 activity in these models. In this present study, we have generated mice lacking Mdm2 in the epidermis. Deletion of Mdm2, the chief negative regulator of p53, induced an aging phenotype in the skin of mice, including thinning of the epidermis, reduced wound healing, and a progressive loss of fur. These phenotypes arise due to an induction of p53-mediated senescence in epidermal stem cells and a gradual loss of epidermal stem cell function. These results reveal that activation of endogenous p53 by ablation of Mdm2 can induce accelerated aging phenotypes in mice.

  18. Skin aging and photoaging alter fatty acids composition, including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, in the epidermis of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jin, Xing-Ji; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2). We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

  19. Age-dependent variation in cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes rinsed from the surface of healthy human skin.

    PubMed

    Kinn, Patrick M; Holdren, Grant O; Westermeyer, Brittney A; Abuissa, Mousa; Fischer, Carol L; Fairley, Janet A; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-06-02

    In the skin, aging is associated with overall epidermal thinning, decreased barrier function, and gradual deterioration of the epidermal immune response. However, the presence and role of cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes (CCBAs) in immunosenescence are not known. Here we identified age-related changes in skin properties and CCBAs from stratum corneum of healthy human subjects, providing a means to utilize CCBAs as benchmarks for aging skin health. Transepidermal water loss and a(*) (skin redness) decreased in an age-dependent manner, and were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 (56.6 ± 4.6 years) and 3 (72.9 ± 3.0 years) vs. Group 1 (24.3 ± 2.8 years). In skin wash fluid, 48 CCBAs were detected; seven were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3: EGF, FGF-2, IFNα2, IL-1RA, HSA, keratin-6, and involucrin; cortisol was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3. Our results correspond with the pro-inflammatory shift that occurs with immunosenescence and also provides basis for understanding the inflammatory changes in normal aging skin.

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin aging model.

    PubMed

    Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process.

  1. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    BERTUCCELLI, GIUSEPPE; ZERBINATI, NICOLA; MARCELLINO, MASSIMILIANO; NANDA KUMAR, NAVALPUR SHANMUGAM; HE, FANG; TSEPAKOLENKO, VLADIMIR; CERVI, JOSEPH; LORENZETTI, ALDO; MAROTTA, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years, all of whom showed clinical signs of skin aging. The subjects were randomly divided into two matched groups, and were administered FPP or antioxidant treatment of a 4.5 g/day sachet sublingually twice a day for 90 days in a double-blind fashion. The parameters investigated were: Skin surface, brown spots, skin evenness, skin moisturization, elasticity (face), redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and the expression levels of key genes (outer forearm sample). As compared with the baseline (day 0) and antioxidant-control values, FPP-treated subjects showed a significant improvement in skin evenness, moisturization and elasticity. The two treatments improved the MDA and SOD skin concentrations, but only the FPP-treated group showed a higher SOD level and a significant NO increase, along with significant upregulation of acquaporin-3 and downregulation of the potentially pro-aging/carcinogenetic cyclophilin-A and CD147 genes (P<0.05). Progerin was unaffected in both treatment groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orally-administered FPP showed a consistent biological and gene-regulatory improvement in the skin, as was also demonstrated in previous experimental and clinical trials testing other tissues, while common oral antioxidants had only a minor effect. PMID:26998011

  2. Biological effects of hyaluronan in connective tissues, eye, skin, venous wall. Role in aging.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Renard, G

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronan, as most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, are produced by the differentiated mesenchymal cells. These cells produce also enzymes degrading hyaluronan. This results in the presence of several hyaluronan pools of different molecular weights, all capable of interacting with surrounding cells, mediated by hyaluronan binding proteins and receptors. These interactions modulate cell phenotype and produce a variety of effects conditioning the specific functions of tissues. We shall discuss here several examples studied in our laboratory, concerning skin, cornea and the venous wall. Some of these actions might even be harmful, and could play an important role in aging of connective tissues with loss of function. Some of these age-dependent modifications mediated by hyaluronan will be reviewed and commented, especially the upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We shall also mention some of our experiments for finding molecules capable of counteracting the harmful effects mediated by hyaluronan.

  3. CopA3 peptide prevents ultraviolet-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Yu, Jae-Myo; Lee, Eun-Su; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Dong-In; An, Bong-Jeun

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3) was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:24853614

  4. Oxidative damage, skin aging, antioxidants and a novel antioxidant rating system.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Debbie M; Kitchin, Jennifer Silverman

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to neutralize the reactive intermediates. Oxidative damage occurs because of both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Together, intrinsic and extrinsic damage are the primary causes of skin aging. The skin uses a series of intrinsic antioxidants to protect itself from free radical damage. Naturally occurring extrinsic antioxidants have also been widely shown to offset and alleviate these changes. Unlike sunscreens, which have an SPF rating system to guide consumers in their purchases, there is no widely accepted method to choose antioxidant anti-aging products. ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and ABEL-RAC (Analysis By Emitted Light-Relative Antioxidant Capacity), are both accepted worldwide as a standard measure of the antioxidant capacity of foods, and are rating systems that could be applied to all antioxidant skincare products. The standardization of antioxidant creams could revolutionize the cosmeceutical market and give physicians and consumers the ability to compare and choose effectively.

  5. Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Ra, Jehyeon; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seo, Young Kyoung; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Jung-Hee; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-28

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are now widely reported, although there are only a few studies on their anti-aging effects. We have found that Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714) improves skin hydration and has anti-photoaging effects, and in the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of HY7714 via a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 110 volunteers aged 41 and 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Participants took 1 × 10(10) CFU/day of HY7714 (probiotic group) or a placebo (placebo group) for 12 weeks. Skin hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and skin elasticity were measured every 4 weeks during the study period. There were significant increases in the skin water content in the face (p < 0.01) and hands (p < 0.05) at week 12 in the probiotic group. Transepidermal water loss decreased significantly in both groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p < 0.001 compared with baseline), and was suppressed to a greater extent in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Finally, skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% (p < 0.05 vs. controls) after 4 weeks and by 21.73% (p < 0.01 vs. controls) after 12 weeks. These findings are preliminary confirmation of the anti-aging benefit to the skin of L. plantarum HY7714 as a nutricosmetic agent.

  6. Whey peptides prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin aging in melanin-possessing male hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protective action against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkle formation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aging induced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) was irradiated to the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated mice were performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited the increase in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticity associated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closely associated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found that WPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit of WPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin aging as a supplemental nutrient.

  7. Systemic and cell type-specific gene expression patterns in scleroderma skin

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Michael L.; Finlay, Deborah R.; Murray, John Isaac; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Pergamenschikov, Alexander; McCalmont, Timothy H.; Brown, Patrick O.; Botstein, David; Connolly, M. Kari

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays representing >12,000 human genes to characterize gene expression patterns in skin biopsies from individuals with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma. We found consistent differences in the patterns of gene expression between skin biopsies from individuals with scleroderma and those from normal, unaffected individuals. The biopsies from affected individuals showed nearly indistinguishable patterns of gene expression in clinically affected and clinically unaffected tissue, even though these were clearly distinguishable from the patterns found in similar tissue from unaffected individuals. Genes characteristically expressed in endothelial cells, B lymphocytes, and fibroblasts showed differential expression between scleroderma and normal biopsies. Analysis of lymphocyte populations in scleroderma skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry suggest the B lymphocyte signature observed on our arrays is from CD20+ B cells. These results provide evidence that scleroderma has systemic manifestations that affect multiple cell types and suggests genes that could be used as potential markers for the disease. PMID:14530402

  8. In vivo isolation of the effects of melanin from underlying hemodynamics across skin types using spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Sharif, Ata; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-05-01

    Skin is a highly structured tissue, raising concerns as to whether skin pigmentation due to epidermal melanin may confound accurate measurements of underlying hemodynamics. Using both venous and arterial cuff occlusions as a means of inducing differential hemodynamic perturbations, we present analyses of spectra limited to the visible or near-infrared regime, in addition to a layered model approach. The influence of melanin, spanning Fitzpatrick skin types I to V, on underlying estimations of hemodynamics in skin as interpreted by these spectral regions are assessed. The layered model provides minimal cross-talk between melanin and hemodynamics and enables removal of problematic correlations between measured tissue oxygenation estimates and skin phototype.

  9. In vitro glycation of an endothelialized and innervated tissue-engineered skin to screen anti-AGE molecules.

    PubMed

    Cadau, Sébastien; Leoty-Okombi, Sabrina; Pain, Sabine; Bechetoille, Nicolas; André-Frei, Valérie; Berthod, François

    2015-05-01

    Glycation is one of the major processes responsible for skin aging through induction of the detrimental formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We developed an innovative tissue-engineered skin combining both a capillary-like and a nerve networks and designed a protocol to induce continuous AGEs formation by a treatment with glyoxal. We determined the optimal concentration of glyoxal to induce AGEs formation identified by carboxymethyl-lysin expression while keeping their toxic effects low. We showed that our tissue-engineered skin cultured for 44 days and treated with 200 μm glyoxal for 31 days displayed high carboxymethyl-lysine expression, which induced a progressively increased alteration of its capillary and nerve networks between 28 and 44 days. Moreover, it produced an epidermal differentiation defect evidenced by the lack of loricrin and filaggrin expression in the epidermis. These effects were almost completely prevented by addition of aminoguanidine 1.5 mm, an anti-glycation compound, and only slightly decreased by alagebrium 500 μm, an AGE-breaker molecule. This tissue-engineered skin model is the first one to combine a capillary and nerve network and to enable a continuous glycation over a long-term culture period. It is a unique tool to investigate the effects of glycation on skin and to screen new molecules that could prevent AGEs formation.

  10. In vitro glycation of an endothelialized and innervated tissue-engineered skin to screen anti-AGE molecules.

    PubMed

    Cadau, Sébastien; Leoty-Okombi, Sabrina; Pain, Sabine; Bechetoille, Nicolas; André-Frei, Valérie; Berthod, François

    2015-05-01

    Glycation is one of the major processes responsible for skin aging through induction of the detrimental formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We developed an innovative tissue-engineered skin combining both a capillary-like and a nerve networks and designed a protocol to induce continuous AGEs formation by a treatment with glyoxal. We determined the optimal concentration of glyoxal to induce AGEs formation identified by carboxymethyl-lysin expression while keeping their toxic effects low. We showed that our tissue-engineered skin cultured for 44 days and treated with 200 μm glyoxal for 31 days displayed high carboxymethyl-lysine expression, which induced a progressively increased alteration of its capillary and nerve networks between 28 and 44 days. Moreover, it produced an epidermal differentiation defect evidenced by the lack of loricrin and filaggrin expression in the epidermis. These effects were almost completely prevented by addition of aminoguanidine 1.5 mm, an anti-glycation compound, and only slightly decreased by alagebrium 500 μm, an AGE-breaker molecule. This tissue-engineered skin model is the first one to combine a capillary and nerve network and to enable a continuous glycation over a long-term culture period. It is a unique tool to investigate the effects of glycation on skin and to screen new molecules that could prevent AGEs formation. PMID:25771012

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  12. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  13. Upregulation of Collagen Expression via PPARβ/δ Activation in Aged Skin by Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yu Ri; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Chan Hum; Park, Min Hi; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Yokozawa, Takako; Tanaka, Takashi; Im, Dong Soon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Yu, Byung Pal; Mo, Sang Hyun; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-08-28

    This study investigated the agonistic activity of magnesium lithospermate B (1), isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARβ/δ) and the expressions of collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL3A1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in models of skin aging. The action of compound 1 as a PPARβ/δ agonist was determined by reporter gene assay, immunostaining, and Western blotting. To determine the antiaging effects of compound 1 on skin, aged Sprague-Dawley rat skin and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human skin fibroblasts were used. The results show that 1 presented a marked enhancement of both nuclear protein levels and activity of PPARβ/δ in fibroblasts. In addition, 1 prevented downregulation of PPARβ/δ activity in aged rat skin and UVB-induced fibroblasts. Furthermore, 1 increased the expressions of COL1A1, COL3A1, and TGF-β1 in vivo and in a cell culture system. Therefore, the present study shows that compound 1 prevents collagen degradation in aged rat skin and UVB-exposed fibroblasts through PPARβ/δ activation. The therapeutic and cosmetic applications of compound 1 need further investigation. PMID:26280594

  14. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    PubMed

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  15. Ages of Late Spectral Type Vega-like Stars.

    PubMed

    Song; Caillault; Barrado Y Navascués D; Stauffer; Randich

    2000-04-10

    We have estimated the ages of eight late-type Vega-like stars by using standard age-dating methods for single late-type stars, e.g., location on the color-magnitude diagram, Li lambda6708 absorption, Ca ii H and K emission, X-ray luminosity, and stellar kinematic population. With the exception of the very unusual pre-main-sequence star system HD 98800, all the late-type Vega-like stars are the same age as the Hyades cluster (600-800 Myr) or older. PMID:10727387

  16. [The patient with polymorphous light dermatosis. Skin type, hardening and other light-associated markers].

    PubMed

    Lindmaier, A; Neumann, R

    1991-07-01

    From 1985 to 1989 we interviewed 312 patients suffering from polymorphous light eruption (PLE). The interviews were based on a questionnaire dealing with the various light-dependent factors that exacerbate the disease. Of 90 patients who were tested with artificial UV-A and UV-B irradiation sources, 60 reacted with typical PLE lesions: (a) 27 patients to UV-A alone, (b) 12 to UV-B alone, and (c) 21 to both UV-A and UV-B. Using UV-A provocation tests we were able to determine the anamnestic criteria indicating a possible UV-A induction of PLE, e.g. occurrence in the shade, no protection from window glass, no benefit from conventional sunscreens, and occurrence in solaria. The period from experimental irradiation to induction of skin lesions was shorter in skin types I and II than in skin type III and IV. Hardening phenomenon was reported by 37% of our patients. Of the UV-A-positive patients, 38% showed the first presentation of PLE lesions at the height of summer, as against 64% of the total number of patients questioned. Additional lesions at non-irradiated skin sites occurred in 25% of our patients, the frequency rising with increasing duration of the tendency to PLE. PMID:1938396

  17. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Alán, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0) with a constant (LC), or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI) in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging. PMID:26171114

  18. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis

    PubMed Central

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Alán, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0) with a constant (LC), or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI) in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging. PMID:26171114

  19. Cytokinetic Failure-induced Tetraploidy Develops into Aneuploidy, Triggering Skin Aging in Phosphovimentin-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Goto, Hidemasa; Inoko, Akihito; Makihara, Hiroyuki; Enomoto, Atsushi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Matsuyama, Makoto; Kurita, Kenichi; Izawa, Ichiro; Inagaki, Masaki

    2015-05-22

    Tetraploidy, a state in which cells have doubled chromosomal sets, is observed in ∼20% of solid tumors and is considered to frequently precede aneuploidy in carcinogenesis. Tetraploidy is also detected during terminal differentiation and represents a hallmark of aging. Most tetraploid cultured cells are arrested by p53 stabilization. However, the fate of tetraploid cells in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we analyze the ability to repair wounds in the skin of phosphovimentin-deficient (VIM(SA/SA)) mice. Early into wound healing, subcutaneous fibroblasts failed to undergo cytokinesis, resulting in binucleate tetraploidy. Accordingly, the mRNA level of p21 (a p53-responsive gene) was elevated in a VIM(SA/SA)-specific manner. Disappearance of tetraploidy coincided with an increase in aneuploidy. Thereafter, senescence-related markers were significantly elevated in VIM(SA/SA) mice. Because our tetraploidy-prone mouse model also exhibited subcutaneous fat loss at the age of 14 months, another premature aging phenotype, our data suggest that following cytokinetic failure, a subset of tetraploid cells enters a new cell cycle and develops into aneuploid cells in vivo, which promote premature aging.

  20. Dicarbonyl-induced accelerated aging in vitro in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sejersen, Henrik; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2009-04-01

    Dicarbonyls glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) produced during the autoxidation of reducing sugars are a source of macromolecular damage in cells. Since an accumulation of damaged macromolecules is a universal characteristic of aging, we have tested whether GO and MGO which cause oxidative damage to proteins and other macromolecules can bring about accelerated aging in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. A treatment of cells with 1.0 mM GO or 400 microM MGO leads to the appearance of senescent phenotype within 3 days, as judged by the following criteria: morphological phenotype, irreversible growth arrest and G2 arrest, increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SABG) activity, increased H2O2 level, increased Nxi-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) protein level, and altered activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. This experimental model of accelerated cellular aging in vitro can be useful for studies on testing the effects of various physical, chemical and biological conditions, including natural and synthetic molecules, for the modulation of aging.

  1. Coriander leaf extract exerts antioxidant activity and protects against UVB-induced photoaging of skin by regulation of procollagen type I and MMP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) has protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of CSE, linolenic acid, was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We measured the cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. We found that the activity of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. We measured the epidermal thickness, dermal collagen fiber density, and procollagen type I and MMP-1 levels in photo-aged mouse skin in vivo using histological staining and western blot analysis. Our results showed that CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice. Our results support the potential of C. sativum L. to prevent skin photoaging.

  2. Recovery of Aging-Related Size Increase of Skin Epithelial Cells: In vivo Mouse and In vitro Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor; Guz, Natali V.; Iyer, Swaminathan; Hewitt, Amy; Sokolov, Nina A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment). An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8). A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20–40% for cells of older passage (6–8 passages) whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin. PMID:25807526

  3. Preparation of A-type proanthocyanidin dimers from peanut skins and persimmon pulp and comparison of the antioxidant activity of A-type and B-type dimers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-qian; Zou, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Ge, Zhen-zhen; Du, Jing; Li, Chun-mei

    2013-12-01

    We have established a simple method for preparing large quantities of A-type dimers from peanut skin and persimmon for further structure-activity relationship study. Peanut skins were defatted with hexane and oligomeric proanthocyanidins were extracted from it with 20% of methanol, and the extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. Persimmon tannin was extracted from persimmon with methanol acidified with 1% hydrochloric acid, after removing the sugar and small phenols, the high molecular weight persimmon tannin was partially cleaved with 6.25% hydrochloric acid in methanol. The ethyl acetate fraction from peanut skins and persimmon tannin cleaved products was chromatographed on AB-8 macroporous resin followed by Toyopearl HW-50F resin to yield about 378.3mg of A-type (epi)catechin (EC) dimer from 1 kg dry peanut skins and 34.3mg of A-type (epi)catechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) dimer and 37.7 mg of A-type (epi)gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) dimer from 1 kg fresh persimmon fruit. The antioxidant properties of the A-type and B-type dimers were compared in five different assays, namely, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation in mice liver homogenate and erythrocyte hemolysis in rat blood. Our results showed that both A-type and B-type dimers showed high antioxidant potency in a dose-dependent manner. In general, B-type dimers showed higher radical scavenging potency than A-type ones with the same subunits in aqueous systems. But in tissue or lipid systems, A-type dimers showed similar or even higher antioxidant potency than B-type ones.

  4. Type of soap and the incidence of skin tears among residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mason, S R

    1997-09-01

    Skin tears are common among residents of long-term care facilities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of emollient antibacterial soap compared to non-emollient antibacterial soap in improving skin quality and reducing skin tears among residents of a long-term care facility. Skin tears were monitored over 4 months: non-emollient soap in the first and third months, and emollient soap in the second and fourth months were used. Rate of skin tears per resident per month were calculated. Incident reports were monitored the first month to establish skin tear rates using non-emollient soap. Skin tears decreased with the use of emollient soap (37% and 33% decrease in months two and four, respectively) and increased with the reintroduction of non-emollient soap (43% increase in month three). Overall incidence of skin tears with the use of emollient soap was 34.8 percent lower than that of the non-emollient soap. Analysis of variance did not show statistical significance [F(1,84) = 3.108, p = .0821], but clinical significance was demonstrated by the reduced number of skin tears with the use of emollient soap. While the etiology of skin tears seems to be a problem of aging, the decrease in skin tears in this study supports the continued use of emollient soap.

  5. Reduced DNA methylation patterning and transcriptional connectivity define human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Felix; Rodríguez-Paredes, Manuel; Hagemann, Sabine; Manchanda, Himanshu; Kristof, Boris; Gutekunst, Julian; Raddatz, Günter; Haas, Rainer; Terstegen, Lara; Wenck, Horst; Kaderali, Lars; Winnefeld, Marc; Lyko, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic changes represent an attractive mechanism for understanding the phenotypic changes associated with human aging. Age-related changes in DNA methylation at the genome scale have been termed 'epigenetic drift', but the defining features of this phenomenon remain to be established. Human epidermis represents an excellent model for understanding age-related epigenetic changes because of its substantial cell-type homogeneity and its well-known age-related phenotype. We have now generated and analyzed the currently largest set of human epidermis methylomes (N = 108) using array-based profiling of 450 000 methylation marks in various age groups. Data analysis confirmed that age-related methylation differences are locally restricted and characterized by relatively small effect sizes. Nevertheless, methylation data could be used to predict the chronological age of sample donors with high accuracy. We also identified discontinuous methylation changes as a novel feature of the aging methylome. Finally, our analysis uncovered an age-related erosion of DNA methylation patterns that is characterized by a reduced dynamic range and increased heterogeneity of global methylation patterns. These changes in methylation variability were accompanied by a reduced connectivity of transcriptional networks. Our findings thus define the loss of epigenetic regulatory fidelity as a key feature of the aging epigenome.

  6. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ja Young; Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami; Choi, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin's elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity. PMID:27194933

  7. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ja Young; Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami; Choi, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin's elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity.

  8. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations.

  9. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. PMID:27346872

  10. Analysis of gene expression dynamics revealed delayed and abnormal epidermal repair process in aged compared to young skin.

    PubMed

    Sextius, Peggy; Marionnet, Claire; Tacheau, Charlotte; Bon, François-Xavier; Bastien, Philippe; Mauviel, Alain; Bernard, Bruno A; Bernerd, Françoise; Dubertret, Louis

    2015-05-01

    With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray(®) cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. PMID:25740152

  11. Childhood Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Confirmation of Diagnosis by Skin Deficient in Type VII Collagen, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Nupur; Rao, Raghavendra; Balachandran, C; Pai, Sathish; Bhogal, Balbir S; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired subepidermal bullous disorder characterized by autoantibodies against Type VII collagen. It usually affects adults; childhood EBA is rare. We describe a 10-year-old girl presenting with recurrent tense blisters predominantly on legs, dorsa of hands and feet accompanied by oral erosions since the age of 5 years. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ); indirect IF microscopy on salt-split skin revealed staining of IgG to the dermal side of the split. The patient's serum did not show BMZ staining in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin deficient for Type VII collagen, thus confirming autoantibody reactivity against Type VII collagen. Circulating antibodies against the immunodominant noncollagenous 1 domain of Type VII collagen were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting studies. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and dapsone with good improvement. PMID:27293257

  12. Childhood Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Confirmation of Diagnosis by Skin Deficient in Type VII Collagen, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Nupur; Rao, Raghavendra; Balachandran, C; Pai, Sathish; Bhogal, Balbir S; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired subepidermal bullous disorder characterized by autoantibodies against Type VII collagen. It usually affects adults; childhood EBA is rare. We describe a 10-year-old girl presenting with recurrent tense blisters predominantly on legs, dorsa of hands and feet accompanied by oral erosions since the age of 5 years. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ); indirect IF microscopy on salt-split skin revealed staining of IgG to the dermal side of the split. The patient's serum did not show BMZ staining in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin deficient for Type VII collagen, thus confirming autoantibody reactivity against Type VII collagen. Circulating antibodies against the immunodominant noncollagenous 1 domain of Type VII collagen were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting studies. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and dapsone with good improvement. PMID:27293257

  13. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  14. In vivo transformation of human skin with human papillomavirus type 11 from condylomatot acuminata

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Lill, N.L.; Bartlett, G.L.; Zaino, R.J.; Sedlacek, T.V.; Mortel, R.

    1986-08-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, but direct tests of their involvement have not been possible. The authors describe a system in which human skin from various skin from various sites was infected with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) extracted from vulvar condylomata and was grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Most of the skin grafts so treated underwent morphological transformation, resulting in the development of condylomata identical to those which occur spontaneously in patients. Foreskins responded with the most vigorous proliferative response to HPV-11. The lesions produced the characteristic intranuclear group-specific antigen of papillomaviruses. Both dot blot and Southern blot analysis of DNA from the lesions revealed the presence of HPV-11 DNA in the transformed grafts. These results demonstrate the first laboratory system for the study of the interaction of human skin with an HPV. The method may be useful in understanding the mechanisms of HPV transformation and replication and is free of the ethical restraints which have impeded study. This system will allow the direct study of factors which permit neoplastic progression of HPV-induced cutaneous lesions in human tissues.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Delivery System Containing Phytophospholipid Complex for Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Damle, Monica; Mallya, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Citrus auranticum and Glycyrrhiza glabra are rich in anti-oxidant polyphenols helpful in prevention of skin aging. Polyphenols have high polarity and lower skin penetration resulting in lower cutaneous delivery. The present work is attempted to develop a novel polyherbal phospholipid complex cream to improve cutaneous delivery of polyphenols for sustained anti-oxidant action. Phytochemical and in vitro anti-oxidant evaluation was done on methanolic extracts of orange peel and liquorice powder. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and anti-oxidant assays were done on different ratios of orange peel and liquorice extract. Ratio 1:2 gave highest total phenolic content (TPC) (530.00 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) extract), total flavonoid content (TFC) (246.25 ± 1.03 mg rutin equivalent (RUE) g(-1) extract), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (87.99 ± 0.64%), and H2O2 scavenging activity (72.47 ± 0.86%) and hence was used for formulation. Solvent evaporation method using methanol with 1:1 extract to phospholipid ratio was found to have entrapment efficiency of 93.22 ± 0.26%. Evaluation parameters like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed formation of complex. The complex was formulated as oil-in-water cream and evaluated for various parameters. The optimized cream containing 1% complex was non-irritant and was found to be stable for 3-month period under conditions of stability study. Ex vivo diffusion studies showed that extract phospholipid complex cream had better retention of polyphenols in the skin when compared to conventional extract cream giving prolonged and stronger topical action. The cream had an anti-elastase activity of 28.02 ± 0.95% at concentration of 3000 μg ml(-1) (w/v). Thus, the developed safe and stable polyherbal phytophospholipid complex cream exhibited

  16. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  17. Influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on the step phenomenon observed in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H G; Hilgner, W

    1979-03-31

    Comprehensive analysis of the mechanical properties of rat skin revealed the "step phenomenon". This particular observation was made after constant strain rate (analysis of stress strain curves) as well as after constant load (creep experiments). Relative low extensions or low loads were necessary to provoke the steps. In most cases two, sometimes three steps were observed. The step phenomenon was found mainly in skin strips punched out perpendicularly to the body axis. Probably some bonds in the fibrous network are broken giving way to additional elongation whereafter stronger links take over the stress. Since earlier studies demonstrated a pronounced influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on mechanical properties at ultimate load, e.g., tensile strength, ultimate modulus of elasticity, and ultimate strain, also the step phenomenon was studied under these conditions. In stress-strain experiments most of the steps were found at the ages of 2 and 4 months. Total stress loss and total work loss due to the steps were the highest at the age of 4 months. If, however, these values were calculated as percentage of ultimate values, the highest figures were found in young animals. Elongation gain due to the steps also showed a maximum at time of maturation, e.g., 4 months. Similar findings were achieved in creep experiments at medium load (200 g). After treatment with prednisolone acetate more steps and after treatment with D-penicillamine fewer steps were observed. In stress-strain experiments total stress loss and total work loss due to steps were more than twice as high than controls after prednisolone treatment and only one half after D-penicillamine. If calculated as percentage of ultimate stress or percentage of work input, these changes disappeared because of similar changes at ultimate load. However, elongation gain due to steps, which was not significantly influenced by prednisolone acetate but significantly decreased by D-penicillamine, showed the same changes

  18. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  19. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  20. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin’s elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity. PMID:27194933

  1. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  2. Non contact method for in vivo assessment of skin mechanical properties for assessing effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Boyer, G; Pailler Mattei, C; Molimard, J; Pericoi, M; Laquieze, S; Zahouani, H

    2012-03-01

    The assessment of human tissue properties by objective and quantitative devices is very important to improve the understanding of its mechanical behaviour. The aim of this paper is to present a non contact method to measure the mechanical properties of human skin in vivo. A complete non contact device using an air flow system has been developed. Validation and assessment of the method have been performed on inert visco-elastic material. An in vivo study on the forearm of two groups of healthy women aged of 23.2±1.6 and 60.4±2.4 has been performed. Main parameters assessed are presented and a first interpretation to evaluate the reduced Young's modulus is proposed. Significant differences between the main parameters of the curve are shown with ageing. As tests were performed with different loads, the influence of the stress is also observed. We found a reduced Young's modulus with an air flow force of 10 mN of 14.38±3.61 kPa for the youngest group and 6.20±1.45 kPa for the oldest group. These values agree with other studies using classical or dynamic indentation. Non contact test using the developed device gives convincing results.

  3. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  4. Age-Dependent Decrease of Mitochondrial Complex II Activity in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial theory of aging remains one of the most widely accepted aging theories and implicates mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction with subsequent increasing free radical generation. Recently, complex II of the electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in this process, suggested predominantly by nonhuman studies. We investigated the relationship between complex II and aging using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering a wide age range. Complex II activity significantly decreased with age in fibroblasts (P = 0.015) but not in keratinocytes. This was associated with a significant decline in transcript expression (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001) and protein levels (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.005) of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and subunit B catalytic subunits of complex II, respectively. In addition, there was a significant decrease in complex II activity with age (P = 0.029) that was specific to senescent skin cells. There was no decrease in complex IV activity with increasing age, suggesting possible locality to complex II. PMID:26829036

  5. The ontogeny of scarless healing II: EGF and PDGF-B gene expression in fetal rat skin and fibroblasts as a function of gestational age.

    PubMed

    Peled, Z M; Rhee, S J; Hsu, M; Chang, J; Krummel, T M; Longaker, M T

    2001-10-01

    Twenty years ago, surgeons noted the ability of early-gestation fetal skin to heal in a scarless manner. Since that time, numerous investigators have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. As a result of this effort, it is now well established that many animals undergo a transition late in development from scarless cutaneous healing to a scar-forming, adultlike phenotype. The authors have been interested in the role played by cytokines known to be involved in the adult wound-healing process and how they relate to scarless repair. They therefore asked the following question: Are genes for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) expressed differentially as a function of gestational age in fetal rat skin and dermal fibroblasts? To answer this question, skin from fetal Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 56) at time points that represented both the scarless and scar-forming periods of rat gestation was harvested. In addition, fibroblasts derived from fetal rat skin were cultured in vitro at similar times. These cells were expanded in culture and, when confluent, total ribonucleic acid from both fibroblasts and whole skin was extracted and subjected to Northern blot analysis with probes for EGF and PDGF-B. Results demonstrated that neither EGF nor PDGF-B gene expression changed markedly as a function of gestational age in fetal fibroblasts alone. In whole skin, however, both EGF and PDGF-B demonstrated a marked decrease in gene expression with increasing gestational age. Furthermore, the most striking decrease in gene expression for both cytokines came between 16 and 18 days of gestation-the transition point between scarless and scar-forming repair in the fetal rat. These data suggest that EGF and PDGF may play a role in the mechanism of scarless cutaneous repair. Moreover, it appears that fetal fibroblasts are not the cell type responsible for this differential gene expression. These results raise questions about the

  6. Development of Decision Making in School-Aged Children and Adolescents: Evidence from Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2007-01-01

    Age differences in decision making indicate that children fail to anticipate outcomes of their decisions. Using heart rate and skin conductance analyses, we tested whether developmental changes in decision making are associated with (a) a failure to process outcomes of decisions, or (b) a failure to anticipate future outcomes of decisions.…

  7. Variations of the histomorphological characteristics of human skin of different body regions in subjects of different age.

    PubMed

    Kakasheva-Mazhenkovska, L; Milenkova, L; Gjokik, G; Janevska, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to create a reference model for the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of healthy human skin in different body regions and different life periods. For this purpose we have taken skin biopsy specimens from 15 different body regions: capillitium, forehead, cheeks, anterior neck, thorax, axilla, abdomen, back, gluteus, anterior arm, anterior forearm, palm, anterior leg, anterior lower leg and sole. The biopsies were histologically elaborated according to a standard paraffin technique, and the obtained histological slides were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed with the use of a computer system for image processing and analysis (Lucia M, Version 3, System for Image Processing and Analysis). The examinees were divided by age into five groups: from full-term infants up to the age of 1 year; from the age of 2 up to the age of 12 years; from the age of 13 up to the age of 22; from the age of 23 up to the age of 55; from the age of 56 up to the age of 73. In each exemplar were determined: the total skin thickness in each region at each age group, total thickness of the epidermis, total thickness of the corium, thickness of the papillary and reticular layers of the corium. In this period the thickening is about 4-4.5 times. The growth of the thickness comes as a result of the growth of the thickness of the reticular corium, values of which grow by 4-5 times. The height of the epidermis in newborns shows higher values than the second group (childhood). In the third and fourth group the values of the epidermis are from 1.5 to 2.5 times higher on those parts of the body which are uncovered and exposed to externalities. The essence of the changes that happen to the skin is structural final formation, which is turbulent and targeted in youth (in order to harmonize structural and functional abilities of the human organism) and in mature age to synchronize the function of the skin with the other systems of the organism.

  8. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Rebecca S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Smith, Caroline J; Berkowitz, Dan E; Kenney, W Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A

    2012-06-01

    Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation but little is known about the middle aged, an age cohort used for comparison with clinical populations. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the primary isoform mediating NO production during local heating, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation would be reduced in middle-aged skin. Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) and during acetylcholine dose-response (ACh-DR: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0 mmol/l) protocols. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 24 men and women; age cohorts were 12 middle-aged (53 ± 1 yr) and 12 young (23 ± 1 yr). Sites served as control, nonselective NOS inhibited [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)], inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibited (1400W), and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibited (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine). After full expression of the local heating response, l-NAME was perfused at all sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured and normalized to maximum (%CVC(max): Nitropress). l-NAME reduced %CVCmax at baseline, all phases of the local heating response, and at all ACh concentrations compared with all other sites. iNOS inhibition reduced the initial peak (53 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2%CVC(max); P < 0.001); however, there were no other differences between control, nNOS-, and iNOS-inhibited sites during the phases of local heating or ACh-DR. When age cohorts were compared, NO-dependent vasodilation during local heating (52 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 4%CVC(max); P = 0.013) and ACh perfusion (50 mmol/l: 83 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 2%CVC(max); 100 mmol/l: 83 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 3%CVC(max); both P = 0.03) were reduced in middle-aged skin. There were no differences in NOS isoform expression obtained from skin biopsy samples between groups (all

  9. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of three diclofenac salts across various skin types.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Wang, R; Huang, Y; Wu, P C; Tsai, Y

    2000-11-01

    The in vitro permeation of three diclofenac salts--diclofenac sodium (DFS), diclofenac potassium (DFP) and diclofenac diethylammonium (DFD)-across skin by both passive and iontophoretic transport were investigated. Various skin types were used as the barriers to elucidate the mechanism controlling transdermal delivery of diclofenac salts. The importance of the intercellular (paracellular) route for both DFS and DFP in passive permeation was elucidated. The transfollicular route constitutes an important permeation pathway for DFS but not for DFP. The route and mechanism for transdermal iontophoresis of DFD across the skin was somewhat different to that of the other salts. Hair follicles may be a more important pathway for DFD than for DFS and DFP under iontophoresis, while the intercellular lipid pathway showed the opposite result. Combination of iontophoresis and a penetration enhancer, cardamom oil, did not show a synergistic effect on diclofenac salt permeation. The results of this investigation suggest that the transdermal mechanism and the route of diclofenac salt uptake via passive and iontophoretic transport can be affected by their counterions.

  10. Mitochondrial oxidative stress caused by Sod2 deficiency promotes cellular senescence and aging phenotypes in the skin.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Michael C; Flynn, James M; Day, Nicholas U; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Cellular senescence arrests the proliferation of mammalian cells at risk for neoplastic transformation, and is also associated with aging. However, the factors that cause cellular senescence during aging are unclear. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause cellular senescence in culture, and accumulated molecular damage due to mitochondrial ROS has long been thought to drive aging phenotypesin vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative stress can promote cellular senescence in vivo and contribute to aging phenotypes in vivo, specifically in the skin. We show that the number of senescent cells, as well as impaired mitochondrial (complex II) activity increase in naturally aged mouse skin. Using a mouse model of genetic Sod2 deficiency, we show that failure to express this important mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme also impairs mitochondrial complex II activity, causes nuclear DNA damage, and induces cellular senescence but not apoptosis in the epidermis. Sod2 deficiency also reduced the number of cells and thickness of the epidermis, while increasing terminal differentiation. Our results support the idea that mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular senescence contribute to aging skin phenotypes in vivo.

  11. Reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin increasingly relies on Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms during whole body cooling

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, John D.; Holowatz, Lacy A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    Primary human aging may be associated with augmented Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle and ROCK-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that the contribution of ROCK to reflex vasoconstriction (VC) is greater in aged skin. Cutaneous VC was elicited by 1) whole body cooling [mean skin temperature (Tsk) = 30.5°C] and 2) local norepinephrine (NE) infusion (1 × 10−6 M). Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin of eight young (Y) and eight older (O) subjects for infusion of 1) Ringer solution (control), 2) 3 mM fasudil (ROCK inhibition), 3) 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (NOS inhibition), and 4) both ROCK + NOS inhibitors. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline CVC (%ΔCVCbaseline). VC was reduced at the control site in O during cooling (Y, −34 ± 3; and O, −18 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.001) and NE infusion (Y, −53 ± 4, and O, −41 ± 9%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.006). Fasudil attenuated VC in both age groups during mild cooling; however, this reduction remained only in O but not in Y skin during moderate cooling (Y, −30 ± 5; and O, −7 ± 1%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.016) and was not altered by NOS inhibition. Fasudil blunted NE-mediated VC in both age groups (Y, −23 ± 4; and O, −7 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.01). Cumulatively, these data indicate that reflex VC is more reliant on ROCK in aged skin such that approximately half of the total VC response to whole body cooling is ROCK dependent. PMID:19717729

  12. How type of excuse defense, mock juror age, and defendant age affect mock jurors' decisions.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Pamela L; Heath, Wendy P; Grannemann, Bruce D

    2007-08-01

    The authors investigated the effects of mock juror age (younger vs. older), defendant age (22 vs. 65), and type of excuse defense used by defendants (a highly self-inflicted condition, Cocaine Dependency Disorder, vs. a less self-inflicted condition, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) on mock juror decisions. Ninety-six younger and 96 older adults read a scenario and answered a questionnaire. Results indicated that the defendant using the highly self-inflicted excuse was more likely to receive a guilty verdict and a longer sentence than was the defendant using the less self-inflicted excuse. Older jurors were more certain of their verdicts and saw the defendant as more responsible for his condition than did younger jurors. Defendant age did not affect juror decisions. In addition, excuse type and juror age affected the jurors' perceptions of the victim's responsibility for the attack. The authors discuss the potential influence of juror age on perceptions of defendant responsibility.

  13. Identification of two novel Prodelphinidin A-type dimers from roasted hazelnut skins ( Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2013-12-26

    Two new A-type dimeric prodelphinidins, EGC-(2β→O7, 4β→8)-C and EGC-(2β→O5, 4β→6)-C, were isolated from the skins of roasted hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) by low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and final purification by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and HR-ESI-MS) and NMR spectroscopy that included the application of 2D methods ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) and acid-catalyzed degradation (phloroglucinolysis) confirmed the proposed structures.

  14. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  15. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss - is the number one communicative disorder and a significant chronic medical condition of the aged. Little is known about how type II diabetes, another prevalent age-related medical condition, and presbycusis interact. The present investigation aimed to comprehensively characterize the nature of hearing impairment in aged type II diabetics. Hearing tests measuring both peripheral (cochlea) and central (brainstem and cortex) auditory processing were utilized. The majority of differences between the hearing abilities of the aged diabetics and their age-matched controls were found in measures of inner ear function. For example, large differences were found in pure-tone audiograms, wideband noise and speech reception thresholds, and otoacoustic emissions. The greatest deficits tended to be at low frequencies. In addition, there was a strong tendency for diabetes to affect the right ear more than the left. One possible interpretation is that as one develops presbycusis, the right ear advantage is lost, and this decline is accelerated by diabetes. In contrast, auditory processing tests that measure both peripheral and central processing showed fewer declines between the elderly diabetics and the control group. Consequences of elevated blood sugar levels as possible underlying physiological mechanisms for the hearing loss are discussed.

  16. The effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-1 procollagen in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Seok; Kwon, Yi-Young; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-02-01

    Exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light on the skin induces photoaging associated with up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and decreased collagen synthesis. We investigated the effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type-1 procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Cultured human fibroblasts were irradiated with UV (20 mJ/cm (2)) and panduratin A was added into the medium of the fibroblast culture. The expressions of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen levels were measured using Western blot analysis and RT-RCR. Panduratin A in the range of 0.001 - 0.1 microM significantly reduced the expression of MMP-1 and induced the expression of type-1 procollagen at the protein and mRNA gene levels. Panduratin A showed stronger activity than epigallocatechin 3- O-gallate (EGCG) known as a natural anti-aging agent. The results suggest that panduratin A can be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging brought about by UV.

  17. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes

  18. Lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins accumulate in human facial skin fibroblasts during ageing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Peter; Milkovic, Lidija; Zarkovic, Neven; Waeg, Georg; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-02-01

    The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is recognized as a product of lipid peroxidation, which binds to macromolecules, in particular proteins. HNE-modified proteins (HNE-MP) have been shown to accumulate during ageing, generally by using polyclonal antibodies, which increase the possibility of detecting false positives. Therefore, we have used a genuine monoclonal antibody specific for HNE-His adducts of proteins/peptides, which were revealed by immunoblotting method for whole-cell HNE-MP measurements in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing ageing in vitro. There was a significant increase in the levels of HNE-MP in serially passaged cells approaching a near senescent state at high passage level (P-61), as compared with low passage level (P-11) young and middle-aged (P-27) cells. However, if the cells were analyzed soon after re-initiation from the frozen samples with little further passaging, the amount of HNE-MP was low even in relatively high passage level (P-37) cells, which is an indication of selective elimination of cells with high molecular damage during the process of thawing and re-initiation in culture. This pilot study on normal human facial skin fibroblasts shows that HNE-MP detection by monoclonal antibody-based dot blot method can be used as a marker for age-related accumulation of lipid peroxidative molecular damage, and could be useful for testing and monitoring the effects of potential skin care products on ageing parameters.

  19. The Age Related Properties of Solar Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-01-01

    The studies of lithium in solar-type stars in clusters of a wide range of ages has provided critical information on a tracer of convective processes, especially among very young stars. Our most recent work has been on a pre-main sequence cluster (NGC 2264) that took place after this grant expired, but was founded on it. The spread seen in Li in Zero-Age Main Sequence clusters like the Pleiades is huge and possibly related to rotation. No clear spread in seen in NGC 2264, so it does not have its origins in the conditions of formation but is instead a result of processes occurring during PMS evolution. Our observations of M67 were particularly interesting because this cluster is the same age as the Sun, i.e.,very old. Clear evidence was seen for a spread in Li there too, indicating that the spread seen in very young stars perpetuates itself into old age.

  20. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  1. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  2. Skin Infections in Young People (Aged 14-18 Years): An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Catherine I.; Hoare, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature…

  3. Apigenin inhibits UVA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prevents signs of skin aging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungjin; Youn, Jeungyeun; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; An, In-Sook; Kwon, Seungbin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-08-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin on skin and found that, in experiments using cells, apigenin restored the viability of normal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs), which had been decreased by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the UVA range. Using a senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal assay, we also demonstrate that apigenin protects against the UVA-induced senescence of nHDFs. Furthermore, we found that apigenin decreased the expression of the collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in UVA-irradiated nHDFs. UVA, which has been previously identified as a photoaging-inducing factor, has been shown to induce MMP-1 expression. The elevated expression of MMP-1 impairs the collagen matrix, leading to the loss of elasticity and skin dryness. Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of apigenin on aged skin, using an apigenin‑containing cream for clinical application. Specifically, we measured dermal density, skin elasticity and the length of fine wrinkles in subjects treated with apigenin cream or the control cream without apigenin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the apigenin-containing cream on skin texture, moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). From these experiments, we found that the apigenin‑containing cream increased dermal density and elasticity, and reduced fine wrinkle length. It also improved skin evenness, moisture content and TEWL. These results clearly demonstrate the biological effects of apigenin, demonstrating both its cellular and clinical efficacy, and suggest that this compound holds promise as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:27279007

  4. MDM2 overexpression generates a skin phenotype in both wild type and p53 null mice.

    PubMed

    Alkhalaf, M; Ganguli, G; Messaddeq, N; Le Meur, M; Wasylyk, B

    1999-02-18

    The MDM2 proto-oncogene is overexpressed in human tumours and regulates the activities of the tumour suppressors p53 and pRB. We created mice that overexpress MDM2 under the control of the CMV promoter. These mice did not display an increased tumour incidence, but rather a specific skin phenotype, characterized by desquamation and hyperkeratosis. Transgenic MDM2 was found to be overexpressed in the epidermis, a tissue that normally expresses high levels of MDM2. The phenotype appeared during the first week after birth and then lessened with age, closely following the level of expression of the transgene. MDM2 overexpression was associated with an increase in proliferation in the basal layer, thickening of the epidermis, altered expression of the differentiation markers cytokeratin CK14, CK10 and CK1, and a decrease in the size and the number of granules that contain products of differentiation. Transgenic mice on a p53 null background displayed similar although not identical changes, showing that the effects of MDM2 are to a certain degree p53 independent. The skin is a major site of MDM2 expression in mice, raising the possibility that MDM2 overexpression perturbs the normal pattern of MDM2 expression and inhibits differentiation of the epidermis. PMID:10050879

  5. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  6. The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and ageing have well documented effects on every organ in the body. In T2D the autonomic nervous system is impaired due to damage to neurons, sensory receptors, synapses and the blood vessels. This paper will concentrate on how autonomic impairment alters normal daily activities. Impairments include the response of the blood vessels to heat, sweating, heat transfer, whole body heating, orthostatic intolerance, balance, and gait. Because diabetes is more prevalent in older individuals, the effects of ageing will be examined. Beginning with endothelial dysfunction, blood vessels have impairment in their ability to vasodilate. With this and synaptic damage, the autonomic nervous system cannot compensate for effectors such as pressure on and heating of the skin. This and reduced ability of the heart to respond to stress, reduces autonomic orthostatic compensation. Diminished sweating causes the skin and core temperature to be high during whole body heating. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, impaired vision and vestibular sensing, causes poor balance and impaired gait. Overall, people with T2D must be made aware and counseled relative to the potential consequence of these impairments. PMID:22566994

  7. Ultrasonic Stimulation of Mouse Skin Reverses the Healing Delays in Diabetes and Aging by Activation of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher A M; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Chronic skin-healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong well-being, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed, and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of the skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in the skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds.

  8. Ultrasonic stimulation of mouse skin reverses the healing delays in diabetes and aging by activation of Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher AM; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds. PMID:26079528

  9. Effects of irradiation on growth and toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum types A and B inoculated onto chicken skins

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfulian, M.; Bartlett, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of 0.3-Mrad irradiation on growth and toxigenicity of Clostridum botulinum types A and B on chicken skins. Irradiation followed by aerobic or anaerobic incubation at 30/sup 0/C extended the shelf life of skin samples and delayed growth and toxin production by C. botulinum. During 2 weeks of incubation at 10/sup 0/C, the irradiated and nonirradiated C. botulinum spores failed to grow or produce toxin.

  10. Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type.

    PubMed

    Isrie, Mala; Breuss, Martin; Tian, Guoling; Hansen, Andi Harley; Cristofoli, Francesca; Morandell, Jasmin; Kupchinsky, Zachari A; Sifrim, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Celia Maria; Dapena, Elena Porta; Doonanco, Kurston; Leonard, Norma; Tinsa, Faten; Moortgat, Stéphanie; Ulucan, Hakan; Koparir, Erkan; Karaca, Ender; Katsanis, Nicholas; Marton, Valeria; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Davis, Erica E; Cowan, Nicholas J; Keays, David Anthony; Van Esch, Hilde

    2015-12-01

    Circumferential skin creases Kunze type (CSC-KT) is a specific congenital entity with an unknown genetic cause. The disease phenotype comprises characteristic circumferential skin creases accompanied by intellectual disability, a cleft palate, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome. MAPRE2 encodes a member of the microtubule end-binding family of proteins that bind to the guanosine triphosphate cap at growing microtubule plus ends, and TUBB encodes a β-tubulin isotype that is expressed abundantly in the developing brain. Functional analyses of the TUBB mutants show multiple defects in the chaperone-dependent tubulin heterodimer folding and assembly pathway that leads to a compromised yield of native heterodimers. The TUBB mutations also have an impact on microtubule dynamics. For MAPRE2, we show that the mutations result in enhanced MAPRE2 binding to microtubules, implying an increased dwell time at microtubule plus ends. Further, in vivo analysis of MAPRE2 mutations in a zebrafish model of craniofacial development shows that the variants most likely perturb the patterning of branchial arches, either through excessive activity (under a recessive paradigm) or through haploinsufficiency (dominant de novo paradigm). Taken together, our data add CSC-KT to the growing list of tubulinopathies and highlight how multiple inheritance paradigms can affect dosage-sensitive biological systems so as to result in the same clinical defect. PMID:26637975

  11. Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type.

    PubMed

    Isrie, Mala; Breuss, Martin; Tian, Guoling; Hansen, Andi Harley; Cristofoli, Francesca; Morandell, Jasmin; Kupchinsky, Zachari A; Sifrim, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Celia Maria; Dapena, Elena Porta; Doonanco, Kurston; Leonard, Norma; Tinsa, Faten; Moortgat, Stéphanie; Ulucan, Hakan; Koparir, Erkan; Karaca, Ender; Katsanis, Nicholas; Marton, Valeria; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Davis, Erica E; Cowan, Nicholas J; Keays, David Anthony; Van Esch, Hilde

    2015-12-01

    Circumferential skin creases Kunze type (CSC-KT) is a specific congenital entity with an unknown genetic cause. The disease phenotype comprises characteristic circumferential skin creases accompanied by intellectual disability, a cleft palate, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome. MAPRE2 encodes a member of the microtubule end-binding family of proteins that bind to the guanosine triphosphate cap at growing microtubule plus ends, and TUBB encodes a β-tubulin isotype that is expressed abundantly in the developing brain. Functional analyses of the TUBB mutants show multiple defects in the chaperone-dependent tubulin heterodimer folding and assembly pathway that leads to a compromised yield of native heterodimers. The TUBB mutations also have an impact on microtubule dynamics. For MAPRE2, we show that the mutations result in enhanced MAPRE2 binding to microtubules, implying an increased dwell time at microtubule plus ends. Further, in vivo analysis of MAPRE2 mutations in a zebrafish model of craniofacial development shows that the variants most likely perturb the patterning of branchial arches, either through excessive activity (under a recessive paradigm) or through haploinsufficiency (dominant de novo paradigm). Taken together, our data add CSC-KT to the growing list of tubulinopathies and highlight how multiple inheritance paradigms can affect dosage-sensitive biological systems so as to result in the same clinical defect.

  12. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P < 0.01 level. Accelerated healing was also observed under the influence of the pulsed electromagnetic field (P < 0.05). In the group of animals exposed to LLLT, the healing of the skin defect was faster than in the control group. The statistical significance was at the P < 0.05 level. Different types of electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  13. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients with type B acute and chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nagafuchi, S; Kashiwagi, S; Hayashi, S; Inoue, T; Imayama, S; Takeshita, M; Kikuchi, M

    1985-01-01

    Skin reactivity to HBsAg was studied in patients with type B acute and chronic hepatitis and in healthy controls. HBsAg preparations containing 50 micrograms/ml of antigen both with and without alum elicited positive skin reactions in all seven anti-HBs+ persons. Histological examination of skin tissue from the reactive area using monoclonal antibodies to the cell surface of lymphocytes revealed accumulation of Leu-3a positive lymphocytes, showing that the inflammation was a typical delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Irrespective of the presence of HBeAg and anti-HBe, patients with chronic type B hepatitis responded clearly to PPD and SK/SD antigens, whereas they did not exhibit DTH skin reactivity to HBsAg. In contrast, although patients with acute type B hepatitis did not exhibit specific DTH a reaction to HBsAg in the acute period, they began to develop DTH skin reactivity to HBsAg in the convalescent phase of the disease preceding the appearance of anti-HBs antibody. It is suggested that DTH reaction to HBsAg might play an important role in the pathogenesis of type B viral hepatitis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:4075587

  14. Overseas sun exposure, nevus counts, and premature skin aging in young English women: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Higgins, Craig D; Abramsky, Tanya; Swanwick, Maureen A; Frazer, Jacqueline; Whitaker, Linda M; Blanshard, Margaret E; Bradshaw, John; Apps, John M; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    A large number of melanocytic nevi is the strongest known risk factor for melanoma in whites, but its relationship to sun exposure overseas among young white women living in temperate climates is unclear. A total of 754 white English women aged 18-46 years were recruited into a cross-sectional study in 1997-2000 to investigate the effect of ultraviolet exposures on numbers of nevi and atypical nevi, and on skin aging as measured by microtopography. Having ever holidayed in hotter countries was associated with a greater age- and phenotype-adjusted mean number of whole-body nevi (percent increase=74; 95% confidence interval: 24, 144; P=0.001), particularly for holidays taken at ages 18-29 years and for counts of the trunk and lower limbs. Having ever lived overseas was not associated with nevus counts, but was inversely associated with number of atypical nevi (P=0.02). Skin aging was not associated with residence or holidays abroad. The association of holidays overseas with an increased nevus count in young white women, which was stronger in the anatomical sites intermittently exposed to sunlight, supports the hypothesis that intermittent sun exposure is of relevance in the etiology of nevi and, hence, melanoma. The findings are of public health relevance given the growing popularity of foreign holidays.

  15. Recurrence Interval and Event Age Data for Type A Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes available recurrence interval, event age, and timing of most recent event data for Type A faults considered in the Earthquake Rate Model 2 (ERM 2) and used in the ERM 2 Appendix C analysis as well as Appendix N (time-dependent probabilities). These data have been compiled into an Excel workbook named Appendix B A-fault event ages_recurrence_V5.0 (herein referred to as the Appendix B workbook). For convenience, the Appendix B workbook is attached to the end of this document as a series of tables. The tables within the Appendix B workbook include site locations, event ages, and recurrence data, and in some cases, the interval of time between earthquakes is also reported. The Appendix B workbook is organized as individual worksheets, with each worksheet named by fault and paleoseismic site. Each worksheet contains the site location in latitude and longitude, as well as information on event ages, and a summary of recurrence data. Because the data has been compiled from different sources with different presentation styles, descriptions of the contents of each worksheet within the Appendix B spreadsheet are summarized.

  16. Changes in the redox state and endogenous fluorescence of in vivo human skin due to intrinsic and photo-aging, measured by multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Washington Y.; Obispo, Clara; Ryan, Elizabeth; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from solar exposure is a key extrinsic factor responsible for premature skin aging (i.e., photo-aging). Recent advances using in vivo multiphoton tomography (MPT) demonstrate the efficacy of this approach to assess intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging as an alternative to existing invasive techniques. In this study, we measured changes in epidermal autofluorescence, dermal collagen second harmonic generation (SHG), and the redox state of solar-exposed and solar-protected human skin by MPT with fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM). Twenty-four volunteers across four age categories (20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 59 years old; six volunteers each) were recruited for MPT-FLIM imaging of the dorsal (solar-exposed; photo-damaged) and volar (solar-protected) forearm. We demonstrate a higher intensity of dermal collagen SHG within the volar forearm compared to dorsal solar-exposed skin. Redox imaging of each epidermal skin stratum by FLIM demonstrates an increase in fluorescence lifetime in the solar-exposed dorsal forearm that is more apparent in aged skin. The results of this study suggest the redox state of the viable epidermis is a key marker in assessing intrinsic and photo-damage skin aging, in combination with changes in autofluorescence and SHG.

  17. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  18. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M.; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  19. Increase in skin autofluorescence and release of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in plasma predicts mortality of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2013-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (ΔAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients. One hundred sixty-nine HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin autofluorescence was measured twice, 1 year apart using an AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Besides routine blood chemistry, additional plasma markers including superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxydase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and von Willebrand factor were measured at baseline. The mortality of HD patients was followed for 36 months. Skin autofluorescence values of the HD patients at the two time points were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of healthy subjects of the same age. Mean 1-year ΔAF of HD patients was 0.16 ± 0.06, which was around seven- to ninefold higher than 1-year ΔAF in healthy subjects. Multivariate Cox regression showed that age, hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, ICAM-1, and H-FABP were independent predictors of overall mortality. Hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, and H-FABP were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. One-year ΔAF and plasma H-FABP, used separately and in combination, are strong predictors of overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients.

  20. Increase in skin autofluorescence and release of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in plasma predicts mortality of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2013-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (ΔAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients. One hundred sixty-nine HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin autofluorescence was measured twice, 1 year apart using an AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Besides routine blood chemistry, additional plasma markers including superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxydase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and von Willebrand factor were measured at baseline. The mortality of HD patients was followed for 36 months. Skin autofluorescence values of the HD patients at the two time points were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of healthy subjects of the same age. Mean 1-year ΔAF of HD patients was 0.16 ± 0.06, which was around seven- to ninefold higher than 1-year ΔAF in healthy subjects. Multivariate Cox regression showed that age, hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, ICAM-1, and H-FABP were independent predictors of overall mortality. Hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, and H-FABP were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. One-year ΔAF and plasma H-FABP, used separately and in combination, are strong predictors of overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. PMID:23635017

  1. Modulation of cell-phenotype during in vitro aging. Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis by skin fibroblasts and corneal keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Isnard, N; Fodil, I; Robert, L; Renard, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare keratocyte and fibroblast phenotypes during in vitro aging by comparing their biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans using explant and cell cultures. Human skin and corneal explant cultures were realised with Dulbecco Modified Eagle's medium containing 3H glucosamine. Sequential cell cultures were studied at different passages for GAGs biosynthesis by 3H glucosamine incorporation followed by selective degradation with specific hydrolases. Radioactivity was determined and each GAG fraction evaluated. KS and DS are the major components synthesised by corneal explant culture. During in vitro aging, keratocytes synthesised 41% less KS between passages 4-9 with a decrease by 26% of the proportion of DS observed in the same conditions. In skin explant cultures, as expected the major components are CS and hyaluronan (HA). In the first cell passage studied compared with skin organ cultures we could notice a strong decrease of the proportions of DS and KS compensated by an increase of the proportion of HA. During the successive passages of fibroblasts, the proportions of DS and HS decreased (-30 and -62%, respectively) and those of KS increased (+90%). These results indicate that there remain measurable differences between keratocyte and fibroblast phenotypes as far as GAG-synthesis is concerned all though the successive passages, starting from explant cultures and up to the limits of in vitro cell passages.

  2. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  3. Evaluation of Apoptosis in Skin Biopsies of Patients of Borderline Leprosy and Lepra Type 1 Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Agarwal, Sarla; Sharma, Sonal; Sharma, Satendra; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of apoptosis is not clear in leprosy and lepra reactions. Objectives: To evaluate frequency of apoptosis in skin lesions of borderline leprosy and Type 1 lepra reaction. Methods: Sixty patients with borderline leprosy (30 with clinically diagnosed Type 1 reaction (T1R) (Group I) and 30 without clinical evidence of reaction (Group II)) were analyzed in this prospective study. Apoptosis was detected by two different methods for comparison, that is, histopathologic examination (HPE) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and electrophoresis. Quantification of apoptotic bodies/10 high power fields (HPF) was also done. Results: Out of 30 cases, apoptosis was detected in 29 cases in Group I and 24 cases in Group II by HPE (P = 0.103), whereas, with the use of DNA electrophoresis it was detected in 24 cases in Group I and 18 cases in Group II (P = 0.091). On quantitative estimation it was found that number of apoptotic bodies are higher in Group I in comparison to Group II (2.77 vs 1.99), which is statistically significant. Conclusions: There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.47) between the two methods of apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was seen more in patients with T1R both qualitatively (statistically nonsignificant) and quantitatively (statistically significant). Clinical significance of this novel finding is that apoptosis can be used as one of the variables for diagnosis of T1R to increase detection rate. PMID:25657399

  4. Herpes simplex type 2 virus deleted in glycoprotein D protects against vaginal, skin and neural disease

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Christopher; González, Pablo A; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jandl, Thomas; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; Bénard, Angèle; Sengupta, Mayami; Herold, Betsy C; Jacobs, William R

    2015-01-01

    Subunit vaccines comprised of glycoprotein D (gD-2) failed to prevent HSV-2 highlighting need for novel strategies. To test the hypothesis that deletion of gD-2 unmasks protective antigens, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of an HSV-2 virus deleted in gD-2 and complemented allowing a single round of replication on cells expressing HSV-1 gD (ΔgD−/+gD−1). Subcutaneous immunization of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with ΔgD−/+gD1 provided 100% protection against lethal intravaginal or skin challenges and prevented latency. ΔgD−/+gD1 elicited no disease in SCID mice, whereas 1000-fold lower doses of wild-type virus were lethal. HSV-specific antibodies were detected in serum (titer 1:800,000) following immunization and in vaginal washes after intravaginal challenge. The antibodies elicited cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but little neutralizing activity. Passive transfer of immune serum completely protected wild-type, but not Fcγ-receptor or neonatal Fc-receptor knock-out mice. These studies demonstrate that non-neutralizing Fc-mediated humoral responses confer protection and support advancement of this attenuated vaccine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06054.001 PMID:25756612

  5. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  6. Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Mun, Sukyeong; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Kim, Myung-Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-β/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent.

  7. Evaluation of peripheral vasodilative indices in skin tissue of type 1 diabetic rats by use of RGB images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a method to evaluate the arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats from RGB digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the dorsal reversed McFarlane skin flap are calculated based on the responses of change in the total blood concentration to occlusion of blood flow to and from the flap tissues at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin flap tissue were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic rat group compared with the non-diabetic rat group. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus.

  8. Immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506: a novel class of topical agents for treatment of skin diseases?

    PubMed

    Meingassner, J G; Stütz, A

    1992-06-01

    The immunosuppressive macrolide antibiotics FK 506 and rapamycin were tested for topical activity in experimental allergic contact dermatitis of farm pigs. This species was used because pig skin, in comparison to rodent skin, resembles human skin more closely. For comparison, cyclosporine A (CyA), which is orally but not topically active in patients with skin disease, dexamethasone, and clobetasol propionate were used. Treatment was performed twice, 30 min and 6 h after elicitation of challenge reaction. Topical application of 0.4 to 0.04% FK 506 caused a pronounced inhibition of inflammatory skin reactions of hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. The treatment response was similar to the activity of 0.13% clobetasole. Dexamethasone (1.2%) was less active than clobetasol. In contrast, rapamycin and CyA were inactive at concentrations of 1.2 and 10%, respectively. Because the pig data on corticosteroids and cyclosporine A are in agreement with clinical findings, these studies indicate that immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506 may be useful drugs for the topical treatment of human skin diseases that respond to local corticosteroids and oral treatment with cyclosporine A.

  9. Permeation of sumatriptan succinate across human skin using multiple types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays fabricated from sodium hyaluronate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Available formulations of sumatriptan succinate (SS) have low bioavailability or are associated with site reactions. We developed various types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs) fabricated from sodium hyaluronate as a new delivery system for SS and evaluated their skin permeation and irritation in terms of clinical application. In vitro permeation studies with human skin, physicochemical properties (needle length, thickness and density), and penetration enhancers (glycerin, sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauric acid diethanolamide) were investigated. SS-loaded high-density MNs of 800 µm in length were the optimal formulation and met clinical therapeutic requirements. Penetration enhancers did not significantly affect permeation of SS from MNs. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrated that SS-loaded high-density MNs (800 µm) uniformly created drug permeation pathways for the delivery of SS into the skin. SS-loaded high-density MNs induced moderate primary skin irritations in rats, but the skin recovered within 72 h of removal of the MNs. These findings suggest that high-density MNs of 800 µm in length are an effective and promising formulation for transdermal delivery of SS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SS permeation across human skin using self-dissolving MNs. PMID:26878569

  10. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  11. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream.

  12. Caffeine Consumption Contributes to Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eny, Karen M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Miller, Rachel Grace; Maynard, John; Grant, Denis M.; Costacou, Tina; Cleary, Patricia A.; Braffett, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: A variant (rs1495741) in the gene for the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) protein is associated with skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a noninvasive measure of advanced glycation end products and other fluorophores in the skin. Because NAT2 is involved in caffeine metabolism, we aimed to determine whether caffeine consumption is associated with SIF and whether rs1495741 is associated with SIF independently of caffeine. Materials and Methods: SIF was measured in 1,181 participants with type 1 diabetes from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Two measures of SIF were used: SIF1, using a 375-nm excitation light-emitting diode (LED), and SIF14 (456-nm LED). Food frequency questionnaires were used to estimate mean caffeine intake. To establish replication, we examined a second type 1 diabetes cohort. Results: Higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with higher SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] (P=2×10−32) and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P=7×10−31) and accounted for 4% of the variance in each after adjusting for covariates. When analyzed together, caffeine intake and rs1495741 both remained highly significantly associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8]. Mean caffeinated coffee intake was also positively associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] (P=9×10−12) and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P=4×10−12), but no association was observed for decaffeinated coffee intake. Finally, caffeine was also positively associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P<0.0001) in the replication cohort. Conclusions: Caffeine contributes to SIF. The effect of rs1495741 on SIF appears to be partially independent of caffeine consumption. Because SIF and coffee intake are each associated with cardiovascular disease, our findings suggest that accounting for coffee and/or caffeine intake may improve risk prediction models for SIF and cardiovascular

  13. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  14. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  15. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  16. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  17. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  18. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  19. Rapid skin profiling with non-contact full-field optical coherence tomography: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, P.; Talary, M. S.; Kolm, I.; Caduff, A.

    2009-07-01

    The application of the full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope to the characterisation of skin morphology is described. An automated procedure for analysis and interpretation of the OCT data has been developed which provides measures of the laterally averaged depth profiles of the skin reflectance. The skin at the dorsal side of the upper arm of 22 patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus has been characterised in a non-contact way. The OCT signal profile was compared with the optical histological data obtained with a commercial confocal microscope (CM). The highest correlation to the epidermal thickness (ET) obtained using CM was found for the distance from the entrance OCT peak to the first minimum of the reflection profile (R2=0.657, p<0.0001). The distance to the second OCT reflection peak was found to be less correlated to ET (R2=0.403, p=0.0009). A further analysis was undertaken to explore the relation between the subjects' demographical data and the OCT reflection profile. The distance to the second OCT peak demonstrated a correlation with a marginal statistical significance for the body-mass index (positive correlation with p=0.01) and age (negative correlation with p=0.062). At the same time the amplitude of the OCT signal, when compensated for signal attenuation with depth, is negatively correlated with age (p<0.0002). We suggest that this may be an effect of photo degradation of the dermal collagen. In the patient population studied, no relation could be determined between the measured skin morphology and the duration of diabetes or concentration of glycated haemoglobin in the blood.

  20. Xanthohumol modulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis in type 1 diabetic rat skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Costa, Raquel; Negrão, Rita; Valente, Inês; Castela, Ângela; Duarte, Delfim; Guardão, Luísa; Magalhães, Paulo J; Rodrigues, José A; Guimarães, João T; Gomes, Pedro; Soares, Raquel

    2013-11-22

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is responsible for metabolic dysfunction, accompanied by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelium dysfunction, and is often associated with impaired wound healing. Phenol-rich food improves vascular function, contributing to diabetes prevention. This study has evaluated the effect of phenol-rich beverage consumption in diabetic rats on wound healing, through angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress modulation. A wound-healing assay was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, and stout beer with and without 10 mg/L xanthohumol (1), for a five-week period. Wounded skin microvessel density was reduced to normal values upon consumption of 1 in diabetic rats, being accompanied by decreased serum VEGF-A and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, NO, N-acetylglucosaminidase). Systemic glutathione and kidney and liver H2O2, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonylation also decreased to healthy levels after treatment with 1, implying an improvement in oxidative stress status. These findings suggest that consumption of xanthohumol (1) by diabetic animals consistently decreases inflammation and oxidative stress, allowing neovascularization control and improving diabetic wound healing. PMID:24200239

  1. Xanthohumol modulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis in type 1 diabetic rat skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Costa, Raquel; Negrão, Rita; Valente, Inês; Castela, Ângela; Duarte, Delfim; Guardão, Luísa; Magalhães, Paulo J; Rodrigues, José A; Guimarães, João T; Gomes, Pedro; Soares, Raquel

    2013-11-22

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is responsible for metabolic dysfunction, accompanied by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelium dysfunction, and is often associated with impaired wound healing. Phenol-rich food improves vascular function, contributing to diabetes prevention. This study has evaluated the effect of phenol-rich beverage consumption in diabetic rats on wound healing, through angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress modulation. A wound-healing assay was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, and stout beer with and without 10 mg/L xanthohumol (1), for a five-week period. Wounded skin microvessel density was reduced to normal values upon consumption of 1 in diabetic rats, being accompanied by decreased serum VEGF-A and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, NO, N-acetylglucosaminidase). Systemic glutathione and kidney and liver H2O2, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonylation also decreased to healthy levels after treatment with 1, implying an improvement in oxidative stress status. These findings suggest that consumption of xanthohumol (1) by diabetic animals consistently decreases inflammation and oxidative stress, allowing neovascularization control and improving diabetic wound healing.

  2. Variation in the determinants of power of chemically skinned type I rat soleus muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Sally F; Jones, David A; Rittweger, Jörn; Degens, Hans

    2011-04-01

    We explored to which extent maximal velocity of shortening (Vmax), force per cross-sectional area (specific tension, Po) and curvature of the force-velocity relationship (a/Po in the Hill equation) contribute to differences in peak power of single, chemically skinned rat type I fibres. Force-velocity relationships were determined from isotonic contractions of 94 maximally activated fibres. Peak power (±SD) was 3.50±1.64 WL(-1). There was a tenfold range of peak power and five-, six- and fourfold ranges for Po, Vmax and a/Po, respectively. None of the differences between fibres was explicable by differences in myosin heavy or light chain composition. The inverse relationship between a/Po and Vmax suggests a similar underlying cause. Fitting the data to the Huxley (Progr Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318, 1957) cross-bridge model showed that the rate constant g (2) and the sum of the rate constants (f+g(1)) co-varied, both being low in the slowest fibres. Approximately 16% of the variation in Po could be explained by variation in the proportion of attached cycling cross-bridges (f/(f+g(1))), but the origin of most of the variance in Po remains unknown. PMID:21120505

  3. Gene expression differences in skin fibroblasts in identical twins discordant for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Caramori, M Luiza; Kim, Youngki; Moore, Jason H; Rich, Stephen S; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Kikyo, Nobuaki; Mauer, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Clinical studies suggest metabolic memory to hyperglycemia. We tested whether diabetes leads to persistent systematic in vitro gene expression alterations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with their monozygotic, nondiabetic twins. Microarray gene expression was determined in skin fibroblasts (SFs) of five twin pairs cultured in high glucose (HG) for ∼6 weeks. The Exploratory Visual Analysis System tested group differences in gene expression levels within KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. An overabundance of differentially expressed genes was found in eight pathways: arachidonic acid metabolism (P = 0.003849), transforming growth factor-β signaling (P = 0.009167), glutathione metabolism (P = 0.01281), glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (P = 0.01949), adherens junction (P = 0.03134), dorsal-ventral axis formation (P = 0.03695), proteasome (P = 0.04327), and complement and coagulation cascade (P = 0.04666). Several genes involved in epigenetic mechanisms were also differentially expressed. All differentially expressed pathways and all the epigenetically relevant differentially expressed genes have previously been related to HG in vitro or to diabetes and its complications in animal and human studies. However, this is the first in vitro study demonstrating diabetes-relevant gene expression differences between T1D-discordant identical twins. These SF gene expression differences, persistent despite the HG in vitro conditions, likely reflect "metabolic memory", and discordant identical twins thus represent an excellent model for studying diabetic epigenetic processes in humans. PMID:22315306

  4. miR-23a-3p causes cellular senescence by targeting hyaluronan synthase 2: possible implication for skin aging.

    PubMed

    Röck, Katharina; Tigges, Julia; Sass, Steffen; Schütze, Alexandra; Florea, Ana-Maria; Fender, Anke C; Theis, Florian J; Krutmann, Jean; Boege, Fritz; Fritsche, Ellen; Reifenberger, Guido; Fischer, Jens W

    2015-02-01

    Even though aging and cellular senescence appear to be linked, the biological mechanisms interconnecting these two processes remain to be unravelled. Therefore, microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles were analyzed ex vivo by means of gene array in fibroblasts isolated from young and old human donors. Expression of several miRNAs was positively correlated with donor age. Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HA is a polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix that critically regulates the phenotype of fibroblasts. Indeed, both aged and senescent fibroblasts showed increased miR-23a-3p expression and secreted significantly lower amounts of HA compared with young and non-senescent fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of miR-23a-3p in non-senescent fibroblasts led to decreased HAS2-mediated HA synthesis, upregulation of senescence-associated markers, and decreased proliferation. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of HAS2 and pharmacological inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone mimicked the effects of miR-23a-3p. In vivo, miR-23a-3p was upregulated and HAS2 was downregulated in the skin of old mice compared with young mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone in mice reduced dermal hydration and viscoelasticity, thereby mimicking an aged skin phenotype. Taken together, these findings appear to link miR-23a-3p and the HA microenvironment as effector mechanisms in both dermal aging and senescence.

  5. In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the human skin: highlighting of spectral markers associated to aging via a research of correlation between Raman and biometric mechanical measurements.

    PubMed

    Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Gaydou, Vincent; Froigneux, Emmanuel; Barlier, Pascale; Couturaud, Virginie; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Skin plays a protective role against the loss of water and external aggression, including mechanical stresses. These crucial functions are ensured by different cutaneous layers, particularly the stratum corneum (SC). During aging, the human skin reveals some apparent modifications of functionalities such as a loss of elasticity. Our investigations aimed at demonstrating that Raman microspectroscopy, as a label-free technique with a high molecular specificity, is efficient to assess in vivo the molecular composition of the skin and the alterations underwent during aging. Our approach was based on a search for correlation between Raman data collected on healthy female volunteers of different ages (from 21 to 70 years old) by means of a remote confocal Raman and skin firmness measurements used as a reference method. Raman and biometric data were then submitted to a partial least square (PLS)-based data processing. Our experiments demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy to provide an objective in vivo assessment of the skin "biological age" that can be very different from the "chronological age" of the person. In addition, Raman features sensitive to the elasticity and the fatigability of the SC were highlighted. Thereafter, calibration transfer functions were constructed to show the possibility to compare the results obtained during two distinct measurement campaigns conducted with two Raman probes of the same conception. This approach could lead to several interesting prospects, in particular by objectifying the effects of dermocosmetic products on the superficial layers of the skin and by accessing some underlying molecular mechanisms.

  6. In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the human skin: highlighting of spectral markers associated to aging via a research of correlation between Raman and biometric mechanical measurements.

    PubMed

    Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Gaydou, Vincent; Froigneux, Emmanuel; Barlier, Pascale; Couturaud, Virginie; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Skin plays a protective role against the loss of water and external aggression, including mechanical stresses. These crucial functions are ensured by different cutaneous layers, particularly the stratum corneum (SC). During aging, the human skin reveals some apparent modifications of functionalities such as a loss of elasticity. Our investigations aimed at demonstrating that Raman microspectroscopy, as a label-free technique with a high molecular specificity, is efficient to assess in vivo the molecular composition of the skin and the alterations underwent during aging. Our approach was based on a search for correlation between Raman data collected on healthy female volunteers of different ages (from 21 to 70 years old) by means of a remote confocal Raman and skin firmness measurements used as a reference method. Raman and biometric data were then submitted to a partial least square (PLS)-based data processing. Our experiments demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy to provide an objective in vivo assessment of the skin "biological age" that can be very different from the "chronological age" of the person. In addition, Raman features sensitive to the elasticity and the fatigability of the SC were highlighted. Thereafter, calibration transfer functions were constructed to show the possibility to compare the results obtained during two distinct measurement campaigns conducted with two Raman probes of the same conception. This approach could lead to several interesting prospects, in particular by objectifying the effects of dermocosmetic products on the superficial layers of the skin and by accessing some underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26297464

  7. Integrated aquitard-aquifer flow with a mixed-type well-face boundary and skin effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinggao; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-03-01

    A general analytical model describing groundwater flow to a partially penetrating well pumped at a constant rate in a leaky confined aquifer is developed. The model incorporates the effects of aquitard storage, aquifer anisotropy, wellbore storage and a finite well skin by treating the aquitard leakage as an aquitard-aquifer interface flow problem, and considers the well-face as a mixed-type or non-uniform flux (NUF) rather than a uniform flux (UF) boundary condition, which is novel. The solution is obtained using the Laplace transform coupled with separation of variables and discretization methods, followed by the numerical inverse Laplace transform. Moreover, the solution unifies some cases for flow to a partially penetrating well in a leaky confined aquifer including Perina and Lee (2006), Feng and Zhan (2015) and Hunt (2005) or confined aquifer including Chiu et al. (2007), Yang et al. (2006) and Hantush (1964). The newly developed NUF solution is compared with the UF solution. The NUF drawdown is larger than the UF drawdown at early time, while the NUF drawdown is smaller than the UF drawdown at intermediate and late times. The non-uniform flux along the well-face has significant impact on drawdown in the skin zone, while the UF solution can completely replace the NUF solution at a radial distance from the pumped well equaling to or greater than the aquifer thickness. The NUF and UF drawdowns for no skin case are remarkably smaller than that for the positive skin case and larger than that for the negative skin case. A thicker well skin results in a smaller drawdown in the skin zone.

  8. Exploring the prevalence of skin tears and skin properties related to skin tears in elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Minematsu, Takeo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nao; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Tabata, Keiko; Abe, Masatoshi; Murayama, Ryoko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-04-01

    The identification of appropriate skin tear prevention guidelines for the elderly requires clinicians to focus on local risk factors such as structural alterations of the epidermis and dermis related to skin tears. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore the prevalence of skin tears and to explore skin properties related to skin tears in elderly Japanese patients at a long-term medical facility. After doing the prevalence study, 18 participants with skin tears and 18 without were recruited and an evaluation of their skin properties using 20-MHz ultrasonography, skin blotting and also Corneometer CM-825, Skin-pH-meterPH905, VapoMeter, Moisture Meter-D and CutometerMPA580 was undertaken. A total of 410 patients were examined, the median age was 87 years and 73·2% were women. The prevalence of skin tears was 3·9%, and 50% of skin tears occurred on the dorsal forearm. The changes in skin properties associated with skin tears included increased low-echogenic pixels (LEP) by 20-MHz ultrasonography, decreased type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and increased tumour necrosis factor-α by skin blotting. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased dermal LEP, including solar elastosis, may represent a risk factor for skin tears; this indicates that skin tear risk factors might not only represent chronological ageing but also photoageing.

  9. Practical application of cellular bioenergetics to the care of aged skin.

    PubMed

    Osborne, R; Carver, R S; Mullins, L A; Finlay, D R

    2013-07-01

    In human skin fibroblasts in vitro, procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH were reduced in three strains of adult fibroblasts compared with neonatal fibroblasts. The levels of both procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH were increased in the adult fibroblasts by treatment for 24 (NAD energy) or 48 h (procollagen-1) with a complex containing niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS peptide and an olive oil fatty acid derivative (Olivem(®)), especially in combination with a natural extract from dill (Lys'lastine V(®)). In one of the adult fibroblast strains evaluated, these changes in procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH in response to the complex of bioactives were in parallel with increased expression of mRNA biomarkers related primarily to dermal matrix and basement membrane structure, including COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL14A1, ELN and LOXL2, in addition to SOD2, NAMPT and TGFBR3; MMP1 was decreased in expression. In general, these mRNA biomarker effects were maintained or boosted by the addition of Lys'lastine V, particularly at 1%, and were similar to the fold changes in mRNA expression in neonatal compared with adult fibroblasts. These results indicate that the complex of niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS and Olivem, especially with addition of Lys'lastine V, increases the NAD(+)/NADH bioenergy level of adult skin fibroblasts in parallel with increased expression of skin structure biomarkers in vitro to levels similar to those in younger fibroblasts. Thus, niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS, Olivem and Lys'lastine V are promising bioactive candidates for inclusion in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Topical retinoids in skin ageing: a focused update with reference to sun-induced epidermal vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is an important constituent of the epidermis, where it plays a crucial role in epidermal turnover. A deficiency of epidermal vitamin A may be the consequence of nutritional vitamin A deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any UV source, oxidative stress or chronological ageing. As a consequence, any treatment aiming at increasing epidermal vitamin A would exert a protective effect against these deleterious conditions. Retinoids may counteract some deleterious actions of UV radiation by physical and biological mechanisms. Topical natural retinoic acid precursors such as retinaldehyde or retinol are less irritant than acidic retinoids and may prevent epidermal vitamin A deficiency due to nutritional deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any condition leading to free radical production. Retinoids may be combined with other compounds with complementary actions against ageing, nutritional deficiency and cancer, such as antioxidants, to potentiate their beneficial effects in the skin.

  11. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  12. Impaired increases in skin sympathetic nerve activity contribute to age-related decrements in reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction is impaired in older adults; however, the relative roles of altered skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and end-organ peripheral vascular responsiveness are unclear. We hypothesized that in older adults whole-body cooling would elicit a blunted SSNA response and cutaneous adrenergic responsiveness would be reduced. Twelve young adults (Y; 24 ± 1 years) and 12 older adults (O; 57 ± 2 years) participated in two protocols. In Protocol 1, SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux in the affected dermatome (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of foot) were measured during whole-body cooling (mean skin temperature (Tsk) 30.5°C; water-perfused suit). Mental stress was performed at mean Tsk 34.0°C (thermoneutral) and at 30.5°C. In Protocol 2, an intradermal microdialysis fibre was placed in the skin of the lateral calf for graded infusions of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) (NA; 10−12 to 10−2 m). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC = flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as a change from baseline (ΔCVCbase). Vasoconstriction was attenuated in O. SSNA increased significantly during cooling in Y (+184 ± 37%; P < 0.05) but not O (+51 ± 12%; P > 0.05). Mental stress at Tsk 30.5°C further increased SSNA in both groups. There was no age-related difference in adrenergic responsiveness to exogenous NA (logEC50: −6.41 ± 0.24 in Y, −6.37 ± 0.25 in O; P > 0.05). While the SSNA response to whole-body cooling is impaired with ageing, SSNA can be further increased by a non-thermoregulatory stimulus. Cutaneous adrenergic sensitivity is not reduced in O. These findings suggest that alterations in afferent signalling or central processing likely contribute to blunted SSNA responses to cooling and subsequent impairments in reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in ageing. Key points The reduction in skin blood flow during whole-body cooling is impaired in healthy older adults. However, the

  13. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117. PMID:26483238

  14. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117.

  15. Effects of type and amount of dietary fat on mouse skin tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Lo, H H; Locniskar, M F; Bechtel, D; Fischer, S M

    1994-01-01

    In a previous study (Cancer Res 51, 907, 1991) in which we found an inverse relationship between quantity of dietary corn oil and saturated fat, in a constant 15% fat diet, on the tumor promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis, it was not clear whether one or both types of fat played a modulatory role. The purpose of the present study therefore was to compare the effect of 1) increasing corn oil in corn oil-only diets and 2) increasing saturated fat, with a constant level of 5% corn oil, on tumor promotion. In the first study, the effects of five levels of dietary corn oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined in female Sencar mice fed these diets one week after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and three weeks before the start of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. A papilloma incidence of 100% was reached first in the 5% corn oil group, at 10 weeks, followed by the 10% group at 13 weeks and the 15% and 20% group at 16 weeks. The highest corn oil group achieved a 90% incidence. There were marked differences in latency of carcinoma development among the diet groups. At Week 29, the cumulative carcinoma incidence was 56% and 32%, respectively, in the 5% and 10% corn oil groups, whereas the incidence in the two highest corn oil (20% and 25%) groups was only 8% and 4%, respectively. In the second study, the effects of diets containing 5% corn oil and increasing levels of coconut oil (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined, as described above. No significant difference in latency or incidence of papillomas or carcinomas was noted among these saturated fat diet groups. It thus appears that higher levels of dietary corn oil are associated with a reduced cancer incidence in this model system.

  16. 55-week treatment of mice with the unani and ayurvedic medicine pomegranate flower ameliorates ageing-associated insulin resistance and skin abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Rong, Xianglu; Um, Irene S I; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2012-01-01

    PPARs play a pivotal role in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis and are involved in diverse biological activities in skin. Pomegranate flower (PGF, an antidiabetic therapy in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines) has been previously demonstrated to activate both PPARalpha/gamma. Here, we found that treatment of mice with the diet containing PGF powder over 55 weeks attenuated ageing-induced abnormal increases in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glucose concentrations during oral glucose tolerance test, and adipose insulin resistance index. The diet tended to decrease the excessive peri-ovary fat mass. It, however, increased the thinned subcutaneous fat thickness. In addition, the diet restored decreases in skin water content, epidermis thickness, and collagen density in corium. Thus, our results demonstrate that long-term treatment with the Unani and Ayurvedic therapy ameliorates ageing-induced insulin resistance, which is associated with reversal of ageing-induced fat redistribution. Further, PGF attenuates ageing-mediated undesirable skin abnormalities. PMID:22253646

  17. The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Kodawala, Yusufi; Patel, Dennis; Nevgi, Bhakti; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei Ti; Alshaharani, Mastour; Pathak, Kunal; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Shenoy, Samruddha; Cho, Sungwan; Dave, Bargav; Desai, Rajavi; Malthane, Swapnil; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most studies of the skin and how it responds to local heat have been conducted with either water, thermodes, or dry heat packs. Very little has been accomplished to look at the interaction between air humidity and temperature on skin temperature and blood flow. With variable air temperatures and humidity’s around the world, this, in many ways, is a more realistic assessment of environmental impact than previous water bath studies. Material/Methods Eight young and 8 older subjects were examined in an extensive series of experiments where on different days, air temperature was 38, 40, or 42°C. and at each temperature, humidity was either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Over a 20 minute period of exposure, the response of the skin in terms of its temperature and blood flow was assessed. Results For both younger and older subjects, for air temperatures of 38 and 40°C., the humidity of the air had no effect on the blood flow response of the skin, while skin temperature at the highest humidity was elevated slightly. However, for air temperatures of 42°C., at 100% humidity, there was a significant elevation in skin blood flow and skin temperature above the other four air humidity’s (p<0.05). In older subjects, the blood flow response was less and the skin temperature was much higher than younger individuals for air at 42°C. and 100% humidity (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus, in older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects. PMID:22460091

  18. The Effect of Type-2-Diabetes-Related Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction on Skin Physiology and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott

    2011-01-01

    A common factor contributing to organ damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is impaired tissue blood flow caused by damage to vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Damage can occur even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes. It can be caused by both a high average blood glucose concentration and/or large daily spikes in blood glucose. While much of the present literature focuses on the damage to VECs and organs from these large glucose excursions, this review will focus on the consequence of this damage, that is, how endothelial cell damage in diabetes affects normal daily activities (e.g., exercise, reaction to typical stimuli) and various treatment modalities (e.g.. contrast baths and electrical stimulation therapy). It is important to understand the effects of VEC damage such as poor skin blood flow, compromised thermoregulation, and altered response to skin pressure in designing diabetes technologies as simple as heating pads and as complex as continuous glucose monitors. At the simplest level, people with diabetes have poor circulation to the skin and other organs. In the skin, even the blood flow response to locally applied pressure, such as during standing, is different than for people who do not have T2DM. Simple weight bearing on the foot can occlude the skin circulation. This makes the skin more susceptible to damage. In addition, endothelial damage has far-reaching effects on the whole body during normal activities of daily living, including an impaired response to local heat, such as hot packs and contrast baths, and higher body temperatures during whole body heating due to impaired blood flow and a reduced ability to sweat. Finally, because of multiple organ damage, people with T2DM have poor balance and gait and impaired exercise performance. PMID:21722580

  19. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Rei-ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  20. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-03-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  1. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  2. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Diana; Roman, Iulia; Crisan, Maria; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Background Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies. Objective This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level. Methods A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz) were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low (LEP), medium (MEP), high echogenic pixels (HEP), and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi). Results LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001). MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002). Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP. Conclusion Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects. PMID:26366101

  3. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  4. Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-12-01

    Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41 °C) or severe (43 °C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuation of heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.

  5. Factors affecting growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0. 3 Mrad) chicken skins

    SciTech Connect

    Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

    1982-05-01

    A model system (chicken skins with chicken exudate) was used to determine if Clostridium botulinum type E (Beluga) spores, stressed by low dose irradiation, would develop and produce toxin at abuse temperatures of 10 and 30/sup 0/C in the absence of characteristic spoilage. Unstressed spores germinated, multiplied, and produced toxin on vacuum-packed chicken skins, stored at either 30 or 10/sup 0/C. Cell numbers increased faster and toxin was evident sooner at 30/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C. At 30/sup 0/C, growth occurred and toxin was produced more slowly when samples were incubated aerobically than anaerobically. When samples were incubated aerobically at 10/sup 0/C, no toxin was detected within a test period of 14 days. An irradiation dose of 0.3 Mrad at 5/sup 0/C reduced a spore population on vacuum-sealed chicken skins by about 90%. The surviving population produced toxin at 30/sup 0/C under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, at 10/sup 0/C no toxin was detected even on skins incubated anaerobically. Under the worst conditions (30/sup 0/C, vacuum packed) toxin was not detected prior to characteristic spoilage caused by the natural flora surviving 0.3 Mrad.

  6. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  7. A light and electron microscopic evaluation of Zyderm collagen and Zyplast implants in aging human facial skin. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stegman, S J; Chu, S; Bensch, K; Armstrong, R

    1987-12-01

    Four patients received Zyderm collagen implant (ZCI) or Zyplast implant (ZI) in preauricular and infraauricular regions of facial skin periodically between one and nine months. Both materials were identified microscopically in the mid- to deep dermis at all points of the study and, in 60% to 70% of the injected sites, some material was also present subdermally. A slow, gradual colonization of ZCI by fibroblasts was noted compared with a delayed intense interaction of these cells with ZI. Also, there was some new collagen deposition associated with remodeling of the ZI, while no demonstrable synthetic activity occurred in relationship to ZCI. The results suggest that ZCI and ZI "migrate" deeper and eventually move into the subcutaneous plane. This movement could explain the loss of correction at six to nine months that is noted when this implant is used for age-related changes.

  8. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser-assisted hair removal in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna; Sankar, Thangasamy K

    2011-09-01

    Unwanted hair is a common problem for which a variety of laser treatments is available. Laser treatment in dark-skinned individuals carries a higher risk of complications like hyperpigmentation and burn. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety profile of laser-assisted hair removal in individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin using long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Retrospective data was collected from 150 individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin who underwent laser-assisted hair removal. This included area treated, fluence, number of treatments, and outcome. Data was also gathered on patient satisfaction and complications. The most common phototype was type IV (94%). The most frequently treated area was the face (84.7%) followed by the underarms and legs. Among the facial areas, the chin was the most frequently treated area followed by the upper lip and jaw line. The mean number of treatments was 8.9 (range 4-22). The maximum fluence averaged 26.8 Joules/cm(2) and was significantly higher for facial hair. Of the patients, 78.7% felt that their treatment was good or satisfactory. Mean hair reduction was 54.3%. Satisfaction from the treatment was significantly higher in individuals undergoing treatment of non-facial areas. Subsequent hair growth was slower and finer in 79.3% of the patients. There were no complications in 86% of the patients. All the complications were transient, with hyperpigmentation being the most frequent complication. Our results show that laser hair removal using the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective in dark-skinned individuals with satisfactory results in most patients.

  9. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age.

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D; Pawlikowski, Jeff S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2016-08-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45-81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders.The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology.In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face.

  10. Comparative analysis of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on inflammatory biomarker expression during the skin wound-repair process in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    de Melo Rambo, Caroline Sobral; Silva, Jose Antônio; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Ligeiro, Ana Paula; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Albertini, Regiane; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    The wound-healing process plays an essential role in the protective response to epidermal injury by tissue regeneration. In the elderly, skin functions deteriorate as a consequence of morphological and structural changes. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in cutaneous wound healing in young and aged rats. A total of 60 male rats comprising 30 young (± 30 days) and 30 aged (± 500 days) was used. The animals were divided into four experimental groups and underwent skin wound and/or treatment with LLLT (660 nm, 30 mW, 1.07 W/cm(2), 0.028 cm(2), 72 J/cm(2), and 2 J). Analyses were conducted to verify the effects of LLLT in the tissue repair process, in the gene expression, and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10, obtained in skin wound model. Results showed that there were significant differences between the young control group and the aged control group and their respective treated groups (LLLT young and LLLT aged). We conclude that LLLT has shown to be effective in the treatment of skin wounds in young and aged animals at different stages of the tissue repair process, which suggests that different LLLT dosimetry should be considered in treatment of subjects of different ages. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings in clinical settings.

  11. [Types of skin lesions in pulmonary sarcoidosis and their prognostic value].

    PubMed

    Garmash, Iu Iu; Soldatskaia, L V; Enikeeva, E G; Agadzhanova, I S; Slutskaia, O M

    2007-01-01

    When sarcoidosis is suspected, a patient should be meticulously examined for dermal changes, the favorite sites of which are the skin of the face, ears, upper and lower extremities, and trunk. Elements may vary in number from solitary to multiple. When dermal changes are suspected of sarcoidosis, a dermatologist should examine the patient and, if there are some doubts about the nature of dermal elements, biopsy and histological study should be made since the morphological verification of the diagnosis primarily requires the use of extrapulmonary sites of the process, namely superficial peripheral lymph nodes, as well as the skin. The findings suggest that skin sarcoidosis characterized by the long-term chronic or progressive course is encountered at different (X-ray) stages of sarcoidosis of respiratory organs and is of poor prognostic value. The severity of dermal manifestations is no less and, in individual cases, more significant than pulmonary symptoms. Great or ugly skin lesions require prednisolone treatment. In some cases, long-term therapy cannot yield a result. Delagil treatment of dermal manifestations remains to be effective.

  12. 'Comfortable in my own skin': a new form of sexual freedom for ageing baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R

    2014-12-01

    'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age.

  13. A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriko; Takasu, Shingo

    2011-11-01

    Numerous wrinkles are observed in the skin of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats, which are similar to those seen in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats. Retinoic acid (RA), the active form of vitamin A, promotes the production of collagen in dermis and induces cell growth and inhibition of epidermal differentiation in skin tissues. Normal skin function is maintained by the extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and hyaluronidase (HAase). This study is the first comparison of MMP and HAase activities in skin tissues of type 1 diabetic, VAD and RA-treated animal models. In skin tissues of type 1 diabetic and VAD rats or VAD mice, both MMP-2 and HAase activities increased as compared with controls. In contrast, MMP and HAase activities were reduced in the skin tissues of RA-treated mice. Blood retinol levels in type 1 diabetic rats were lower than controls. These results indicate a close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency on MMP and HAase in skin tissues, suggesting that type 1 diabetic rats could be vitamin A-deficient. Vitamin A-derived RA might be a significant regulator of ECM-degrading enzyme expression and diabetic symptoms.

  14. Early detection of nerve fiber loss by corneal confocal microscopy and skin biopsy in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan; Papanas, Nikolaos; Zhivov, Andrey; Allgeier, Stephan; Winter, Karsten; Ziegler, Iris; Brüggemann, Jutta; Strom, Alexander; Peschel, Sabine; Köhler, Bernd; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf F; Roden, Michael

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether early nerve damage may be detected by corneal confocal microscopy (CCM), skin biopsy, and neurophysiological tests in 86 recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients compared with 48 control subjects. CCM analysis using novel algorithms to reconstruct nerve fiber images was performed for all fibers and major nerve fibers (MNF) only. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was assessed in skin specimens. Neurophysiological measures included nerve conduction studies (NCS), quantitative sensory testing (QST), and cardiovascular autonomic function tests (AFTs). Compared with control subjects, diabetic patients exhibited significantly reduced corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL-MNF), fiber density (CNFD-MNF), branch density (CNBD-MNF), connecting points (CNCP), IENFD, NCS, QST, and AFTs. CNFD-MNF and IENFD were reduced below the 2.5th percentile in 21% and 14% of the diabetic patients, respectively. However, the vast majority of patients with abnormal CNFD showed concomitantly normal IENFD and vice versa. In conclusion, CCM and skin biopsy both detect nerve fiber loss in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, but largely in different patients, suggesting a patchy manifestation pattern of small fiber neuropathy. Concomitant NCS impairment points to an early parallel involvement of small and large fibers, but the precise temporal sequence should be clarified in prospective studies. PMID:24574045

  15. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. PMID:25688689

  16. Zebrafish Collagen Type I: Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Major Structural Protein in Bone and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gistelinck, C.; Gioia, R.; Gagliardi, A.; Tonelli, F.; Marchese, L.; Bianchi, L.; Landi, C.; Bini, L.; Huysseune, A.; Witten, P. E.; Staes, A.; Gevaert, K.; De Rocker, N.; Menten, B.; Malfait, F.; Leikin, S.; Carra, S.; Tenni, R.; Rossi, A.; De Paepe, A.; Coucke, P.; Willaert, A.; Forlino, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years the zebrafish imposed itself as a powerful model to study skeletal diseases, but a limit to its use is the poor characterization of collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone and skin. In tetrapods collagen type I is a trimer mainly composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, encoded by COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, respectively. In contrast, in zebrafish three type I collagen genes exist, col1a1a, col1a1b and col1a2 coding for α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains. During embryonic and larval development the three collagen type I genes showed a similar spatio-temporal expression pattern, indicating their co-regulation and interdependence at these stages. In both embryonic and adult tissues, the presence of the three α(I) chains was demonstrated, although in embryos α1(I) was present in two distinct glycosylated states, suggesting a developmental-specific collagen composition. Even though in adult bone, skin and scales equal amounts of α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains are present, the presented data suggest a tissue-specific stoichiometry and/or post-translational modification status for collagen type I. In conclusion, this data will be useful to properly interpret results and insights gained from zebrafish models of skeletal diseases. PMID:26876635

  17. The Skin as an Early Expression of Malignancies in the Neonatal Age: A Review of the Literature and a Case Series.

    PubMed

    Mondì, Vito; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Auriti, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions are a frequent finding in childhood, from infancy throughout adolescence. They can arise from many conditions, including infections and inflammation. Most neonatal rashes are benign and self-limiting and require no treatment. Other conditions may be an expression of malignancy or may be a marker for other abnormalities, such as neural tube defects. Therefore, skin lesions require an extensive evaluation and close follow-up to ensure the best possible outcome. This paper briefly reviews the main tumor types presenting with cutaneous involvement in neonates, followed by the description of some patients admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with an early skin expression of malignancies.

  18. The Skin as an Early Expression of Malignancies in the Neonatal Age: A Review of the Literature and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mondì, Vito; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Salvatori, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions are a frequent finding in childhood, from infancy throughout adolescence. They can arise from many conditions, including infections and inflammation. Most neonatal rashes are benign and self-limiting and require no treatment. Other conditions may be an expression of malignancy or may be a marker for other abnormalities, such as neural tube defects. Therefore, skin lesions require an extensive evaluation and close follow-up to ensure the best possible outcome. This paper briefly reviews the main tumor types presenting with cutaneous involvement in neonates, followed by the description of some patients admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with an early skin expression of malignancies. PMID:26798643

  19. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  20. Cross-linking of structural proteins in ageing skin: an in situ assay for the detection of amine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Langton, Abigail K; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J; Watson, Rachel E B

    2013-02-01

    With increasing age, dynamic tissues such as lungs, blood vessels and skin lose their ability to both deform and recoil, culminating in tissue stiffening. This loss of tissue elasticity, which profoundly impacts tissue function and thus morbidity, may be due not only to changes in the relative abundance of key extracellular matrix proteins within tissues but also to their accumulation of post-translational modifications. Whilst to date attention has focussed primarily on the age-related non-enzymatic formation of advanced glycation end products, the accumulation of pathological enzyme-mediated cross-links may also lead to age-related tissue stiffening. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of enzymes are constitutively expressed in adult tissues and are known to drive the catalysis of cross-links in both fibrillar collagens and elastin. Although immunochemical approaches are commonly used to localise the inactive pro-enzyme of LOX, and biochemical methods are employed to quantify activity in homogenised tissue, they do not allow for the in situ localisation of the enzyme. Thus, we have developed a novel assay to both detect and localise LOX enzyme activity in situ. LOX family members are amine oxidases and this assay uses the principle that an amine substrate in the presence of this class of enzyme will be oxidised to an aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In turn, H2O2, when combined with luminol and horseradish peroxidase, will produce a light-emitting reaction that can be detected by film autoradiography. The development of a technique to localise specific amine oxidase activity in tissue sections may provide crucial additional information on the exact role played by this class of enzymes in mediating age-related tissue stiffening.

  1. Perceived Changes in Well-Being: The Role of Chronological Age, Target Age, and Type of Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…

  2. Prevalence of skin disorders in primary and secondary school age children in Canakkale, Turkey: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıc, Sevilay Oguz; Isık, Selda; Haydar Ertekin, Yusuf; Tekin, Murat; Cevizci, Sibel; Ogretmen, Zerrin; Topaloglu, Naci; Sahin, Erkan Melih; Cıbık, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. Aim Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools. Each student was interviewed for age, gender, and family history, and a dermatologic examination was performed by a dermatologist. Data were coded and analyzed. Results Of the students, 79.9% revealed at least one dermatosis. The most common disease was benign neoplasms (76%), followed by pigmentary disorders (26.8%), and xerosis (5.8%). In primary schools, the acquired melanocytic nevus, hypopigmented macule, and xerosis; in secondary school the acne was statistically significantly more common. Acne and xerosis was more common in girls, and pityriasis alba was statistically more common in boys. Students who had at least one dermatosis were positively correlated with monthly income. Conclusions In Turkish school age children, the prevalence of dermatosis is 79.9%. It may be due to not using preventive means for adequate protection from the sun and other environmental factors. Infectious dermatosis and atopic dermatitis are rare and it may depend on the adequacy of public health work. PMID:27512351

  3. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  4. Association between floor type and behaviour, skin lesions, and claw dimensions in group-housed fattening bulls.

    PubMed

    Platz, Siegfried; Ahrens, Frank; Bahrs, Elisabeth; Nüske, Stefan; Erhard, Michael H

    2007-07-16

    Rubber mats covering concrete slatted flooring are a developing market in dairy barns but remain rare in beef cattle facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of covering slatted concrete floor with perforated rubber mats on behaviour and occurrence of skin and claw lesions in fattening bulls. The groups of six bulls each with a total average age of 9.8 months were kept over 1 year on either slatted concrete (CONCRETE PEN) or on slatted concrete covered completely (RUBBER PEN) or partially (CHOICE PEN) with perforated rubber mats. Every quarter-year, behaviour (preference of flooring, lying, aggression, mounting) was recorded. In two-weekly intervals the incidence of skin lesions was examined. At 12 and 18 months of age the rising time of the bulls was measured. At the beginning of the study and after slaughter claw dimensions were recorded. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN preferred (P<0.01) the rubber coated area throughout the experiment. Animals in the RUBBER and the CHOICE PENS showed more lying periods (P<0.01) and had a lesser incidence of skin lesions (P<0.01) compared to bulls in the CONCRETE PEN. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN needed less time for rising (2.7+/-0.3s) than bulls in the CONCRETE PEN (4.4+/-0.5s, P<0.01). Net claw growth differed significantly between all pens (RUBBER>CHOICE>CONCRETE; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that rubber coated slatted flooring has a positive influence on the housing conditions of beef cattle.

  5. Immunocytochemical diagnosis of skin tumours of the dog with special reference to undifferentiated types.

    PubMed

    Rabanal, R H; Fondevila, D M; Montané, V; Domingo, M; Ferrer, L

    1989-07-01

    Immunoperoxidase techniques for S-100 protein, keratin, cytokeratin, vimentin and desmin were applied to 65 canine skin tumours. These included eight squamous cell carcinomas, eight fibrosarcomas, eight melanomas, eight mastocytomas, eight haemangiosarcomas, eight leiomyosarcomas, five liposarcomas and 12 poorly differentiated tumours. Consistent results were obtained within each group. Cytokeratin and keratin immunoreactivity was detected only in squamous cell carcinomas. Vimentin was present in fibrosarcomas, melanomas, haemangiosarcomas, mastocytomas, leiomyosarcomas and liposarcomas. S-100 protein immunoreactivity was detected in melanomas, haemangiosarcomas, liposarcomas and leiomyosarcomas. Only leiomyosarcomas were positive for desmin. According to these results the 12 anaplastic tumours were diagnosed either as carcinomas, fibrosarcomas or malignant melanomas.

  6. Specific immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis--Four-year treatment in different age and airborne allergy type subgroups.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disease involving the skin and frequently other organs and systems such as respiratory system. The recently recognized atopic nature of the skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in the treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). In this study, the efficacy of SIT was evaluated in a group of 37 AD patients aged 5-44 years: 14 allergic to house dust mites (HDM), 17 to grass pollen allergens, and 6 allergic to grass and mugwort pollen allergens. IgE-mediated airborne allergy was well documented in all cases. SIT was performed with Novo Helisen Depot allergy vaccines of appropriate composition. Control group included 29 patients with AD and confirmed IgE-mediated airborne allergy to analogous allergens: HDM, 14 patients; grass pollen allergens, 11 patients; and grass and mugwort pollen allergens, 4 patients. Conventional methods of AD treatment were used in the control group. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed with W-AZS index after 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of therapy. SIT was found to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment for selected patients with AD and IgE-mediated airborne allergy. The efficacy of this therapeutic method was significantly higher than that recorded by conventional methods used in the control group in all 3 age subgroups and all 3 types of airborne allergy (HDM, grass pollen, and grass and mugwort pollen). It is concluded that SIT may be highly promising method of controlling skin inflammation in AD with the potential to prevent the development of AD into respiratory allergy.

  7. Age determination of the world's oldest movable metal types through measuring the "meog" using AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, W.; Lee, S. C.; Park, J. H.; Park, G.; Sung, K. H.; Lee, J. G.; Nam, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing "Jeungdoga" was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called "meog" was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world's oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  8. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Haustead, Daniel J; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  9. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Haustead, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F.; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J.; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  10. Topical application of retinyl palmitate-loaded nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela B; do Prado, Alice Haddad; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Sato, Claudia S; Lourenço Brunetti, Iguatemy; Scarpa, Maria Virgínia; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Friberg, Stig E; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a structural characterization and evaluate the in vitro safety profile and in vitro antioxidant activity of liquid crystalline systems (LCS) with and without retinyl palmitate (RP). LCS containing polyether functional siloxane (PFS) as a surfactant, silicon glycol copolymer (SGC) as oil phase, and water in the ratios 30 : 25 : 45 and 40 : 50 : 10 with (OLS(v) = RP-loaded opaque liquid system and TLS(v) = RP-loaded transparent liquid system, respectively) and without (OLS and TLS, respectively) RP were studied. Samples were characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and rheology analysis. In vitro safety profile was evaluated using red cell hemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed by the DPPH method. PLM analysis showed the presence of lamellar LCS just to TLS. Regardless of the presence of RP, the rheological studies showed the pseudoplastic behavior of the formulations. The results showed that the incorporation of RP in LCS improved the safety profile of the drug. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS presented a higher capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of RP. PFS-based systems may be a promising platform for RP topical application for the treatment of skin aging. PMID:24772430

  11. Topical Application of Retinyl Palmitate-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcela B.; do Prado, Alice Haddad; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Sato, Claudia S.; Lourenço Brunetti, Iguatemy; Scarpa, Maria Virgínia; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Friberg, Stig E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a structural characterization and evaluate the in vitro safety profile and in vitro antioxidant activity of liquid crystalline systems (LCS) with and without retinyl palmitate (RP). LCS containing polyether functional siloxane (PFS) as a surfactant, silicon glycol copolymer (SGC) as oil phase, and water in the ratios 30 : 25 : 45 and 40 : 50 : 10 with (OLSv = RP-loaded opaque liquid system and TLSv = RP-loaded transparent liquid system, respectively) and without (OLS and TLS, respectively) RP were studied. Samples were characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and rheology analysis. In vitro safety profile was evaluated using red cell hemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed by the DPPH method. PLM analysis showed the presence of lamellar LCS just to TLS. Regardless of the presence of RP, the rheological studies showed the pseudoplastic behavior of the formulations. The results showed that the incorporation of RP in LCS improved the safety profile of the drug. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS presented a higher capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of RP. PFS-based systems may be a promising platform for RP topical application for the treatment of skin aging. PMID:24772430

  12. Age related efficiency of the leishmanin skin test as a marker of immunity to human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, A; Ben Salah, A; Hamida, N Bel Haj; Zaatour, A

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether the efficiency of the leishmanin skin test (LST) to evaluate the immune status of individuals exposed to Leishmania (L.) infantum is age-related. It was conducted in two districts of the governorate of Kairouan, an endemic region for L. infantum infection in Tunisia. Healthy individuals (n = 119) were selected according to two criteria: no current or past history of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, and their age range: 1-6 years (group I), 7-14 years (group II), and 20-66 years old (group III). Assessments comprised LSTs, in vitro lymphoproliferative response, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) productions induced by soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA). LST recorded an overall of 89.07% and 89.9% concordance with T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production induced by SLA, respectively. Using in vitro tests as gold standards, LST was found more sensitive for screening individuals from group I (96% and 100%, considering T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production results, respectively), than group II (91% and 97%) and group III (70% and 74%,). Conversely, LST was less specific in group I (84% and 77%) than group II (100% and 94%) and group III (100% for both in vitro tests). Our results suggested that the strength of LST resided in its higher sensitivity, to unravel asymptomatic injections and cell mediated immunity to L. infantum parasite in infants and its higher specificity for screening adult individuals. Negative LST in adults and positive LST in children < 5 years, the population at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis, remain the weaknesses of LST and should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus.

  14. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus. PMID:27026508

  15. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  16. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  17. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  18. A Case of Inflammatory Generalized Type of Peeling Skin Syndrome Possibly Caused by a Homozygous Missense Mutation of CDSN.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Masaki; Maeda, Tatsuo; Tsunoda, Takahiko; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese woman had repetitive superficial skin peeling and ensuing erythematous changes in the sites since infancy. Her parents had a consanguineous marriage, and she was the only individual affected in her family tree. The erythematous changes seemed to worsen in the summer. Histologically, hyperkeratosis and splitting of the epidermis within the stratum corneum was noted, and electron microscopy revealed shedding of corneal cells in the horny layer and normal-looking corneodesmosomes. Gene analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation at c.1358G>A in CDSN. Electron microscopic examination of the length and number of corneodesmosomes revealed statistically significant shortness and sparsity in the affected individual (mean ± SD 386.2 ± 149.5 nm) compared with that of an age- and site-matched control (406.6 ± 182.3 nm). We speculate that this size shrinkage of corneodesmosomes might be the result of a missense mutation of CDSN and that this could be one of the factors contributing to the pathological process of skin peeling.

  19. Age-related changes in rat hippocampal theta rhythms: a difference between type 1 and type 2 theta.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Toyosawa, K

    1999-05-01

    The age-related changes in two types of theta rhythms recorded from the hippocampus in young (4 months-old), mature (12-13 months-old) and aged (22-25 months-old) rats were investigated. The type 1 theta rhythm was measured from hippocampal EEG recorded from walking rats and the type 2 theta was measured from the EEG induced by reticular pontin oralis nucleus (PON) stimulation in urethane anesthetized rats. The peak frequency and the peak power were detected from power spectra calculated on each theta sample by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). No age-related alteration was observed on the peak frequency of type 1 theta rhythm. However, on type 2 theta rhythm, the peak frequency was decreased in the aged rats compared with the young and the mature rats. The type 2 theta rhythm is cholinergic, and therefore this result suggests that age-related deterioration can be clearly observed in the cholinergic system including the hippocampus in rats.

  20. Skeletal muscle capillary density and microvascular function are compromised with aging and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Groen, Bart B L; Hamer, Henrike M; Snijders, Tim; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Frijns, Dionne; Vink, Hans; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-04-15

    Adequate muscle perfusion is required for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Impairments in microvascular structure and/or function with aging and type 2 diabetes have been associated with the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass. Our objective was to compare muscle fiber type specific capillary density and endothelial function between healthy young men, healthy older men, and age-matched type 2 diabetes patients. Fifteen healthy young men (24 ± 1 yr), 15 healthy older men (70 ± 2 yr), and 15 age-matched type 2 diabetes patients (70 ± 1 yr) were selected to participate in the present study. Whole body insulin sensitivity, muscle fiber type specific capillary density, sublingual microvascular density, and dimension of the erythrocyte-perfused boundary region were assessed to evaluate the impact of aging and/or type 2 diabetes on microvascular structure and function. Whole body insulin sensitivity was significantly lower at a more advanced age, with lowest values reported in the type 2 diabetic patients. In line, skeletal muscle capillary contacts were much lower in the older and older type 2 diabetic patients when compared with the young. Sidestream darkfield imaging showed a significantly greater thickness of the erythrocyte perfused boundary region in the type 2 diabetic patients compared with the young. Skeletal muscle capillary density is reduced with aging and type 2 diabetes and accompanied by impairments in endothelial glycocalyx function, which is indicative of compromised vascular function. PMID:24577061

  1. Ultrastructure of type VI collagen in human skin and cartilage suggests an anchoring function for this filamentous network

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    An mAb was used in conjunction with immunoelectron microscopy to study the ultrastructure and distribution of the type VI collagen network. Type VI collagen in femoral head and costal cartilage was found distributed throughout the matrix but concentrated in areas surrounding chondrocytes. Three-dimensional information gained from high voltage stereo pair electron microscopy showed that the type VI collagen network in skin was organized into a highly branched, open, filamentous network that encircled interstitial collagen fibers, but did not appear to interact directly with them. Type VI collagen was also found concentrated near basement membranes of nerves, blood vessels, and fat cells although in a less organized state. Labeling was conspicuously reduced close to the epithelial basement membrane in the region of the anchoring fibrils. No labeling of basement membranes was seen. Based on these observations it is suggested that the type VI collagen forms a flexible network that anchors large interstitial structures such as nerves, blood vessels, and collagen fibers into surrounding connective tissues. PMID:3182942

  2. Coming of age: the artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The artificial pancreas (closed-loop system) addresses the unmet clinical need for improved glucose control whilst reducing the burden of diabetes self-care in type 1 diabetes. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery above and below a preset insulin amount informed by sensor glucose readings differentiates closed-loop systems from conventional, threshold-suspend and predictive-suspend insulin pump therapy. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes can vary between one-third-threefold on a daily basis. Closed-loop systems accommodate these variations and mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with tight glucose control. In this review we focus on the progress being made in the development and evaluation of closed-loop systems in outpatient settings. Randomised transitional studies have shown feasibility and efficacy of closed-loop systems under supervision or remote monitoring. Closed-loop application during free-living, unsupervised conditions by children, adolescents and adults compared with sensor-augmented pumps have shown improved glucose outcomes, reduced hypoglycaemia and positive user acceptance. Innovative approaches to enhance closed-loop performance are discussed and we also present the outlook and strategies used to ease clinical adoption of closed-loop systems. PMID:27364997

  3. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  4. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  5. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  6. A survey and analysis of the role of molecular chaperone proteins and imidazole-containing dipeptide-based compounds as molecular escorts into the skin during stress, injury, water structuring and other types of cutaneous pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, M A; Nikolayev, G M; Nikolayeva, J G; Yegorov, Y E

    2011-02-01

    Molecular chaperone, heat shock proteins (HSPs), stabilizes intracellular processes of cells under stress. Little is known about the role of molecular chaperone proteins in the skin pathology, rejuvenation and wound healing, or whether their expression is altered by environmental and physiological stress to the skin or systemic disease. The focus of this study was to examine the role of molecular chaperone proteins in the skin's local response to wounding, skin ageing and a range of skin diseases. Free radicals, one form of insult, induce or contribute to adverse effects on the skin, including erythema, oedema, wrinkling, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hypersensitivity, keratinization abnormalities, preneoplastic lesions and skin cancer. A unified view of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of the skin age-related pathology conditions has led to the search for molecular and chemical chaperones that can slow, arrest or revert disease progression. Specific alpha-crystallin domains and pharmacological imidazole-containing dipeptide chaperone molecules are now emerging that link our biophysical insights with developed skin therapeutic techniques. In this article, we discuss the molecular nature of the stress signals, the mechanisms that underlie activation of the heat shock response, the role of molecular chaperone proteins as skin protective molecules, and strategies for pharmacologically active chaperone molecules and their imidazole-containing dipeptide inducers as regulators of the skin stress response. We discuss how impairment in protein hydration may cause ultrastructural, mechanical and biochemical changes in structural proteins in the aged skin. We have pioneered the molecular chaperone protein activated therapeutic or cosmetic platform to enable simultaneous analysis of water-binding and structuring characteristics for biology of skin ageing and skin disease-related pathways. This cutting-edge technology has improved the way that proteins

  7. Patient’s self-evaluation of two education programs for age-related skin changes in the face: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Linda M; Alderman, Jane E; Cussell, Garry; Goldston, John; Hamilton, Neal; Lim, Adrian C; Goodman, Greg J; Halstead, Michael B; Rogers, John D

    2011-01-01

    Background: An interactive software program (HOYS) has been developed utilizing a database of digital images depicting various aspects and degrees of aging of exposed skin across seven geographic regions, representing a total of 35 facial and extrafacial subregions. A five-point photonumeric rating scale, which portrays age-related skin changes across five decades for each of these subregions, underpins this patient-based interactive self-assessment program. Based on the resulting outputs from this program, an individualized treatment prioritization list is generated for each region where significant differences between the patient’s chronological and esthetic ages exist. This provides guidance for the patient and the treating physician on treatment options. Methods: To evaluate the utility of HOYS in the clinic, relative to education programs currently used in Australian private esthetic clinics, a total of 95 esthetically-orientated patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Results: Compared with a prospective cohort of patients completing a standard education program commonly utilized in Australian esthetic clinics, patients receiving the HOYS education program reported greater empowerment through improved knowledge of specific age-related skin changes. This was associated with a clearer understanding of treatment options available to them, and a perceived ability to participate in the selection of the treatments potentially administered to improve their appearance. These differences between the two education groups were highly significant. Conclusion: Patients completing the HOYS patient education program have an improved understanding of age-related changes to exposed skin of their face, neck, décolletage, and hands. Due to the patient-specific nature of the program, these patients perceive a greater role in the deciding which esthetic treatments should be subsequently administered to enhance their appearance

  8. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including β Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V≲ 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  9. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  10. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Muller, David A.; Pearson, Frances E.; Fernando, Germain J.P.; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S.; Corrie, Simon R.; Crichton, Michael L.; Wei, Jonathan C.J.; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Young, Paul R.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  11. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  12. Persistence of the effect of birth size on dysglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in old age: AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Muller, Majon; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rantanen, Taina; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara B

    2013-08-01

    We studied the effect of birth size on glucose and insulin metabolism among old non-diabetic individuals. We also explored the combined effect of birth size and midlife body mass index (BMI) on type 2 diabetes in old age. Our study comprised 1,682 Icelanders whose birth records included anthropometrical data. The same individuals had participated in the prospective population-based Reykjavik Study, where BMI was assessed at a mean age of 47 years, and in the AGES-Reykjavik Study during 2002 to 2006, where fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c were measured and homeostasis model assessment for the degree of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated at a mean age of 75.5 years. Type 2 diabetes was determined as having a history of diabetes, using glucose-modifying medication or fasting glucose of >7.0 mmol/l. Of the participants, 249 had prevalent type 2 diabetes in old age. Lower birth weight and body length were associated with higher fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c among old non-diabetic individuals. Higher birth weight and ponderal index at birth decreased the risk for type 2 diabetes in old age, odds ratio (OR), 0.61 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.48-0.79] and 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.00), respectively. Compared with those with high birth weight and low BMI in midlife, the odds of diabetes was almost five-fold for individuals with low birth weight and high BMI (OR, 4.93; 95 % CI, 2.14-11.37). Excessive weight gain in adulthood might be particularly detrimental to the health of old individuals with low birth weight.

  13. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  14. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  15. Crystal structure of a Xenopus laevis skin proto-type galectin, close to but distinct from galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Shoji, Hiroki; Nishi, Nozomu; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Takanori

    2015-07-01

    Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) has two types of proto-type galectins that are similar to mammalian galectin-1 in amino acid sequence. One type, comprising xgalectin-Ia and -Ib, is regarded as being equivalent to galectin-1, and the other type, comprising xgalectin-Va and -Vb, is expected to be a unique galectin subgroup. The latter is considerably abundant in frog skin; however, its biological function remains unclear. We determined the crystal structures of two proto-type galectins, xgalectin-Ib and -Va. The structures showed that both galectins formed a mammalian galectin-1-like homodimer, and furthermore, xgalectin-Va formed a homotetramer. This tetramer structure has not been reported for other galectins. Gel filtration and other experiments indicated that xgalectin-Va was in a dimer-tetramer equilibrium in solution, and lactose binding enhanced the tetramer formation. The residues involved in the dimer-dimer association were conserved in xgalectin-Va and -Vb, and one of the Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis proto-type galectins, but not in xgalectin-Ia and -Ib, and other galectin-1-equivalent proteins. Xgalectin-Va preferred Galβ1-3GalNAc and not Galβ1-4GlcNAc, while xgalectin-Ib preferred Galβ1-4GlcNAc as well as human galectin-1. Xgalectin-Va/Vb would have diverged from the galectin-1 group with accompanying acquisition of the higher oligomer formation and altered ligand selectivity. PMID:25804418

  16. Impaired up-regulation of type II corticosteroid receptors in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, J C; Fleenor, D G; Kerr, D S; Landfield, P W

    1989-01-30

    Several recent investigations have reported a decline of rat hippocampal corticosteroid-binding receptors (CSRs) with aging. This decline has been proposed to be an initial cause (through disinhibition) of the elevated adrenal steroid secretion that apparently occurs with aging; however, it could instead be an effect of corticoid elevation (through down-regulation). In order to assess the effects of age on CSR biosynthetic capacity in the absence of down-regulatory influences of endogenous corticoids, as well as to study aging changes in CSR plasticity, we examined the up-regulation of hippocampal CSR that follows adrenalectomy (ADX). The rat hippocampus contains at least two types of CSR binding and differential analysis of types I and II CSR was accomplished by selective displacement of [3H]corticosterone with RU-28362, a specific type II agonist. In young (3 months old) Fischer-344 rat hippocampus, up-regulation of type II binding above 2-day ADX baseline was present by 3-7 days and increased still further by 8-10 days post-ADX; type I CSR density did not change significantly between 1 and 10 days post-ADX. However, in aged (24-26 months old) rats, type II CSR up-regulation did not occur over the 10 day post-ADX period. Thus, the age-related impairment of type II up-regulation may reflect an intrinsic deficit in CSR biosynthesis or lability that is independent of the acute endogenous adrenal steroid environment.

  17. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  18. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  19. Geochronology of type Santacrucian (Middle Tertiary) Land Mammal Age, Patagonia, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, L.G.; Drake, R.E.; Curtis, G.H.; Butler, R.F.; Flanagan, K.M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Mammal-bearing lacustrine and tuffaceous sediments from three localities of the Santa Cruz Formation, type fauna of the Santacrucian Land Mammal Age, in Patagonia, southern Argentina, are calibrated by radioisotope dating with the aid of magnetostratigraphy. The strata range from about 17.6 Ma to perhaps 16.0 Ma, and are thus of late-early Miocene age. The Santacrucian Land Mammal Age ranges from about 18.0 Ma to about 15.0 Ma.

  20. [The influence of different types of physical exertions on the mature males' biological age].

    PubMed

    Sirotin, A B; Belozerova, L M; Sergeeva, I G; Zhukov, V N; Kolegova, N G

    2014-01-01

    We studied the biological age according to anthropometric indexes, mental, physical and both the types of working efficiency in 122 males at the age of 50-59 years. All of them were devided into 5 groups: untrained individuals, going in for general physical training, sport veterans, specializing in endurance training, sport plays representatives, weight-lifters. We found out a younger biological age in sport veterans, who were carrying out dynamic exertions.

  1. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  2. [The availability of particular types of medical social care to persons of elderly and senile age].

    PubMed

    Shigabutdinov, A F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of sociological survey of respondents of elderly and senile age living with their families or in senior centers. The comparative analysis was applied to availability of particular types of medical social care of contingent of interest depending on place of its residence. The age and ability of self-support of respondents were taken into account.

  3. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality.

  4. Studies on Hypersensitivity—I. Delayed and Arthus-type Skin Reactivity to Protein Conjugates in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Benacerraf, B.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the immunization of guinea pigs with proteins conjugated with picryl, acetyl and ethoxymethylene-phenyloxazolone groups. Immunization by means of complexes of these substances with anti-protein and anti-hapten antisera have also been studied. Antibody production, anaphylactic and Arthus-type sensitivity and delayed skin sensitivity to the conjugates, to the carrier proteins and to unrelated proteins carrying the same haptenic group have been investigated. Immunization with conjugates is found to be followed by the appearance of delayed hypersensitivity to the protein `carrier' in the absence of detectable antibodies against it, although antibodies are produced at that time against the haptenic group itself. Delayed hypersensitivity to the haptenic group has not been detected at any time: blocking it with specific antibody does not lead to the appearance of delayed sensitivity, but merely suppresses antibody formation against that group. Pure delayed sensitivity has been produced against gelatin, both alone and as a conjugate with picryl. Conjugates with homologous serum proteins are shown to provoke only Arthus-type sensitivity and antibody against the haptenic group. These findings are discussed in view of the light they may throw upon the relation of delayed hypersensitivity to antibody production and upon the process of immunization. PMID:13640680

  5. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. PMID:27288899

  6. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Vanessa; Urien, Céline; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+) -type and CD103(+) -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+) -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+) -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+) -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+) DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+) DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  7. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    PubMed Central

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  8. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-14

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  9. Comparison of skin barrier function and sensory nerve electric current perception threshold between IgE-high extrinsic and IgE-normal intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Ishida, K; Mukumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Imokawa, G; Kabashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Bito, T; Nakamura, M; Ogasawara, K; Tokura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of atopic dermatitis (AD) have been proposed, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this seemingly heterogeneous disorder. The extrinsic type shows high IgE levels presumably as a consequence of skin barrier damage and feasible allergen permeation, whereas the intrinsic type exhibits normal IgE levels and is not mediated by allergen-specific IgE. Objectives To investigate the relationship between pruritus perception threshold and skin barrier function of patients with AD in a comparison between the extrinsic and intrinsic types. Methods Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with extrinsic AD, 17 with intrinsi