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Sample records for age skin type

  1. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  2. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  3. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  4. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  5. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  6. Angiotensin II type I receptor blockade attenuates reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in aged but not young skin.

    PubMed

    Lang, James A; Kolb, Kelsey E

    2015-05-15

    Stimulation of angiotensin II type I receptors (AT1R) elicits vasoconstriction (VC) that may be occurring through the activation of a pathogenic vascular pathway such as Rho kinase (ROCK). We hypothesize that reflex cutaneous VC to whole body cooling (mean skin temperature = 30.5°C) in older humans relies in part on AT1R activation, which may explain greater ROCK activity attendant with aging. Two microdialysis (MD) fibers were placed in the forearm skin of 10 young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (O; 70 ± 2 yr) individuals for infusion of 1) lactated Ringer's solution (switched to fasudil, a ROCK antagonist, after cooling); and 2) AT1R blockade with losartan. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was measured over each MD site and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated (CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure) and expressed as percent change from baseline (%ΔCVCBASELINE). In older individuals the VC response to whole body cooling was blunted (Y = -34 ± 2, O = -17 ± 3%ΔCVC) and was further attenuated at the losartan site (Y = -34 ± 3, O = -9 ± 3%ΔCVC; P < 0.05). The VC response to an exogenous 10-μM dose of angiotensin II (Y = -27 ± 3, O = -42 ± 5%ΔCVC) was completely blocked in sites pretreated with losartan or with fasudil. These data suggest that AT1R activation contributes to the reflex VC response in aged but not young skin. Furthermore, the angiotensin II component of the VC response appears to occur primarily through a ROCK-mediated mechanism. PMID:25770238

  7. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  8. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  9. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  10. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  11. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  12. Quantitative assessment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Noninvasive methods have allowed physicians to give an objective description of aged skin in terms of functional and esthetic properties. The relative influence of environment (mainly sun) on the true aging process can be assessed through the obtained data. It is also possible to measure the efficacy of topical preparations (cosmetics or drugs) designed for treating the various cutaneous aging marks. PMID:11535423

  13. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  14. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... arms, back, and feet. Using a broad-spectrum sunscreen that helps protect against two types of the ... in a pool, lake, or the ocean. Use sunscreen. Look for sunscreen with an SPF (sun protection ...

  15. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research. PMID:26743051

  16. [Positive skin test and age

    PubMed

    Forte, W C; Júnior, F F; Filho, W D; Shibata, E; Henriques, L S; Mastroti, R A; Guedes, M da S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: We observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool). We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11 months; Group III: 4 to 8 years and 11 months; and Group IV: 9 to 15 years. We used the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The total significant differences between these groups were: I to II = 5; II to III = 5; II to IV = 5; III to IV = 6; I to III = 10; and I to IV = 10. CONCLUSION: Skin test reactivity is acquired progressively with age, and can be observed as early as at 12 months. Reactivity is significantly more positive from the age of 4 on. PMID:14647601

  17. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  18. Can proton pump inhibitors accentuate skin aging?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Jowkar, Farideh

    2010-02-01

    Skin aging has long been important to human beings and in recent years this field has received tremendous attention by both researchers and the general population. Cutaneous aging includes two distinct phenomena, intrinsic aging and photoaging, and is characterized mainly by the loss of collagen fibers from dermis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed gastric acid-reducing agents that are usually consumed for long periods in some conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We suggest that PPIs can accentuate skin aging by two mechanisms. First, through increasing intralysosomal PH, PPIs can suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) processing and consequently decrease its secretion. Second, through inhibiting MNK, a P-type ATPase with steady-state localization at the trans-Golgi network, PPIs can hamper copper transport and consequently curb lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:20470945

  19. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  20. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Jin; Lee, Sung-Nae; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jihyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; Kim, Min Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-07-01

    Rutin, a quercetin glycoside is a member of the bioflavonoid family which is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the anti‑aging effects of rutin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human skin. We examined the effects of rutin using a cell viability assay, senescence-associated-β-galactosidase assay, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in vitro. To examine the effects of rutin in vivo, rutin‑containing cream was applied to human skin. A double-blind clinical study was conducted in 40 subjects aged between 30-50 years and divided into control and experimental groups. The test material was applied for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks, dermal density, skin elasticity, the length and area of crow's feet, and number of under-eye wrinkles following the application of either the control or the rutin-containing cream were analyzed. Rutin increased the mRNA expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and decreased the mRNA expression of matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) in HDFs. We verified that ROS scavenging activity was stimulated by rutin in a dose‑dependent manner and we identified that rutin exerted protective effects under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, rutin increased skin elasticity and decreased the length, area and number of wrinkles. The consequences of human aging are primarily visible on the skin, such as increased wrinkling, sagging and decreased elasticity. Overall, this study demonstrated the biological effects of rutin on ROS-induced skin aging. PMID:27220601

  1. Reduction of fibroblast size/mechanical force down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor: implications for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gary J; Shao, Yuan; He, Tianyuan; Qin, Zhaoping; Perry, Daniel; Voorhees, John J; Quan, Taihao

    2016-02-01

    The structural integrity of human skin is largely dependent on the quality of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), which is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. Normally, fibroblasts attach to the ECM and thereby achieve stretched, elongated morphology. A prominent characteristic of dermal fibroblasts in aged skin is reduced size, with decreased elongation and a more rounded, collapsed morphology. Here, we show that reduced size of fibroblasts in mechanically unrestrained three-dimensional collagen lattices coincides with reduced mechanical force, measured by atomic force microscopy. Reduced size/mechanical force specifically down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and thus impairs TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Both TβRII mRNA and protein were decreased, resulting in 90% loss of TGF-β binding to fibroblasts. Down-regulation of TβRII was associated with significantly decreased phosphorylation, DNA-binding, and transcriptional activity of its key downstream effector Smad3 and reduced expression of Smad3-regulated essential ECM components type I collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Restoration of TβRII significantly increased TGF-β induction of Smad3 phosphorylation and stimulated expression of ECM components. Reduced expression of TβRII and ECM components in response to reduced fibroblast size/mechanical force was fully reversed by restoring size/mechanical force. Reduced fibroblast size was associated with reduced expression of TβRII and diminished ECM production, in aged human skin. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism that provides a molecular basis for loss of dermal ECM, with concomitant increased fragility, which is a prominent feature of human skin aging. PMID:26780887

  2. Glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Oh, Jang-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are abundant structural components of the extracellular matrix in addition to collagen fibers. Hyaluronic acid (HA), one of GAGs, forms proteoglycan aggregates, which are large complexes of HA and HA-binding PGs. Their crosslinking to other matrix proteins such as the collagen network results in the formation of supermolecular structures and functions to increase tissue stiffness. Skin aging can be classified as intrinsic aging and photoaging based on the phenotypes and putative mechanism. While intrinsic aging is characterized by a thinned epidermis and fine wrinkles caused by advancing age, photoaging is characterized by deep wrinkles, skin laxity, telangiectasias, and appearance of lentigines and is mainly caused by chronic sun exposure. The major molecular mechanism governing skin aging processes has been attributed to the loss of mature collagen and increased matrix metalloproteinase expression. However, various strategies focusing on collagen turnover remain unsatisfactory for the reversal or prevention of skin aging. Although the expression of GAGs and PGs in the skin and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood, we and others have elucidated various changes in GAGs and PGs in aged skin, suggesting that these molecules are important contributors to skin aging. In this review, we focus on skin-abundant GAGs and PGs and their changes in human skin during the skin aging process. PMID:27378089

  3. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well. PMID:20664556

  4. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Peres, P S; Terra, V A; Guarnier, F A; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2011-05-01

    The impact of chronological aging and photoaging on the skin is particularly concerning, especially when oxidative stress is involved. This article provides evidence of quantitative and qualitative differences in the oxidative stress generated by chronological aging and photoaging of the skin in HRS/J hairless mice. Analysis of the results revealed an increase in lipid peroxides as the skin gets older and in photoaged skin (10.086 ± 0.70 η MDA/mg and 14.303 ± 1.81 η MDA/mg protein, respectively), although protein oxidation was only verified in chronological aged skin (15.449 ± 0.99 η protein/mg protein). The difference between both skin types is the decay in the capacity of lipid membrane turnover revealed by the dislocation of older skin to the left in the chemiluminescence curve. Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidation processes was verified by the decrease in total antioxidant capacity of chronological and photoaged skins. Although superoxide dismutase remained unchanged, catalase increased in the 18 and 48-week-old skin groups and decreased in irradiated mice, demonstrating that neither enzyme is a good parameter to determine oxidative stress. The differences observed between chronological and photoaging skin represent a potential new approach to understanding the phenomenon of skin aging and a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21356598

  5. [Intrinsic factors, genes, and skin aging].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Pfeifer, G P; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging is determined by a combination of endogenous and environmental influences, including epigenetic, posttranslational, microbial, and lifestyle factors. In particular genetic changes, programmed or not, play a pivotal role and understanding of these complex mechanisms may contribute to the prevention of age-related diseases and extension of healthy lifespan. In this article, new knowledge about genes and biological processes that can significantly affect skin homeostasis in old age and can lead to the typical morphological and physiological characteristics of aging skin are summarized. PMID:26743050

  6. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as “adipocyte-myofibroblast transition” (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  7. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-07-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as "adipocyte-myofibroblast transition" (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  8. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  9. Skin aging, gene expression and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Bischof, Johannes; Richter, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    The human epidermis provides a very effective barrier function against chemical, physical and microbial insults from the environment. This is only possible as the epidermis renews itself constantly. Stem cells located at the basal lamina which forms the dermoepidermal junction provide an almost inexhaustible source of keratinocytes which differentiate and die during their journey to the surface where they are shed off as scales. Despite the continuous renewal of the epidermis it nevertheless succumbs to aging as the turnover rate of the keratinocytes is slowing down dramatically. Aging is associated with such hallmarks as thinning of the epidermis, elastosis, loss of melanocytes associated with an increased paleness and lucency of the skin and a decreased barrier function. As the differentiation of keratinocytes is strictly calcium dependent, calcium also plays an important role in the aging epidermis. Just recently it was shown that the epidermal calcium gradient in the skin that facilitates the proliferation of keratinocytes in the stratum basale and enables differentiation in the stratum granulosum is lost in the process of skin aging. In the course of this review we try to explain how this calcium gradient is built up on the one hand and is lost during aging on the other hand. How this disturbed calcium homeostasis is affecting the gene expression in aged skin and is leading to dramatic changes in the composition of the cornified envelope will also be discussed. This loss of the epidermal calcium gradient is not only specific for skin aging but can also be found in skin diseases such as Darier disease, Hailey-Hailey disease, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, which might be very helpful to get a deeper insight in skin aging. PMID:25262846

  10. Enzyme-modified Panax ginseng inhibits UVB-induced skin aging through the regulation of procollagen type I and MMP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Taek Hwan; Park, Sang-Yong; Yi, Tae Hoo; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer (Ginseng) has been used widely in traditional herbal medicine because of its pharmacological activities. In this study, we tested the ability of an enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EG) to protect the skin against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage using cultured human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. EG, an extract which is rich in the active compound ginsenoside F2, and purified ginsenoside F2 were used in these experiments. The ginsenoside content of EG was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The potential of EG to reduce UVB-induced skin damage was investigated by determining the levels of procollagen type I and metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) after UVB irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts and by examining the levels of hydration, thickness, and density of collagen fibers in the UVB-exposed dorsal skin of hairless mice. LC-MS analysis detected a difference in the ginsenoside content between normal white ginseng and enzyme-modified ginseng. In UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts treated with EG, MMP-1 production considerably decreased without cell toxicity. Furthermore, topical application of EG showed significant reductions in skin dryness, thickness, and fragmented collagen fibers in UVB-exposed hairless mice. Ginsenoside F2, an active component of EG, increased procollagen type I production and decreased MMP-1 secretion in UV-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. EG and ginsenoside F2 are potentially useful for the prevention and treatment of UVB-induced skin damage. PMID:24281186

  11. Skin Ageing: Natural Weapons and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Binic, Ivana; Lazarevic, Viktor; Ljubenovic, Milanka; Mojsa, Jelena; Sokolovic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The fact that the skin is the most visible organ makes us aware of the ageing process every minute. The use of plant extracts and herbs has its origins in ancient times. Chronological and photo-ageing can be easily distinguished clinically, but they share important molecular features. We tried to gather the most interesting evidence based on facts about plants and plant extracts used in antiaging products. Our main idea was to emphasize action mechanisms of these plant/herbal products, that is, their “strategies” in fighting skin ageing. Some of the plant extracts have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin. There are some plants that can affect skin elasticity and tightness. Certainly, there is a place for herbal principles in antiaging cosmetics. On the other hand, there is a constant need for more evaluation and more clinical studies in vivo with emphasis on the ingredient concentration of the plant/herbal products, its formulation, safety, and duration of the antiaging effect. PMID:23431351

  12. Opioids and skin homeostasis, regeneration and ageing - What's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, Paul L; Dancik, Yuri; Neumann, Christine; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2016-08-01

    What has the opioid receptor system, known for beneficial as well as disastrous effects in the central nervous system, to do with skin? The question is appropriate considering the fact that the nervous system and the skin both derive from the ectoderm. As part of the skin neuroendocrine system, the opioid receptor system exemplifies the closeness between the nervous system and the skin. Overexpression of the δ-opioid receptor in keratinocytes yields dysregulation of involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin, proteins essential to the integrity of the skin barrier. The μ-opioid receptor ligand β-endorphin, produced in the pituitary gland and a variety of skin cells, promotes wound healing via regulation of cytokeratin 16 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in keratinocytes. These and other published results discussed in this viewpoint are evidence for the fundamental role of the skin opioid receptor system in skin homeostasis, regeneration and ageing. While considerable progress in understanding the opioid receptors' function on the cellular level has been made, there is a need to link these results to physiological observations for the development of local skin therapies. PMID:27060353

  13. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  14. Age-related crosslink in skin collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, M.; Mechanic, G.

    1986-05-01

    A stable crosslinking amino acid was isolated from mature bovine skin collagen and its structure was identified as histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C-NMR. This newly identified crosslink has a linkage between C-2 histidine and C-6 of lysine in the latter's portion of hydroxylysinonorleucine. Quantitative studies using various aged samples of cow and human skin collagen indicated that this acid-heat stable nonreducible compound was the major age-related crosslink. In case of cow skin collagen, for example, during early embryonic development (3 and 5 month old embryos) the content of HHL stayed less than 0.01 residue/mole of collagen, however from the middle of gestation period (7 month old embryo) through the maturation stage it showed rapid increase with age and reached approximately 0.5 residues/mole of collagen in the 3 year old animal. Small increments (up to 0.65 res/mole of collagen) were observed in the 9 year old cow. The amounts of the crosslink unlike pyridinoline do not decrease with aging. Similar patterns were observed in human skin collagen.

  15. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article. PMID:12884471

  16. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  17. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  18. Molecular mechanisms and in vivo mouse models of skin aging associated with dermal matrix alterations.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Yi, Bo-Rim; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2011-03-01

    Skin is the most superficial body organ and plays an important role in protecting the body from environmental damage and in forming social relations. With the increase of the aging population in our society, dermatological and cosmetic concerns of skin aging are rapidly increasing. Skin aging is a complex process combined with intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic or chronological skin aging results from the passage of time and is influenced by genetic factors. Extrinsic skin aging is mainly determined by UV irradiation, also called photoaging. These two types of aging processes are superimposed on sun-exposed skin, and have a common feature of causing dermal matrix alterations that mostly contribute to the formation of wrinkles, laxity, and fragility of aged skin. The dermal matrix contains extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans that confer the strength and resiliency of skin. Skin aging associated with dermal matrix alterations and atrophy can be caused by cellular senescence of dermal cells like fibroblasts, and decreased synthesis and accelerated degradation of dermal matrix components, especially collagen fibers. Both intrinsic aging and photoaging exert influence during each step of dermal matrix alteration via different mechanisms. Mouse models of skin aging have been extensively developed to elucidate intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, to validate in vitro biochemical data, and to test the effects of pharmacological tools for retarding skin aging because they have the advantages of being genetically similar to humans and are easily available. PMID:21826153

  19. Aging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin care.

    PubMed

    Prahl, S; Kueper, T; Biernoth, T; Wöhrmann, Y; Münster, A; Fürstenau, M; Schmidt, M; Schulze, C; Wittern, K-P; Wenck, H; Muhr, G-M; Blatt, T

    2008-01-01

    The functional loss of mitochondria represents an inherent part in modern theories trying to explain the cutaneous aging process. The present study shows significant age-dependent differences in mitochondrial function of keratinocytes isolated from skin biopsies of young and old donors. Our data let us postulate that energy metabolism shifts to a predominantly non-mitochondrial pathway and is therefore functionally anaerobic with advancing age. CoQ10 positively influences the age-affected cellular metabolism and enables to combat signs of aging starting at the cellular level. As a consequence topical application of CoQ10 is beneficial for human skin as it rapidly improves mitochondrial function in skin in vivo. PMID:19096122

  20. Stiffening of Human Skin Fibroblasts with Age

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christian; Wetzel, Franziska; Kueper, Thomas; Malsen, Anke; Muhr, Gesa; Jaspers, Soeren; Blatt, Thomas; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Käs, Josef A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in mechanical properties are an essential characteristic of the aging process of human skin. Previous studies attribute these changes predominantly to the altered collagen and elastin organization and density of the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that individual dermal fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in stiffness during aging in vivo. With the laser-based optical cell stretcher we examined the viscoelastic biomechanics of dermal fibroblasts isolated from 14 human donors aged 27 to 80. Increasing age was clearly accompanied by a stiffening of the investigated cells. We found that fibroblasts from old donors exhibited an increase in rigidity of ∼60% with respect to cells of the youngest donors. A FACS analysis of the content of the cytoskeletal polymers shows a shift from monomeric G-actin to polymerized, filamentous F-actin, but no significant changes in the vimentin and microtubule content. The rheological analysis of fibroblast-populated collagen gels demonstrates that cell stiffening directly results in altered viscoelastic properties of the collagen matrix. These results identify a new mechanism that may contribute to the age-related impairment of elastic properties in human skin. The altered mechanical behavior might influence cell functions involving the cytoskeleton, such as contractility, motility, and proliferation, which are essential for reorganization of the extracellular matrix. PMID:20959083

  1. Novel effects of diosgenin on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yayoi; Kanda, Naoko; Haratake, Akinori; Tobiishi, Megumi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2009-06-01

    Extracts of Dioscorea coomposita or Dioscorea villosa are consumed as supplemental health foods at the time of climacteric. The extracts contain large amounts of the plant steroid, diosgenin. Here, we studied the safety and efficacy of diosgenin against skin aging at the time of climacteric. In vitro, diosgenin enhanced DNA synthesis in a human 3D skin equivalent model, and increased bromodeoxyuridine uptake and intracellular cAMP level in adult human keratinocytes. The increase of bromodeoxyuridine uptake by diosgenin was blocked by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, but not by antisense oligonucleotides against estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta or an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30, indicating the involvement of cAMP but not estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta or GPR30. In vivo, administration of diosgenin improved the epidermal thickness in the ovariectomized mice, a climacteric model, without altering the degree of fat accumulation. In order to examine the safety of diosgenin, diosgenin and 17beta-estradiol were administered to breast cancer-burdened mice. The results revealed that while 17beta-estradiol accelerated the tumor growth, diosgenin did not show this effect. Our finding, a restoration of keratinocyte proliferation in aged skin, suggests that diosgenin may have potential as a safe health food for climacteric. PMID:19428439

  2. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  3. [Skin aging: Molecular understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic processes].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Vogel, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Zouboulis, C C

    2015-10-01

    In an ever-aging society, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accompanying skin aging has become essential. Most age-related morphological skin changes are triggered by a combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, hormones) and extrinsic ones (e.g., ultarviolet/infrared light exposure, smoking, pollution). In this article, new insights on the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis of skin aging are summarised, addressing the extent to which the aforementioned factorsmay influence the progress of skin aging and identifying the consequences on the morphology and physiology of skin. PMID:26385893

  4. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    PubMed

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper. PMID:25997282

  5. Practical applications of genomics research for treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Grimes, Pearl E

    2009-07-01

    Skin aging integrates the impact of extrinsic skin insults (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light, etc.) with chronological, genetically programmed decreases in cellular function. A genomic study of aged skin highlighted the mechanistic importance of skin barrier function, exfoliation, control of reactive oxygen species and maintenance of extracellular matrix to the aging process. A set of topical products designed to address these mechanistic themes was developed and clinically tested. The individual products improved skin barrier function, hydration and skin turnover, as well as the smoothness and depth of periorbital wrinkles. Treatment with a regimen of these products improved the appearance of facial wrinkles after eight weeks. Changes in treated subjects' stratum corneum protein biomarker levels were consistent with the mechanistic pathways identified in the genomic work. Thus, leveraging a genomic understanding of skin aging led to the development of a clinically efficacious, aesthetically pleasing cosmetic regimen that improved the appearance of aged skin. PMID:19623780

  6. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  7. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  8. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p < 0.0001), follicular hyperkeratosis (p = 0.0003), early androgenic alopecia (p = 0.01), nail pitting (p = 0.003), pedunculus fibromas (p = 0. 01), twisted hair (p = 0.01), seborrheic dermatitis (p = 0.02), macules of hyperpigmentation (p = 0.03) were significantly more frequent in patients compared with controls. In patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p < 0.0001). Our preliminary results seem to rule out an increased prevalence of pre-neoplastic, and neoplastic skin lesions in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. PMID:25813338

  9. Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Schagen, Silke K.; Zampeli, Vasiliki A.; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin has been reported to reflect the general inner-health status and aging. Nutrition and its reflection on skin has always been an interesting topic for scientists and physicians throughout the centuries worldwide. Vitamins, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids and a variety of plant extracts have been reported to possess potent anti-oxidant properties and have been widely used in the skin care industry either as topically applied agents or oral supplements in an attempt to prolong youthful skin appearance. This review will provide an overview of the current literature “linking” nutrition with skin aging. PMID:23467449

  10. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  11. Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2013-09-01

    Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other. PMID:23773110

  12. Skin autofluorescence is elevated in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mulder, D J; Bieze, M; Graaff, R; Smit, A J; Hooymans, J M M

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a non-invasive marker for advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in tissues, making use of their characteristic AF pattern. The aim of this study was to investigate whether skin AF is increased in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with healthy controls. METHODS Skin AF was assessed in 73 consecutive patients with active and documented neovascular AMD without evidence for diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy and in 31 healthy age-matched controls. Exclusion criteria were: known renal disease, current inflammatory or malignant disease, or skin type V or VI. Skin AF was measured on the forearm and was calculated as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 and 300-420 nm. Student t test and chi(2) test were used to compare differences between groups. RESULTS Skin AF was increased in neovascular AMD compared with controls (2.57+/-0.68 vs 2.23+/-0.63 arbitrary units x 10(-2); p=0.018). In patients without vascular risk factors or cardiovascular disease, skin AF was not significantly higher than that of the controls. Skin AF correlated with age in both patients and controls. CONCLUSION Skin AF is increased in patients with neovascular AMD, suggesting that AMD is accompanied by enhanced systemic AGE accumulation, which may indicate a role in the pathophysiology of AMD. PMID:19726430

  13. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Roth, Michael; Karakiulakis, George

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a multifactorial process consisting of two distinct and independent mechanisms: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Youthful skin retains its turgor, resilience and pliability, among others, due to its high content of water. Daily external injury, in addition to the normal process of aging, causes loss of moisture. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA) that has unique capacity in retaining water. There are multiple sites for the control of HA synthesis, deposition, cell and protein association and degradation, reflecting the complexity of HA metabolism. The enzymes that synthesize or catabolize HA and HA receptors responsible for many of the functions of HA are all multigene families with distinct patterns of tissue expression. Understanding the metabolism of HA in the different layers of the skin and the interactions of HA with other skin components will facilitate the ability to modulate skin moisture in a rational manner. PMID:23467280

  14. Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Szabo, G.; Flynn, E.; Goldwyn, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Clinical and histologic stigmata of aging are much more prominent in habitually sun-exposed skin than in sun-protected skin, but other possible manifestations of actinically induced aging are almost unexplored. We have examined the interrelation of chronologic and actinic aging using paired preauricular (sun-exposed) and postauricular (sun-protected) skin specimens. Keratinocyte cultures derived from sun-exposed skin consistently had a shorter in vitro lifespan but increased plating efficiency compared with cultures derived from adjacent sun-protected skin of the same individual, confirming a previous study of different paired body sites. Electron microscopic histologic sections revealed focal abnormalities of keratinocyte proliferation and alignment in vitro especially in those cultures derived from sun-exposed skin and decreased intercellular contact in stratified colonies at late passage, regardless of donor site. One-micron histologic sections of the original biopsy specimens revealed no striking site-related keratinocyte alterations, but sun-exposed specimens had fewer epidermal Langerhans cells (p less than 0.001), averaging approximately 50 percent the number in sun-protected skin, a possible exaggeration of the previously reported age-associated decrease in this cell population. These data suggest that sun exposure indeed accelerates aging by several criteria and that, regardless of mechanism, environmental factors may adversely affect the appearance and function of aging skin in ways amenable to experimental quantitation.

  15. [Skin aging and evidence-based topical strategies].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, C

    2016-02-01

    Anti-aging in dermatology primarily focuses on the prevention of skin aging with UV protection (clothing and sunsceens), free radical scavengers (synthetic or botanic), and cell-protecting agents such as vitamin B3. For the correction of signs of early skin aging, retinoic acid derivatives in dermatological prescriptions are the best studied substances. Topical hormonal prescriptions are also an option if UV damage has not been the leading culprit for aging. Chemical peeling leads to a marked increase in collagen formation, the deaper the better. Ingredients in cream preparations can reduce superficial skin folds (polyphenols, amino acid peptides). Modulators of regular pigmentation are important for anti-aging preparations. Growth factors (plant extracts, recombinant growth factors) are not thoroughly studied regarding the cost-benefit and risk ratio. Complex precedures such as photodynamic therapy have an impact on the appearance of aged skin. PMID:26683808

  16. Predicting Biological Age from a Skin Surface Capacitive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Ferri, Massimo

    The skin is the largest (and the most exposed) organ of the body both in terms of surface area and weight. Its care is of great importance for both aesthetics and health issues. Often, the skin appearance gives us information about the skin health status as well as hints at the biological age. Therefore, the skin surface characterization is of great significance for dermatologists as well as for cosmetic scientists in order to evaluate the effectiveness of medical or cosmetic treatments. So far, no in vivo measurements regarding skin topography characterization could be achieved routinely to evaluate skin aging. This work describes how a portable capacitive device, normally used for fingerprint acquisition, can be utilized to achieve measures of skin aging routinely. The capacitive images give a high resolution (50 μm) representation of skin topography, in terms of wrinkles and cells. In this work, we have addressed the latter: through image segmentation techniques, cells have been localized and identified and a feature related to their area distribution has been generated. Accurate experiments accomplished in vivo show how the feature we conceived is linearly related to skin aging. Besides, since this finding has been achieved using a low cost portable device, this could boost research in this field as well as open doors to an application based on an embedded system.

  17. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Budzisz, Elżbieta; Dana, Agnieszka; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2015-03-01

    Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE). The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C) gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin) are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin. PMID:26327889

  18. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Budzisz, Elżbieta; Dana, Agnieszka; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE). The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C) gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin) are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin. PMID:26327889

  19. New insights in photoaging, UVA induced damage and skin types.

    PubMed

    Battie, Claire; Jitsukawa, Setsuko; Bernerd, Françoise; Del Bino, Sandra; Marionnet, Claire; Verschoore, Michèle

    2014-10-01

    UVA radiation is the most prevalent component of solar UV radiation; it deeply penetrates into the skin and induces profound alterations of the dermal connective tissue. In recent years, the detrimental effects of UVA radiation were more precisely demonstrated at cellular and molecular levels, using adequate methods to identify biological targets of UVA radiation and the resulting cascade impairment of cell functions and tissue degradation. In particular gene expression studies recently revealed that UVA radiation induces modulation of several genes confirming the high sensitivity of dermal fibroblasts to UVA radiation. The major visible damaging effects of UVA radiation only appear after years of exposure: it has been clearly evidenced that they are responsible for more or less early signs of photoageing and photocarcinogenesis. UVA radiation appears to play a key role in pigmented changes occurring with age, the major sign of skin photoaging in Asians. Skin susceptibility to photoaging alterations also depends on constitutive pigmentation. The skin sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated to be linked to skin color type. PMID:25234829

  20. Potential role of natural compounds against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Tundis, R; Loizzo, M R; Bonesi, M; Menichini, F

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon of human life. Advancing age brings changes to all components of the integumentary system with consequent signs on the skin. Skin aging is mainly due to intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic aging (photo-aging). Photo-aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiations. Despite variable economic conditions, the skin care market based on natural products continues to see strong growth. In this context, the research of naturally occurring anti-aging agents is greatly expanding and in recent years numerous plant-derived products have been investigated. This review article focuses on highlighting recent advances in current knowledge on anti-aging natural products grouped and presented according to their family origin. Plants from 35 families were reviewed. A variety of phytomolecules, derived in particular from polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols classes, demonstrated a promising activity. Among them carnosic acid, curculigoside, curcumin, glycyrrhizic acid, mangiferin, mirkoin, asiaticoside, rosmarinic acid, tectorigenin, tyrosol etc., able to inhibit tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase, to scavenge free radicals from skin cells, to prevent trans-epidermal water loss, and to contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, were largely investigated and herein discussed. Extracts and pure compounds from Fabaceae, Asperaceae and Zingiberaceae families have shown particular interest and appear most promising in the development of anti-aging products. PMID:25723509

  1. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    PubMed

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration. PMID:22622279

  2. The pecking order of skin Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) as long-term markers of glycemic damage and risk factors for micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease progression in Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Vincent M; Genuth, Saul; Sell, David R

    2016-08-01

    To date more than 20 glycation products were identified, of which ~15 in the insoluble human skin collagen fraction. The goal of this review is to streamline 30 years of research and ask a set of important questions: in Type 1 diabetes which glycation products correlate best with 1) past mean glycemia 2) reversibility with improved glycemic control, 2) cross-sectional severity of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy and 3) the future long-term risk of progression of micro- and subclinical macrovascular disease. The trio of glycemia related glycation markers furosine (FUR)/fructose-lysine (FL), glucosepane and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) emerges as extraordinarily strong predictors of existing and future microvascular disease progression risk despite adjustment for both past and prospective A1c levels. X(2) values are up to 25.1, p values generally less than 0.0001, and significance remains after adjustment for various factors such as A1c, former treatment group, log albumin excretion rate, abnormal autonomic nerve function and LDL levels at baseline. In contrast, subclinical cardiovascular progression is more weakly correlated with AGEs/glycemia with X(2) values < 5.0 and p values generally < 0.05 after all adjustments. Except for future carotid intima-media thickness, which correlates with total AGE burden (MG-H1, pentosidine, fluorophore LW-1 and decreased collagen solubility), adjusted FUR and Collagen Fluorescence (CLF) are the strongest markers for future coronary artery calcium deposition, while cardiac hypertrophy is associated with LW-1 and CLF adjusted for A1c. We conclude that a robust clinical skin biopsy AGE risk panel for microvascular disease should include at least FUR/FL, glucosepane and MG-H1, while a macrovascular disease risk panel should include at least FL/FUR, MG-H1, LW-1 and CLF. PMID:27342131

  3. Genomic-driven insights into changes in aging skin.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael K; Binder, Robert L; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-07-01

    Like all tissues, the skin ages due to the passage of time (chronologic aging). However, skin is also exposed to external insults, such as sunlight. Aging due to chronic sun exposure (photoaging) is characterized clinically by wrinkling, dyspigmentation and other changes. Chronologic and photoaging of skin have been distinguished at the structural, cellular and molecular levels. However, many underlying mechanisms remain a mystery. Recent sequencing of the human genome and development of genome-wide microarray platforms now permit analysis of skin aging at the level of gene expression. Analysis of gene expression differences between young and older sun-protected and sun-exposed skin showed that photoaging produces many similar (but more severe) changes in gene expression versus chronologic aging. However, some changes are unique to one form of aging or the other. Bioinformatics tools also enable an integrated analysis of gene expression themes and pathways, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms of skin aging and possible interventions. PMID:19623778

  4. How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone Video library Find a dermatologist How to select anti-aging skin care products Dermatologists share their ... make a noticeable difference. When shopping for sunscreen, select one that offers all of the following: Broad ...

  5. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  6. Opinions regarding skin ageing in the elderly inhabitants of Bialystok, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases constitute an essential health and aesthetic problem in the elderly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the elderly residents of public nursing homes and participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, Poland surrounding the factors influencing skin ageing, the awareness of skin conditions in agening skin, and the impact of skin ageing on the volunteers. The study was performed from April to June 2015 in Bialystok, in two groups: among 100 public nursing home residents (PNH) and 100 members of University of the Third Age (U3A), (all over 60 years old). The study made use of a diagnostic survey conducted via a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Nearly half of those surveyed (42.5%; n = 85) sunbathed in the past, while 28.0% (n = 56) of those surveyed now take part in this type of leisure activity. More than half of respondents (53.0%; n = 106) protected their skin using special protective preparations. A majority of Bialystok inhabitants surveyed (80.5%; n = 161) noticed the features of skin ageing. They reported birthmarks, fungal infections and bedsores as the main skin problems of the old age. Nearly half (40%) of respondents assessed their knowledge as average and 26.0% as poor. The study showed some statistical differences in the knowledge and awareness between the residents of public nursing homes and the students of the University of the Third Age, e.g., the use of the Internet by the U3A group for finding out information. There is a desire to receive education in the field of the agening skin conditions/diseases among the elderly because their level of knowledge is relatively poor. Education of seniors in this area can increase their awareness of the basic principles of skin care and prevention marking of skin ageing. The benefits of greater knowledge of seniors about the conditions of agening skin can help reduce the medical burden and reduce the incidence on certain skin diseases. Furthermore, there is a

  7. Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Serah; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2006-05-01

    Skin aging can be attributed to photoaging (extrinsic) and chronological (intrinsic) aging. Photoaging and intrinsic aging are induced by damage to human skin attributable to repeated exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and to the passage of time, respectively. In our previous report, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was found to inhibit UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EPA on UV-induced skin damage and intrinsic aging by applying EPA topically to young and aged human skin, respectively. By immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, we found that topical application of EPA reduced UV-induced epidermal thickening and inhibited collagen decrease induced by UV light. It was also found that EPA attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression by inhibiting UV-induced c-Jun phosphorylation, which is closely related to UV-induced activator protein-1 activation, and by inhibiting JNK and p38 activation. EPA also inhibited UV-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression without altering COX-1 expression. Moreover, it was found that EPA increased collagen and elastic fibers (tropoelastin and fibrillin-1) expression by increasing transformin growth factor-beta expression in aged human skin. Together, these results demonstrate that topical EPA has potential as an anti-skin-aging agent. PMID:16467281

  8. Topical retinoids in the treatment of aging of the skin.

    PubMed

    Katsambas, A D; Katoulis, A C

    1999-01-01

    Aging of the skin is a complex phenomenon resulting from the interaction of several intrinsic and extrinsic factors [1]. Due to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces and its psychological impact, especially to women, aging of the skin has become an issue of great social significance and concern. Intrinsic aging is an inevitable, genetically programmed process, the underlying mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. No prevention or effective treatment is currently available [1]. Among extrinsic influences (wind, heat, cigarette smoke, chemicals, etc.), ultraviolet radiation appears to be the single most important factor associated with aging of the skin [2]. Photoaging refers to gross and microscopic cutaneous changes induced by cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). These changes are superimposed on the background of intrinsic aging [2]. Increased recreational sun exposure, including excessive sunbathing, the depletion of stratospheric ozone, the use of UVR in the treatment of various skin diseases, are some of the causes that have led to increased prevalence of photoaging during the last decades. The clinical importance of photoaging lies mostly on the potential for the development of precancerous lesions or skin cancer [3]. In contrast to intrinsic aging, photodamage can be prevented by sun avoidance and proper sun protection [2]. Furthermore, overwhelming clinical and histological evidence indicate that skin changes of photoaging can be reversed by the use of topical retinoids [4]. PMID:10599385

  9. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    PubMed

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. PMID:26834030

  10. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts.

    PubMed

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-04-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  11. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-01-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  12. The analysis of aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2010-11-01

    Aging is a very important issue not only in dermatology, but also in cosmetic science. Cutaneous aging involves both chronological and photoaging aging process. The chronological aging is induced with the passage of time. And the photoaging skin is the extrinsic aging caused by sun exposure. The aim of this study is to use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in vivo to assess intrinsic-age-related and photo-age-related difference. The changes of dermal collagen are measured in quantitively. The algorithm that we used automatically produced the transversal dermal map from MPM. Others, the texture of dermis are analyzed by Fourier transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. And the object extraction in textured images is proposed based on the method in object edge extraction, and the aim of it is to detect the object hidden in the skin texture in difference aging skin. The result demonstrates that the approach is effective in detecting the object in epidermis and dermis textured image in different aging skin. It could help to further understand the aging mechanism.

  13. [Fibroblast subpopulations: a developmental approach of skin physiology and ageing].

    PubMed

    Asselineau, Daniel; Pageon, Hervé; Mine, Solène

    2008-01-01

    Skin is an organ whose function is far beyond a physical barrier between the inside and the outside of the body. Skin as the whole organism is subjected to ageing which concerns skin mostly in its dermal and deepest component which is also its matricial component. The dermis is a tissue rich in matricial elements and poor in cellular content and it is generally admitted that modifications occurring in the matrix are those which mostly contribute to skin ageing, by altering its biomechanical properties. Therefore it is common to address questions related to skin ageing by considering alterations in matrix molecules like collagen. Actually the dermis is a complex tissue both matricial and cellular and is divided between a superficial dermis close to epidermis and a deep dermis much thicker and histologically different. Several years ago we have undertaken investigations related to fibroblasts which are the cells responsible for the formation and maintenance of the dermis, aiming at isolation, culture and characterization of the fibroblasts from the superficial dermis also called papillary dermis and fibroblasts from the deep dermis also called reticular dermis. We were able to show that these fibroblasts in classical culture on plastic exhibit very different morphologies associated with different secretion properties and we have confirmed and expanded such observations revealing different phenotypes by incorporating these cells in reconstructed skin which allows the reproduction of a three-dimensional architecture recalling skin in vivo especially after grafting onto the nude mouse. We also raise the question of how these two dermal regions appear during the formation of the dermis and the question of their fate during ageing. Progress in solving these questions would certainly appear to be very useful for a better understanding of skin physiology and ageing and would hopefully provide new strategies in anti-ageing research. PMID:18460304

  14. Evaluation of Skin Ageing Through Wrinkle Analysis in Capacitive Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Guerrieri, Roberto

    Quantitative evaluation of the changes in skin topographic structures are of great importance in the dermocosmetic field to assess subjects response to medical or cosmetic treatments. Although many devices and methods are known to measure these changes, they are not suitable for a routine approach and most of them are invasive. Moreover, it has always been difficult to give a measure of the skin health status as well as of the human aging process by simply analyzing the skin surface appearance. This work describes how a portable capacitive device could be utilized to achieve measurements of skin ageing in vivo and routinely. The capacitive images give a high resolution representation of the skin micro-relief, both in terms of skin surface tissue and wrinkles. In a previous work we dealt with the former; here we have addressed the latter. The algorithm we have developed allowed us to extract two original features from wrinkles: the first is based on photometric properties while the second has been achieved through the multiresolution analysis of the wavelet transform. Accurate experiments accomplished on 87 subjects show how the features we conceived are related to skin ageing.

  15. Skin Disease in Laminopathy-Associated Premature Aging.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Tomás; Sola Carvajal, Agustín; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear lamina, a protein network located under the nuclear membrane, has during the past decade found increasing interest due to its significant involvement in a range of genetic diseases, including the segmental premature aging syndromes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, restrictive dermopathy, and atypical Werner syndrome. In this review we examine these diseases, some caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, and their skin disease features. Advances within this area might also provide novel insights into the biology of skin aging, as recent data suggest that low levels of progerin are expressed in unaffected individuals and these levels increase with aging. PMID:26290387

  16. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of μa and μs' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that μa ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and μs' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  17. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  18. Characterization of Skin Aging-Associated Secreted Proteins (SAASP) Produced by Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Intrinsically Aged Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Waldera Lupa, Daniel M; Kalfalah, Faiza; Safferling, Kai; Boukamp, Petra; Poschmann, Gereon; Volpi, Elena; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Bernerd, Francoise; Haag, Laura; Huebenthal, Ulrike; Fritsche, Ellen; Boege, Fritz; Grabe, Niels; Tigges, Julia; Stühler, Kai; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited more frequently nuclear foci positive for p53 binding protein 1 and promyelocytic leukemia protein reminiscent of 'DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS)'. Formation of such foci was neither accompanied by increased DNA double strand breaks, nor decreased cell viability, nor telomere shortening. However, it was associated with the development of a secretory phenotype, indicating incipient cell senescence. By quantitative analysis of the entire secretome present in conditioned cell culture supernatant, combined with a multiplex cytokine determination, we identified 998 proteins secreted by intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture. Seventy of these proteins exhibited an age-dependent secretion pattern and were accordingly denoted 'skin aging-associated secreted proteins (SAASP)'. Systematic comparison of SAASP with the classical senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) revealed that matrix degradation as well as proinflammatory processes are common aspects of both conditions. However, secretion of 27 proteins involved in the biological processes of 'metabolism' and 'adherens junction interactions' was unique for NHDFs isolated from intrinsically aged skin. In conclusion, fibroblasts isolated from intrinsically aged skin exhibit some, but not all, molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence. Most importantly, they secrete a unique pattern of proteins that is distinct from the canonical SASP and might reflect specific processes of skin aging

  19. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin. PMID:7560349

  20. [Skin graft, smoking and diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Fidalgo-Rodríguez, Félix T; Gaston, Kate L; Rioja, Luis F; Thomas, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and hyperglycemia decrease the success of skin graft survival in specific circumstances. It is well known that smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 increase the oxidative and impair the endothelial function. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if smoking and DM type 2 are factors associated with lower skin graft survival, in different etiologies of the injury associated to the skin loss. It was a bicentric, retrospective, cross sectional case control study, carried out on 2457 medical patients who met the inclusion criteria. It was carried out over a 10 years period between January 2000-December 2009, at Reina Sofía University Hospital (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA). The percentage of successful graft for each group and its control were analyzed by Chi-square test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Smoking and DM type 2 decreased the percentage of skin graft survival when compared with their control groups. DM type 2 was associated with greater negative success on skin graft survival than smoking when compared with their control groups. There was a statistically significant drop in skin graft of 18% in smoking group (range: 68-86%) and 25% in DM type 2 group (53-78%). The OR showed a clear association between the risk factors studied and the lower skin graft success, being stronger for DM type 2. In conclusion, DM type 2 and smoking are factors associated to lower skin graft take. PMID:23241288

  1. FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160237.html FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury How you ... is often found in cosmetics marketed as "anti-aging" or "skin lightening" that claim to remove age ...

  2. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). In older subjects, further VC did not occur until the highest infused dose of NA (10−2m: −70 ± 5%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). When cutaneous arterioles are sensitized to NA by direct cooling, young skin exhibits the capacity to further constrict to NA in a dose-dependent manner. However, older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  3. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality.

    PubMed

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation - NCTF(®) (New Cellular Treatment Factor) - includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  4. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    PubMed Central

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor) – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  5. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  6. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  7. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  8. Sugar Sag: Glycation and the Role of Diet in Aging Skin.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H P; Katta, R

    2015-11-01

    First described in the context of diabetes, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed through a type of non-enzymatic reaction called glycation. Increased accumulation of AGEs in human tissue has now been associated with end stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and, recently, skin aging. Characteristic findings of aging skin, including decreased resistance to mechanical stress, impaired wound healing, and distorted dermal vasculature, can be in part attributable to glycation. Multiple factors mediate cutaneous senescence, and these factors are generally characterized as endogenous (e.g., telomere shortening) or exogenous (e.g., ultraviolet radiation exposure). Interestingly, AGEs exert their pathophysiological effects from both endogenous and exogenous routes. The former entails the consumption of sugar in the diet, which then covalently binds an electron from a donor molecule to form an AGE. The latter process mostly refers to the formation of AGEs through cooking. Recent studies have revealed that certain methods of food preparation (i.e., grilling, frying, and roasting) produce much higher levels of AGEs than water-based cooking methods such as boiling and steaming. Moreover, several dietary compounds have emerged as promising candidates for the inhibition of glycation-mediated aging. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the critical role of glycation in skin aging and highlight preliminary studies on dietary strategies that may be able to combat this process. PMID:27224842

  9. The effect of skin aging on the percutaneous penetration of chemicals through human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Roskos, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    Despite much research into the mechanisms of cutaneous aging and the identification of significant age-associated biological and biophysical changes within the skin, the question how does aging affect percutaneous absorption (PA) in vivo remains unanswered. The author has made in vivo measurements of PA in young (18-40 years) and old (> 65 years) subjects. Standard radiotracer methodology was employed and PA was quantified from the urinary excretion profiles of {sup 14}C radiolabel (corrected for incomplete renal elimination). Testosterone (TST), estradiol (EST), hydrocortisone (HC), benzoic acid (BA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAFF) have been studied. Penetration of HC, BA, ASA, and CAFF were significantly lower in aged subjects whereas TST and EST absorption were not distinguishable from the young controls. Thus it appears that aging can affect PA in vivo and that relatively hydrophilic compounds may be most sensitive. Work was done to elucidate whether the observations were related to documented skin aging changes. Cutaneous microcirculation efficiency suspected to decline with increasing age, could not be correlated with the observed penetration changes. However, in vivo infrared spectroscopic studies of aged stratum corneum (SC) reveal a decreased amount of epidermal lipid. The diminished lipid content implies a diminished dissolution medium for compounds administered to the skin surface. They hypothesize that the compounds most affected by a loss of SC lipids would be those compounds whose overall solubility is lowest (compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients, eg., HC, BA, ASA and CAFF). Conversely, a diminished lipid content may not affect dissolution into the SC of highly lipophilic compounds (e.g., TST and EST).

  10. Montenegro skin test and age of skin lesion as predictors of treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Fagundes, Aline; Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Pinto, Priscila Garcia; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Maria Cláudia; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the association among the Montenegro skin test (MST), age of skin lesion and therapeutic response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treated at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For each treatment failure (case), two controls showing skin lesion healing following treatment, paired by sex and age, were randomly selected. All patients were treated with 5 mg Sb(5+)/kg/day of intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (Sb(5+)) for 30 successive days. Patients with CL were approximately five times more likely to fail when lesions were less than two months old at the first appointment. Patients with treatment failure showed less intense MST reactions than patients progressing to clinical cure. For each 10 mm of increase in MST response, there was a 26% reduction in the chance of treatment failure. An early treatment - defined as a treatment applied for skin lesions, which starts when they are less than two months old at the first appointment -, as well as a poor cellular immune response, reflected by lower reactivity in MST, were associated with treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25229216

  11. MONTENEGRO SKIN TEST AND AGE OF SKIN LESION AS PREDICTORS OF TREATMENT FAILURE IN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Fagundes, Aline; Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Pinto, Priscila Garcia; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Maria Cláudia; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the association among the Montenegro skin test (MST), age of skin lesion and therapeutic response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treated at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For each treatment failure (case), two controls showing skin lesion healing following treatment, paired by sex and age, were randomly selected. All patients were treated with 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day of intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (Sb5+) for 30 successive days. Patients with CL were approximately five times more likely to fail when lesions were less than two months old at the first appointment. Patients with treatment failure showed less intense MST reactions than patients progressing to clinical cure. For each 10 mm of increase in MST response, there was a 26% reduction in the chance of treatment failure. An early treatment - defined as a treatment applied for skin lesions, which starts when they are less than two months old at the first appointment -, as well as a poor cellular immune response, reflected by lower reactivity in MST, were associated with treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25229216

  12. Optical characters and texture maps of skin and the aging mechanism by use of multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Huang, Yudian; Xu, Xiaohui

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complicated biological process affecting different constituents of skin, which can be divided into two types: the chronological aging and the photo-aging. The two cutaneous aging processes often co-exist accompanying with each other. The effects are often overlapped including changes in epithelium and dermis. The degeneration of collagen is a major factor in dermal alteration with aging. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with its high resolution imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) with its depth resolved imaging were used to study the anti-aging dermatology in vivo. It was attempted to make the optical parameter and texture feature to evaluate the process of aging skin using mathematical image processing. The links among optical parameter, spectrum and texture feature in collagen with aging process were established to uncover mechanism of aging skin.

  13. New Locus for Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence in Type 1 Diabetes Also Associated With Blood and Skin Glycated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Delnaz; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Atzmon, Gil; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Crandall, Jill P; Barzilai, Nir; Bull, Shelley B; Canty, Angelo J; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Hiraki, Linda T; Maynard, John; Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M; Cleary, Patricia A; Braffett, Barbara H; Paterson, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Skin fluorescence (SF) noninvasively measures advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin and is a risk indicator for diabetes complications. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is the only known locus influencing SF. We aimed to identify additional genetic loci influencing SF in type 1 diabetes (T1D) through a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 1,359) including Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) and Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR). A locus on chromosome 1, rs7533564 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9)), was associated with skin intrinsic fluorescence measured by SCOUT DS (excitation 375 nm, emission 435-655 nm), which remained significant after adjustment for time-weighted HbA1c (P = 1.7 × 10(-8)). rs7533564 was associated with mean HbA1c in meta-analysis (P = 0.0225), mean glycated albumin (P = 0.0029), and glyoxal hydroimidazolones (P = 0.049), an AGE measured in skin biopsy collagen, in DCCT. rs7533564 was not associated with diabetes complications in DCCT/EDIC or with SF in subjects without diabetes (nondiabetic [ND]) (N = 8,721). In conclusion, we identified a new locus associated with SF in T1D subjects that did not show similar effect in ND subjects, suggesting a diabetes-specific effect. This association needs to be investigated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27207532

  14. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating an Oral Anti-aging Skin Care Supplement for Treating Photodamaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Monya L.; Hino, Peter D.; Moigne, Anne Le; Dispensa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate an anti-aging skin care supplement on the appearance of photodamaged skin. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Following a one-month washout period, subjects received two anti-aging skin care formula tablets (total daily dose: marine complex 210mg, vitamin C 54mg, zinc 4mg) or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Subjects were restricted from products/procedures that may affect the condition/appearance of skin, including direct facial sun or tanning bed exposure. Participants utilized a standardized facial cleanser and SPF15 moisturizer. Setting: Single study center (Texas, United States; June-November 2007). Participants: Healthy women aged 35 to 60 years (mean, 50 years), Fitzpatrick skin type I-IV, modified Glogau type II—III. Measurements: Subjects were assessed at Weeks 6, 12, and 16 on clinical grading (0-10 VAS), bioinstrumentation, digital photography, and self-assessments. Analysis of variance with treatment in the model was used for between-group comparisons (alpha P≤0.05). Results: Eighty-two anti-aging skin care formula subjects and 70 placebo subjects completed the study. Significant differences in change from baseline to Week 16 scores were observed for clinical grading of overall facial appearance (0.26; P<0.0001), radiant complexion (0.59; P<0.0001), periocular wrinkles (0.08; P<0.05), visual (0.56; P<0.0001) and tactile (0.48; P<0.0001) roughness, and mottled hyperpigmentation (0.15; P<0.001) favoring the subjects in the anti-aging skin care supplement group. Ultrasound skin density (Week 16) was significantly reduced for placebo versus anti-aging skin care supplement group (-1.4% vs. 0%; P<0.01). Other outcomes were not significant. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms possibly related to the anti-aging skin care supplement (n=1) and placebo (n=2) were observed. Conclusion: Women with photodamaged skin receiving anti-aging skin care supplement showed significant improvements in the appearance of facial

  15. Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Siddharth; Date, Abhijit; Patravale, Vandana; Korting, Hans Christian; Roeder, Alexander; Weindl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurring due to cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Chronological and photoaging both have clinically differentiable manifestations. Various natural and synthetic retinoids have been explored for the treatment of aging and many of them have shown histological and clinical improvement, but most of the studies have been carried out in patients presenting with photoaged skin. Amongst the retinoids, tretinoin possibly is the most potent and certainly the most widely investigated retinoid for photoaging therapy. Although retinoids show promise in the treatment of skin aging, irritant reactions such as burning, scaling or dermatitis associated with retinoid therapy limit their acceptance by patients. This problem is more prominent with tretinoin and tazarotene whereas other retinoids mainly represented by retinaldehyde and retinol are considerably less irritating. In order to minimize these side effects, various novel drug delivery systems have been developed. In particular, nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoids like tretinoin and retinol. However, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids. PMID:18046911

  16. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, β-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  17. Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... News and Events Ichthyosis Awareness Month Patient Support Forums Testimonial Dinners National Conferences Grassroots Fundraising Calendar of ... Tele-Ichthyosis Get Involved Regional Support Network Conferences, Forums & Meetings Press Room Living with Ichthyosis Types of ...

  18. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Epidermal Stem Cell Damage Mediated Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Panich, Uraiwan; Sittithumcharee, Gunya; Rathviboon, Natwarath

    2016-01-01

    Skin is the largest human organ. Skin continually reconstructs itself to ensure its viability, integrity, and ability to provide protection for the body. Some areas of skin are continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stressors that can inflict direct and indirect damage to skin cell DNA. Skin homeostasis is maintained by mesenchymal stem cells in inner layer dermis and epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in the outer layer epidermis. Reduction of skin stem cell number and function has been linked to impaired skin homeostasis (e.g., skin premature aging and skin cancers). Skin stem cells, with self-renewal capability and multipotency, are frequently affected by environment. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a major cause of stem cell DNA damage, can contribute to depletion of stem cells (ESCs and mesenchymal stem cells) and damage of stem cell niche, eventually leading to photoinduced skin aging. In this review, we discuss the role of UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in the skin stem cell aging in order to gain insights into the pathogenesis and develop a way to reduce photoaging of skin cells. PMID:27148370

  19. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in type v skin: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Ranawaka, Ranthilaka R; Abeygunasekara, Priyanka H; de Silva, M V Chandu

    2011-01-01

    Five patients with type V skin were studied to describe the clinical manifestations, pathological features, and treatment response in hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF). The mean age of patients was 22.4 years at diagnosis, with a mean of 36 months of diagnostic delay. Two were children aged 11 and 13 years. Skin patches were limited to sunlight-covered body areas. In tropical climate, exposure to natural sunlight possibly cured the lesions on sun-exposed areas at early stage of onset. HMF may frequently be misinterpreted as eczema, vitiligo, or progressive macular hypomelanosis clinically and histopathologically as seen in our case series. PMID:23198169

  20. Hypopigmented Mycosis Fungoides in Type V Skin: A Report of 5 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ranawaka, Ranthilaka R.; Abeygunasekara, Priyanka H.; de Silva, M. V. Chandu

    2011-01-01

    Five patients with type V skin were studied to describe the clinical manifestations, pathological features, and treatment response in hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF). The mean age of patients was 22.4 years at diagnosis, with a mean of 36 months of diagnostic delay. Two were children aged 11 and 13 years. Skin patches were limited to sunlight-covered body areas. In tropical climate, exposure to natural sunlight possibly cured the lesions on sun-exposed areas at early stage of onset. HMF may frequently be misinterpreted as eczema, vitiligo, or progressive macular hypomelanosis clinically and histopathologically as seen in our case series. PMID:23198169

  1. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  2. Collagen degradation in rat skin but not in intestine during rapid growth: effect on collagen types I and III from skin.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, L; ChandraRajan, J

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic degradation of prelabeled collagen in whole body skin and whole intestine was compared to that of types I and III collagens from skin in young, rapidly growing rats. Pregnant rats were given [3H]proline during the last week of gestation; and after birth, littermates were compared. Between the second and sixth weeks of age, there was a 43% loss of radioactivity from dermal collagen but no significant loss of radioactivity from intestinal collagen. Pepsin treatment solubilized 90% of the dermal collagen but only 12% of intestinal collagen. Skin from 2- and 6-week-old rats yielded the same proportions of type I and type III collagens (type I, 82%; type III, 18%). The relative losses of total radioactivity from types I and III were similar to each other (50 and 44%, respectively) and to the loss from whole skin. Because types I and III collagens are known to be present in both skin and intestine, the marked degradation of both collagen types in skin but not in the intestine may be related to the amount and kind of intermolecular crosslinks present. PMID:266184

  3. Beneficial modulation from a high-purity caviar-derived homogenate on chronological skin aging.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Francesco; Polimeni, Ascanio; Solimene, Umberto; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Minelli, Emilio; Jain, Shalini; Rastmanesh, Reza; Sedriep, Sonia; Soresi, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    This study tested the activity of LD-1227, which contains a caviar-derived homogenate added with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10))-selenium component (CaviarLieri(®), Lab-Dom, Switzerland), in aged human skin and its potential role on skin mitochondria function. Human dermal fibroblasts were obtained from healthy donors over 70 years old and treated with LD-1227 for 72 hr. As compared to baseline, LD-1227 caused a robust (>67%) collagen type I synthesis (p<0.001) and decreased fibronectin synthesis (p<0.05) with significant fibronectin messenger RNA (mRNA) downregulation (p<0.05, r=0.78). A significant collagen mRNA overexpression occurred with LD-1227 treatment (p<0.05). Mitochondria cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level decreased in aged skin samples (p<0.05 vs. young control), but this phenomenon was reversed by LD-1227 (p<0.01). These data show that LD-1227 may modify the extracellular matrix milieu in aged skin and also beneficially affect mitochondrial function. PMID:22533426

  4. Perlecan expression influences the keratin 15-positive cell population fate in the epidermis of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Michopoulou, Anna; André-Frei, Valérie; Boulesteix, Sophie; Guicher, Christine; Dayan, Guila; Whitelock, John; Damour, Odile; Rousselle, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    The epidermis is continuously renewed by stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Basal keratinocytes append the dermal-epidermal junction, a cell surface-associated, extracellular matrix that provides structural support and influences their behaviour. It consists of laminins, type IV collagen, nidogens, and perlecan, which are necessary for tissue organization and structural integrity. Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be involved in keratinocyte survival and differentiation. Aging affects the dermal epidermal junction resulting in decreased contact with keratinocytes, thus impacting epidermal renewal and homeostasis. We found that perlecan expression decreased during chronological skin aging. Our in vitro studies revealed reduced perlecan transcript levels in aged keratinocytes. The production of in vitro skin models revealed that aged keratinocytes formed a thin and poorly organized epidermis. Supplementing these models with purified perlecan reversed the phenomenon allowing restoration of a well-differentiated multi-layered epithelium. Perlecan down-regulation in cultured keratinocytes caused depletion of the cell population that expressed keratin 15. This phenomenon depended on the perlecan heparan sulphate moieties, which suggested the involvement of a growth factor. Finally, we found defects in keratin 15 expression in the epidermis of aging skin. This study highlighted a new role for perlecan in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of basal keratinocytes. PMID:26996820

  5. Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-05-01

    Age perception is a better biomarker of skin aging than chronological age. However, the optical cues that determine the perception of human skin age are difficult to assess given the complex interactions between light and the multi layered structure of the skin. The aim of the present study is to clarify the independent contribution of both diffuse and specular reflection components to the skin age perception. First, according to our results, subjects were able to estimate the age of skin only by using the diffuse reflection component. Moreover, we showed that inclusion of the specular reflection component added on average 5 years to their age estimation. Second, by artificially manipulating the specular component, we concluded that the luminance distribution affects the perceived age of the skin.

  6. Regulation of skin aging and heart development by TAp63.

    PubMed

    Paris, M; Rouleau, M; Pucéat, M; Aberdam, D

    2012-02-01

    Since the discovery of the TP63 gene in 1998, many studies have demonstrated that ΔNp63, a p63 isoform of the p53 gene family, is involved in multiple functions during skin development and in adult stem/progenitor cell regulation. In contrast, TAp63 studies have been mostly restricted to its apoptotic function and more recently as the guardian of oocyte integrity. TAp63 endogenous expression is barely detectable in embryos and adult (except in oocytes), presumably because of its rapid degradation and the lack of antibodies able to detect weak expression. Nevertheless, two recent independent studies have demonstrated novel functions for TAp63 that could have potential implications to human pathologies. The first discovery is related to the protective role of TAp63 on premature aging. TAp63 controls skin homeostasis by maintaining dermal and epidermal progenitor/stem cell pool and protecting them from senescence, DNA damage and genomic instability. The second study is related to the role of TAp63, expressed by the primitive endoderm, on heart development. This unexpected role for TAp63 has been discovered by manipulation of embryonic stem cells in vitro and confirmed by the severe cardiomyopathy observed in brdm2 p63-null embryonic hearts. Interestingly, in both cases, TAp63 acts in a cell-nonautonomous manner on adjacent cells. Here, we discuss these findings and their potential connection during development. PMID:22158419

  7. Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  8. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  9. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  10. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology. PMID:24817918

  11. 3D profilometric characterization of the aged skin surface using a skin replica and alicona Mex software.

    PubMed

    Pirisinu, Marco; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2016-05-01

    The skin's surface is characterized by a network of furrows and wrinkles showing different height and depth. Different studies showed that processes such as aging, photo aging and cancer may alter dermal ultrastructure surface. The quantitative analysis of skin topography is a key point for understanding health condition of the skin. Here, for the first time, the skin fine structure was studied via a new approach where replica method was combined with Mex Alicona software and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The skin texture of cheek and forearm were studied in 120 healthy sardinian volunteers. Patients were divided into three different aged groups. The skin areas of interest were reproduced by the silicone replica method, each replica was explored by SEM and digital images were taken. By using Mex Alicona software were created 3D imagine and a list of 24 surface texture parameters were obtained, of these the most representative were chosen in order to assess eventual changes between groups. The skin's texture of forearm and cheek showed a gradually loss of its typical polyhedric mesh with increasing age group. In particular, the photoexposition increased loss of dermal texture. At today, Alicona mex technology was exclusively used on palaeontology studies, our results showed that a deep analyze of skin texture was performed and support Mex alicona software as a new promising tool on dermatological research. This new analytical approach provided an easy and fast process to appreciate skin texture and its changes, by using high quality 3D dimension images. SCANNING 38:213-220, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258960

  12. Low-temperature atmospheric plasma increases the expression of anti-aging genes of skin cells without causing cellular damages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Jae-Koo; Hong, Jin-woo; Kim, Gyoo-cheon

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to employ various types of plasma in the field of skin care have increased consistently because it can regulate many biochemical reactions that are normally unaffected by light-based therapy. One method for skin rejuvenation adopted a high-temperature plasma generator to remove skin epithelial cells. In this case, the catalyzing effects of the plasma were rarely used due to the high temperature. Hence, the benefits of the plasma were not magnified. Recently, many types of low-temperature plasma devices have been developed for medical applications but their detailed functions and working mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the effect of low-temperature microwave plasma on skin cells. Treatment with low-temperature plasma increased the expression of anti-aging genes in skin cells, including collagen, fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, the plasma treatment did not cause cell death, but only induced slight cell growth arrest at the G2 phase. Although the cells treated with low-temperature plasma showed moderate growth arrest, there were no signs of thermal or genetic damage of skin cells. Overall, this low-temperature microwave plasma device induces the expressions of some anti-aging-related genes in skin cells without causing damage. PMID:22773133

  13. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  14. Neprilysin is identical to skin fibroblast elastase: its role in skin aging and UV responses.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Naoko; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Haketa, Keiichi; Takema, Yoshinori; Imokawa, Genji

    2010-12-17

    Although human skin fibroblast (HSF) elastase has been characterized as a membrane-bound metalloproteinase, little is known about its structure, amino acid sequence, and encoding gene. As there are similarities in the molecular weights and inhibitory profiles of HSF elastase and neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP)), in this study we tested the hypothesis that they are identical using immunoprecipitation and transfection methods. An immunoprecipitation study demonstrated that HSF elastase activity co-immunoprecipitated with anti-NEP in lysates of cultured HSF. Transfection of an NEP cDNA expression vector into COS-1 cells elicited the expression of HSF elastase and NEP activities in the transfected cells. These findings strongly suggest that HSF elastase is identical to NEP, which functions mainly in neuron-associated cells to degrade neuropeptides. Analysis of the expression pattern of NEP revealed that its expression was remarkably up-regulated at the gene, protein, and enzymatic activity levels during the replicative senescence of cultured HSF. Further, the activity of NEP was markedly enhanced in a pattern similar to elastase activity during the intrinsic aging of mouse skin, in UVA-exposed HSF as well as in HSF treated with conditioned medium from UVB-exposed human keratinocytes. Analysis of the cytokine profile for the stimulation of NEP and HSF elastase activities in HSF demonstrated that among the 11 cytokines tested, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF had the potential to significantly stimulate both activities similarly, again supporting the identity of HSF elastase and NEP. PMID:20876573

  15. Alterations of Dermal Connective Tissue Collagen in Diabetes: Molecular Basis of Aged-Appearing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Angela J.; Robichaud, Patrick; Balimunkwe, Rebecca Mutesi; Fisher, Gary J.; Hammerberg, Craig; Yan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the collagen, the major structural protein in skin, contribute significantly to human skin connective tissue aging. As aged-appearing skin is more common in diabetes, here we investigated the molecular basis of aged-appearing skin in diabetes. Among all known human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), diabetic skin shows elevated levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled real-time PCR indicated that elevated MMPs in diabetic skin were primarily expressed in the dermis. Furthermore, diabetic skin shows increased lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and higher cross-linked collagens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further indicated that collagen fibrils were fragmented/disorganized, and key mechanical properties of traction force and tensile strength were increased in diabetic skin, compared to intact/well-organized collagen fibrils in non-diabetic skin. In in vitro tissue culture system, multiple MMPs including MMP-1 and MM-2 were induced by high glucose (25 mM) exposure to isolated primary human skin dermal fibroblasts, the major cells responsible for collagen homeostasis in skin. The elevation of MMPs and LOX over the years is thought to result in the accumulation of fragmented and cross-linked collagen, and thus impairs dermal collagen structural integrity and mechanical properties in diabetes. Our data partially explain why old-looking skin is more common in diabetic patients. PMID:27104752

  16. Protection of skin biological targets by different types of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Fourtanier, A; Bernerd, F; Bouillon, C; Marrot, L; Moyal, D; Seité, S

    2006-02-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies provide a body of evidence that adequate protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage requires photostable broad-spectrum sunscreens with a proper level of UVA protection. UVA alone and UV solar simulated radiation (SSR) induce DNA lesions in keratinocytes and melanocytes as reflected by the comet assay and p53 accumulation. UVA and SSR impair the immune system as shown by significant alteration of Langerhans cells and inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response to chemical allergens and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to recall antigens. Any of these detrimental effects is more efficiently prevented by sunscreens with a higher level of protection in the UVA range. The involvement of UVA (fibroblast alteration, increased metalloproteinase expression) and the pivotal need for well-balanced UVA/UVB sunscreens were further demonstrated using reconstructed three-dimensional skin models. PMID:16436178

  17. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  18. Polysaccharide Extracted from Laminaria japonica Delays Intrinsic Skin Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longyuan; Tan, Jia; Yang, Xiaomei; Tan, Haitao; Xu, Xiaozhen; You, Manhang; Qin, Wu; Huang, Liangzhao; Li, Siqi; Mo, Manqiu; Wei, Huifen; Li, Jing; Tan, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of topically applied Laminaria polysaccharide (LP) on skin aging. We applied ointment containing LP (10, 25, and 50 μg/g) or vitamin E (10 μg/g) to the dorsal skin of aging mice for 12 months and young control mice for 4 weeks. Electron microscopy analysis of skin samples revealed that LP increased dermal thickness and skin collagen content. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease- (TIMP-) 1 expression was upregulated while that of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1 was downregulated in skin tissue of LP-treated as compared to untreated aging mice. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was higher in aging skin than in young skin, while LP treatment suppressed phospho-JNK expression. LP application also enhanced the expression of antioxidative enzymes in skin tissue, causing a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels relative to those in untreated aging mice. These results indicate that LP inhibits MMP-1 expression by preventing oxidative stress and JNK phosphorylation, thereby delaying skin collagen breakdown during aging. PMID:27143987

  19. Role of UV light in photodamage, skin aging, and skin cancer: importance of photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Evelyn R

    2009-01-01

    Solar, and particularly UV, radiation causes molecular and cellular damage with resultant histopathologic and clinical degenerative changes, leading in turn to photosensitivity, photo-aging, and skin cancer. While our bodies have some natural UV defenses, additional protection from the sun is essential, including sun avoidance, physical protection, and sunscreen use. Sun avoidance includes limiting exposure during peak UV times (10am-4pm), avoiding UV-reflective surfaces such as sand, snow and water, and eliminating photosensitizing drugs. Physical protection includes wearing photoprotective clothing such as a broad-brimmed hat and long sleeves and use of UV-blocking films on windows. Sunscreen containing avobenzone, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide or encamsule should be used daily and frequently reapplied. To guard against the UVB spectrum, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are particularly recommended. Sunscreen is generally under-applied at only 25% of the recommended dose, seriously compromising photoprotection. Dosage guidelines recommend using more than half a teaspoon each on head and neck area and each arm, and more than a teaspoon each on anterior torso, posterior torso, and each leg (approximately 2 mg/cm(2)). PMID:19209950

  20. Age-related changes in skin barrier function - quantitative evaluation of 150 female subjects.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-04-01

    The protection against water loss and the prevention of substances and bacteria penetrating into the body rank as the most important functions of the skin. This so-called 'skin barrier function' is the natural frontier between the inner organism and the environment, and is primarily formed by the epidermis. An impairment of the skin barrier function is often found in diseased and damaged skin. An influence of ageing on skin barrier function is widely accepted, but has not been conclusively evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to assess the potential influence of ageing on skin barrier function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, sebum content and pH value. One hundred and fifty healthy women aged 18-80, divided into five age groups with 30 subjects each, were evaluated in this study. TEWL, hydration level, sebum secretion and pH value of hydro-lipid acid film were measured with worldwide acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at cheek, neck, décolleté, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Whereas TEWL and stratum corneum hydration showed only very low correlation with subject's age, the sebum production decreased significantly with age, resulting in the lowest skin surface lipids levels measured in subjects older than 70 years. The highest skin surface pH was measured in subjects between 50 and 60 years, whereas the eldest age group had the lowest mean pH. The dorsum of the hand was the location with the highest TEWL and lowest stratum corneum hydration in all age groups. The results show that only some parameters related to skin barrier function are influenced by ageing. Whereas sebum production decreases significantly over lifetime and skin surface pH is significantly increased in menopausal woman, TEWL and stratum corneum hydration show only minor variations with ageing. PMID:23113564

  1. Age-Associated Skin Conditions and Diseases: Current Perspectives and Future Options.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan; Sterry, Wolfram; Hodin, Michael W; Griffiths, Tamara W; Watson, Rachel E B; Hay, Roderick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2016-04-01

    The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS), a global, not-for-profit organization representing 157 dermatological societies worldwide, has identified the consequences of skin aging as one of the most important grand challenges in global skin health. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation, wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. Environmental (e.g., pollution) and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, sunbed use) negatively affect skin health. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging. Preventive skin care includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Continuous sun protection from early childhood onward is most important, to avoid extrinsic skin damage and skin cancer. Exposure to irritants, allergens, or other molecules damaging the skin must be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Public health approaches are needed to implement preventive and basic skin care worldwide to reach high numbers of dermatological patients and care receivers. Education of primary caregivers and implementation of community dermatology are successful strategies in resource-poor countries. Besides specialist physicians, nurses and other health care professionals play important roles in preventing and managing age-related skin conditions in developing as well as in developed countries. Healthy skin across the life course leads to better mental and emotional health, positive impact on social engagement, and healthier, more active, and productive lives. PMID:26994263

  2. Skin delivery of kojic acid-loaded nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Gonçalez, M L; Corrêa, M A; Chorilli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil-O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  3. Skin Delivery of Kojic Acid-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, M. L.; Corrêa, M. A.; Chorilli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  4. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Lally, James S; Ford, Rebecca J; Bujak, Adam L; Brar, Ikdip K; Kemp, Bruce E; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a structural deterioration of skin that compromises its barrier function, healing, and susceptibility to disease. Several lines of evidence show that these changes are driven largely by impaired tissue mitochondrial metabolism. While exercise is associated with numerous health benefits, there is no evidence that it affects skin tissue or that endocrine muscle-to-skin signaling occurs. We demonstrate that endurance exercise attenuates age-associated changes to skin in humans and mice and identify exercise-induced IL-15 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial function in aging skin. We show that exercise controls IL-15 expression in part through skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of metabolism, and that the elimination of muscle AMPK causes a deterioration of skin structure. Finally, we establish that daily IL-15 therapy mimics some of the anti-aging effects of exercise on muscle and skin in mice. Thus, we elucidate a mechanism by which exercise confers health benefits to skin and suggest that low-dose IL-15 therapy may prove to be a beneficial strategy to attenuate skin aging. PMID:25902870

  5. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Justin D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Lally, James S; Ford, Rebecca J; Bujak, Adam L; Brar, Ikdip K; Kemp, Bruce E; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a structural deterioration of skin that compromises its barrier function, healing, and susceptibility to disease. Several lines of evidence show that these changes are driven largely by impaired tissue mitochondrial metabolism. While exercise is associated with numerous health benefits, there is no evidence that it affects skin tissue or that endocrine muscle-to-skin signaling occurs. We demonstrate that endurance exercise attenuates age-associated changes to skin in humans and mice and identify exercise-induced IL-15 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial function in aging skin. We show that exercise controls IL-15 expression in part through skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of metabolism, and that the elimination of muscle AMPK causes a deterioration of skin structure. Finally, we establish that daily IL-15 therapy mimics some of the anti-aging effects of exercise on muscle and skin in mice. Thus, we elucidate a mechanism by which exercise confers health benefits to skin and suggest that low-dose IL-15 therapy may prove to be a beneficial strategy to attenuate skin aging. PMID:25902870

  6. Measuring skin aging using optical coherence tomography in vivo: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Richter, Claudia; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Dermal and epidermal structures in human skin change during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Epidermal thickness is one of the most often reported parameters for the assessment of skin aging in cross-sectional images captured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to identify further parameters for the noninvasive measurement of skin aging of sun-exposed and sun-protected areas utilizing OCT. Based on a literature review, seven parameters were inductively developed. Three independent raters assessed these parameters using four-point scales on images of female subjects of two age groups. All items could be detected and quantified in our sample. Interrater agreement ranged between 25.0% and 83.3%. The item scores "stratum corneum reflectivity," "upper dermal reflectivity," and "dermoepidermal contrast" showed significant differences between age groups on the volar and dorsal forearm indicating that they were best able to measure changes during skin aging. "Surface unevenness" was associated with the skin roughness parameters, Rz and Rmax, on the inner upper arm and volar forearm supporting the criterion validity of this parameter on sun-protected skin areas. Based on the interrater agreement and the ability to differentiate between age groups, these four parameters are being considered as the best candidates for measuring skin aging in OCT images.

  7. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation.

  8. Damage from periorbital ageing to the multilayered structures and resilience of the skin in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Hu, Chien-Ming; Wei, Po-Li; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ageing dynamically disrupts the multilayered supporting components of the skin that are held together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Skin specimens from 33 female Chinese patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty were divided into three age groups and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Elastica-van Gieson (EVG) stains, western blotting, surface electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical tension analysis. The SEM density (skin surface topology) showed a negative linear relationship with age. The triangular pattern of the skin surface in the younger group gradually broke down into quadrangular and irregular patterns in the older group. Collagens and elastic fibres in the dermis showed anisotropy and decreased density in the older groups compared with the younger group, especially in the papillary dermis. Anisotropy means that physical properties differ according to the direction of measurement. E-cadherin and integrin αv (whose functions are to bind epidermal and dermal elements respectively) increased and decreased, respectively, in the oldest group. Skin resilience decreased significantly in this group under repetitive stress. In conclusion, a loss of skin surface textures, integrin αv expressions, epidermal-dermal connections and dermal compactness led to the multilayered structure of the skin becoming separated. This in turn decreased resilience during ageing. These findings may therefore explain why aged skins cannot tolerate repetitive facial expressions, and why this action produces further dynamic wrinkles. PMID:23441675

  9. Effects of intrinsic aging and photodamage on skin dyspigmentation: an explorative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Gabor; Trojahn, Carina; D'Alessandro, Brian; Patwardhan, Sachin; Canfield, Douglas; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Photoaging is associated with increasing pigmentary heterogeneity and darkening of skin color. However, little is known about age-related changes in skin pigmentation on sun-protected areas. The aim of this explorative study was to measure skin color and dyspigmentation using image processing and to evaluate the reliability of these parameters. Twenty-four volunteers of three age-groups were included in this explorative study. Measurements were conducted at sun-exposed and sun-protected areas. Overall skin-color estimates were similar among age groups. The hyper- and hypopigmentation indices differed significantly by age groups and their correlations with age ranged between 0.61 and 0.74. Dorsal forearm skin differed from the other investigational areas (p<0.001). We observed an increase in dyspigmentation at all skin areas, including sun-protected skin areas, already in young adulthood. Associations between age and dyspigmentation estimates were higher compared to color parameters. All color and dyspigmentation estimates showed high reliability. Dyspigmentation parameters seem to be better biomarkers for UV damage than the overall color measurements.

  10. Effects of Dimethylaminoethanol and Compound Amino Acid on D-Galactose Induced Skin Aging Model of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Chen, Zhenyu; Cai, Xia; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Cailing

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat. PMID:25133239

  11. Effects of dimethylaminoethanol and compound amino acid on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Chen, Zhenyu; Cai, Xia; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Cailing; Liu, Fangjun; Liu, Dalie

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat. PMID:25133239

  12. Novel Low Fluence Combination Laser Treatment of Solar Lentigines in Type III Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females) were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement). Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians’ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin. PMID:26865789

  13. Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics. PMID:20676309

  14. Age-related decrease in CD271(+) cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-03-01

    According to recent studies, stem cells are found in various tissues in our bodies. It has been reported that stem cells can reside in the skin tissues, including the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and subcutaneous tissues. Homeostasis of the skin is maintained because these stem cells collaborate with each other to form new cells. We previously identified the CD271(p75NTR)(+) cell as a stem cell that was present in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, and further investigated the role of stem cells in wound healing and their association with skin disease. In this study, we investigated the localization of CD271(+) cells in human skin (epidermis and dermis) and its age-related changes in stem cells using CD271(+) cells. The study revealed that the number of CD271(+) cells in the epidermis and dermis decreased with aging. It is possible that such an age-related decrease in stem cells causes impaired regenerative ability and is associated with various skin diseases. If the relationship between stem cells and skin aging and diseases can be elucidated by investigations such as this study, it may lead to the development of novel anti-aging technologies and medical treatments for skin diseases in the future. PMID:26300383

  15. p53 induces skin aging by depleting Blimp1+ sebaceous gland cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Nakasaki, M; Todorova, D; Lake, B; Yuan, C-Y; Jamora, C; Xu, Y

    2014-01-01

    p53 is an important inducer of organismal aging. However, its roles in the aging of skin remain unclear. Here we show that mice with chronic activation of p53 develop an aging phenotype in the skin associated with a reduction of subcutaneous fat and loss of sebaceous gland (SG). The reduction in the fat layer may result from the decrease of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity accompanied by elevated expression of energy expenditure genes, and possibly as compensatory effects, leading to the elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, an inducer of sebocyte differentiation. In addition, Blimp1+ sebocytes become depleted concomitantly with an increase in cellular senescence, which can be reversed by PPARγ antagonist (BADGE) treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that p53-mediated aging of the skin involves not only thinning through the loss of subdermal fat, but also xerosis or drying of the skin through declining sebaceous gland activity. PMID:24675459

  16. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  17. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  18. Aging Alters Functionally Human Dermal Papillary Fibroblasts but Not Reticular Fibroblasts: A New View of Skin Morphogenesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Solène; Fortunel, Nicolas O.; Pageon, Hervé; Asselineau, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of the dermis in skin aging is a key question, since this tissue is particularly important for skin integrity, and because its properties can affect the epidermis. Characteristics of matched pairs of dermal papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Fp and Fr) were investigated throughout aging, comparing morphology, secretion of cytokines, MMPs/TIMPs, growth potential, and interaction with epidermal keratinocytes. We observed that Fp populations were characterized by a higher proportion of small cells with low granularity and a higher growth potential than Fr populations. However, these differences became less marked with increasing age of donors. Aging was also associated with changes in the secretion activity of both Fp and Fr. Using a reconstructed skin model, we evidenced that Fp and Fr cells do not possess equivalent capacities to sustain keratinopoiesis. Comparing Fp and Fr from young donors, we noticed that dermal equivalents containing Fp were more potent to promote epidermal morphogenesis than those containing Fr. These data emphasize the complexity of dermal fibroblast biology and document the specific functional properties of Fp and Fr. Our results suggest a new model of skin aging in which marked alterations of Fp may affect the histological characteristics of skin. PMID:19115004

  19. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  20. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    PubMed

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those. PMID:25555260

  1. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  2. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  3. Using FLIM in the study of permeability barrier function of aged and young skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Choi, E. H.; Man, M. Q.; Crumrine, D.; Mauro, T.; Elias, P.

    2006-02-01

    Aged skin commonly is afflicted by inflammatory skin diseases or xerosis/eczema that can be triggered or exacerbated by impaired epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. It has been previously described a permeability barrier defect in humans of advanced age (> 75 years), which in a murine analog >18 mos, could be attributed to reduced lipid synthesis synthesis. However, the functional abnormality in moderately aged mice is due not to decreased lipid synthesis, but rather to a specific defect in stratum corneum (SC) acidification causing impaired lipid processing processing. Endogenous Na +/H + antiporter (NHE1) level was found declined in moderately aged mouse epidermis. This acidification defect leads to perturbed permeability barrier homeostasis through more than one pathways, we addressed suboptimal activation of the essential, lipid-processing enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase (BGC) is linked to elevated SC pH. Finally, the importance of the epidermis acidity is shown by the normalization of barrier function after exogenous acidification of moderately aged skin.

  4. Lifestyle Factors and Visible Skin Aging in a Population of Japanese Elders

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Milojevic, Ai; Michikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Nakano, Makiko; Iwasawa, Satoko; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Ono, Masaji; Kinjo, Yoshihide; Akiba, Suminori; Takebayashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Background The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with these visible signs of aging. Methods The study subjects were 802 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged at least 65 years and living in the town of Kurabuchi (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan), a mountain community with a population of approximately 4800. The facial skin condition of subjects was assessed quantitatively using a standardized facial imaging system and subsequent computer image analysis. Lifestyle information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The association between skin condition and lifestyle factors was examined using multivariable regression analysis. Results Among women, the mean values for facial texture, hyperpigmentation, and pores were generally lower than those among age-matched men. There was no significant difference between sexes in the severity of facial wrinkling. Older age was associated with worse skin condition among women only. After adjusting for age, smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with skin condition among both men and women. Conclusions Our study revealed significant differences between sexes in the severity of hyperpigmentation, texture, and pores, but not wrinkling. Smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with signs of visible skin aging in this study population. PMID:19700917

  5. N-Phenethyl caffeamide and photodamage: protecting skin by inhibiting type I procollagen degradation and stimulating collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Wen; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) light and pollutants. UV light is a well-known factor that causes various types of skin damage and premature aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage by activating the metalloproteinases that break down type I collagen. This study investigated the antioxidant and antiphotodamage activity and mechanisms of N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) in human skin fibroblasts. The results indicated that K36 demonstrated strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, which dose-dependently reduced the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS in human dermal fibroblasts. K36 prevented UVB-irradiation-induced type I collagen degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteins-1, -3, and -9 and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Furthermore, K36 elevated collagen synthesis in skin fibroblasts by inhibiting UVB-induced Smad7 overexpression. K36 downregulated the expression of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our results indicated that K36 exhibited antioxidant properties and prevented skin collagen degradation caused by UV exposure and the stimulation of collagen synthesis, which suggests the potential use of K36 in preventing photodamage. PMID:25019243

  6. Body Type Attractiveness Preferences of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Enid J.

    A study explored the relationship between body types and four attraction dimensions (physical, social, task, and communication) as perceived by older adults (mean age 68). Subjects, 35 males and 73 females in private residences and senior citizen centers, were shown three same-sex body silhouettes representing the older ectomorph, mesomorph, and…

  7. In vivo quantification of human dermal skin aging using SHG and autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    There are visible changes during skin aging. In the extracellular matrix these changes referred to as intrinsic aging (skin areas not exposed to sunlight) and extrinsic aging can be measured using various methods, such as subjective clinical evaluation, histology and molecular analysis. In this study we developed a new parameter for the non-invasive quantitative determination of dermal skin aging utilizing a five-dimensional intravital tomography (5D-IVT). This device, also known as 5D - multi-photon laser scanning microscopy, is a powerful tool to investigate (photo)aging-associated alterations in vivo. Structural alterations in the dermis of extrinsically aged (chronically sun-exposed) and intrinsically aged (sun-protected) human skin were recorded utilizing the collagen-specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and the elastin-specific autofluorescence (AF) signal. Recording took place in young and elderly volunteers. The resulting images were processed in order to gain the elastin percentage and the collagen percentage per image. Then, the elastin - to - collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. With respect to volar forearm skin, the ELCOR significantly increased with age. In elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area was significantly augmented compared with the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on 5D-IVT we introduce the ELCOR as a new means to quantify age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix of in vivo human skin. This novel parameter is compared to the currently used "SHG to AF aging index" of the dermis (SAAID).

  8. Transcriptome and ultrastructural changes in dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa resemble skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Andrea; Weber, Manuela; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Bruckner, Daniela; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Bauer, Johann W.; Breitenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aging process of skin has been investigated recently with respect to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We have here observed striking phenotypic and clinical similarity between skin aging and recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is caused by recessive mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, COL7A1. Ultrastructural changes, defects in wound healing, and inflammation markers are in part shared with aged skin. We have here compared the skin transcriptomes of young adults suffering from RDEB with that of sex‐ and age‐matched healthy probands. In parallel we have compared the skin transcriptome of healthy young adults with that of elderly healthy donors. Quite surprisingly, there was a large overlap of the two gene lists that concerned a limited number of functional protein families. Most prominent among the proteins found are a number of proteins of the cornified envelope or proteins mechanistically involved in cornification and other skin proteins. Further, the overlap list contains a large number of genes with a known role in inflammation. We are documenting some of the most prominent ultrastructural and protein changes by immunofluorescence analysis of skin sections from patients, old individuals, and healthy controls. PMID:26143532

  9. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  10. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  11. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  12. Perlecan expression influences the keratin 15‐positive cell population fate in the epidermis of aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Michopoulou, Anna; André‐Frei, Valérie; Boulesteix, Sophie; Guicher, Christine; Dayan, Guila; Whitelock, John; Damour, Odile; Rousselle, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis is continuously renewed by stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Basal keratinocytes append the dermal‐epidermal junction, a cell surface‐associated, extracellular matrix that provides structural support and influences their behaviour. It consists of laminins, type IV collagen, nidogens, and perlecan, which are necessary for tissue organization and structural integrity. Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be involved in keratinocyte survival and differentiation. Aging affects the dermal epidermal junction resulting in decreased contact with keratinocytes, thus impacting epidermal renewal and homeostasis. We found that perlecan expression decreased during chronological skin aging. Our in vitro studies revealed reduced perlecan transcript levels in aged keratinocytes. The production of in vitro skin models revealed that aged keratinocytes formed a thin and poorly organized epidermis. Supplementing these models with purified perlecan reversed the phenomenon allowing restoration of a well‐differentiated multi‐layered epithelium. Perlecan down‐regulation in cultured keratinocytes caused depletion of the cell population that expressed keratin 15. This phenomenon depended on the perlecan heparan sulphate moieties, which suggested the involvement of a growth factor. Finally, we found defects in keratin 15 expression in the epidermis of aging skin. This study highlighted a new role for perlecan in maintaining the self‐renewal capacity of basal keratinocytes. PMID:26996820

  13. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  14. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  15. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Philippe; Scior, Thomas; Do, Quoc Tuan

    2012-01-01

    In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. Reverse pharmacognosy was successfully applied to identify new natural compounds able to modulate testosterone levels. Among several in silico hits, honokiol was retained as a candidate as it has the greatest potential to become an active ingredient. This result was then validated in vitro on aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, which are two types of enzymes implicated in the degradation of free testosterone. Indeed, honokiol was identified as an inhibitor of aromatase, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 50 μM. In addition, honokiol was shown to be an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase type 1, with an IC50 of about 75 μM. Taken together, these data indicate that honokiol modulates testosterone levels, and its structure has the potential to serve as a lead for future designs of highly selective inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase type 1. PMID:23049247

  16. Reflection-Type Oil-Film Skin-Friction Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-film skin-friction meter for both flight and wind-tunnel applications uses internal reflection and is self-contained, compact unit. Contained in palm-sized housing, in which source of light, mirrors, and sensor mounted rigidly in alignment. Entire unit mounted rigidly under skin of aircraft or wind tunnel, eliminating any relative vibration between optical elements and skin of aircraft or wind tunnel. Meter primarily applicable to flight and wind-tunnel tests, also used in chemical-processing plants.

  17. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  18. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  19. Ultraviolet radiation in skin ageing and carcinogenesis: the role of retinoids for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, A; Peltonen, J; Kallioinen, M

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of UV-induced ageing and carcinogenesis of the skin have been elucidated in animals and humans, and both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to have deleterious effects on the skin. Thus the use of solaria which deliver mostly UVA radiation is not safe. There is also an increased risk of ageing when using therapeutic UV sources. UV radiation is beneficial in many cases of skin disorders such as psoriasis, atopic eczema, acne and pruritus. Nevertheless by careful patient selection and follow-up the risks of UV can be minimised when treating patients with artificial UV radiation. During recent years there has been intensive research into the development of agents which prevent harmful effects of radiation. The retinoids are particularly interesting as they enhance skin repair after UV damage, have an anticarcinogenic effect and are effective for treating precancerous lesions such as solar keratosis and as adjuvant therapy for skin cancers. Topical retinoids are already used for the treatment of actinic skin damage, and systemic retinoids are also used in certain groups of patients who have an increased risk of contracting skin cancers such as xeroderma pigmentosum. PMID:1756019

  20. The clinical experience and efficacy of bipolar radiofrequency with fractional photothermolysis for aged Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Negishi, Kei; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-10-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) technology is developed based on fractional thermolysis, and the literature concerning the efficacy of the rejuvenation and treatment of acne scars has been reported in Europe and the United States of America. Therefore, we examined bipolar RF treatment using fractional thermolysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of Asian photo-aging skin, particularly 'wrinkles' and 'sagging.' Ten Japanese women (mean age: 58.6, skin type III-IV) received three fractional bipolar RF treatments every 4-6 weeks. For the objective evaluation, we evaluated the improvement of the wrinkles on the forehead, lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid, and the sagging of the nasolabial fold using digital photographs captured using Visia(™) . For the subjective evaluation, the participants were asked to describe the improvements observed in the wrinkles on the forehead, lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid, and sagging nasolabial fold and to evaluate the level pain experienced using a 10-point VAS score. The objective evaluation in each category showed significant improvements in the wrinkles on the lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid. As for the nasolabial fold, 60% of the subjects showed improvements, scoring from good to excellent (51-100% improvement), although there was a little improvement of the wrinkle on the forehead. Similar improvements were observed in the subjective evaluation. During each treatment, oedema and erythema were observed in all participants, but the oedema disappeared the following day in all cases. However, mild erythema persisted for an average of 3.1 days. Micro debris disappeared after an average of 5.2 days. The participants were satisfied, as we allowed them to apply make-up the next day. There were no other severe adverse reactions observed during the treatment. The 10-point VAS score was 3.8, and no participants dropped out due to discomfort. Little improvement was observed in

  1. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  2. Solar Ultraviolet Irradiation Reduces Collagen in Photoaged Human Skin by Blocking Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor/Smad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun reduces production of type I procollagen (COLI), the major structural protein in human skin. This reduction is a key feature of the pathophysiology of premature skin aging (photoaging). Photoaging is the most common form of skin damage and is associated with skin carcinoma. TGF-β/Smad pathway is the major regulator of type I procollagen synthesis in human skin. We have previously reported that UV irradiation impairs transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling in mink lung epithelial cells. We have investigated the mechanism of UV irradiation impairment of the TGF-β/Smad pathway and the impact of this impairment on type I procollagen production in human skin fibroblasts, the major collagen-producing cells in skin. We report here that UV irradiation impairs TGF-β/Smad pathway in human skin by down-regulation of TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII occurs within 8 hours after UV irradiation and precedes down-regulation of type I procollagen expression in human skin in vivo. In human skin fibroblasts, UV-induced TβRII down-regulation is mediated by transcriptional repression and results in 90% reduction of specific, cell-surface binding of TGF-β. This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2/3 by TGF-β, thereby reducing expression of type I procollagen. Preventing loss of TβRII by overexpression protects against UV inhibition of type I procollagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. UV-induced down-regulation of TβRII, with attendant reduction of type I procollagen production, is a critical molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of photoaging. PMID:15331399

  3. Maximal skin vascular conductance in subjects aged 5-85 yr.

    PubMed

    Martin, H L; Loomis, J L; Kenney, W L

    1995-07-01

    This study examined maximal forearm skin vascular conductance (FVCmax) as a function of age in 74 healthy male and female subjects ranging in age from 5 to 85 yr. The skin temperature of the left forearm was uniformly clamped at 42 degrees C by spraying a fine mist of water over the surface. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography (Hg-in-Silastic strain gauge). After 60 min of heating, a reactive hyperemia maneuver was performed to verify that forearm skin blood flow was maximal by using laser Doppler flowmetry to isolate the skin component of FBF. The maximal FBF of each subject was then divided by mean arterial pressure to yield FVCmax (in ml.100 ml-1.min-1.100 mmHg-1), i.e., minimal resistance. The model that best fits the data was curvilinear, as described by FVCmax = 13.1 + 86.9 (age-0.75) (r2 = 0.52, P < 0.001). The exclusion of subjects younger than 18 yr of age simplified the model to a linear fit with a slope of -0.16 conductance units/yr for adults. Interindividual variability remained constant across the entire age span. Once the age effect was considered, there were no significant effects of gender, adiposity, resting blood pressure, physical activity level, or body surface area on FVCmax. PMID:7559234

  4. Age-related changes in expression and function of Toll-like receptors in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Nousheen; Mildner, Michael; Prior, Marion; Petzelbauer, Peter; Fiala, Christian; Hacker, Stefan; Schöppl, Alice; Tschachler, Erwin; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate innate immune responses and direct subsequent adaptive immunity. They play a major role in cutaneous host defense against micro-organisms and in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory skin diseases. To understand the role of TLRs in the acquisition of immunological competence, we conducted a comprehensive study to evaluate TLR expression and function in the developing human skin before and after birth and compared it with adults. We found that prenatal skin already expresses the same spectrum of TLRs as adult skin. Strikingly, many TLRs were significantly higher expressed in prenatal (TLRs 1-5) and infant and child (TLRs 1 and 3) skin than in adult skin. Surprisingly, neither dendritic cell precursors in prenatal skin nor epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in adult skin expressed TLRs 3 and 6, whereas the staining pattern and intensity of both TLRs in fetal basal keratinocytes was almost comparable to those of adults. Stimulation of primary human keratinocytes from fetal, neonatal and adult donors with selected TLR agonists revealed that the synthetic TLR3 ligand poly (I:C) specifically, mimicking viral double-stranded RNA, induced a significantly enhanced secretion of CXCL8/IL8, CXCL10/IP-10 and TNFα in fetal and neonatal keratinocytes compared with adult keratinocytes. This study demonstrates quantitative age-specific modifications in TLR expression and innate skin immune reactivity in response to TLR activation. Thus, antiviral innate immunity already in prenatal skin may contribute to protect the developing human body from viral infections in utero in a scenario where the adaptive immune system is not yet fully functional. PMID:23034637

  5. Melanocytes in the Skin – Comparative Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Main Skin Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Ilmjärv, Sten; Porosaar, Orm; Silm, Helgi; Jaks, Viljar; Vasar, Eero; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes possess several functions besides a role in pigment synthesis, but detailed characteristics of the cells are still unclear. We used whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess differential gene expression of cultivated normal human melanocytes with respect to keratinocytes, fibroblasts and whole skin. The present results reveal cultivated melanocytes as highly proliferative cells with possible stem cell-like properties. The enhanced readiness to regenerate makes melanocytes the most vulnerable cells in the skin and explains their high risk of developing into malignant melanoma. PMID:25545474

  6. Deficiency of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide nuclear localization and carboxyl terminal sequences leads to premature skin ageing partially mediated by the upregulation of p27.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minyue; Chen, Guangpei; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Shulei; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that deficiency of the PTHrP nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and C-terminus in PTHrP knockin (PTHrP KI) mice resulted in premature ageing of skin. P27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was upregulated in PTHrP KI mice and acted as a downstream target of the PTHrP NLS to regulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. To determine the effects of p27 deficiency on premature skin ageing of PTHrP KI mice, we compared the skin phenotypes of PTHrP KI mice to those of p27 knockout (p27(-/-) ) mice and to those of double homozygous p27-deficient and PTHrP KI (p27(-/-) PTHrP KI) mice at 2 weeks age. Compared with wild-type littermates, PTHrP KI mice displayed thinner skin and decreased subcutaneous fat and collagen fibres, decreased skin cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, higher expression of p27, p19 and p53 and lower expression of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant capacity. Deficiency of p27 in the PTHrP KI mice at least in part corrected the skin premature ageing phenotype resulting in thicker skin and increased subcutaneous fat and collagen. These alternations were associated with higher expression of CDK2 and cyclin E, lower expression of p19 and p53, and enhanced antioxidant capacity with increased skin cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Our results indicate that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP play a critical role in preventing skin from premature ageing that is partially mediated by p27. PMID:26121068

  7. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes. PMID:26112367

  8. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  9. Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation. PMID:24002160

  10. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  11. Proteomic profiling reveals a catalogue of new candidate proteins for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Martin; Kocher, Thomas; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Trost, Andrea; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Richter, Klaus; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Studies of skin aging are usually performed at the genomic level by investigating differentially regulated genes identified through subtractive hybridization or microarray analyses. In contrast, relatively few studies have investigated changes in protein expression of aged skin using proteomic profiling by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, although this approach at the protein level is suggested to reflect more accurately the aging phenotype. We undertook such a proteomic analysis of intrinsic human skin aging by quantifying proteins extracted and fluorescently labeled from sun-protected human foreskin samples pooled from 'young' and 'old' men. In addition, we analyzed these candidate gene products by 1-D and 2-D western blotting to obtain corroborative protein expression data, and by both real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and microarray analyses to confirm expression at the mRNA level. We discovered 30 putative proteins for skin aging, including previously unrecognized, post-translationally regulated candidates such as phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) and carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1). PMID:20849533

  12. Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We used Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF) to define "normal" endothelial function in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents and to evaluate skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods LDF was performed in 102 healthy children (12.8 ± 3.3 years of age; 48 male) and 68 patients (12.9 ± 3.3 years of age; 33 male). Duration of disease was 5.0 ± 3.97 years. Each participant sequentially underwent three stimulation protocols (localized thermal hyperaemia with localized warming to maximum 40°C, iontophoretic delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (PCH) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)). The maximum relative increase in skin blood flow and the total relative response, i.e. the area under the curve (AUC) to each stimulus (AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP) was determined. In addition, the area of a right-angled triangle summarizing the time to and the amplitude of the first peak, which represents the axon reflex mediated neurogenic vasodilation (ARR) was calculated. Results In healthy controls, AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP, and ARR turned out to be independent of sex, age, and anthropometric values. Per parameter the 10th percentile generated from data of healthy controls was used as the lower threshold to define normal endothelial function. Diabetic patients showed significantly reduced vasodilatative response to either physical or pharmacological stimulation with SNP, whereas the response to PCH was comparable in both cohorts. In patients compared to controls i) a significantly higher frequency of impaired vasodilatation in response to heat and SNP was noted and ii) vascular response was classified as pathological in more than one of the parameters with significantly higher frequency. Conclusions/interpretation Skin microvascular endothelial dysfunction is already present in about 25% of paediatric type 1 diabetic patients suffering from type 1 diabetes for at least one year. Future studies are needed to assess the

  13. Approach to quantify human dermal skin aging using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular skin structures in human skin are impaired during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Assessment of these dermal changes is conducted by subjective clinical evaluation and histological and molecular analysis. We aimed to develop a new parameter for the noninvasive quantitative determination of dermal skin alterations utilizing the high-resolution three-dimensional multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) technique. To quantify structural differences between chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, the respective collagen-specific second harmonic generation and the elastin-specific autofluorescence signals were recorded in young and elderly volunteers using the MPLSM technique. After image processing, the elastin-to-collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. Results show that the ELCOR parameter of volar forearm skin significantly increases with age. For elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area is significantly augmented compared to the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on the MPLSM technology, we introduce the ELCOR parameter as a new means to quantify accurately age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix.

  14. Development and validation of the Patient Benefit Index for the dermatocosmetic treatment of aged skin.

    PubMed

    Lohrberg, David; Blaak, Jürgen; Liebsch, Juliane; Staib, Peter; Wohlfart, Rainer; Lüttje, Dieter; Schürer, Nanna Y; Augustin, Matthias; Blome, Christine

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for the assessment of patient-relevant benefit in dermatocosmetic treatment, i.e., skin care, of aged skin. Based on an open item collection with 33 elderly persons, items on patient-relevant treatment goals were collected. An expert panel selected 20 items to be most relevant and feasible for the questionnaire named Patient Benefit Index for Aged Skin (PBI-AS). The instrument, which assesses goal importance and achievement, was tested in a cognitive debriefing and validated in a longitudinal study (n = 80) along with the Dry Skin Area and Severity Index (DASI) and the Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) as convergent validation criteria. The cognitive debriefing showed the good practicability and feasibility of the instrument. Significant correlation with change in DASI (r = -0.527; p < 0.001) supports convergent validity of the PBI-AS. By contrast, correlation with DLQI was poor, indicating the different constructs. The PBI-AS is a valid and feasible tool for the patient-centered assessment of dermatocosmetic treatment benefit in aged skin. PMID:27117448

  15. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum (S. marianum) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone. PMID:27446338

  16. Effect of botanicals on inflammation and skin aging: analyzing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Amanda; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published "anti-inflammaging" additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made. PMID:24863255

  17. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  18. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  19. SYSTEMIC RETINOIDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OF ICHTHYOSES AND RELATED SKIN TYPES

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, John J.; Mauro, Theodora; Milstone, Leonard M.; Schmuth, Matthias; Toro, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The term retinoid includes both natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A. Retinoid containing treatments have been used since the early Egyptians ~1550BC. Treatment of ichthyosiform disorders with retinoids dates back at least to the 1930’s. Early use of high dose vitamin A demonstrated efficacy but, because vitamin A is stored in the liver, toxicity limited usefulness. Interest turned to synthetic retinoids in an effort to enhance efficacy and limit toxicity. Acetretin, isotretinoin and, in the past etretinate, have provided the most effective therapy for ichthyosiform conditions. They have been used for a variety of ages, including in newborns with severe ichthyosis and for decades in some patients. Careful surveillance and management of mucous membrane, laboratory, skeletal, and teratogenic side effects has made systemic retinoids the mainstay of therapy for ichthyosis and related skin types. PMID:23384018

  20. Ultraviolet radiation, aging and the skin: prevention of damage by topical cAMP manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Yan, Betty; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations. PMID:24838074

  1. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation. PMID:25369199

  2. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging. PMID:25726322

  3. Antiaging, photoprotective, and brightening activity in biorevitalization: a new solution for aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in the dermis can be considered the result of intrinsic factors and the consequence of environmental damage, mainly due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun (responsible for skin photoaging). The great versatility of the mesotherapy “biorevitalization” lies in the synergy between different biological effects of the active injected substances, which treats the skin in a more complete way. Several studies about biorevitalization efficacy showed good results. To date, however, objective results supported by instrumental evaluation are very sparse. Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of an injectable solution (32 mg of hyaluronic acid plus an antiaging antioxidant complex consisting of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids) in the treatment of skin aging and photoaging. Methods A total of 64 female volunteers (37–60 years) underwent four sessions of biorevitalization at 3-week intervals, involving multiple injections in the face (external corner of the eye and cheek), neck, décolletage, and back of the hands. The esthetic result was assessed at baseline and after 6, 9, and 12 weeks, and was established through the use of clinical and instrumental evaluations, supported by photographic documentation. Additionally, a phototest was performed to assess the effect of biorevitalization treatment on UVB-induced erythema. Results Instrumental assessment showed, as early as after the second biorevitalizing treatment, the antiaging efficacy of the tested product; there was a clinical and statistically significant improvement of profilometric parameters, skin brightness, pigmentation, and deep skin hydration. The study product induced a statistically significant decrease of the visual score of the UVB-induced erythema compared with baseline, which was statistically different from placebo. Conclusion The study confirmed the well-known efficacy of biorevitalization in skin rejuvenation. The positive difference between deep and

  4. MMP-1 and -3 promoter variants are indicative of a common susceptibility for skin and lung aging: results from a cohort of elderly women (SALIA).

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary S; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Studies have indicated that there may be a smoking-dependent association between skin wrinkling and airflow obstruction of the lung. It was suggested that this association might be because of an underlying susceptibility in genes responsible for extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Our purpose was to confirm the association between skin wrinkling and airflow obstruction and to identify genetic polymorphisms indicative of an underlying susceptibility. In 697 elderly women, we assessed skin wrinkles by SCINEXA (SCore for INtrinsic and EXtrinsic skin Aging) and airflow obstruction by spirometry, using the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced volume capacity (FVC). For association analysis, we used multiple regression and found that the FEV1/FVC ratio decreased 1.2% per 6-point increase in the wrinkle severity score after accounting for age, education, body mass index, skin type, and sun exposure. This association was significant and independent of smoking or air pollution. Most interestingly, this association occurred only in carriers of the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) 2G (rs1799750) or the MMP-3 6A (rs3025058) allele but not in homozygous carriers of the 1G or 5A allele. Thus, skin and lung aging are linked in carriers of the 2G or 6A allele. These alleles appear to be indicative of a common genetic susceptibility. PMID:25599395

  5. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics. PMID:24794404

  6. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information about varicose and spider veins, including the causes, prevention, potential dangers, and ...

  7. Stratum corneum acidification is impaired in moderately aged human and murine skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eung-Ho; Man, Mao-Qiang; Xu, Pu; Xin, Shujun; Liu, Zhili; Crumrine, Debra A; Jiang, Yan J; Fluhr, Joachim W; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M; Mauro, Theodora M

    2007-12-01

    Aged skin commonly is afflicted by inflammatory skin diseases or xerosis/eczema that could be triggered or exacerbated by impaired epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. This defect is linked to reduced epidermal lipid synthesis in humans and in mice of advanced age (i.e., >75 years in human or >18-24 months in mice). We now report that barrier defects in moderately aged humans (50-80 years) or analogously aged mice (12-15 months) are linked instead to defective stratum corneum (SC) acidity. In moderately aged mouse epidermis, we find that abnormal acidification, in turn, is linked to decreased Na+/H+ antiporter (NHE1) expression. Decreased NHE1 levels lead to increased SC pH, which results in defective lipid processing and delayed maturation of lamellar membranes, due to suboptimal activation of the pH-sensitive essential, lipid-processing enzyme, beta-glucocerebrosidase. Conversely, impaired SC integrity in moderately aged mice is due to increased pH-dependent activation of serine proteases, leading to premature degradation of corneodesmosomes. These abnormalities were normalized by exogenously acidifying the SC, suggesting a basis for the well-known acidification therapies that are widely used to treat the pathologic xerosis/eczema seen in moderately aged humans. PMID:17554364

  8. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  9. ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC PATHWAYS OF CARBONYL AND OXIDANT STRESS IN HUMAN LENS AND SKIN DURING AGING AND IN DIABETES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xingjun; Sell, David R; Zhang, Jianye; Nemet, Ina; Theves, Mathilde; Lu, Jie; Strauch, Christopher; Halushka, Marc K.; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anaerobic (lens) vs aerobic (skin) environment on carbonyl and oxidant stress are compared using de novo and existing data on advanced glycation and oxidation products in human crystallins and collagen. Almost all modifications increase with age. Methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones (MG-H1), carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) are several folds higher in lens than skin, and markedly increase upon incubation of lens crystallins with 5 mM ascorbic acid. Vice-versa, fructose-lysine, glucosepane crosslinks, glyoxal hydroimidazolones (G-H1), metal catalyzed oxidation (allysine) and H2O2 dependent modifications (2-aminoapidic acid and methionine sulfoxide) are markedly elevated in skin, but relatively suppressed in the aging lens. In both tissues ornithine is the dominant modification, implicating arginine residues as the principal target of the Maillard reaction in vivo. Diabetes (here mostly type 2 studied) increases significantly fructose-lysine and glucosepane in both tissues (P<0.001) but has surprisingly little effect on the absolute level of most other advanced glycation end products (AGEs) . However, diabetes strengthens the Spearman correlation coefficients for age-related accumulation of hydrogen peroxide mediated modifications in the lens. Overall, the data suggest oxoaldehyde stress involving methylglyoxal from either glucose or ascorbate is predominant in the aging non-cataractous lens, while aging skin collagen undergoes combined attack by non-oxidative glucose mediated modifications, as well as those from metal catalyzed oxidation and H2O2. PMID:20541005

  10. Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

  11. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  12. Ten tips for treating acne vulgaris in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Spann, Candace Thornton

    2011-06-01

    During the 21st century, people with skin of color will account for a large portion of the US population. According to race projections from the US Census Bureau, persons of African American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American descent will make up nearly half of the total US population by the year 2050. Because of our changing demographics, it is important that all dermatologists become comfortable in treating skin of color. This article provides 10 practical pearls for management of acne vulgaris in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. PMID:21637906

  13. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  14. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  15. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    PubMed Central

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Two types of extraction were performed and extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Extract obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE) showed higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than extract obtained by maceration (CR CAE)CR HAE demonstrated strong DPPH and Superoxide free radical scavenging activity whereas, ABTS scavenging activity of both the extracts were found to be similar. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of CR HAE was found to be more; indicating its strong antioxidant potentialIn vitro collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition activities were evaluated for both the extracts and CR HAE showed strong anti-collagenase and antielastase potential indicating its anti-aging abilityGC-MS analysis of CR HAE revealed the presence of various compounds mainly including Polymethoxyflavones. CR HAE exhibited promising antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activity and can be used as a potent antiwrinkle agent in anti-aging skin care formulations. Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (±) 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl) acryloyl)]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation Factor, MSD

  16. Use of Topical Rapamycin in Facial Angiofibromas in Indian Skin Type

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thakur, Parul; Pund, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Facial angiofibromas (FA) are the most visible cutaneous manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS), often resulting in stigmatization of the affected individuals. Recent studies have suggested that topical rapamycin may be an effective treatment for angiofibromas. Aim: To study the safety and efficacy of topical rapamycin in treatment of FA in Type IV–VI skin type. Materials and Methods: Five female patients with FA were included in the study, four of whom had TS, whereas one had isolated angiofibromas without systemic involvement. The age of the patients varied from 6 to 44 years. After baseline evaluation, they were advised to apply topical rapamycin (0.1–1%) in white soft paraffin base twice daily. Follow-up varied from 1 month to 6 months and is ongoing. Results: A sustained improvement was observed with respect to erythema, size as well as extent of the lesions as early as within 2 weeks of starting treatment. No side effects were observed. A correlation between duration of angiofibromas and effectiveness of treatment was noted. Conclusion: Topical rapamycin appears to be a safe and effective alternative to surgical or laser-based treatments in patients with FA. This treatment shows potential to be a first-line management for FA and appears safe to start in early childhood. PMID:26951710

  17. Triple nanoemulsion potentiates the effects of topical treatments with microencapsulated retinol and modulates biological processes related to skin aging *

    PubMed Central

    Afornali, Alessandro; de Vecchi, Rodrigo; Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Dieamant, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Luciana Lima; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Feferman, Israel Henrique Stokfisz; Fabrício, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Lorencini, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sum of environmental and genetic factors affects the appearance and function of the skin as it ages. The identification of molecular changes that take place during skin aging provides biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Retinoic acid in different formulations has emerged as an alternative to prevent and repair age-related skin damage. OBJECTIVES To understand the effects of different retinoid formulations on the expression of genes associated with biological processes that undergo changes during skin aging. METHODS Ex-vivo skin samples were treated topically with different retinoid formulations. The modulation of biological processes associated with skin aging was measured by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS A formulation containing microencapsulated retinol and a blend of active ingredients prepared as a triple nanoemulsion provided the best results for the modulation of biological, process-related genes that are usually affected during skin aging. CONCLUSION This association proved to be therapeutically more effective than tretinoin or microencapsulated retinol used singly. PMID:24474102

  18. Anaerobic vs aerobic pathways of carbonyl and oxidant stress in human lens and skin during aging and in diabetes: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xingjun; Sell, David R; Zhang, Jianye; Nemet, Ina; Theves, Mathilde; Lu, Jie; Strauch, Christopher; Halushka, Marc K; Monnier, Vincent M

    2010-09-01

    The effects of anaerobic (lens) vs aerobic (skin) environment on carbonyl and oxidant stress are compared using de novo and existing data on advanced glycation and oxidation products in human crystallins and collagen. Almost all modifications increase with age. Methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones, carboxymethyllysine, and carboxyethyllysine are severalfold higher in lens than in skin and markedly increase upon incubation of lens crystallins with 5mM ascorbic acid. In contrast, fructose-lysine, glucosepane crosslinks, glyoxal hydroimidazolones, metal-catalyzed oxidation (allysine), and H(2)O(2)-dependent modifications (2-aminoapidic acid and methionine sulfoxide) are markedly elevated in skin, but relatively suppressed in the aging lens. In both tissues ornithine is the dominant modification, implicating arginine residues as the principal target of the Maillard reaction in vivo. Diabetes (here mostly type 2 studied) increases significantly fructose-lysine and glucosepane in both tissues (P<0.001) but has surprisingly little effect on the absolute level of most other advanced glycation end products. However, diabetes strengthens the Spearman correlation coefficients for age-related accumulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated modifications in the lens. Overall, the data suggest that oxoaldehyde stress involving methylglyoxal from either glucose or ascorbate is predominant in the aging noncataractous lens, whereas aging skin collagen undergoes combined attack by nonoxidative glucose-mediated modifications, as well as those from metal-catalyzed oxidation and H(2)O(2). PMID:20541005

  19. Age Differences in Types of Interpersonal Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined age differences in topics that generate interpersonal tensions as well as relationship level characteristics that may account for variability in the content of interpersonal tensions. Participants aged 13 to 99 years (N = 184) diagramed their close and problematic social networks, and then provided open-ended descriptions of…

  20. Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Aging signs can be classified into four main categories: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis), vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging. Materials and methods This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman’s face regarding standardized photographic scales, and thus describe the aging process. Results By calculating statistical correlations between the four clinical clusters (wrinkles/texture, ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation disorders), and real age and apparent age on the one hand and heliodermal status on the other hand, we identified a link between

  1. EFFICACY OF PULSED DYE LASER IN COSMETICALLY DISTRESSING FACIAL DERMATOSES IN SKIN TYPES IV AND V

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sharma, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases), angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases) and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case) were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration):VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions), AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions) and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions) and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients. PMID:19882031

  2. K6PC-5, a novel sphingosine kinase activator, improves long-term ultraviolet light-exposed aged murine skin.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2008-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine through a process catalysed by sphingosine kinase (SK), is a multifunctional mediator of a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. K6PC-5, which was recently synthesized as a novel SK activator, is expected to increase S1P levels. Indeed studies have already demonstrated that K6PC-5 exhibits anti-aging effects on intrinsic aged murine skin by increasing fibroblasts, collagen synthesis, dermal thickness, and epidermal differentiation. However, photoaging and intrinsic aging have highly different clinical and histopathological properties. In this study, we developed a photoaged murine model by exposing mice that were 56 weeks old to ultraviolet (UV)B and UVA radiation for 8 weeks. We then investigated whether K6PC-5, as an SK activator, had anti-aging effects on photoaged murine skin in addition to its effects on intrinsic aged murine skin and determined the mechanism. K6PC-5 increased dermal collagen density in photoaged skin through increases in fibroblasts and collagen production. Photoaged murine skin treated with K6PC-5 showed an increase in stratum corneum (SC) integrity with increased corneodesmosome density and an improvement in barrier recovery rate. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 remained unchanged. These results indicate that topical application of K6PC-5 improves photoaged skin by improving skin barrier and increasing fibroblast count and function. In conclusion, K6PC-5, as an S1P activator, improves long-term UV-exposed aged skin as well as intrinsic aged skin. PMID:18341573

  3. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  4. Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of the Head, Neck, and Face of the Elderly in Type 5 Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ambujam, Sreedevi; Audhya, Moutusi; Reddy, Asritha; Roy, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare, highly malignant vascular tumor with three clinical types. It is predominantly seen in the white-skinned people and rarely dealt with among the colored races. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of head and neck of the elderly is a great mimicker with many clinical presentations. The condition needs to be differentiated from several other common conditions and the diagnosis may be extremely difficult in some cases. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 5 skin who presented with an unusual and extensive involvement of the scalp and face presenting a diagnostic challenge. PMID:23723607

  5. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  6. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  7. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  8. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  9. Reconstructed skin modified by glycation of the dermal equivalent as a model for skin aging and its potential use to evaluate anti-glycation molecules.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Técher, Marie-Pascale; Asselineau, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Glycation is a slow chemical reaction which takes place between amino residues in protein and a reducing sugar. In skin this reaction creates new residues or induces the formation of cross-links (advanced glycation end products or AGEs) in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. Formation of such cross-links between macromolecules may be responsible for loss of elasticity or modification of other properties of the dermis observed during aging. We had previously developed a reconstructed skin model which enabled us to study the consequences of matrix alteration by preglycation of the collagen and have reported several modifications of interest induced by glycation in the dermal and epidermal compartments of reconstructed skin as well as at the level of the dermal-epidermal junction. For example we showed that collagen IV and laminin were increased in the basement membrane zone and that alpha6 and beta1 integrins in epidermis were expanded to suprabasal layers. The aim of this new study was to look at the biological effects of glycation inhibitors like aminoguanidine in the skin model. Aminoguanidine was mixed with collagen in the presence of ribose as reducing sugar, and immunostaining was used to visualize its effects on AGE Products and biological markers. After aminoguanidine treatment, we found a low amount of AGE products and a possible return to the normal pattern of distribution of markers in skin constructs as compared to those treated with ribose only. Interestingly similar results were also obtained, although to a lesser extent, with a blueberry extract. In conclusion the glycation inhibitory effect has been functionally demonstrated in the reconstructed skin model and it is shown that this model can be used to assess anti-glycation agents. PMID:18485649

  10. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  11. Effects of gestational and postnatal age on body temperature, oxygen consumption, and activity during early skin-to-skin contact between preterm infants of 25-30-week gestation and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Bauer, K; Pyper, A; Sperling, P; Uhrig, C; Versmold, H

    1998-08-01

    Temporary skin-to-skin contact between preterm infant and the mother is increasingly used in neonatal medicine to promote bonding. It is not known at which gestational age (GA) and postnatal age skin-to-skin contact outside the incubator is a sufficiently warm environment and is tolerated by preterm infants without a decrease in body temperature, oxygen consumption (VO2) increase, or unrest. We conducted a prospective clinical study of 27 spontaneously breathing preterm infants of 25-30-wk GA. Rectal temperature (Trecta), VO2 (indirect calorimetry), and activity were continuously measured in the incubator (60 min), during skin-to-skin contact (60 min), and back in the incubator (60 min) in wk 1 and 2 of life. In wk 1 the change in Trectal during skin-to-skin contact was related to GA (r=0.585, p=0.0027): infants of 25-27-wk GA lost heat during skin-to-skin contact, whereas infants of 28-30 wk gained heat and their mean Trectal during skin-to-skin contact was 0.3 degrees C higher than before (p < 0.01). No significant changes of VO2 or activity occurred. In wk 2 the infants' VO2 was higher than in wk 1, but VO2 during skin-to-skin contact was the same as in the incubator. Only small fluctuations in Trectal occurred. In wk 2 all infants slept more during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator (p < 0.02). We conclude that, for preterm infants of 28-30-wk GA, skin-to-skin contact was a sufficiently warm environment as early as postnatal wk 1. For infants of 25-27-wk GA skin-to-skin contact should be postponed until wk 2 of life, when their body temperature remains stable and they are more quiet during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator. PMID:9702922

  12. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P <0.05); thus D-galactose induced sub-acutely aging mice models were duplicated successfully. Results also indicated that transplantation of ASCs could reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers such as MDA, SOD, and advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs); hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thickness of the dermis layer as well as the collagen content of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In addition, immunohistochemical assay showed that expression quantity of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In conclusion, ASCs can trace cell distribution successfully through bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control

  13. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  14. Myb via TGFβ is required for collagen type 1 production and skin integrity.

    PubMed

    Sampurno, Shienny; Cross, Ryan; Pearson, Helen; Kaur, Pritinder; Malaterre, Jordane; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Skin integrity requires an ongoing replacement and repair orchestrated by several cell types. We previously investigated the architecture of the skin of avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (Myb) knock-out (KO) embryos and wound repair in Myb(+/)(-) mice revealing a need for Myb in the skin, attributed to fibroblast-dependent production of collagen type 1. Here, using targeted Myb deletion in keratin-14 (K14) positive cells we reveal further Myb-specific defects in epidermal cell proliferation, thickness and ultrastructural morphology. This was associated with a severe deficit in collagen type 1 production, reminiscent of that observed in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Since collagen type 1 is a product of fibroblasts, the collagen defect observed was unexpected and appears to be directed by the loss of Myb with significantly reduced tumor growth factor beta 1 (Tgfβ-1) expression by primary keratinocytes. Our findings support a specific role for Myb in K14+ epithelial cells in the preservation of adult skin integrity and function. PMID:25807069

  15. Skin aging and photoaging alter fatty acids composition, including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, in the epidermis of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jin, Xing-Ji; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2). We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin. PMID:20514327

  16. Skin Aging and Photoaging Alter Fatty Acids Composition, Including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic Acid, in the Epidermis of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jin, Xing-Ji; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ji Eun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phophodiesterase A2. We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin. PMID:20514327

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin aging model.

    PubMed

    Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process. PMID:25446104

  18. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    BERTUCCELLI, GIUSEPPE; ZERBINATI, NICOLA; MARCELLINO, MASSIMILIANO; NANDA KUMAR, NAVALPUR SHANMUGAM; HE, FANG; TSEPAKOLENKO, VLADIMIR; CERVI, JOSEPH; LORENZETTI, ALDO; MAROTTA, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years, all of whom showed clinical signs of skin aging. The subjects were randomly divided into two matched groups, and were administered FPP or antioxidant treatment of a 4.5 g/day sachet sublingually twice a day for 90 days in a double-blind fashion. The parameters investigated were: Skin surface, brown spots, skin evenness, skin moisturization, elasticity (face), redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and the expression levels of key genes (outer forearm sample). As compared with the baseline (day 0) and antioxidant-control values, FPP-treated subjects showed a significant improvement in skin evenness, moisturization and elasticity. The two treatments improved the MDA and SOD skin concentrations, but only the FPP-treated group showed a higher SOD level and a significant NO increase, along with significant upregulation of acquaporin-3 and downregulation of the potentially pro-aging/carcinogenetic cyclophilin-A and CD147 genes (P<0.05). Progerin was unaffected in both treatment groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orally-administered FPP showed a consistent biological and gene-regulatory improvement in the skin, as was also demonstrated in previous experimental and clinical trials testing other tissues, while common oral antioxidants had only a minor effect. PMID:26998011

  19. Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Ra, Jehyeon; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seo, Young Kyoung; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Jung-Hee; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-28

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are now widely reported, although there are only a few studies on their anti-aging effects. We have found that Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714) improves skin hydration and has anti-photoaging effects, and in the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of HY7714 via a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 110 volunteers aged 41 and 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Participants took 1 × 10(10) CFU/day of HY7714 (probiotic group) or a placebo (placebo group) for 12 weeks. Skin hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and skin elasticity were measured every 4 weeks during the study period. There were significant increases in the skin water content in the face (p < 0.01) and hands (p < 0.05) at week 12 in the probiotic group. Transepidermal water loss decreased significantly in both groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p < 0.001 compared with baseline), and was suppressed to a greater extent in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Finally, skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% (p < 0.05 vs. controls) after 4 weeks and by 21.73% (p < 0.01 vs. controls) after 12 weeks. These findings are preliminary confirmation of the anti-aging benefit to the skin of L. plantarum HY7714 as a nutricosmetic agent. PMID:26428734

  20. CopA3 peptide prevents ultraviolet-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Yu, Jae-Myo; Lee, Eun-Su; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Dong-In; An, Bong-Jeun

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3) was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:24853614

  1. Bioactive molecules from the Blue Lagoon: in vitro and in vivo assessment of silica mud and microalgae extracts for their effects on skin barrier function and prevention of skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Mühlberg, Kathrin; Brenden, Heidi; Felsner, Ingo; Brynjólfsdóttir, Asa; Einarsson, Sigurbjörn; Krutmann, Jean

    2008-09-01

    Bathing in the Blue Lagoon, a specific geothermal biotope in Iceland has been known for many years to be beneficial for human skin in general and for patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in particular. The scientific rationale for this empirical observation, however has remained elusive. We now report that extracts prepared from silica mud and two different microalgae species derived from the Blue Lagoon are capable of inducing involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin gene expression in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. The same extracts also affects primary human dermal fibroblasts, because extracts from silica mud and one type of algae inhibited UVA radiation-induced upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and both algae, as well as silica mud extracts induced collagen 1A1 and 1A2 gene expression in this cell type. These effects were not restricted to the in vitro situation because topical treatment of healthy human skin (n = 20) with a galenic formulation containing all three extracts induced identical gene regulatory effects in vivo, which were associated with a significant reduction of transepidermal water loss. In aggregate, these results suggest that the bioactives in Blue Lagoon have the capacity to improve skin barrier function and to prevent premature skin ageing. These observations explain at least some of the beneficial effects of bathing in the Blue Lagoon and provide a scientific basis for the use of Blue Lagoon extracts in cosmetic and/or medical products. PMID:18312388

  2. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  3. Upregulation of Collagen Expression via PPARβ/δ Activation in Aged Skin by Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yu Ri; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Chan Hum; Park, Min Hi; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Yokozawa, Takako; Tanaka, Takashi; Im, Dong Soon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Yu, Byung Pal; Mo, Sang Hyun; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-08-28

    This study investigated the agonistic activity of magnesium lithospermate B (1), isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARβ/δ) and the expressions of collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL3A1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in models of skin aging. The action of compound 1 as a PPARβ/δ agonist was determined by reporter gene assay, immunostaining, and Western blotting. To determine the antiaging effects of compound 1 on skin, aged Sprague-Dawley rat skin and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human skin fibroblasts were used. The results show that 1 presented a marked enhancement of both nuclear protein levels and activity of PPARβ/δ in fibroblasts. In addition, 1 prevented downregulation of PPARβ/δ activity in aged rat skin and UVB-induced fibroblasts. Furthermore, 1 increased the expressions of COL1A1, COL3A1, and TGF-β1 in vivo and in a cell culture system. Therefore, the present study shows that compound 1 prevents collagen degradation in aged rat skin and UVB-exposed fibroblasts through PPARβ/δ activation. The therapeutic and cosmetic applications of compound 1 need further investigation. PMID:26280594

  4. In vivo isolation of the effects of melanin from underlying hemodynamics across skin types using spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Sharif, Ata; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-05-01

    Skin is a highly structured tissue, raising concerns as to whether skin pigmentation due to epidermal melanin may confound accurate measurements of underlying hemodynamics. Using both venous and arterial cuff occlusions as a means of inducing differential hemodynamic perturbations, we present analyses of spectra limited to the visible or near-infrared regime, in addition to a layered model approach. The influence of melanin, spanning Fitzpatrick skin types I to V, on underlying estimations of hemodynamics in skin as interpreted by these spectral regions are assessed. The layered model provides minimal cross-talk between melanin and hemodynamics and enables removal of problematic correlations between measured tissue oxygenation estimates and skin phototype.

  5. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Alán, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0) with a constant (LC), or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI) in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging. PMID:26171114

  6. Cytokinetic Failure-induced Tetraploidy Develops into Aneuploidy, Triggering Skin Aging in Phosphovimentin-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Goto, Hidemasa; Inoko, Akihito; Makihara, Hiroyuki; Enomoto, Atsushi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Matsuyama, Makoto; Kurita, Kenichi; Izawa, Ichiro; Inagaki, Masaki

    2015-05-22

    Tetraploidy, a state in which cells have doubled chromosomal sets, is observed in ∼20% of solid tumors and is considered to frequently precede aneuploidy in carcinogenesis. Tetraploidy is also detected during terminal differentiation and represents a hallmark of aging. Most tetraploid cultured cells are arrested by p53 stabilization. However, the fate of tetraploid cells in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we analyze the ability to repair wounds in the skin of phosphovimentin-deficient (VIM(SA/SA)) mice. Early into wound healing, subcutaneous fibroblasts failed to undergo cytokinesis, resulting in binucleate tetraploidy. Accordingly, the mRNA level of p21 (a p53-responsive gene) was elevated in a VIM(SA/SA)-specific manner. Disappearance of tetraploidy coincided with an increase in aneuploidy. Thereafter, senescence-related markers were significantly elevated in VIM(SA/SA) mice. Because our tetraploidy-prone mouse model also exhibited subcutaneous fat loss at the age of 14 months, another premature aging phenotype, our data suggest that following cytokinetic failure, a subset of tetraploid cells enters a new cell cycle and develops into aneuploid cells in vivo, which promote premature aging. PMID:25847236

  7. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis

    PubMed Central

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Alán, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0) with a constant (LC), or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI) in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging. PMID:26171114

  8. [The patient with polymorphous light dermatosis. Skin type, hardening and other light-associated markers].

    PubMed

    Lindmaier, A; Neumann, R

    1991-07-01

    From 1985 to 1989 we interviewed 312 patients suffering from polymorphous light eruption (PLE). The interviews were based on a questionnaire dealing with the various light-dependent factors that exacerbate the disease. Of 90 patients who were tested with artificial UV-A and UV-B irradiation sources, 60 reacted with typical PLE lesions: (a) 27 patients to UV-A alone, (b) 12 to UV-B alone, and (c) 21 to both UV-A and UV-B. Using UV-A provocation tests we were able to determine the anamnestic criteria indicating a possible UV-A induction of PLE, e.g. occurrence in the shade, no protection from window glass, no benefit from conventional sunscreens, and occurrence in solaria. The period from experimental irradiation to induction of skin lesions was shorter in skin types I and II than in skin type III and IV. Hardening phenomenon was reported by 37% of our patients. Of the UV-A-positive patients, 38% showed the first presentation of PLE lesions at the height of summer, as against 64% of the total number of patients questioned. Additional lesions at non-irradiated skin sites occurred in 25% of our patients, the frequency rising with increasing duration of the tendency to PLE. PMID:1938396

  9. Recovery of Aging-Related Size Increase of Skin Epithelial Cells: In vivo Mouse and In vitro Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor; Guz, Natali V.; Iyer, Swaminathan; Hewitt, Amy; Sokolov, Nina A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment). An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8). A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20–40% for cells of older passage (6–8 passages) whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin. PMID:25807526

  10. ‘…Re-written in the skin’ – Clues to skin biology and aging from inherited disease

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The growing diversity of heritable skin diseases, a practical challenge to clinicians and dermatonosologists alike, has nonetheless served as a rich source of insight into skin biology and disease mechanisms. I summarize below some key insights from the recent gene-driven phase of research on Werner syndrome, a heritable adult progeroid syndrome with prominent dermatologic features, constitutional genomic instability and an elevated risk of cancer. I also indicate how new insights into skin biology, disease and aging may come from unexpected sources. PMID:25810110

  11. Reduced DNA methylation patterning and transcriptional connectivity define human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Felix; Rodríguez-Paredes, Manuel; Hagemann, Sabine; Manchanda, Himanshu; Kristof, Boris; Gutekunst, Julian; Raddatz, Günter; Haas, Rainer; Terstegen, Lara; Wenck, Horst; Kaderali, Lars; Winnefeld, Marc; Lyko, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic changes represent an attractive mechanism for understanding the phenotypic changes associated with human aging. Age-related changes in DNA methylation at the genome scale have been termed 'epigenetic drift', but the defining features of this phenomenon remain to be established. Human epidermis represents an excellent model for understanding age-related epigenetic changes because of its substantial cell-type homogeneity and its well-known age-related phenotype. We have now generated and analyzed the currently largest set of human epidermis methylomes (N = 108) using array-based profiling of 450 000 methylation marks in various age groups. Data analysis confirmed that age-related methylation differences are locally restricted and characterized by relatively small effect sizes. Nevertheless, methylation data could be used to predict the chronological age of sample donors with high accuracy. We also identified discontinuous methylation changes as a novel feature of the aging methylome. Finally, our analysis uncovered an age-related erosion of DNA methylation patterns that is characterized by a reduced dynamic range and increased heterogeneity of global methylation patterns. These changes in methylation variability were accompanied by a reduced connectivity of transcriptional networks. Our findings thus define the loss of epigenetic regulatory fidelity as a key feature of the aging epigenome. PMID:27004597

  12. Coriander leaf extract exerts antioxidant activity and protects against UVB-induced photoaging of skin by regulation of procollagen type I and MMP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) has protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of CSE, linolenic acid, was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We measured the cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. We found that the activity of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. We measured the epidermal thickness, dermal collagen fiber density, and procollagen type I and MMP-1 levels in photo-aged mouse skin in vivo using histological staining and western blot analysis. Our results showed that CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice. Our results support the potential of C. sativum L. to prevent skin photoaging. PMID:25019675

  13. Coriander Leaf Extract Exerts Antioxidant Activity and Protects Against UVB-Induced Photoaging of Skin by Regulation of Procollagen Type I and MMP-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) has protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of CSE, linolenic acid, was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We measured the cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. We found that the activity of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. We measured the epidermal thickness, dermal collagen fiber density, and procollagen type I and MMP-1 levels in photo-aged mouse skin in vivo using histological staining and western blot analysis. Our results showed that CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice. Our results support the potential of C. sativum L. to prevent skin photoaging. PMID:25019675

  14. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ja Young; Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami; Choi, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin's elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity. PMID:27194933

  15. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. PMID:27346872

  16. Analysis of gene expression dynamics revealed delayed and abnormal epidermal repair process in aged compared to young skin.

    PubMed

    Sextius, Peggy; Marionnet, Claire; Tacheau, Charlotte; Bon, François-Xavier; Bastien, Philippe; Mauviel, Alain; Bernard, Bruno A; Bernerd, Françoise; Dubertret, Louis

    2015-05-01

    With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray(®) cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. PMID:25740152

  17. Waardenburg syndrome type I with heterochromia iridis and circumscribed hypopigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Eigelshoven, Sibylle; Kameda, Gitta; Kortüm, Anne-Katrin; Hübsch, Simone; Angerstein, Wolfgang; Singh, Preeti; Vöhringer, Renate; Goecke, Timm; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wildhardt, Gabriele; Meissner, Thomas; Kruse, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We report a 3-year-old girl with autosomal dominant inherited Waardenburg syndrome type I showing circumscribed hypopigmentation of the skin, heterochromia iridis, sensorineural deafness, and dental aberrations. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of an underlying missense mutation (C811T) in the PAX3 gene. Early diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome among children with pigment anomalies enables a successful interdisciplinary medical care. PMID:20199465

  18. Childhood Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Confirmation of Diagnosis by Skin Deficient in Type VII Collagen, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Nupur; Rao, Raghavendra; Balachandran, C; Pai, Sathish; Bhogal, Balbir S; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired subepidermal bullous disorder characterized by autoantibodies against Type VII collagen. It usually affects adults; childhood EBA is rare. We describe a 10-year-old girl presenting with recurrent tense blisters predominantly on legs, dorsa of hands and feet accompanied by oral erosions since the age of 5 years. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ); indirect IF microscopy on salt-split skin revealed staining of IgG to the dermal side of the split. The patient's serum did not show BMZ staining in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin deficient for Type VII collagen, thus confirming autoantibody reactivity against Type VII collagen. Circulating antibodies against the immunodominant noncollagenous 1 domain of Type VII collagen were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting studies. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and dapsone with good improvement. PMID:27293257

  19. Childhood Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Confirmation of Diagnosis by Skin Deficient in Type VII Collagen, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Nupur; Rao, Raghavendra; Balachandran, C; Pai, Sathish; Bhogal, Balbir S; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired subepidermal bullous disorder characterized by autoantibodies against Type VII collagen. It usually affects adults; childhood EBA is rare. We describe a 10-year-old girl presenting with recurrent tense blisters predominantly on legs, dorsa of hands and feet accompanied by oral erosions since the age of 5 years. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ); indirect IF microscopy on salt-split skin revealed staining of IgG to the dermal side of the split. The patient's serum did not show BMZ staining in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin deficient for Type VII collagen, thus confirming autoantibody reactivity against Type VII collagen. Circulating antibodies against the immunodominant noncollagenous 1 domain of Type VII collagen were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting studies. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and dapsone with good improvement. PMID:27293257

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Delivery System Containing Phytophospholipid Complex for Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Damle, Monica; Mallya, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Citrus auranticum and Glycyrrhiza glabra are rich in anti-oxidant polyphenols helpful in prevention of skin aging. Polyphenols have high polarity and lower skin penetration resulting in lower cutaneous delivery. The present work is attempted to develop a novel polyherbal phospholipid complex cream to improve cutaneous delivery of polyphenols for sustained anti-oxidant action. Phytochemical and in vitro anti-oxidant evaluation was done on methanolic extracts of orange peel and liquorice powder. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and anti-oxidant assays were done on different ratios of orange peel and liquorice extract. Ratio 1:2 gave highest total phenolic content (TPC) (530.00 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) extract), total flavonoid content (TFC) (246.25 ± 1.03 mg rutin equivalent (RUE) g(-1) extract), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (87.99 ± 0.64%), and H2O2 scavenging activity (72.47 ± 0.86%) and hence was used for formulation. Solvent evaporation method using methanol with 1:1 extract to phospholipid ratio was found to have entrapment efficiency of 93.22 ± 0.26%. Evaluation parameters like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed formation of complex. The complex was formulated as oil-in-water cream and evaluated for various parameters. The optimized cream containing 1% complex was non-irritant and was found to be stable for 3-month period under conditions of stability study. Ex vivo diffusion studies showed that extract phospholipid complex cream had better retention of polyphenols in the skin when compared to conventional extract cream giving prolonged and stronger topical action. The cream had an anti-elastase activity of 28.02 ± 0.95% at concentration of 3000 μg ml(-1) (w/v). Thus, the developed safe and stable polyherbal phytophospholipid complex cream exhibited

  1. In vivo transformation of human skin with human papillomavirus type 11 from condylomatot acuminata

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Lill, N.L.; Bartlett, G.L.; Zaino, R.J.; Sedlacek, T.V.; Mortel, R.

    1986-08-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, but direct tests of their involvement have not been possible. The authors describe a system in which human skin from various skin from various sites was infected with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) extracted from vulvar condylomata and was grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Most of the skin grafts so treated underwent morphological transformation, resulting in the development of condylomata identical to those which occur spontaneously in patients. Foreskins responded with the most vigorous proliferative response to HPV-11. The lesions produced the characteristic intranuclear group-specific antigen of papillomaviruses. Both dot blot and Southern blot analysis of DNA from the lesions revealed the presence of HPV-11 DNA in the transformed grafts. These results demonstrate the first laboratory system for the study of the interaction of human skin with an HPV. The method may be useful in understanding the mechanisms of HPV transformation and replication and is free of the ethical restraints which have impeded study. This system will allow the direct study of factors which permit neoplastic progression of HPV-induced cutaneous lesions in human tissues.

  2. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  3. DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not yet known whether DNA methylation levels can be used to accurately predict age across a broad spectrum of human tissues and cell types, nor whether the resulting age prediction is a biologically meaningful measure. Results I developed a multi-tissue predictor of age that allows one to estimate the DNA methylation age of most tissues and cell types. The predictor, which is freely available, was developed using 8,000 samples from 82 Illumina DNA methylation array datasets, encompassing 51 healthy tissues and cell types. I found that DNA methylation age has the following properties: first, it is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; second, it correlates with cell passage number; third, it gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration; and, fourth, it is applicable to chimpanzee tissues. Analysis of 6,000 cancer samples from 32 datasets showed that all of the considered 20 cancer types exhibit significant age acceleration, with an average of 36 years. Low age-acceleration of cancer tissue is associated with a high number of somatic mutations and TP53 mutations, while mutations in steroid receptors greatly accelerate DNA methylation age in breast cancer. Finally, I characterize the 353 CpG sites that together form an aging clock in terms of chromatin states and tissue variance. Conclusions I propose that DNA methylation age measures the cumulative effect of an epigenetic maintenance system. This novel epigenetic clock can be used to address a host of questions in developmental biology, cancer and aging research. PMID:24138928

  4. Treatment of Acne Scars of Skin Types II to V by Sublative Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency and Bipolar Radiofrequency Combined with Diode Laser

    PubMed Central

    Garretson, Cara Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sublative fractional bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radio frequency combined with diode laser for the treatment of both superficial and deep acne scars in patients with skin types II to V. Design: Prospective, single-center study. Subjects received up to five treatments with sublative fractional bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency combined with diode laser. Treatments were directed to at least two facial (forehead, perioral, cheeks) and/or neck areas with acne scars at four-week intervals. Treatment parameters on each subject were based on skin type and on skin responses to test spots on the target area just before treatment. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Subjects (n=20, aged 40.7±10.5 years [mean ± SD], skin types II–V) with acne scars and without acne lesions enrolled in this prospective study. Measurements: Results were evaluated just before each treatment and at four and 12 weeks after the final treatment using the Goodman Scar Scale, a quantitative method of evaluating scars that attempts to reduce grading subjectivity, as well as by patient satisfaction. Results: Acne scars improved significantly one month after three treatments and improvement persisted for at least 12 weeks after the fifth treatment. Improvement was not affected by skin type. Adverse effects were limited to transient erythema and edema. Conclusion: The combination of diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency energy device in addition to fractionated sublative radiofrequency is a safe and statistically significantly effective combined modality for the treatment of both superficial and deep acne scars in patients with skin types II to V with minimal downtime and no significant side effects. PMID:22010052

  5. Influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on the step phenomenon observed in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H G; Hilgner, W

    1979-03-31

    Comprehensive analysis of the mechanical properties of rat skin revealed the "step phenomenon". This particular observation was made after constant strain rate (analysis of stress strain curves) as well as after constant load (creep experiments). Relative low extensions or low loads were necessary to provoke the steps. In most cases two, sometimes three steps were observed. The step phenomenon was found mainly in skin strips punched out perpendicularly to the body axis. Probably some bonds in the fibrous network are broken giving way to additional elongation whereafter stronger links take over the stress. Since earlier studies demonstrated a pronounced influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on mechanical properties at ultimate load, e.g., tensile strength, ultimate modulus of elasticity, and ultimate strain, also the step phenomenon was studied under these conditions. In stress-strain experiments most of the steps were found at the ages of 2 and 4 months. Total stress loss and total work loss due to the steps were the highest at the age of 4 months. If, however, these values were calculated as percentage of ultimate values, the highest figures were found in young animals. Elongation gain due to the steps also showed a maximum at time of maturation, e.g., 4 months. Similar findings were achieved in creep experiments at medium load (200 g). After treatment with prednisolone acetate more steps and after treatment with D-penicillamine fewer steps were observed. In stress-strain experiments total stress loss and total work loss due to steps were more than twice as high than controls after prednisolone treatment and only one half after D-penicillamine. If calculated as percentage of ultimate stress or percentage of work input, these changes disappeared because of similar changes at ultimate load. However, elongation gain due to steps, which was not significantly influenced by prednisolone acetate but significantly decreased by D-penicillamine, showed the same changes

  6. Phototherapy in anti-aging and its photobiologic basics: a new approach to skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A

    2006-03-01

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging of the face are constantly ongoing, and eventually result in the typical "aged" face, with visible lines and wrinkles at rest, a variety of dyschromia and a tired, dull and lax epidermis over poorly organized elastotic dermal architecture characterized by many interfibrillary spaces. Both ablative and nonablative resurfacing have been reported as solutions, the former providing excellent results, but a long patient downtime, and the latter giving little or no downtime, but less-than-ideal results. In ablative resurfacing, the epidermis is removed and replaced with a "new" epidermis, whereas in the nonablative approach the epidermis is spared through some form of cooling. In both approaches, however, the goal is to create controlled amounts of thermal damage in the dermis to stimulate the wound healing process, thus generating a tighter, better organized, "younger" dermal matrix. A better approach might be to apply prevention, rather than the cure, and to treat subjects in their very early 20s, before even fine lines have begun to appear. This "photoanti-aging" approach could be achieved with the use of very low incident levels of photon energy to stimulate the skin cells, both epidermal and dermal, at cell-specific wavelengths based on the photobiological findings of the literature over the past two decades or so, in order to increase their resistance to the effects of chronological and photoaging. Lasers and IPL systems could be used, but are extremely expensive and therapist-intensive. A new generation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has appeared as the result of a spin-off from the US NASA Space Medicine Program, which are much more powerful than the previous generation with quasimonochromatic outputs. These LEDs can offer target specificity to achieve photobiomodulated enhanced action potentials of the skin cells, in particular mast cells, macrophages, endotheliocytes, and fibroblasts, plus increases in local blood and lymphatic

  7. Collagen gene expression by cultured human skin fibroblasts. Abundant steady-state levels of type VI procollagen messenger RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, D R; Peltonen, J; Jaakkola, S; Chu, M L; Uitto, J

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that procollagen types I and III are the major collagenous gene products of cultured human skin fibroblasts. In this study the expression of 10 different genes, encoding the subunit polypeptides for collagen types I-VI, by human skin fibroblasts in culture was analyzed by molecular hybridizations. Northern transfer analysis demonstrated the presence of specific mRNA transcripts for collagen types I, III, IV, V, and VI, but not for type II collagen. Quantitation of the abundance of these mRNAs by slot blot hybridizations revealed that type I, III, and VI procollagens were the major collagenous gene products of skin fibroblasts in culture. The mRNAs for type IV and V collagens represented only a small percentage of the total collagenous mRNA transcripts. Further analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrated that the majority of the cultured cells coexpressed the genes for type I, III, and VI procollagen pro-alpha chains. Further in situ hybridization analyses revealed the expression of type VI collagen genes in normal human skin. These data demonstrate that human skin fibroblast cultures can be used to study the transcriptional regulation of at least nine genetically distinct procollagen genes. The data further suggest that type VI collagen, in addition to types I and III, may be a major collagenous component of human skin. Images PMID:2921321

  8. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  9. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population. PMID:23963873

  10. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin’s elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity. PMID:27194933

  11. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  12. Wound healing delays in α-Klotho-deficient mice that have skin appearance similar to that in aged humans - Study of delayed wound healing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Ken; Kayama, Musashi; Sato, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi

    2016-05-13

    Skin atrophy and delayed wound healing are observed in aged humans; however, the molecular mechanism are still elusive. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of delayed wound healing by aging using α-Klotho-deficient (kl/kl) mice, which have phenotypes similar to those of aged humans. The kl/kl mice showed delayed wound healing and impaired granulation formation compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. The skin graft experiments revealed that delayed wound healing depends on humoral factors, but not on kl/kl skin tissue. The mRNA expression levels of cytokines related to acute inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in wound lesions of kl/kl mice compared with the levels in WT mice by RT-PCR analysis. LPS-induced TNF-α production model using spleen cells revealed that TNF-α production was significantly increased in the presence of FGF23. Thus, higher levels of FGF23 in kl/kl mouse may have a role to increase TNF-α production in would lesion independently of α-Klotho protein, and impair granulation formation and delay wound healing. PMID:27037022

  13. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  14. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  15. Age-Dependent Decrease of Mitochondrial Complex II Activity in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial theory of aging remains one of the most widely accepted aging theories and implicates mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction with subsequent increasing free radical generation. Recently, complex II of the electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in this process, suggested predominantly by nonhuman studies. We investigated the relationship between complex II and aging using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering a wide age range. Complex II activity significantly decreased with age in fibroblasts (P = 0.015) but not in keratinocytes. This was associated with a significant decline in transcript expression (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001) and protein levels (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.005) of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and subunit B catalytic subunits of complex II, respectively. In addition, there was a significant decrease in complex II activity with age (P = 0.029) that was specific to senescent skin cells. There was no decrease in complex IV activity with increasing age, suggesting possible locality to complex II. PMID:26829036

  16. Development of Decision Making in School-Aged Children and Adolescents: Evidence from Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2007-01-01

    Age differences in decision making indicate that children fail to anticipate outcomes of their decisions. Using heart rate and skin conductance analyses, we tested whether developmental changes in decision making are associated with (a) a failure to process outcomes of decisions, or (b) a failure to anticipate future outcomes of decisions.…

  17. Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko T; Cristea, Alexander; Alén, Markku; Häkkinen, Keijo; Sipilä, Sarianna; Mero, Antti; Viitasalo, Jukka T; Larsson, Lars; Suominen, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis of 18- to 84-yr-old male sprinters (n = 91). Fiber-type distribution, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content were identified using ATPase histochemistry and SDS-PAGE. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity (V(o)) were determined in 144 single skinned fibers from younger (18-33 yr, n = 8) and older (53-77 yr, n = 9) runners. Force-time characteristics of the knee extensors were determined by using isometric contraction. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was unchanged with age, whereas that of type II fibers was reduced (P < 0.001). With age there was an increased MHC I (P < 0.01) and reduced MHC IIx isoform content (P < 0.05) but no differences in MHC IIa. Specific tension of type I and IIa MHC fibers did not differ between younger and older subjects. V(o) of fibers expressing type I MHC was lower (P < 0.05) in older than in younger subjects, but there was no difference in V(o) of type IIa MHC fibers. An aging-related decline of maximal isometric force (P < 0.001) and normalized rate of force development (P < 0.05) of knee extensors was observed. Normalized rate of force development was positively associated with MHC II (P < 0.05). The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower V(o) of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle. PMID:16690791

  18. Reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin increasingly relies on Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms during whole body cooling

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, John D.; Holowatz, Lacy A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    Primary human aging may be associated with augmented Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle and ROCK-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that the contribution of ROCK to reflex vasoconstriction (VC) is greater in aged skin. Cutaneous VC was elicited by 1) whole body cooling [mean skin temperature (Tsk) = 30.5°C] and 2) local norepinephrine (NE) infusion (1 × 10−6 M). Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin of eight young (Y) and eight older (O) subjects for infusion of 1) Ringer solution (control), 2) 3 mM fasudil (ROCK inhibition), 3) 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (NOS inhibition), and 4) both ROCK + NOS inhibitors. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline CVC (%ΔCVCbaseline). VC was reduced at the control site in O during cooling (Y, −34 ± 3; and O, −18 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.001) and NE infusion (Y, −53 ± 4, and O, −41 ± 9%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.006). Fasudil attenuated VC in both age groups during mild cooling; however, this reduction remained only in O but not in Y skin during moderate cooling (Y, −30 ± 5; and O, −7 ± 1%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.016) and was not altered by NOS inhibition. Fasudil blunted NE-mediated VC in both age groups (Y, −23 ± 4; and O, −7 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.01). Cumulatively, these data indicate that reflex VC is more reliant on ROCK in aged skin such that approximately half of the total VC response to whole body cooling is ROCK dependent. PMID:19717729

  19. Type I Interferons: Key Players in Normal Skin and Select Cutaneous Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are a family of naturally existing glycoproteins known for their antiviral activity and their ability to influence the behavior of normal and transformed cell types. Type I Interferons include IFN-α and IFN-β. Currently, IFN-α has numerous approved antitumor applications, including malignant melanoma, in which IFN-α has been shown to increase relapse free survival. Moreover, IFN-α has been successfully used in the intralesional treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In spite of these promising clinical results; however, there exists a paucity of knowledge on the precise anti-tumor action of IFN-α/β at the cellular and molecular levels in cutaneous malignancies such as SCC, BCC, and melanoma. This review summarizes current knowledge on the extent to which Type I IFN influences proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune function in normal skin, cutaneous SCC, BCC, and melanoma. PMID:24516470

  20. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  1. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes

  2. How type of excuse defense, mock juror age, and defendant age affect mock jurors' decisions.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Pamela L; Heath, Wendy P; Grannemann, Bruce D

    2007-08-01

    The authors investigated the effects of mock juror age (younger vs. older), defendant age (22 vs. 65), and type of excuse defense used by defendants (a highly self-inflicted condition, Cocaine Dependency Disorder, vs. a less self-inflicted condition, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) on mock juror decisions. Ninety-six younger and 96 older adults read a scenario and answered a questionnaire. Results indicated that the defendant using the highly self-inflicted excuse was more likely to receive a guilty verdict and a longer sentence than was the defendant using the less self-inflicted excuse. Older jurors were more certain of their verdicts and saw the defendant as more responsible for his condition than did younger jurors. Defendant age did not affect juror decisions. In addition, excuse type and juror age affected the jurors' perceptions of the victim's responsibility for the attack. The authors discuss the potential influence of juror age on perceptions of defendant responsibility. PMID:17955749

  3. UV radiation exposure, skin type and lymphoid malignancies: results of a French case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Laure; Orsi, Laurent; Troussard, Xavier; Monnereau, Alain; Berthou, Christian; Fenaux, Pierre; Marit, Gerald; Soubeyran, Pierre; Huguet, Françoise; Milpied, Noël; Leporrier, Michel; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the relationship between skin type, UV exposure and lymphoid malignancies (LM). Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in France, including 813 incident cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS) or multiple myeloma and 748 controls. Results Positive associations between HL and blond/red hair (OR=1.8 [0.8–3.8]), very fair/fair skin (OR=1.6 [1.0–2.5]) were observed. High propensity to burn was associated with HL (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.2]) and LPS (OR=1.4 [1.0–2.1]). Poor ability to tan was significantly associated with HL (OR=1.7 [1.0–2.8]). Having light hair with high propensity to burn was associated with NHL (OR=1.5 [0.9–2.5]) and significantly with HL (OR=3.4 [1.4–8.4]). Having dark hair with high propensity to burn was significantly associated with LPS (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.0]). The associations with HL and NHL were significant for men only, with significant interactions. Outdoors activities since leaving school or in the last decade were not related to LM. Only an almost negative trend was observed. Prior exposure to artificial UV was not associated with LM. Conclusion These results suggest a positive association between the most reactive and palest skin types and NHL or HL in men and do not rule out a slight negative relationship between UV exposure and LM. PMID:18040875

  4. Skin Infections in Young People (Aged 14-18 Years): An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Catherine I.; Hoare, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature…

  5. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  6. Apigenin inhibits UVA-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prevents signs of skin aging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungjin; Youn, Jeungyeun; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; An, In-Sook; Kwon, Seungbin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-08-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin on skin and found that, in experiments using cells, apigenin restored the viability of normal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs), which had been decreased by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the UVA range. Using a senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal assay, we also demonstrate that apigenin protects against the UVA-induced senescence of nHDFs. Furthermore, we found that apigenin decreased the expression of the collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in UVA-irradiated nHDFs. UVA, which has been previously identified as a photoaging-inducing factor, has been shown to induce MMP-1 expression. The elevated expression of MMP-1 impairs the collagen matrix, leading to the loss of elasticity and skin dryness. Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of apigenin on aged skin, using an apigenin‑containing cream for clinical application. Specifically, we measured dermal density, skin elasticity and the length of fine wrinkles in subjects treated with apigenin cream or the control cream without apigenin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the apigenin-containing cream on skin texture, moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). From these experiments, we found that the apigenin‑containing cream increased dermal density and elasticity, and reduced fine wrinkle length. It also improved skin evenness, moisture content and TEWL. These results clearly demonstrate the biological effects of apigenin, demonstrating both its cellular and clinical efficacy, and suggest that this compound holds promise as an anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:27279007

  7. Performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to pesticides during open field treatment.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to five pesticides (azinphos-methyl, terbutylazine, alachlor, dimethoate, and dicamba) in field distribution by tractor equipped with boom sprayer. Performance was assessed by measuring the penetration factors of different types of work clothing. The results show that the protection offered by personal protective equipment (PPE) was always >97%, whereas the performance of cotton garments ranged from 84.1% to 92.5%. The different cotton garments differed significantly in their permeability, and the upper part of the body was the anatomical region showing the greatest values of the penetration factors. These results confirm the necessity of using PPE properly to minimise dermal exposure to pesticides. PMID:19424648

  8. The Age Related Properties of Solar Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-01-01

    The studies of lithium in solar-type stars in clusters of a wide range of ages has provided critical information on a tracer of convective processes, especially among very young stars. Our most recent work has been on a pre-main sequence cluster (NGC 2264) that took place after this grant expired, but was founded on it. The spread seen in Li in Zero-Age Main Sequence clusters like the Pleiades is huge and possibly related to rotation. No clear spread in seen in NGC 2264, so it does not have its origins in the conditions of formation but is instead a result of processes occurring during PMS evolution. Our observations of M67 were particularly interesting because this cluster is the same age as the Sun, i.e.,very old. Clear evidence was seen for a spread in Li there too, indicating that the spread seen in very young stars perpetuates itself into old age.

  9. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  10. How best to halt and/or revert UV-induced skin ageing: strategies, facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Berneburg, M; Trelles, M; Friguet, B; Ogden, S; Esrefoglu, M; Kaya, G; Goldberg, D J; Mordon, S; Calderhead, R G; Griffiths, C E M; Saurat, J H; Thappa, D M

    2008-03-01

    Once considered mainly a cosmetic issue, photoageing research has long moved to the forefront of investigative dermatology. Besides obvious market pressures, increasing insight into the mechanistic overlap between UV-induced skin cancer and UV-induced skin ageing has contributed to this development. Also, as strategies that work to antagonize intrinsic skin ageing/senescence may also be exploited against photoageing (and vice versa!), it has become an important skin research challenge to dissect both the differences and the overlap mechanisms between these interwined, yet distinct phenomena. Finally, the current surge in putative 'antiageing' products, devices, and strategies - too many of which boldly promise to fight and/or repair the perils that come along with a lifetime spent in the sun in the absence of convincing evidence of efficacy - makes it particularly pertinent to critically review the available evidence to support often made antiageing claims. The current CONTROVERSIES feature, therefore, aimed to provide both guidance through, and critical voices in, the antiageing circus. Here, a panel of experts defines relevant key problems, points the uninaugurated to intriguing aspects of photoageing that one may not have considered before, highlights promising strategies for how best to halt and/or revert it, and spiritedly debates some controversially discussed approaches. PMID:18261088

  11. Ultrasonic Stimulation of Mouse Skin Reverses the Healing Delays in Diabetes and Aging by Activation of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher A M; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Chronic skin-healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong well-being, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed, and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of the skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in the skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds. PMID:26079528

  12. Ultrasonic stimulation of mouse skin reverses the healing delays in diabetes and aging by activation of Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher AM; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds. PMID:26079528

  13. Myofibrillar ATPase activity in skinned human skeletal muscle fibres: fibre type and temperature dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, G J; Kiers, J L; Bottinelli, R; Reggiani, C

    1996-01-01

    1. Myofibrillar ATP consumption and isometric tension (P0) were determined in chemically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from human rectus abdominis and vastus lateralis muscle. Fibres were classified in four groups (I, IIA, IIB, IIA/B or mixed) based on myosin heavy chain composition. 2. ATP consumption (+/- S.E.M.) at 20 degrees C varied from 0.41 +/- 0.06 mmol l-1 s-1 in type IIB fibres (n = 5) to 0.10 +/- 0.01 mmol l-1 s-1 in type I fibres (n = 13). 3. The ratio between ATPase activity and P0 (tension cost) differed significantly between fast type II and slow type I fibres. At 12 degrees C tension cost was lower than the values found previously in corresponding fibre types in the rat. 4. The relative increase in ATPase activity for a 10 degrees C temperature change (Q10), determined in the range from 12 to 30 degrees C, was temperature independent and amounted to 2.60 +/- 0.06. The increase in P0 with temperature was smaller and declined when the temperature increased. 5. From these measurements, estimates were obtained for the maximum rate of isometric ATP consumption and force development at muscle temperature in vivo (35 degrees C). Images Figure 1 PMID:8782097

  14. Effects of irradiation on growth and toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum types A and B inoculated onto chicken skins

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfulian, M.; Bartlett, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of 0.3-Mrad irradiation on growth and toxigenicity of Clostridum botulinum types A and B on chicken skins. Irradiation followed by aerobic or anaerobic incubation at 30/sup 0/C extended the shelf life of skin samples and delayed growth and toxin production by C. botulinum. During 2 weeks of incubation at 10/sup 0/C, the irradiated and nonirradiated C. botulinum spores failed to grow or produce toxin.

  15. In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and α-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions. PMID:24971146

  16. Geriatric dermatoses: a clinical review of skin diseases in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Huynh, Trung V; Silverman, Melissa A; Zaidi, Zohra

    2012-05-01

    Geriatric dermatoses are a challenging job for the physician in terms of diagnosis, management, and followup. Since skin of the elderly population is going through a lot of changes from both an intrinsic and extrinsic point of view, it is imperative for the physician to have a better understanding of the pathophysiology of geriatric skin disorders and their specific management, which differs slightly from an adult population. This review focuses on a brief introduction to the pathophysiological aspects of skin disorders in elderly, the description of some common geriatric skin disorders and their management and the new emerging role of psychodermatological aspects of geriatric dermatoses is also discussed. At the end, ten multiple choice questions are also added to further enhance the knowledge base of the readers. PMID:22515576

  17. Bovine papillomavirus type 9 induces epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers.

    PubMed

    Hatama, Shinichi; Nishida, Tomoko; Kadota, Koichi; Uchida, Ikuo; Kanno, Toru

    2009-05-12

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether papillomas could be induced on the teat skin of heifers by intradermal injection with bovine papillomavirus type 9 (BPV-9). Three heifers (#1 and 2, two 0.5-year-old Holsteins; #3, a 1.5-year-old Japanese Black) were injected with BPV-9 and one heifer (#4, a 0.5-year-old Holstein) was mock-infected. Viral DNA load in the inocula was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and adjusted to 1.56x10(12) copies per injection. Papillomas appeared at the injection sites in the BPV-9-injected heifers #1, 2 and 3 and grew over the 8 (#1 and 2) and 4 (#3)mo observation period, respectively. However, no papillomas were found in the mock-infected heifer #4. The experimentally induced papillomas were excised and examined. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis with hyperkeratosis and marked acanthosis and were morphologically similar to naturally occurring lesions. BPV-9 DNA and bovine papillomavirus capsid antigen were abundant in the lesions. Therefore, we conclude that BPV-9 is an etiological agent causing epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers. PMID:19095383

  18. Increased ZAP70 Is Involved in Dry Skin Pruritus in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Gu, Min; Yang, Wenxiu; Zhang, Man; Tian, Qi; Ru, Liyan; Lü, Yang; Yu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Dry skin pruritus is common in the elderly. Recent reports show that T-cell signal path is involved in dry skin pruritus. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70), as a T-cell receptor, may induce interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion and promote nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion in skin. This study aimed to detect the alteration of ZAP70 in a mice model with dry skin pruritus. The C57BL mice with 5 months and 22 months were used as experimental animal. Following a 5-day period of treatment of back with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water (AEW), mice exhibited a significant increase in spontaneous scratching behavior directed to the treated back compared to control animals in which back was similarly treated with water only (W). After AEW process, spontaneous scratching in 22-month AEW mice was increased compared to 5-month AEW mice. Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR data analysis showed that ZAP70 expression was significantly increased in 22-month AEW mice compared with 5-month AEW mice. ELISA data showed that secretions of IL-2 and NGF in 22-month AEW mice were higher than 5-month AEW mice. Our results indicate that increased ZAP70 is involved in dry skin in elderly pruritus. Increased secretion of IL-2 and NGF may induce dry skin itch. PMID:27195291

  19. Study of fibroblast gene expression in response to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or UVA with skin aging.

    PubMed

    Hazane-Puch, Florence; Bonnet, Mathilde; Valenti, Kita; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Kurfurst, Robin; Favier, Alain; Sauvaigo, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The skin aging process, implying oxidative stress, is associated with specific gene expression. Ultraviolet A (UVA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) making them relevant in the study of skin cell responses to oxidative stresses. To investigate transcript expression associated with chronological skin aging and its modulation by two oxidative stresses, cDNA micro-arrays, composed of a set of 81 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones, were used to probe the patterns of transcript expression in human fibroblasts of five young (< 21 years-old) and five older (> 50 years-old) healthy females at basal levels and 24 h after exposure to UVA (7 J/cm2) and H(2)O(2) (20 mM). At the basal state, 22% of total genes were up-regulated in the older group. Although both stresses led to the same cell mortality, H(2)O(2) induced a stronger modulation of gene expression than UVA, with 19.5% of transcripts up-regulated versus 4%. The aging process affected the response to H(2)O(2) and even though cells from old donors presented higher basal levels of transcripts they were not able to regulate them in response to the stress. Interestingly, UVA had a specific strong inhibitory effect on the expression of chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2) transcript, suggesting a possible mechanism for its anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. PMID:20299309

  20. Influence of chronic UV exposure and lifestyle on facial skin photo-aging--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akiba, S; Shinkura, R; Miyamoto, K; Hillebrand, G; Yamaguchi, N; Ichihashi, M

    1999-12-01

    In order to better understand the effect of chronic sun exposure on facial skin photo-aging and to identify the factors affecting it, we planned a study in two areas in Japan, Akita and Kagoshima, which correspond to the low and high sun exposure environments, respectively. As a first step, we conducted a pilot study in the two areas, examining 195 subjects. Hyper-pigmentation and wrinkling were measured with a high-resolution digital video imaging system. As expected, people in Kagoshima had darker skin, higher visual grades of facial hyper-pigmentation, and more facial wrinkles than people in Akita, reflecting the difference of UV exposure levels in the two areas. Both the grades of hyper-pigmentation and number of wrinkles increased in a roughly linear fashion with the advancement of age. On the other hand, the effect of gender was different in those two skin photo-aging parameters. Women had higher hyper-pigmentation grades (P = 0.012) and less wrinkles (P = 0.004) than men. Interestingly, post-menopausal women had higher grades of hyper-pigmentation than pre-menopausal women. Neither sun exposure index for darkness nor wrinkling showed any significant differences by menopausal status. In this pilot study, we collected information on various factors, including life-styles. The results of detail analysis will be presented elsewhere. In the present analysis, we found that the grade of hyper-pigmentation was not related to total hours spent outside in life but was affected by various factors, including toe-nail zinc levels. On the other hand, the number of wrinkles was significantly related to total hours spent outside in life. The most important risk factors of non-melanoma skin cancer are chronic sun exposure, age and male sex. All of them are strongly related to higher levels of UV exposure. The present study confirmed that chronic sun exposure, age and male sex were strong risk factors of the wrinkle number. The number of wrinkles was significantly related to

  1. Positive skin prick tests of immediate type in non-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E; Kiss, A G; Mezei, G; Kelemen, J; Puskás, J

    1983-01-01

    Prick tests with twenty different Beneard antigens were performed in 300 children aged 2-16 years, all having a negative individual and familial history for allergic disease. At least one positive result was obtained in 64% of the children and among the 6000 tests a total of 727 were positive. Of the positive tests 93% were + or ++, 7% were +++ or ++++. No relationship was found between age and the incidence of positive skin tests. Mild reactions against more than one antigen in the same individual were quite frequent, pronounced reactions (+++ or ++++) against more than one antigen were exceptional. The incidence of mild reactions was found to be independent of the gender; strong reactions occurred in girls twice as often as in boys. The highest incidence of positive reactions was observed with house-dust mite, pollens, hay and straw dust, and canine and feline hairs. The diagnostic value of mild positivity is slight but pronounced positivity, especially against more than one antigen, must carefully be considered and in any case followed by a bronchial provocation test. PMID:6639791

  2. [Combined application of electric myo-stimulation and meso-therapy for the correction of age-related changes of the facial skin].

    PubMed

    Rozhanets, A R; Turova, E A; Kul'chitskaia, D B

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of mesotherapy (MT) and electrostimulation (EMS) on age-related changes of the facial skin. The secondary objective was to identify factors influencing the therapeutic efficiency of these methods. The study included 60 women aged from 30 to 59 years. All the patients were examined prior to the onset and in the end (after one month) of the corrective treatment. Facial skin conditions were assessed using a Skin XP Pro system and skin microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The psychological status of the patients was evaluated with the help of the Well-being-Activity-Mood test. After the primary examination, the participants of the study were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=30) included women treated by MT and EMS, the control group 2 (n=30) was comprised of the patients who did not receive the above treatment. The results of the study indicate that combine MT + EMS therapy significantly improves the state of facial skin, decreases its pigmentation, reduces the number and depth of wrinkles, enhances skin moisture, improves its elasticity and decreases porosity. Dynamics of these parameters and overall effect of correction were shown to correlate with the severity of skin changes before the treatment. Age-related changes in the facial skin were especially well-apparent in women with the lowered activity level and impaired mood. Characteristics of mood in the course of therapeutic correction correlated with dynamics of skin smoothness and elasticity. PMID:21086592

  3. Skin human papillomavirus type 38 alters p53 functions by accumulation of deltaNp73.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Dong, Wen; Smet, Anouk; Cui, Rutao; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Sylla, Bakary S; Gissmann, Lutz; Hainaut, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo

    2006-03-01

    The E6 and E7 of the cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) type 38 immortalize primary human keratinocytes, an event normally associated with the inactivation of pathways controlled by the tumour suppressor p53. Here, we show for the first time that HPV38 alters p53 functions. Expression of HPV38 E6 and E7 in human keratinocytes or in the skin of transgenic mice induces stabilization of wild-type p53. This selectively activates the transcription of deltaNp73, an isoform of the p53-related protein p73, which in turn inhibits the capacity of p53 to induce the transcription of genes involved in growth suppression and apoptosis. DeltaNp73 downregulation by an antisense oligonucleotide leads to transcriptional re-activation of p53-regulated genes and apoptosis. Our findings illustrate a novel mechanism of the alteration of p53 function that is mediated by a cutaneous HPV type and support the role of HPV38 and deltaNp73 in human carcinogenesis. PMID:16397624

  4. Skin human papillomavirus type 38 alters p53 functions by accumulation of ΔNp73

    PubMed Central

    Accardi, Rosita; Dong, Wen; Smet, Anouk; Cui, Rutao; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Sylla, Bakary S; Gissmann, Lutz; Hainaut, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The E6 and E7 of the cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) type 38 immortalize primary human keratinocytes, an event normally associated with the inactivation of pathways controlled by the tumour suppressor p53. Here, we show for the first time that HPV38 alters p53 functions. Expression of HPV38 E6 and E7 in human keratinocytes or in the skin of transgenic mice induces stabilization of wild-type p53. This selectively activates the transcription of ΔNp73, an isoform of the p53-related protein p73, which in turn inhibits the capacity of p53 to induce the transcription of genes involved in growth suppression and apoptosis. ΔNp73 downregulation by an antisense oligonucleotide leads to transcriptional re-activation of p53-regulated genes and apoptosis. Our findings illustrate a novel mechanism of the alteration of p53 function that is mediated by a cutaneous HPV type and support the role of HPV38 and ΔNp73 in human carcinogenesis. PMID:16397624

  5. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  6. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  7. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  8. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M.; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  9. High Prevalence of Skin Diseases and Need for Treatment in a Middle-Aged Population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M.; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population. PMID:24911008

  10. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  11. Herpes simplex type 2 virus deleted in glycoprotein D protects against vaginal, skin and neural disease

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Christopher; González, Pablo A; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jandl, Thomas; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; Bénard, Angèle; Sengupta, Mayami; Herold, Betsy C; Jacobs, William R

    2015-01-01

    Subunit vaccines comprised of glycoprotein D (gD-2) failed to prevent HSV-2 highlighting need for novel strategies. To test the hypothesis that deletion of gD-2 unmasks protective antigens, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of an HSV-2 virus deleted in gD-2 and complemented allowing a single round of replication on cells expressing HSV-1 gD (ΔgD−/+gD−1). Subcutaneous immunization of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with ΔgD−/+gD1 provided 100% protection against lethal intravaginal or skin challenges and prevented latency. ΔgD−/+gD1 elicited no disease in SCID mice, whereas 1000-fold lower doses of wild-type virus were lethal. HSV-specific antibodies were detected in serum (titer 1:800,000) following immunization and in vaginal washes after intravaginal challenge. The antibodies elicited cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but little neutralizing activity. Passive transfer of immune serum completely protected wild-type, but not Fcγ-receptor or neonatal Fc-receptor knock-out mice. These studies demonstrate that non-neutralizing Fc-mediated humoral responses confer protection and support advancement of this attenuated vaccine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06054.001 PMID:25756612

  12. Evaluation of Apoptosis in Skin Biopsies of Patients of Borderline Leprosy and Lepra Type 1 Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Agarwal, Sarla; Sharma, Sonal; Sharma, Satendra; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of apoptosis is not clear in leprosy and lepra reactions. Objectives: To evaluate frequency of apoptosis in skin lesions of borderline leprosy and Type 1 lepra reaction. Methods: Sixty patients with borderline leprosy (30 with clinically diagnosed Type 1 reaction (T1R) (Group I) and 30 without clinical evidence of reaction (Group II)) were analyzed in this prospective study. Apoptosis was detected by two different methods for comparison, that is, histopathologic examination (HPE) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and electrophoresis. Quantification of apoptotic bodies/10 high power fields (HPF) was also done. Results: Out of 30 cases, apoptosis was detected in 29 cases in Group I and 24 cases in Group II by HPE (P = 0.103), whereas, with the use of DNA electrophoresis it was detected in 24 cases in Group I and 18 cases in Group II (P = 0.091). On quantitative estimation it was found that number of apoptotic bodies are higher in Group I in comparison to Group II (2.77 vs 1.99), which is statistically significant. Conclusions: There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.47) between the two methods of apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was seen more in patients with T1R both qualitatively (statistically nonsignificant) and quantitatively (statistically significant). Clinical significance of this novel finding is that apoptosis can be used as one of the variables for diagnosis of T1R to increase detection rate. PMID:25657399

  13. Evaluation of peripheral vasodilative indices in skin tissue of type 1 diabetic rats by use of RGB images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a method to evaluate the arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats from RGB digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the dorsal reversed McFarlane skin flap are calculated based on the responses of change in the total blood concentration to occlusion of blood flow to and from the flap tissues at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin flap tissue were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic rat group compared with the non-diabetic rat group. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus.

  14. Permeation of sumatriptan succinate across human skin using multiple types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays fabricated from sodium hyaluronate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Available formulations of sumatriptan succinate (SS) have low bioavailability or are associated with site reactions. We developed various types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs) fabricated from sodium hyaluronate as a new delivery system for SS and evaluated their skin permeation and irritation in terms of clinical application. In vitro permeation studies with human skin, physicochemical properties (needle length, thickness and density), and penetration enhancers (glycerin, sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauric acid diethanolamide) were investigated. SS-loaded high-density MNs of 800 µm in length were the optimal formulation and met clinical therapeutic requirements. Penetration enhancers did not significantly affect permeation of SS from MNs. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrated that SS-loaded high-density MNs (800 µm) uniformly created drug permeation pathways for the delivery of SS into the skin. SS-loaded high-density MNs induced moderate primary skin irritations in rats, but the skin recovered within 72 h of removal of the MNs. These findings suggest that high-density MNs of 800 µm in length are an effective and promising formulation for transdermal delivery of SS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SS permeation across human skin using self-dissolving MNs. PMID:26878569

  15. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  18. Caffeine Consumption Contributes to Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eny, Karen M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Miller, Rachel Grace; Maynard, John; Grant, Denis M.; Costacou, Tina; Cleary, Patricia A.; Braffett, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: A variant (rs1495741) in the gene for the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) protein is associated with skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a noninvasive measure of advanced glycation end products and other fluorophores in the skin. Because NAT2 is involved in caffeine metabolism, we aimed to determine whether caffeine consumption is associated with SIF and whether rs1495741 is associated with SIF independently of caffeine. Materials and Methods: SIF was measured in 1,181 participants with type 1 diabetes from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Two measures of SIF were used: SIF1, using a 375-nm excitation light-emitting diode (LED), and SIF14 (456-nm LED). Food frequency questionnaires were used to estimate mean caffeine intake. To establish replication, we examined a second type 1 diabetes cohort. Results: Higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with higher SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] (P=2×10−32) and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P=7×10−31) and accounted for 4% of the variance in each after adjusting for covariates. When analyzed together, caffeine intake and rs1495741 both remained highly significantly associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8]. Mean caffeinated coffee intake was also positively associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] (P=9×10−12) and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P=4×10−12), but no association was observed for decaffeinated coffee intake. Finally, caffeine was also positively associated with SIF1LED 375 nm[0.6, 0.2] and SIF14LED 456 nm[0.4, 0.8] (P<0.0001) in the replication cohort. Conclusions: Caffeine contributes to SIF. The effect of rs1495741 on SIF appears to be partially independent of caffeine consumption. Because SIF and coffee intake are each associated with cardiovascular disease, our findings suggest that accounting for coffee and/or caffeine intake may improve risk prediction models for SIF and cardiovascular

  19. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  20. Rapid skin profiling with non-contact full-field optical coherence tomography: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, P.; Talary, M. S.; Kolm, I.; Caduff, A.

    2009-07-01

    The application of the full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope to the characterisation of skin morphology is described. An automated procedure for analysis and interpretation of the OCT data has been developed which provides measures of the laterally averaged depth profiles of the skin reflectance. The skin at the dorsal side of the upper arm of 22 patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus has been characterised in a non-contact way. The OCT signal profile was compared with the optical histological data obtained with a commercial confocal microscope (CM). The highest correlation to the epidermal thickness (ET) obtained using CM was found for the distance from the entrance OCT peak to the first minimum of the reflection profile (R2=0.657, p<0.0001). The distance to the second OCT reflection peak was found to be less correlated to ET (R2=0.403, p=0.0009). A further analysis was undertaken to explore the relation between the subjects' demographical data and the OCT reflection profile. The distance to the second OCT peak demonstrated a correlation with a marginal statistical significance for the body-mass index (positive correlation with p=0.01) and age (negative correlation with p=0.062). At the same time the amplitude of the OCT signal, when compensated for signal attenuation with depth, is negatively correlated with age (p<0.0002). We suggest that this may be an effect of photo degradation of the dermal collagen. In the patient population studied, no relation could be determined between the measured skin morphology and the duration of diabetes or concentration of glycated haemoglobin in the blood.

  1. Gene expression differences in skin fibroblasts in identical twins discordant for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Caramori, M Luiza; Kim, Youngki; Moore, Jason H; Rich, Stephen S; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Kikyo, Nobuaki; Mauer, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Clinical studies suggest metabolic memory to hyperglycemia. We tested whether diabetes leads to persistent systematic in vitro gene expression alterations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with their monozygotic, nondiabetic twins. Microarray gene expression was determined in skin fibroblasts (SFs) of five twin pairs cultured in high glucose (HG) for ∼6 weeks. The Exploratory Visual Analysis System tested group differences in gene expression levels within KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. An overabundance of differentially expressed genes was found in eight pathways: arachidonic acid metabolism (P = 0.003849), transforming growth factor-β signaling (P = 0.009167), glutathione metabolism (P = 0.01281), glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (P = 0.01949), adherens junction (P = 0.03134), dorsal-ventral axis formation (P = 0.03695), proteasome (P = 0.04327), and complement and coagulation cascade (P = 0.04666). Several genes involved in epigenetic mechanisms were also differentially expressed. All differentially expressed pathways and all the epigenetically relevant differentially expressed genes have previously been related to HG in vitro or to diabetes and its complications in animal and human studies. However, this is the first in vitro study demonstrating diabetes-relevant gene expression differences between T1D-discordant identical twins. These SF gene expression differences, persistent despite the HG in vitro conditions, likely reflect "metabolic memory", and discordant identical twins thus represent an excellent model for studying diabetic epigenetic processes in humans. PMID:22315306

  2. Variation in the determinants of power of chemically skinned type I rat soleus muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Sally F; Jones, David A; Rittweger, Jörn; Degens, Hans

    2011-04-01

    We explored to which extent maximal velocity of shortening (Vmax), force per cross-sectional area (specific tension, Po) and curvature of the force-velocity relationship (a/Po in the Hill equation) contribute to differences in peak power of single, chemically skinned rat type I fibres. Force-velocity relationships were determined from isotonic contractions of 94 maximally activated fibres. Peak power (±SD) was 3.50±1.64 WL(-1). There was a tenfold range of peak power and five-, six- and fourfold ranges for Po, Vmax and a/Po, respectively. None of the differences between fibres was explicable by differences in myosin heavy or light chain composition. The inverse relationship between a/Po and Vmax suggests a similar underlying cause. Fitting the data to the Huxley (Progr Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318, 1957) cross-bridge model showed that the rate constant g (2) and the sum of the rate constants (f+g(1)) co-varied, both being low in the slowest fibres. Approximately 16% of the variation in Po could be explained by variation in the proportion of attached cycling cross-bridges (f/(f+g(1))), but the origin of most of the variance in Po remains unknown. PMID:21120505

  3. Integrated aquitard-aquifer flow with a mixed-type well-face boundary and skin effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinggao; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-03-01

    A general analytical model describing groundwater flow to a partially penetrating well pumped at a constant rate in a leaky confined aquifer is developed. The model incorporates the effects of aquitard storage, aquifer anisotropy, wellbore storage and a finite well skin by treating the aquitard leakage as an aquitard-aquifer interface flow problem, and considers the well-face as a mixed-type or non-uniform flux (NUF) rather than a uniform flux (UF) boundary condition, which is novel. The solution is obtained using the Laplace transform coupled with separation of variables and discretization methods, followed by the numerical inverse Laplace transform. Moreover, the solution unifies some cases for flow to a partially penetrating well in a leaky confined aquifer including Perina and Lee (2006), Feng and Zhan (2015) and Hunt (2005) or confined aquifer including Chiu et al. (2007), Yang et al. (2006) and Hantush (1964). The newly developed NUF solution is compared with the UF solution. The NUF drawdown is larger than the UF drawdown at early time, while the NUF drawdown is smaller than the UF drawdown at intermediate and late times. The non-uniform flux along the well-face has significant impact on drawdown in the skin zone, while the UF solution can completely replace the NUF solution at a radial distance from the pumped well equaling to or greater than the aquifer thickness. The NUF and UF drawdowns for no skin case are remarkably smaller than that for the positive skin case and larger than that for the negative skin case. A thicker well skin results in a smaller drawdown in the skin zone.

  4. Practical application of cellular bioenergetics to the care of aged skin.

    PubMed

    Osborne, R; Carver, R S; Mullins, L A; Finlay, D R

    2013-07-01

    In human skin fibroblasts in vitro, procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH were reduced in three strains of adult fibroblasts compared with neonatal fibroblasts. The levels of both procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH were increased in the adult fibroblasts by treatment for 24 (NAD energy) or 48 h (procollagen-1) with a complex containing niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS peptide and an olive oil fatty acid derivative (Olivem(®)), especially in combination with a natural extract from dill (Lys'lastine V(®)). In one of the adult fibroblast strains evaluated, these changes in procollagen-1 and NAD(+)/NADH in response to the complex of bioactives were in parallel with increased expression of mRNA biomarkers related primarily to dermal matrix and basement membrane structure, including COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL14A1, ELN and LOXL2, in addition to SOD2, NAMPT and TGFBR3; MMP1 was decreased in expression. In general, these mRNA biomarker effects were maintained or boosted by the addition of Lys'lastine V, particularly at 1%, and were similar to the fold changes in mRNA expression in neonatal compared with adult fibroblasts. These results indicate that the complex of niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS and Olivem, especially with addition of Lys'lastine V, increases the NAD(+)/NADH bioenergy level of adult skin fibroblasts in parallel with increased expression of skin structure biomarkers in vitro to levels similar to those in younger fibroblasts. Thus, niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS, Olivem and Lys'lastine V are promising bioactive candidates for inclusion in cosmetic formulations. PMID:23786618

  5. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  6. Role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongming; Li, Juncong; Wang, Yihe; Hu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts. The secondary aim was to provide theoretical basis for the molecular mechanisms of scar formation induced by LPS. Methods: The normal skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro were randomly divided into four groups: 0.1 μg/mL LPS reference group, CD14 pretreatment + LPS, TLR4 pretreatment + LPS, CD14 and TLR4 pretreatment + LPS. The collagen DNA synthesis was assessed by 3H-proline incorporation method. Real-time Quantitative PCR was used to detect type I, type III collagen mRNA expression. Results: Similar results were revealed for mRNA expression levels. The immunofluorescence staining suggested that type I and type III collagen were expressed in all investigated groups and that the expression was differentially downregulated in groups B, C, D. ELISA demonstrated markedly decreased levels in secreting type I, type III collagens and hydroxyproline in groups B, C, D (P<0.05), and the lowest level was detected in group D (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pretreatment with CD14 or TLR4 alone or their combination can significantly reduce the levels of type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion, with the most notable reduction detected in case of CD14 and TLR4 combined. We could thus conclude that both CD14 and TLR4 are involved in type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced skin fibroblasts. PMID:25932184

  7. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117. PMID:26483238

  8. Influence of nanocarrier type and size on skin delivery of hydrophilic agents.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Sarah; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona; Lamprecht, Alf; Radowski, Michal R; Haag, Rainer; Schäfer-Korting, Monika

    2009-07-30

    The nanoparticulate carrier systems solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanotransporters gained interest for the topical treatment of skin diseases as they facilitate the skin penetration of loaded lipophilic drugs. Here, we studied if these carrier systems are also suitable drug delivery systems for more hydrophilic agents using the dye rhodamin B as model compound. Furthermore, the influence of the particle size on the skin penetration was investigated. Loading rhodamin B onto SLN (250-340 nm) and CMS nanotransporters (20-30 nm), the dye amount increased significantly in viable epidermis and dermis as compared to a conventional cream. CMS nanotransporters were most efficient. Creating nanoparticles of 50-200 nm demonstrated only marginal size effect for the skin penetration. Therefore, the superiority of the CMS nanotransporters seems to be attributed to the character of the nanoparticles and not to its smaller size. PMID:19439166

  9. An improved method for the preparation of type I collagen from skin.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Christina A; MacKay, Allison A; Cowan, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Soluble type 1 collagen (COL1) is used extensively as an adhesive substrate for cell cultures and as a cellular scaffold for regenerative applications. Clinically, this protein is widely used for cosmetic surgery, dermal injections, bone grafting, and reconstructive surgery. The sources of COL1 for these procedures are commonly nonhuman, which increases the potential for inflammation and rejection as well as xenobiotic disease transmission. In view of this, a method to efficiently and quickly purify COL1 from limited quantities of autologously-derived tissues would circumvent many of these issues; however, standard isolation protocols are lengthy and often require large quantities of collagenous tissues. Here, we demonstrate an efficient COL1 extraction method that reduces the time needed to isolate and purify this protein from about 10 days to less than 3 hr. We chose the dermis as our tissue source because of its availability during many surgical procedures. This method uses traditional extraction buffers combined with forceful agitation and centrifugal filtration to obtain highly-pure, soluble COL1 from small amounts of corium. Briefly, dermal biopsies are washed thoroughly in ice-cold dH2O after removing fat, connective tissue, and hair. The skin samples are stripped of noncollagenous proteins and polysaccharides using 0.5 M sodium acetate and a high speed bench-top homogenizer. Collagen from residual solids is subsequently extracted with a 0.075 M sodium citrate buffer using the homogenizer. These extracts are purified using 100,000 MW cut-off centrifugal filters that yield COL1 preparations of comparable or superior quality to commercial products or those obtained using traditional procedures. We anticipate this method will facilitate the utilization of autologously-derived COL1 for a multitude of research and clinical applications. PMID:24473107

  10. Complementation studies of isovaleric acidemia and glutaric aciduria type II using cultured skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Dubiel, B; Dabrowski, C; Wetts, R; Tanaka, K

    1983-01-01

    Using cultured skin fibroblasts, we studied the heterogeneity of inborn errors of leucine metabolism such as isovaleric acidemia (IVA), glutaric aciduria type II (GA II), and multiple carboxylase deficiency (MC). We first developed a simple macromolecular-labeling test to measure the ability of cells to oxidize [1-14C]isovaleric acid in situ in culture. Cells from two different lines were fused using polyethylene glycol, and the ability of the heterokaryons to oxidize [1-14C]isovaleric acid was tested by the macromolecular-labeling test. The MC line complemented with all 10 IVA lines tested; heterokaryons showed 99 +/- 68% more activity than the unfused mixture of component cells. GA II/IVA heterokaryons exhibited poor growth, but when the culture remained confluent, the GA II cells complemented with all six IVA lines tested, showing a 71 +/- 41% increase in activity. The relatively large standard deviations are due to a few experiments in which significant enhancement of macromolecular-labeling test activity was not observed upon fusion, but significant complementation was clearly observed in repeats of the same combinations. These results are consistent with our previous findings, which indicated that the decreased ability of GA II cells to oxidize isovaleryl-CoA involves a defective electron-transporting system rather than a defective isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. IVA/IVA heterokaryons showed no complementation in any combination tested, indicating no detectable heterogeneity in isovaleric acidemia. This finding indicates that the same gene is mutated in all IVA lines. Previous results indicated that this gene codes for isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. PMID:6630517

  11. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value. PMID:26551359

  12. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Rei-ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  13. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-03-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  14. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  15. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Diana; Roman, Iulia; Crisan, Maria; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Background Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies. Objective This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level. Methods A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz) were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low (LEP), medium (MEP), high echogenic pixels (HEP), and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi). Results LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001). MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002). Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP. Conclusion Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects. PMID:26366101

  16. Sandwich-type Fiber Scaffolds with Square Arrayed Microwells and Nanostructured Cues as Microskin Grafts for Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Xie, Jingwei; Jiang, Jiang; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports the fabrication of sandwich-type scaffolds consisting of radially-aligned nanofibers at the bottom, nanofiber membranes with square arrayed microwells and nanostructured cues at the top, and microskin tissues in between as microskin grafts for use in skin regeneration. This class of nanofiber scaffolds was able to confine the microskin tissues in the square arrayed wells and simultaneously present nanotopographic cues to the cultured NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and primary rat skin cells, guiding and facilitating their migration in vitro. More importantly, we demonstrated that the sandwich-type transplants exhibited an even distribution of microskin grafts, greatly improved the ‘take’ rate of microskin tissues, and promoted re-epithelialization on wound in vivo. In addition, the void area in the scaffolds was well suitable for exudate drainage in wound. The sandwich-type scaffolds show great potential as microskin grafts for repairing extensive burn injuries and may provide a good solution for the treatment of acute skin defects and chronic wounds including diabetic ulcer, pressure ulcer, and venous stasis ulcer. PMID:24144904

  17. Factors affecting growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0. 3 Mrad) chicken skins

    SciTech Connect

    Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

    1982-05-01

    A model system (chicken skins with chicken exudate) was used to determine if Clostridium botulinum type E (Beluga) spores, stressed by low dose irradiation, would develop and produce toxin at abuse temperatures of 10 and 30/sup 0/C in the absence of characteristic spoilage. Unstressed spores germinated, multiplied, and produced toxin on vacuum-packed chicken skins, stored at either 30 or 10/sup 0/C. Cell numbers increased faster and toxin was evident sooner at 30/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C. At 30/sup 0/C, growth occurred and toxin was produced more slowly when samples were incubated aerobically than anaerobically. When samples were incubated aerobically at 10/sup 0/C, no toxin was detected within a test period of 14 days. An irradiation dose of 0.3 Mrad at 5/sup 0/C reduced a spore population on vacuum-sealed chicken skins by about 90%. The surviving population produced toxin at 30/sup 0/C under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, at 10/sup 0/C no toxin was detected even on skins incubated anaerobically. Under the worst conditions (30/sup 0/C, vacuum packed) toxin was not detected prior to characteristic spoilage caused by the natural flora surviving 0.3 Mrad.

  18. Photo-protective activity of pogostone against UV-induced skin premature aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Fen; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Lan; Xu, Lie-Qiang; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Liu, Yu-Hong; Li, Cai-Lan; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Jian-Nan; Zeng, Hui-Fang

    2016-05-01

    Pogostone, a chemical constituent of patchouli oil, has been confirmed to possess favorable anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we investigated the possible anti-photoaging potential of pogostone and the underlying mechanism against UV-induced skin damage in mice. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment of pogostone as compared to the VC group. Furthermore, topical application of pogostone markedly increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and observably decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines showed obvious down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the pogostone groups. In addition, pogostone pretreatment evidently inhibited the abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3). Taken together, pogostone exhibited prominent photo-protective activity mainly by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, promising it as an effective alternative pharmaceutical therapy for photoaging. PMID:26929999

  19. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  20. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  1. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  2. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  3. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate recorded before age 5; (2) A church record of birth or baptism recorded before age 5; or (3) Notification of registration of birth made before age 5. (b) Other evidence of age. If an individual cannot obtain...

  4. The mutant form of lamin A that causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria is a biomarker of cellular aging in human skin.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Dayle; Ratner, Desiree; Lokuge, Meepa; Owens, David M; Gordon, Leslie B; Collins, Francis S; Djabali, Karima

    2007-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare disorder characterized by accelerated aging and early death, frequently from stroke or coronary artery disease. 90% of HGPS cases carry the LMNA G608G (GGC>GGT) mutation within exon 11 of LMNA, activating a splice donor site that results in production of a dominant negative form of lamin A protein, denoted progerin. Screening 150 skin biopsies from unaffected individuals (newborn to 97 years) showed that a similar splicing event occurs in vivo at a low level in the skin at all ages. While progerin mRNA remains low, the protein accumulates in the skin with age in a subset of dermal fibroblasts and in a few terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Progerin-positive fibroblasts localize near the basement membrane and in the papillary dermis of young adult skin; however, their numbers increase and their distribution reaches the deep reticular dermis in elderly skin. Our findings demonstrate that progerin expression is a biomarker of normal cellular aging and may potentially be linked to terminal differentiation and senescence in elderly individuals. PMID:18060063

  5. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age.

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D; Pawlikowski, Jeff S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2016-08-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45-81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders.The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology.In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face. PMID:26286607

  6. 'Comfortable in my own skin': a new form of sexual freedom for ageing baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R

    2014-12-01

    'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age. PMID:25456632

  7. Transdermal delivery of dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs. 1. Stability studies for hairless rat skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Kim, D D; Chien, Y W

    1995-09-01

    The stability of dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs in solution when in contact with hairless rat skin was investigated in order to study the feasibility of their transdermal delivery. The freshly excised dorsal region of hairless rat skin was mounted on Valia-Chien skin permeation cells, and both epidermis (donor) and dermis (receptor) were extracted with isotonic phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Zalcitabine (DDC), didanosine (DDI), and zidovudine (AZT) were found to be stable in the extract of the epidermis at 37 degrees C for at least 30 h. However, DDC and DDI degraded in the extract of the dermis following first-order kinetics at both 25 and 37 degrees C, while AZT was stable at 37 degrees C for at least 30 h. The degradation mechanism(s) of DDC and DDI was (were) studied by analyzing HPLC chromatograms and by evaluating the drug stability in the extract which was filtered to remove any microbes. An unidentified peak produced by DDC in the dermis extract did not appear when the drug was added to the filtered extract, which suggested a bacterial degradation of DDC. On the other hand, DDI was unstable even in the filtered extract and produced a degradation product which corresponded to hypoxanthine, which suggested that a cutaneous enzyme is also involved in the degradation of DDI. DDC was stabilized by the addition of 0.01% (w/v) of an antibacterial agent, such as thimerosal or gentamicin, in the receptor solution, while DDI was stabilized by 0.01% (w/v) purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, i.e., p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. These results show the importance of stability studies when designing skin permeation experiments using hairless rat since compounds with similar chemical structures can have different stability profiles when in contact with hairless rat skin. PMID:8537882

  8. The Skin as an Early Expression of Malignancies in the Neonatal Age: A Review of the Literature and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mondì, Vito; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Salvatori, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions are a frequent finding in childhood, from infancy throughout adolescence. They can arise from many conditions, including infections and inflammation. Most neonatal rashes are benign and self-limiting and require no treatment. Other conditions may be an expression of malignancy or may be a marker for other abnormalities, such as neural tube defects. Therefore, skin lesions require an extensive evaluation and close follow-up to ensure the best possible outcome. This paper briefly reviews the main tumor types presenting with cutaneous involvement in neonates, followed by the description of some patients admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with an early skin expression of malignancies. PMID:26798643

  9. Abnormal formation of collagen cross-links in skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, M; Still, M J; Vales, T; Rosen, R I; Evinger, J D; Dembure, P P; Longo, N; Elsas, L J

    1997-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI) is an autosomal recessive disorder of connective tissue characterized by hyperextensible, friable skin and joint hypermobility. Severe scoliosis and ocular fragility are present in some patients. This disease is caused by defective collagen lsyl hydroxylase, a vitamin C-dependent enzyme that converts lysyl residues to hydroxylysine on procollagen peptides. Hydroxylysine is essential for the formation of the covalent pyridinium cross-links pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr), among mature collagen molecules. Pyr derives from three hydroxylysyl residues, whereas Dpyr derives from one lysyl and two hydroxylysyl residues. Patients with EDS VI have high urinary excretion of Dpyr, resulting in a high ratio of Dpyr-Pyr. In this study, we evaluate content and production of pyridinium cross-links in the skin and cultured fibroblasts from patients with EDS VI. The skin of normal controls contained both Pyr and Dpyr, with a marked predominance of Pyr as observed in normal urine. The skin of patients with EDS VI had reduced total content of pyridinium cross-links, with the presence of Dpyr but not Pyr. Long-term cultures of control fibroblasts produced both Pyr and Dpyr, with a pattern resembling that of normal skin. By contrast, cross-links were not detected in dermal fibroblasts cultured from patients with EDS VI. Vitamin C, which improves the clinical manifestations of some patients with EDS VI, decreased Dpyr accumulation though only minimally affecting Pyr content in control cells. By contrast, addition of vitamin C to fibroblasts from patients with EDS VI stimulated the formation of Dpyr more than that of Pyr and greatly increased total pyridinium cross-link formation. These results indicate that qualitative and quantitative alterations of pyridinium cross-links occur in skin and in cultured dermal fibroblasts of patients with EDS VI and may be responsible for their abnormal skin findings. The vitamin C

  10. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. PMID:25688689

  11. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  12. Instrumental and clinical studies of the facial skin tone and pigmentation of Shanghaiese women. Changes induced by age and a cosmetic whitening product.

    PubMed

    Huixia, Q; Xiaohui, L; Chengda, Y; Yanlu, Z; Senee, J; Laurent, A; Bazin, R; Flament, F; Adam, A; Piot, B

    2012-02-01

    The pigmentation patterns of facial skin of 354 healthy Chinese women aged 18-80 years were investigated clinically and instrumentally. Chromasphere(®) was used to acquire pictures from the cheeks of subjects. Facial skin tone was described by L* parameter from the L,a,b system as well as Individual Typology Angle (ITA). Results show that skin tone becomes significantly darker along the life span. Both size of hyper-pigmented spots and their contrast with surrounding skin were found increased with age. As additional study, 40 women from these 354 subjects were asked to apply daily a whitening cosmetic product for a 2-month period. Such application led to a significantly lighter skin tone, although this study was not vehicle controlled and we cannot exclude that the increase in L* observed was in some part because of cumulative effects of previously used whitening products, there was an association with lighter skin tone as assessed through both instrumental measurements and self-perception by most subjects. PMID:21848763

  13. Zebrafish Collagen Type I: Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Major Structural Protein in Bone and Skin.

    PubMed

    Gistelinck, C; Gioia, R; Gagliardi, A; Tonelli, F; Marchese, L; Bianchi, L; Landi, C; Bini, L; Huysseune, A; Witten, P E; Staes, A; Gevaert, K; De Rocker, N; Menten, B; Malfait, F; Leikin, S; Carra, S; Tenni, R; Rossi, A; De Paepe, A; Coucke, P; Willaert, A; Forlino, A

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years the zebrafish imposed itself as a powerful model to study skeletal diseases, but a limit to its use is the poor characterization of collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone and skin. In tetrapods collagen type I is a trimer mainly composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, encoded by COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, respectively. In contrast, in zebrafish three type I collagen genes exist, col1a1a, col1a1b and col1a2 coding for α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains. During embryonic and larval development the three collagen type I genes showed a similar spatio-temporal expression pattern, indicating their co-regulation and interdependence at these stages. In both embryonic and adult tissues, the presence of the three α(I) chains was demonstrated, although in embryos α1(I) was present in two distinct glycosylated states, suggesting a developmental-specific collagen composition. Even though in adult bone, skin and scales equal amounts of α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains are present, the presented data suggest a tissue-specific stoichiometry and/or post-translational modification status for collagen type I. In conclusion, this data will be useful to properly interpret results and insights gained from zebrafish models of skeletal diseases. PMID:26876635

  14. Zebrafish Collagen Type I: Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Major Structural Protein in Bone and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gistelinck, C.; Gioia, R.; Gagliardi, A.; Tonelli, F.; Marchese, L.; Bianchi, L.; Landi, C.; Bini, L.; Huysseune, A.; Witten, P. E.; Staes, A.; Gevaert, K.; De Rocker, N.; Menten, B.; Malfait, F.; Leikin, S.; Carra, S.; Tenni, R.; Rossi, A.; De Paepe, A.; Coucke, P.; Willaert, A.; Forlino, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years the zebrafish imposed itself as a powerful model to study skeletal diseases, but a limit to its use is the poor characterization of collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone and skin. In tetrapods collagen type I is a trimer mainly composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, encoded by COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, respectively. In contrast, in zebrafish three type I collagen genes exist, col1a1a, col1a1b and col1a2 coding for α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains. During embryonic and larval development the three collagen type I genes showed a similar spatio-temporal expression pattern, indicating their co-regulation and interdependence at these stages. In both embryonic and adult tissues, the presence of the three α(I) chains was demonstrated, although in embryos α1(I) was present in two distinct glycosylated states, suggesting a developmental-specific collagen composition. Even though in adult bone, skin and scales equal amounts of α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains are present, the presented data suggest a tissue-specific stoichiometry and/or post-translational modification status for collagen type I. In conclusion, this data will be useful to properly interpret results and insights gained from zebrafish models of skeletal diseases. PMID:26876635

  15. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  16. Inflammatory Acne in the Asian Skin Type III Treated with a Square Pulse, Time Resolved Spectral Distribution IPL System: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Acne remains a severe problem for both patients and clinicians. Various approaches using photosurgery and phototherapy have been reported with varying degrees of success and robustness of results. An improved intense pulsed light (IPL) system has become available with interesting beam characteristic which might improve IPL treatment of inflammatory acne in the Asian skin, Fitzpatrick type III/IV. Subjects and Methods: The 18 study subjects comprised 15 females and 3 males with active mild to moderately severe inflammatory acne (mean age 25.3 ± 7.70 yr, range 17–47 yr, Burton scale 1-4, all Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin). They were treated once (8 subjects) or twice (10 subjects) with an IPL system offering both square pulse and time resolved spectral distribution technologies (420 nm cut-off filter, 30 ms pulse, 8 – 12 J/cm2, 2–3 passes). Clinical photography was taken at baseline and at 4 weeks after the final treatment. Percentage of acne clearance was assessed by an independent dermatological panel and graded from zero to 5, 5 being total clearance. Results: All subjects completed the study. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transient, with virtually no downtime or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) experienced by any subject. All subjects had some improvement and no exacerbation was seen in any subject. Clearance was evaluated by the panel as grade 4 in 5 subjects, grade 3 in 8, grade 2 in 4 and grade 1 in 1, so that 14 of 18 subjects (78%) had clearance of at least 60%. Patient evaluation was in general slightly better than that of the panel. Conclusions: The special beam characteristics of the IPL system used in the present preliminary study achieved good to very good results in the treatment of acne in the Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin without PIH induction. The results suggested that acne treatment in the Asian skin using this system is both safe and effective, and merits larger population studies to further

  17. Prevalence of skin disorders in primary and secondary school age children in Canakkale, Turkey: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıc, Sevilay Oguz; Isık, Selda; Haydar Ertekin, Yusuf; Tekin, Murat; Cevizci, Sibel; Ogretmen, Zerrin; Topaloglu, Naci; Sahin, Erkan Melih; Cıbık, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. Aim Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools. Each student was interviewed for age, gender, and family history, and a dermatologic examination was performed by a dermatologist. Data were coded and analyzed. Results Of the students, 79.9% revealed at least one dermatosis. The most common disease was benign neoplasms (76%), followed by pigmentary disorders (26.8%), and xerosis (5.8%). In primary schools, the acquired melanocytic nevus, hypopigmented macule, and xerosis; in secondary school the acne was statistically significantly more common. Acne and xerosis was more common in girls, and pityriasis alba was statistically more common in boys. Students who had at least one dermatosis were positively correlated with monthly income. Conclusions In Turkish school age children, the prevalence of dermatosis is 79.9%. It may be due to not using preventive means for adequate protection from the sun and other environmental factors. Infectious dermatosis and atopic dermatitis are rare and it may depend on the adequacy of public health work. PMID:27512351

  18. Characterization of Age Differences in Error Types in a Multitrial Spatial Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2013-01-01

    Although increased age is associated with greater errors in spatial memory tasks, it is unclear if there are age differences in error types. To investigate this, 334 participants (ages 22-88) completed a task in which they remembered object locations across multiple study-test trials. Far and close error types were categorized based on the spatial…

  19. Perceived Fashionability of a Garment as Inferred from the Age and Body Type of the Wearer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Ruth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Ninety college-aged females rated the fashionability of six garments worn by nine models representing three age levels and three body types. Results show respondents used age and body type cues as well as fashion detail to judge garment fashionability. (Author/CH)

  20. Use of Q-Type Factor Analysis with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.; And Others

    This paper explores Q-Factor Analysis as a method of organizing data on a large array of variables to describe a group of aged Ss. Forty-seven males, specially selected for their good health (Mean Age: 71.5; SD: 4.8) were measured on 550 biological and behavioral variables. A Q-Factor Analysis was calculated, using a S by variable matrix, which is…

  1. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  2. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  3. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Haustead, Daniel J; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  4. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Haustead, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F.; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J.; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  5. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  6. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  7. Topical Application of Retinyl Palmitate-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcela B.; do Prado, Alice Haddad; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Sato, Claudia S.; Lourenço Brunetti, Iguatemy; Scarpa, Maria Virgínia; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Friberg, Stig E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a structural characterization and evaluate the in vitro safety profile and in vitro antioxidant activity of liquid crystalline systems (LCS) with and without retinyl palmitate (RP). LCS containing polyether functional siloxane (PFS) as a surfactant, silicon glycol copolymer (SGC) as oil phase, and water in the ratios 30 : 25 : 45 and 40 : 50 : 10 with (OLSv = RP-loaded opaque liquid system and TLSv = RP-loaded transparent liquid system, respectively) and without (OLS and TLS, respectively) RP were studied. Samples were characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and rheology analysis. In vitro safety profile was evaluated using red cell hemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed by the DPPH method. PLM analysis showed the presence of lamellar LCS just to TLS. Regardless of the presence of RP, the rheological studies showed the pseudoplastic behavior of the formulations. The results showed that the incorporation of RP in LCS improved the safety profile of the drug. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS presented a higher capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of RP. PFS-based systems may be a promising platform for RP topical application for the treatment of skin aging. PMID:24772430

  8. A New Type of Signaling Pathways as Pilomotor Lines along Skin for Transmitting Acupuncture Signals to Produce Acupuncture Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Yuan

    2015-06-30

    In our previous study, we observed a linear system consisted of sympathetic endings in the arrector pili muscles (AP muscles) along the rat skin termed sympathetic substance lines, or SSLs. After shaving the hair of the rats, the first wave of hair re-growth was not evenly distributed, but followed specific hair loop lines (HLLs). The patterns of HLL and SSL correspond with each other and also with the "Meridians" described in Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). Here I investigated in rabbits and rats whether the acupuncture signals are transmitted via the SSL/HLL, and whether the acupuncture analgesia (AA) is dependent on any peripheral mechanism. Firstly, when acupuncture was operated or phenylephrine, an agonist for α receptor, was injected into the dermis at an acupoint, a pilomotor line occurred. The course of the pilomotor line coincided with the SSL/HLL. When the skin was incised or regitin, an antagonist for α receptor, was injected into the dermis, the pilomotor line did not cross the site of incision or injection. These results directly demonstrated the process of transmission of acupuncture signals involving the pilomotor line and the sympathetic. Secondly, AA produced by acupuncture at an acupoint was significantly blocked when the skin was incised or regitin was injected into the dermis along the SSL/HLL or the Meridians. [corrected]. These results suggest that the factor that blocked the pilomotor line also blocked the AA and the pilomotor line related to the AA. Lastly, noradrenaline was shown to be released from the skin along the Meridian line after acupuncture; when phenylephrine was injected into an acupoint, AA was strongly simulated. All these results indicate that: 1. the transmission pathway of acupuncture signals exists in the skin, just as the Meridians described in the CTM; 2. these pathways are the SSLs/HLLs and the pilomotor lines; and 3. the pilomotor line is just for the transmission of acupuncture signals and the transmission is

  9. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus. PMID:27026508

  10. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-09-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  11. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  12. Identification of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type inhibitor 2 in human skin as a kallikrein-related peptidase 5-specific protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Wu, Zhihong; Schröder, Jens-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Kallikreins-related peptidases (KLKs) are serine proteases and have been implicated in the desquamation process of the skin. Their activity is tightly controlled by epidermal protease inhibitors like the lympho-epithelial Kazal-type inhibitor (LEKTI). Defects of the LEKTI-encoding gene serine protease inhibitor Kazal type (Spink)5 lead to the absence of LEKTI and result in the genodermatose Netherton syndrome, which mimics the common skin disease atopic dermatitis. Since many KLKs are expressed in human skin with KLK5 being considered as one of the most important KLKs in skin desquamation, we proposed that more inhibitors are present in human skin. Herein, we purified from human stratum corneum by HPLC techniques a new KLK5-inhibiting peptide encoded by a member of the Spink family, designated as Spink9 located on chromosome 5p33.1. This peptide is highly homologous to LEKTI and was termed LEKTI-2. Recombinant LEKTI-2 inhibited KLK5 but not KLK7, 14 or other serine proteases tested including trypsin, plasmin and thrombin. Spink9 mRNA expression was detected in human skin samples and in cultured keratinocytes. LEKTI-2 immune-expression was focally localized at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum at palmar and plantar sites in close localization to KLK5. At sites of plantar hyperkeratosis, LEKTI-2 expression was increased. We suggest that LEKTI-2 contributes to the regulation of the desquamation process in human skin by specifically inhibiting KLK5. PMID:19190773

  13. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... other factors. The greatest single factor, though, is sun exposure. You can see this by comparing areas of your body that have regular sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural ...

  14. Ultrastructure of type VI collagen in human skin and cartilage suggests an anchoring function for this filamentous network

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    An mAb was used in conjunction with immunoelectron microscopy to study the ultrastructure and distribution of the type VI collagen network. Type VI collagen in femoral head and costal cartilage was found distributed throughout the matrix but concentrated in areas surrounding chondrocytes. Three-dimensional information gained from high voltage stereo pair electron microscopy showed that the type VI collagen network in skin was organized into a highly branched, open, filamentous network that encircled interstitial collagen fibers, but did not appear to interact directly with them. Type VI collagen was also found concentrated near basement membranes of nerves, blood vessels, and fat cells although in a less organized state. Labeling was conspicuously reduced close to the epithelial basement membrane in the region of the anchoring fibrils. No labeling of basement membranes was seen. Based on these observations it is suggested that the type VI collagen forms a flexible network that anchors large interstitial structures such as nerves, blood vessels, and collagen fibers into surrounding connective tissues. PMID:3182942

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  16. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  17. Effect of ethnicity, gender and age on the amount and composition of residual skin surface components derived from sebum, sweat and epidermal lipids

    PubMed Central

    Shetage, Satyajit S; Traynor, Matthew J; Brown, Marc B; Raji, Mahad; Graham-Kalio, Diepiriye; Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose The superficial layer on the skin surface, known as the acid mantle, comprises a mixture of sebum, sweat, corneocyte debris and constituents of natural moisturizing factor. Thus, the phrase ‘residual skin surface components’ (RSSC) is an appropriate term for the mixture of substances recovered from the skin surface. There is no general agreement about the effects of ethnicity, gender and age on RSSC. The aim of this human volunteer study was to evaluate RSSC in relation to ethnicity, gender and age. A suitable acquisition medium for RSSC collection was identified and samples of RSSC were subsequently analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. Methods A total of 315 volunteers participated in the study from a range of self-declared ethnic backgrounds. Six acquisition media were compared to determine the most suitable media for RSSC collection. The effect of age, gender and ethnicity on RSSC collection was evaluated by gravimetric analysis while GC-MS was used to determine the composition of RSSC. Results Of the six candidate materials assessed, cigarette paper provided the most practical and reproducible sample acquisition medium. There was no significant difference in the amount of RSSC collected when based on gender and ethnicity and no significant correlation between RSSC recovery and age. Up to 49 compounds were detected from human RSSC when analysed by GC-MS. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that RSSC can be effectively collected using cigarette paper and analysed by GC-MS. Ethnicity, gender and age had no significant impact on the quantity of RSSC recovered from the skin surface. PMID:23865719

  18. Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring's Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, David J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Beyer, Jennifer; Hillier, Teresa A.; Liese, Angela D.; Mayer-Davis, Beth; Loots, Beth; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Liu, Lenna; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Linder, Barbara; Dabelea, Dana

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent's diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth's birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS—Youth with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a parent with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (mother 39.3%; father 21.2%) than youth with type 1 diabetes (5.3 and 6.7%, respectively, P < 0.001 for each). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed 1.68 years earlier among those exposed to diabetes in utero (n = 174) than among those whose mothers’ diabetes was diagnosed later (P = 0.018, controlled for maternal diagnosis age, paternal diabetes, sex, and race/ethnicity). Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for 269 youth with and without in utero exposure did not differ significantly (difference 0.96 year, P = 0.403 after adjustment). Controlled for the father's age of diagnosis, father's diabetes before the child's birth was not associated with age at diagnosis (P = 0.078 for type 1 diabetes; P = 0.140 for type 2 diabetes). CONCLUSIONS—Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed at younger ages among those exposed to hyperglycemia in utero. Among youth with type 1 diabetes, the effect of the intrauterine exposure was not significant when controlled for mother's age of diagnosis. This study helps explain why other studies have found higher age-specific rates of type 2 diabetes among offspring of women with diabetes. PMID:18694977

  19. The association between skin collagen glucosepane and past progression of microvascular and neuropathic complications in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Vincent M.; Sell, David R.; Strauch, Christopher; Sun, Wanjie; Lachin, John M.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Genuth, Saul

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We determined the association between novel and acid-labile skin collagen-linked advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the progression of microvascular and neuropathic complications from baseline to near study closeout in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). METHODS From a skin biopsy obtained near the close of the DCCT, proteolytic collagen digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for glucosepane (GSPNE), glyoxal and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones (G-H1 and MG-H1) and the glycation product fructose-lysine(FL) using isotope dilution method. RESULTS GSPNE and MG-H1 correlated with age and diabetes duration (p<0.02), while GSPNE and FL correlated with the history of glycemia expressed as mean A1c(p≤0.003). Age and duration-adjusted GSPNE and FL levels were lower in intensive (INT) vs. conventional (CONV) treatment subjects in the primary prevention DCCT cohort (p < 0.0001), and FL lower in INT in the secondary intervention cohort (p < 0.0001). GSPNE was associated with increased incidence of retinopathy progression (odds ratio (OR)/unit increase in GSPNE: 2.5 for 3 step progression on the ETDRS scale, p=0.003) and sustained ≥ 3 microaneurysms (MA) (OR=4.8, p<0.0001) from DCCT baseline up to the time of the biopsy, and prevalence of microalbuminuria or AER>40 mg/24 hr (OR=5.3, P<0.0001), and confirmed clinical neuropathy (OR=3.4, p=0.015) at the time of the biopsy. GSPNE adjusted for mean A1c remained significant for ≥ 3 MA (p=0.0252) and AER (p=0.0006). The strong association of complications with A1c was reduced or eliminated when adjusted for GSPNE. CONCLUSIONS Glucosepane is a novel AGE marker of diabetic complications that is robustly associated with nephropathic, retinopathic and neuropathic outcomes despite adjustment for A1c, suggesting that it could be one mediator of these complications with possible diagnostic implications. PMID:23153673

  20. Skin-derived Precursors Generate Enteric-type Neurons in Aganglionic Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Justin P.; Sullins, Veronica F.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) may regenerate the enteric nervous system in Hirschsprung’s disease. SKPs migrate and differentiate into myenteric ganglia in aganglionic intestine. We sought to characterize the time-course of SKP gangliogenesis and enteric neurotransmitter synthesis in vivo. Methods Adult Lewis rat jejunal segments were isolated and denervated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Denervation was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for markers of mature neuronal and glial cells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing neonatal rat SKPs were cultured in neuroglial-selective medium. SKPs were transplanted into aganglionic segments 65–85 days after BAC treatment. IHC was performed to identify glia, neurons, and neurotransmitter synthesis in GFP+ cells between post-transplant days 1–28. Results Aganglionosis was confirmed by IHC. On post-transplant days 1 and 2, GFP+ cells were detected near injection sites within the muscularis propria. GFP+ cell clusters were evident only between longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers at post-transplant days 14, 21, and 28. These structures co-expressed markers of mature neurons and gliocytes. Several markers of neurotransmitter synthesis were detected in GFP+ clusters at days 21 and 28. Conclusion SKPs are capable of enteric neuroglial differentiation in vivo. SKPs migrate to the intermuscular layer of aganglionic intestine within days of transplantation. Our observations suggest that SKPs are capable of generating enteric ganglia in aganglionic intestine. PMID:25487489

  1. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  2. Safety symbol comprehension: effects of symbol type, familiarity, and age.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Holly E; Rogers, Wendy A; Schroeder, Derek; Fisk, Arthur D

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure for evaluating symbol comprehension, the phrase generation procedure, was assessed with 52 younger and 52 older adults. Participants generated as many phrases as came to mind when viewing 40 different safety symbols (hazard alerting, mandatory action, prohibition, and information symbols). Symbol familiarity was also assessed. Comprehension rates for both groups were lower than the 85% level recommended by the American National Standards Institute. Moreover, older participants' comprehension was significantly worse than younger participants', and the older adults also generated significantly fewer phrases. Generally, prohibition symbols were comprehended best and hazard alerting symbols worst. In addition, symbol familiarity was positively correlated with symbol comprehension. These findings indicate that important safety information depicted on signs and household products may be misunderstood if presented in symbolic form. Furthermore, certain types of symbols may be better understood (e.g., prohibition symbols) than other types (e.g., hazard alerting symbols) by both younger and older individuals. These findings signify the utility of the phrase generation procedure as a method for evaluating symbol comprehension, particularly when it is not possible or desirable to provide contextual information. Actual or potential applications of this research include using the phrase generation approach to identify poorly comprehended symbols, including identification of critical confusions that may arise when processing symbolic information. PMID:15359669

  3. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  4. Coming of age: the artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The artificial pancreas (closed-loop system) addresses the unmet clinical need for improved glucose control whilst reducing the burden of diabetes self-care in type 1 diabetes. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery above and below a preset insulin amount informed by sensor glucose readings differentiates closed-loop systems from conventional, threshold-suspend and predictive-suspend insulin pump therapy. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes can vary between one-third-threefold on a daily basis. Closed-loop systems accommodate these variations and mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with tight glucose control. In this review we focus on the progress being made in the development and evaluation of closed-loop systems in outpatient settings. Randomised transitional studies have shown feasibility and efficacy of closed-loop systems under supervision or remote monitoring. Closed-loop application during free-living, unsupervised conditions by children, adolescents and adults compared with sensor-augmented pumps have shown improved glucose outcomes, reduced hypoglycaemia and positive user acceptance. Innovative approaches to enhance closed-loop performance are discussed and we also present the outlook and strategies used to ease clinical adoption of closed-loop systems. PMID:27364997

  5. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  7. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Muller, David A; Pearson, Frances E; Fernando, Germain J P; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S; Corrie, Simon R; Crichton, Michael L; Wei, Jonathan C J; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Young, Paul R; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  8. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Muller, David A.; Pearson, Frances E.; Fernando, Germain J.P.; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S.; Corrie, Simon R.; Crichton, Michael L.; Wei, Jonathan C.J.; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Young, Paul R.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  9. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including β Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V≲ 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  10. Effects of ginseng saponins isolated from red ginseng on ultraviolet B-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gon; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Sakanaka, Masahiro; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure at low-dose causes skin photoaging including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. This study examined the effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) isolated from Red Ginseng roots on skin thickness, elasticity, and wrinkle formation caused by long-term, low-dose UVB irradiation in hairless mice. The topical application of total ginseng saponins (10 pg or 100 ng/mouse) and ginsenoside Rb(1) (100 fg, 10 pg, or 1 ng/mouse) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and the reduction in skin elasticity induced by long-term UVB irradiation. Furthermore, we examined the histological effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) in the skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The increases in apoptotic, Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-positive cells induced by UVB exposure were prevented by the topical application of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1). Furthermore, total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) prevented the disruption of collagen fibers induced by the long-term UVB irradiation. Ginsenoside Rb(1) (100 fg, 10 pg, and 1 ng/ml) increased the Bcl-2 expression level in UVB-treated human keratinocytes. The protective effect of ginsenoside Rb(1) on UVB-mediated apoptosis may be due to the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb(1) on skin photoaging induced by chronic UVB exposure may be due to the increase in collagen synthesis and/or the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:19041641

  11. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  12. Skin Collagen Glycation, Glycoxidation, and Crosslinking Are Lower in Subjects With Long-Term Intensive Versus Conventional Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Vincent M.; Bautista, Oliver; Kenny, David; Sell, David R.; Fogarty, John; Dahms, William; Cleary, Patricia A.; Lachin, John; Genuth, Saul

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N∊-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the primary prevention and secondary intervention cohorts of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. By comparison with conventional treatment, 5 years of intensive treatment was associated with 30–32% lower furosine, 9% lower pentosidine, 9–13% lower CML, 24% higher acid-soluble collagen, and 50% higher pepsin-soluble collagen. All of these differences were statistically significant in the subjects of the primary prevention cohort (P < 0 .006–0.001) and also of the secondary intervention cohort (P < 0.015–0.001) with the exception of CML and acid-soluble collagen. Age- and duration-adjusted collagen variables were significantly associated with the HbA1c value nearest the biopsy and with cumulative prior HbA1c values. Multiple logistic regression analyses with six nonredundant collagen parameters as independent variables and various expressions of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy outcomes as dependent variables showed that the complications were significantly associated with the full set of collagen variables. Surprisingly, the percentage of total variance (R2) in complications explained by the collagen variables ranged from 19 to 36% with the intensive treatment and from 14 to 51% with conventional treatment. These associations generally remained significant even after adjustment for HbA1c, and, most unexpectedly, in conventionally treated subjects, glycated collagen was the parameter most consistently associated with diabetic complications. Continued monitoring of these subjects may determine whether glycation products in the skin, and especially the early Amadori product (furosine), have the potential to be predictors of the future risk of developing

  13. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing. PMID:26210544

  14. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  15. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  16. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Multi-Ingredient Anti-Aging Moisturizer Designed to Improve the Appearance of Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2015-07-01

    An open label clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer designed to improve the appearance of facial skin. Parameters studied included fine lines and wrinkles, clarity/brightness, visual roughness, tactile roughness, evenness of skin tone (redness), evenness of skin tone (hyperpigmentation) and overall appearance. Thirty-seven female subjects, ages 35-60 years completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the facial anti-aging moisturizer include: Astragalus membranaceus root extract, a peptide blend including palmitoyl tripeptide-38, standardized rosemary leaf extract (ursolic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). Subjects were instructed to apply the moisturizer twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of product usage. Clinical evaluations were conducted at each visit. A self-assessment questionnaire was conducted at week 4, week 8, and week 12. The self-assessment questionnaire included product efficacy inquiries and product aesthetic inquiries. Digital photography was conducted at baseline, week 8, and week 12. After 8 weeks of twice daily use, clinical evaluation results show that the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer produced a statistically significant improvement in the scores of all clinical grading parameters assessed compared to baseline. A greater statistically significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks. At week 12, there was a statistically significant percentage of favorable results versus unfavorable results in all product efficacy and product aesthetic self-assessment questionnaire results. Digital photography supported the clinical grading and self-assessment questionnaire results. Additionally, the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer is judged to be mild and well tolerated. Several tolerability parameters were assessed at all time

  17. Geochronology of type Santacrucian (Middle Tertiary) Land Mammal Age, Patagonia, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, L.G.; Drake, R.E.; Curtis, G.H.; Butler, R.F.; Flanagan, K.M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Mammal-bearing lacustrine and tuffaceous sediments from three localities of the Santa Cruz Formation, type fauna of the Santacrucian Land Mammal Age, in Patagonia, southern Argentina, are calibrated by radioisotope dating with the aid of magnetostratigraphy. The strata range from about 17.6 Ma to perhaps 16.0 Ma, and are thus of late-early Miocene age. The Santacrucian Land Mammal Age ranges from about 18.0 Ma to about 15.0 Ma.

  18. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  19. Skin effect calculations in pipe-type cables using a linear current subconductor technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Marti, J.R. )

    1994-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately calculate frequency dependent underground cable parameters. The technique is based on the well-known concept of conductors' subdivision. As opposed to the traditional technique, current density is not assumed constant in the subconductors but linear with matching values at the boundaries between subconductors. This drastically reduces the number of subconductors needed for accurate calculations, especially at higher frequencies. Typical computer-time savings in a SUN SPARC workstation range from 80% to 95%, depending on the frequency at which the parameters are calculated. The application of the technique is illustrated for pipe-type cables. The results are compared with those of a finite element technique. Overall, the new technique was found to be accurate, efficient, and requires minimum user intervention.

  20. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  1. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. PMID:27288899

  2. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    PubMed Central

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  3. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Vanessa; Urien, Céline; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+) -type and CD103(+) -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+) -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+) -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+) -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+) DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+) DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  4. The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations around the world. The incidence and mortality rates of skin cancers are dramatically increasing and thus pose a threat to public health. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of skin cancer remains a goal for healthcare systems. A clearer understanding of causative factors is an essential step in the prevention of skin cancer. This article comprehensively reviews the causative agents which play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun exposure is the most important cause of skin cancer. Sunburns and excessive exposures cause cumulative damage which induces immunosuppression and skin cancers. Ozone depletion, the level of UV light, elevation, latitude, altitude and weather conditions influence the emission of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface. Organ transplant recipients and AIDS patients have an increased incidence of skin cancers. Some treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, phototherapy and psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) can also predispose to skin cancers. Viral infections such as the human papilloma virus can cause squamous cell carcinomas. Individuals with familial genetic syndromes are susceptible to specific types of skin cancers. Ionizing radiation, environmental pollutants, chemical carcinogens and work-related exposures have been associated with skin cancers. Exposure to artificial UV radiation (tanning beds and lamps), aging, skin color, diet and smoking are attributable risks. Skin cancers have been found in dermatoses and various types of keratoses, chronically injured or nonhealing wounds, and scars. This article provides a comprehensive and thorough overview of skin cancer, with an emphasis on understanding its epidemiology, incidence, etiology and related risk factors. PMID:15753968

  5. The regulatory role of the tetrapeptide AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and the prevention of ageing effects in these tissues--a potential cosmetic role.

    PubMed

    Hajem, N; Chapelle, A; Bignon, J; Pinault, A; Liu, J-M; Salah-Mohellibi, N; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J

    2013-06-01

    The naturally occurring tetrapeptide acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) recognized as a potent angiogenic factor was shown recently to contribute to the repair of cutaneous injuries. In the current article, we report the ability of AcSDKP to exert a beneficial effect on normal healthy skin and scalp and to compensate for the ageing process. In vitro AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M significantly stimulates the growth of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, it enhances the growth of human epidermal keratinocyte progenitor and stem cells as shown in a clonogenic survival assay. Topical treatment of ex vivo cultured skin explants with 10⁻⁵ M AcSDKP increases the thickness of the epidermis and upregulates the synthesis of keratins 14 and 19, fibronectin, collagen III and IV as well as the glycoaminoglycans (GAGs). In the ex vivo-cultured hair follicles, AcSDKP promotes hair shaft elongation and induces morphological and molecular modifications matching the criteria of hair growth. Furthermore, AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M was shown to improve epidermal barrier, stimulating expression of three protein components of tight junctions (claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1) playing an important role in connecting neighbouring cells. This tetrapeptide exercises also activation of SIRT1 implicated in the control of cell longevity. Indeed, a two-fold increase in the synthesis of SIRT1 by cultured keratinocytes was observed in the presence of 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M AcSDKP. In conclusion, these findings provide convincing evidence of the regulatory role of AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and suggest a cosmetic use of this natural tetrapeptide to prevent skin ageing and hair loss and to promote the cutaneous regeneration and hair growth. PMID:23488645

  6. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  7. Age and School-Type Differences in Children's Beliefs about School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Wanner, Brigitte; Little, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Age and school-type differences (primary school and three types of secondary school) in self-related beliefs about ability, effort, and difficulty were investigated in a study of 1723 Berlin youth. Consistent with selective ability-stratified schooling, multi-group structural equation models revealed: (1) mean-level belief differences reflecting…

  8. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  9. Skin microvascular reactivity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to levels of physical activity and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Denise M; Edmunds, Sarah; Cable, Tim; Didi, Mo; Stratton, Gareth

    2008-11-01

    No studies to date have evaluated the relationship between exercise and microvascular function in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Twenty-nine complication free children and adolescents with T1DM were assessed for skin microvascular reactivity, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and physical activity. VO2peak but not physical activity was significantly and independently associated with maximal hyperemia of the skin microcirculation (p < .01). No significant associations were found between venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) vasoconstriction and VO2peak or physical activity. Aerobic fitness may be an important indicator or mediator of effective microvascular endothelial function in youth with T1DM. PMID:19168919

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: Dangerous Partners in Tumorigenesis—Implications in Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santibanez, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic factor, with several different roles in health and disease. TGF-β has been postulated as a dual factor in tumor progression, since it represses epithelial tumor development in early stages, whereas it stimulates tumor progression in advanced stages. During tumorigenesis, cancer cells acquire the capacity to migrate and invade surrounding tissues and to metastasize different organs. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, comprising uPA, the uPA cell surface receptor, and plasminogen-plasmin, is involved in the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and regulates key cellular events by activating intracellular signal pathways, which together allow cancer cells to survive, thus, enhancing cell malignance during tumor progression. Due to their importance, uPA and its receptor are tightly transcriptionally regulated in normal development, but are deregulated in cancer, when their activity and expression are related to further development of cancer. TGF-β regulates uPA expression in cancer cells, while uPA, by plasminogen activation, may activate the secreted latent TGF-β, thus, producing a pernicious cycle which contributes to the enhancement of tumor progression. Here we review the specific roles and the interplay between TGF-β and uPA system in cancer cells and their implication in skin cancer. PMID:23984088

  11. Contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibres in active aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Dutka, T L; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content in mechanically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) humans to investigate whether changes in muscle fibre properties contribute to muscle weakness in old age. In type II fibres of Old subjects, specific force was reduced by ∼17% and Ca2+ sensitivity was also reduced (pCa50 decreased ∼0.05 pCa units) relative to that in Young. S-Glutathionylation of fast troponin I (TnIf) markedly increased Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, but the increase was significantly smaller in Old versus Young (+0.136 and +0.164 pCa unit increases, respectively). Endogenous and maximal SR Ca2+ content were significantly smaller in both type I and type II fibres in Old subjects. In fibres of Young, the SR could be nearly fully depleted of Ca2+ by a combined caffeine and low Mg2+ stimulus, whereas in fibres of Old the amount of non-releasable Ca2+ was significantly increased (by > 12% of endogenous Ca2+ content). Western blotting showed an increased proportion of type I fibres in Old subjects, and increased amounts of calsequestrin-2 and calsequestrin-like protein. The findings suggest that muscle weakness in old age is probably attributable in part to (i) an increased proportion of type I fibres, (ii) a reduction in both maximum specific force and Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, and also a decreased ability of S-glutathionylation of TnIf to counter the fatiguing effects of metabolites on Ca2+ sensitivity, and (iii) a reduction in the amount of releasable SR Ca2+ in both fibre types. Key points Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70

  12. The in situ repair kinetics of epidermal thymine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in human skin types I and II.

    PubMed

    Young, A R; Chadwick, C A; Harrison, G I; Hawk, J L; Nikaido, O; Potten, C S

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the in situ time-dependent loss of epidermal thymine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in skin types I and II after exposure to two minimal erythema doses of solar-simulating radiation on previously unexposed buttock skin. Using quantitative image analysis, we evaluated biopsy sections stained with monoclonal antibodies. We then made comparisons, in the same volunteers, with unscheduled DNA synthesis, which is a direct marker of overall excision repair. Removal of thymine dimers was slow (half-life = 33.3 h), with high levels of lesions still present 24 h post-irradiation; some lesions were still present at 7 d. In contrast, removal of 6-4 photoproducts was rapid (half-life = 2.3 h), the decay kinetics of which correlated better with the decline in epidermal unscheduled DNA synthesis (half-life = 7.1 h). These data show that as in mouse, monkey, and in vitro models, the 6-4 photolesion is repaired preferentially in human epidermis in situ. They also raise the possibility that poor thymine dimer repair may be a feature of skin types I and II, who are more prone to skin cancer than are types III and IV. There was an inverse relationship between the onset of erythema and 6-4 photoproduct repair, suggesting that this repair process initiates erythema. PMID:8752675

  13. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  14. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA. PMID:26788510

  15. Low-Temperature Aging Characteristics of Type 316L Stainless Steel Welds: Dependence on Solidification Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2008-06-01

    Thermal aging embrittlement of light water reactor (LWR) components made of stainless steel cast has been recognized as a potential degradation issue, and careful attention has been paid to it. Although welds of austenitic stainless steels have γ-δ duplex microstructure, which is similar to that of the stainless steel cast, examination of the thermal aging characteristics of the stainless steel welds is very limited. In this investigation, two types of type 316L stainless steel weld metal with different solidification modes were prepared using two kinds of filler metals having tailored Ni equivalent and Cr equivalent. Differences between the two weld metals in the morphology of microstructure, in the composition of δ-ferrite, and in hardening behaviors with isothermal aging at 335 °C have been investigated. The hardness of the ferrite phase has increased with aging time, while the hardness of austenite phase has stayed the same. The mottled aspect has been observed in δ-ferrite of aged samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. These characteristics suggest that spinodal decomposition has occurred in δ-ferrite by aging at 335 °C. The age-hardening rate of δ-ferrite was faster for the primary austenite solidification mode (AF mode) sample than the primary ferrite solidification mode (FA mode) sample in the initial stage of the aging up to 2000 hours. It has been suggested that the solidification mode can affect the kinetics of spinodal decomposition.

  16. Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Anburajan, M; Sivanandam, S; Bidyarasmi, S; Venkatraman, B; Menaka, M; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    In India, number of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) would be 87 million by the year 2030. DM disturbs autonomic regulation of skin micro-circulation, and causes decrease in resting blood flows through the skin. The skin blood flow has a major effect on its temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of skin temperature of all parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA (μmol/L) in type-2 DM Indian patients. Group-I: Normal (n = 17; M/F: 10/15, mean ± SD = 43.2 ± 9.4 years); Group-II: Type-2 DM without cardiovascular (CV) complications (n = 15; M/F: 10/7, mean ± SD = 46.3 ± 14.0 years); Thermograms of all parts of the body were acquired using a non-contact infrared (IR) thermography camera (ThermaCAM T400, FLIR Systems, Sweden). Blood parameters and thyroid hormone were measured biochemically. Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. In type-2 DM patients without CV group (n = 15), there was a statistically significant (p = 0.01) negative correlations between HbA(1c) and skin temperature of eye and nose (r = -0.57 and r = -0.55 respectively). ADMA was correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HbA(1c) (r = 0.65) and estimated average glucose, eAG (r = 0.63). In normal subjects, mean minimum and maximum values of skin temperatures were observed at posterior side of sole (26.89 °C) and ear (36.85 °C) respectively. In type-2 DM without CV, mean values of skin temperature in different parts of the body from head to toe were lesser than those values in control group; but this decreases were statistically significant in nose (32.66 Vs 33.99 °C, p = 0.024) as well as in tibia (32.78 Vs 33.13 °C, p = 0.036) regions. PMID:22255768

  17. Unique microRNAs appear at different times during the course of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in human skin.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Nicholas; Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R; Akat, Kemal M; Renwick, Neil; Tuschl, Thomas; Krueger, James G

    2015-12-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that induces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in DTH reactions is not well understood. We generated global miRNA expression profiles (using next-generation sequencing) of DPCP reactions in skin of seven healthy volunteers at 3, 14 and 120 days after challenge. Compared to placebo-treated sites, DPCP-challenged skin at 3 days (peak inflammation) had 127 miRNAs significantly deregulated. At 14 days (during resolution of inflammation), 43 miRNAs were deregulated and, at 120 days (when inflammation had completely resolved), six miRNAs were upregulated. While some miRNAs have been observed in psoriasis or atopic dermatitis, most of the deregulated miRNAs have not yet been studied in the context of skin biology or immunology. Across the three time points studied, many but not all miRNAs were uniquely expressed. As various miRNAs may influence T cell activation, this may indicate that the miRNAs exclusively expressed at different time points function to promote or resolve skin inflammation, and therefore, may inform on the paradoxical ability of DPCP to treat both autoimmune conditions (alopecia areata) and conditions of ineffective immunity (melanoma). PMID:26205579

  18. AcT-2: A Novel Myotropic and Antimicrobial Type 2 Tryptophyllin from the Skin Secretion of the Central American Red-Eyed Leaf Frog, Agalychnis callidryas

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lilin; Lyu, Peng; Zhang, Huiling; Wan, Yuantai; Li, Bin; Li, Renjie; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Tryptophyllins are a diverse family of amphibian peptides originally found in extracts of phyllomedusine frog skin by chemical means. Their biological activities remain obscure. Here we describe the isolation and preliminary pharmacological characterization of a novel type 2 tryptophyllin, named AcT-2, from the skin secretion of the red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas. The peptide was initially identified during smooth muscle pharmacological screening of skin secretion HPLC fractions and the unique primary structure—GMRPPWF-NH2—was established by both Edman degradation and electrospray MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. A. cDNA encoding the biosynthetic precursor of AcT-2 was successfully cloned from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library by means of RACE PCR and this contained an open-reading frame consisting of 62 amino acid residues with a single AcT-2 encoding sequence located towards the C-terminus. A synthetic replicate of AcT-2 was found to relax arterial smooth muscle (EC50 = 5.1 nM) and to contract rat urinary bladder smooth muscle (EC50 = 9.3 μM). The peptide could also inhibit the growth of the microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, (MIC = 256 mg/L) Escherichia coli (MIC = 512 mg/L), and Candida albicans (128 mg/L). AcT-2 is thus the first amphibian skin tryptophyllin found to possess both myotropic and antimicrobial activities. PMID:24693226

  19. PROXIMAL GUT MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL HOMEOSTASIS IN AGED IL-1 TYPE I RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER STARVATION

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that starvation induces small bowel atrophy, and that atrophy diminishes with aging. In this experiment, we assessed whether starvation-induced atrophy of proximal gut mucosa is associated with the Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway in aged mice. Materials and Methods Thirty 26-month-old IL-1R knockout mice and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: ad libitum fed and fasted. Mice were euthanized 12 or 48 hours after starvation. The proximal small bowel was harvested for morphologic analysis. Gut epithelial cell proliferation was detected using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and apoptosis was identified using terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Aged IL-1R knockout mice were larger than aged-matched wild-type mice (p<0.05). Proximal gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number were not different between aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups. The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells was higher in fed IL-1R knockout versus wild-type mice (p<0.05), while no significant difference in cell proliferation between both groups. Mucosal atrophy was induced in both aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups by starvation (p<0.05), however, aged IL-1R knockout mice experienced greater losses in proximal gut weight, mucosal length, and corresponding cell number than did wild-type mice at the 12-hour time point (p<0.05). The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells significantly increased in both groups after starvation (p<0.05). Starvation decreased cell proliferation in IL-1R knockout mice (p<0.05), but not in wild-type mice. Conclusions The response in aged IL-1R knockout mice differs from wild-type mice in that starvation increases atrophy and is associated with decreased cell proliferation rather than increased apoptosis. PMID:20605606

  20. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Eun; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  1. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  2. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  3. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology. PMID:23212157

  4. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  5. Simultaneous spectrophotometric and mechanical property characterization of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunegin, Leonid; Moore, Jeffery B.

    2006-02-01

    Both reflectance spectroscopy and the determination Young's Modulus of skin have shown promise for identifying skin pathology. At present, these determinations are carried out using separate methodologies. This study demonstrates a new technology combining digital UV/VIS reflectance spectroscopy and vacuum aspiration for simultaneously determining the reflectance spectrum and mechanical properties of human skin tissue. A small hand held prototype device incorporating fiber-optic light guides into a vacuum channel was calibrated using various elastic materials subjected to increments of stress by vacuum from 0 to 25 in Hg. The intensity of a UV/VIS light beam reflected from the material at each vacuum increment was compared to the resulting material strain. The reflected beam was also spectrophotometrically analyzed. Skin types were similarly evaluated comparing normal and scar tissue and skin of various ages and coloration. An exponential relationship between reflected beam intensity and the amount of strain resulting from vacuum increments was observed. Young's Modulus (calculated from Aoki et. al equation) and spectra from normal skin and scar tissue were in agreement with previously published observations. Age related decreases in skin elasticity were also demonstrated. In the reflectance spectra, oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin absorbance bands were detected, becoming significantly enhanced at increased levels of vacuum. Melanin absorbance was also easily detected and appeared to correlate with skin coloration. Since superficial skin pathologies have characteristic spectroscopic and mechanical properties, this technique may provide a promising new approach for rapid, non-invasive method for the evaluation of skin lesions.

  6. Age and metallicity gradients in early-type galaxies: a dwarf-to-giant sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Mina; Prugniel, Philippe; de Rijcke, Sven; Zeilinger, Werner W.

    2011-11-01

    We studied the stellar populations of 40 early-type galaxies using medium-resolution long-slit spectroscopy along their major axes (and along the minor axis for two of them). The sample, including elliptical and lenticular galaxies as well as dwarf galaxies, is combined with other previously published data in order to discuss the systematics of the radial gradients of age and metallicity over a large mass range, from 107 M⊙ to 1012 M⊙ (-9.2 > MB > -22.4 mag). The well-known mass-metallicity relation is continuous throughout the whole mass range, in the sense that more massive galaxies are more metal-rich. The age-mass relation is consistent with the idea of downsizing: smaller galaxies have more extended star formation histories than more massive ones. The transition-type dwarfs (intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical galaxies) deviate from this relation having younger mean age, and the low-mass dwarf spheroidals have older ages, marking a discontinuity in the relation, possibly due to selection effects. In all mass regimes, the mean metallicity gradients are approximately -0.2 and the mean age gradients +0.1 dex per decade of radius. The individual gradients are widely spread: -0.1 < ∇Age < 0.4 and -0.54 < ∇[Fe/H] < +0.2. We do not find evidence for a correlation between the metallicity gradient and luminosity, velocity dispersion, central age or age gradient. Likewise, we do not find a correlation between the age gradient and any other parameter in bright early-type galaxies. In faint early-types with MB≳-17 mag, on the other hand, we find a strong correlation between the age gradient and luminosity: the age gradient becomes more positive for fainter galaxies. Together with the observed downsizing phenomenon this indicates that, as time passes, star formation persists in dwarf galaxies and becomes more centrally concentrated. However, this prolonged central star formation is not reflected in the metallicity profiles of the dwarfs in

  7. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were 13.3 ± 0.5 and 59.2 ± 0.8 µmol/g wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:20016716

  8. Glucocorticoid coordinate regulation of type I procollagen gene expression and procollagen DNA-binding proteins in chick skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cockayne, D.; Cutroneo, K.R.

    1988-04-19

    Nuclei were isolated from control and dexamethasone-treated (2 h) embryonic chick skin fibroblasts and transcribed in vitro. Nuclei isolated from dexamethasone-treated fibroblasts transcribed less pro..cap alpha..1(I) and pro..cap alpha..2(I) mRNAs but not ..beta..-actin mRNA. Fibroblasts receiving dexamethasone and (5,6-/sup 3/H)uridine also demonstrated decreased synthesis of nuclear type I procollagen mRNAs but not ..beta..-actin mRNA. In fibroblasts treated with cycloheximide the newly synthesized nuclear type I procollagen mRNA species were markedly decreased. An enhanced inhibitory effect was observed when fibroblasts were treated with cycloheximide plus dexamethasone. Since the studies above demonstrate that active protein synthesis is required to maintain the constitutive expression of the type I procollagen genes, the authors determined if glucocorticoids regulate DNA-binding proteins with sequence specificity for the ..cap alpha..2(I) procollagen gene. Nuclear protein blots were probed with the /sup 32/P-end-labeled pBR322 vector DNA and /sup 32/P-end-labeled ..cap alpha..2(I) procollagen promoter containing DNA. Nonhistone proteins remained bound to labeled DNA at stringency washes of 0.05 and 0.1 M NaCl. As the ionic strength was increased to 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl, the nonhistone-protein DNA binding was preferentially lost. Only the low molecular weight proteins remained bound to labeled DNA at the highest ionic strength, indicating nonspecific binding of these nuclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in an increase of binding of nonhistone proteins to vector- and promoter-labeled DNAs over that observed in control fibroblasts at stringency washes of 0.05 and 0.1 M NaCl and to a lesser extent at 0.2 M NaCl. The binding specificities of nonhistone proteins for the ..cap alpha..2(I) procollagen promoter containing DNA were calculated.

  9. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  10. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Seraina; Juillerat, Valerie; Doherr, Marcus G; Haase, Bianca; Polak, Miroslaw; Ehrensperger, Felix; Leeb, Tosso; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Background The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical BSE (C-type) in biochemical properties of the pathological prion protein. Depending on the molecular mass and the degree of glycosylation of its proteinase K resistant core fragment (PrPres), mainly determined in samples derived from the medulla oblongata, these atypical cases are currently classified into low (L)-type or high (H)-type BSE. In the present study we address the question to what extent such atypical BSE cases are part of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland. Results To this end we analyzed the biochemical PrPres type by Western blot in a total of 33 BSE cases in cattle with a minimum age of eight years, targeting up to ten different brain regions. Our work confirmed H-type BSE in a zebu but classified all other cases as C-type BSE; indicating a very low incidence of H- and L-type BSE in Switzerland. It was documented for the first time that the biochemical PrPres type was consistent across different brain regions of aging animals with C-type and H-type BSE, i.e. independent of the neuroanatomical structure investigated. Conclusion Taken together this study provides further characteristics of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland and generates new baseline data for the definition of C- and H-type BSE phenotypes, thereby underpinning the notion that they indeed represent distinct prion disease entities. PMID:19470160

  11. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues. PMID:26631592

  12. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  13. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts. PMID:27286037

  14. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  15. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  16. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  17. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  18. Maternal Age at Birth and Childhood Type 1 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 30 Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Chris R.; Stene, Lars C.; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K.; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Jané, Mireia; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J.; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Gimeno, Suely G.A.; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C.; Wadsworth, Emma J.K.; Chetwynd, Amanda; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaitė, Brone; Šipetić, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E.; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Patterson, Chris C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim if the study was to investigate whether children born to older mothers have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies using individual patient data to adjust for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies published before June 2009 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of studies were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct prespecified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by maternal age were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios and to investigate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Data were available for 5 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 14,724 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was, on average, a 5% (95% CI 2–9) increase in childhood type 1 diabetes odds per 5-year increase in maternal age (P = 0.006), but there was heterogeneity among studies (heterogeneity I2 = 70%). In studies with a low risk of bias, there was a more marked increase in diabetes odds of 10% per 5-year increase in maternal age. Adjustments for potential confounders little altered these estimates. CONCLUSIONS There was evidence of a weak but significant linear increase in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes across the range of maternal ages, but the magnitude of association varied between studies. A very small percentage of the increase in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in recent years could be explained by increases in maternal age. PMID:19875616

  19. The Effect of a Combination of Recombinant EGF Cosmetic Serum and a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Serum as Compared to a Fibroblast-Conditioned Media Serum on the Appearance of Aging Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-aging cosmeceutical efficacy is hampered by lack of active ingredient purity and lack of dosing standardization. These are two important key factors necessary to insure consistent, reproducible, and documentable skin effects. Without this type of standardization, it is not possible for cosmeceutical science to advance. Growth factors are interesting cosmeceutical ingredients with established cosmetic skin effects that can now be standardized due to the recent ability to manufacture recombinant epidermal growth factor. The concomitant use of a recombinant epidermal growth factor with a filler grade hyaluronic acid (EGF/RHA) was studied over 12 weeks in 60 females with mild to moderate photoaging as compared to a currently marketed spent fibroblast growth media and moisturizer (TNS). Investigator, noninvasive, and subject assessments were collected at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. The blinded investigator noted a statistically significant preference for the EGF/RHA at week 2 in terms of smoothness (P =0.003) and firmness (P =0.003). This improvement continued into weeks 4 and 8 with continued superior EGF/RHA results in fine lines (P =0.002), radiance (P =0.014), and overall appearance (P =0.027) by week 12. Transepidermal water loss was reduced for the EGF/RHA over the TNS at week 12 (P =0.005). The subjects gave high ratings to both study products. This research demonstrates the utility of recombinant growth factors, when combined with hyaluronic acid hydration, in improving skin cosmetic attributes. The ability to manufacture consistent pure recombinant growth factors lays the foundation for improved scientific study of this category of cosmeceutical actives.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):738-741. PMID:27272082

  20. A Mouse Model for Chikungunya: Young Age and Inefficient Type-I Interferon Signaling Are Risk Factors for Severe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Disson, Olivier; Brigitte, Madly; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Touret, Yasmina; Barau, Georges; Cayet, Nadège; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Desprès, Philippe; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Michault, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT) adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-α/βR+/−) or totally (IFN-α/βR−/−) abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates. PMID:18282093

  1. Skin cancer in patients with chronic radiation dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Hanke, C.W.; Zollinger, T.W.; Montebello, J.F.; Hornback, N.B.; Norins, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    The cases of 76 patients with chronic radiation dermatitis resulting from low-dose ionizing radiation for benign disease were reviewed retrospectively for risk factors leading to the development of neoplasia. The patients were studied with respect to original hair color, eye color, sun reactive skin type, benign disease treated, area treated, age at treatment, and age at development of first skin cancer. Analysis of data showed 37% of patients had sun-reactive skin type I, 27% had type II, and 36% had type III. Types IV through VI were not represented. There appeared to be an overrepresentation of types I and II. Increased melanin pigmentation may therefore be either directly or indirectly protective against the development of skin cancers in patients who have received low-dose superficial ionizing radiation for benign disease. The sun-reactive skin type of patients with chronic radiation dermatitis may be used as a predictor of skin cancer risk when the total dose of ionizing radiation is not known.

  2. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M; Narendran, Parth

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population - the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  3. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  4. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been the focus in an ongoing series of similar studies starting with Allison in 1981. There have been many independent variables, including, but not limited to, age, gender, ethnic background, years of experience, type of experience, and grade point average, introduced into the…

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  6. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  7. The relation of autologous serum and plasma skin test results with urticarial activity score, sex and age in patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Sirac; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Calka, Omer; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some previous studies reported autoimmunity as an etiologic factor in chronic urticaria (CU), but the results of some autoimmunity tests in these studies are conflicting. Aim To concretize whether there was any relation of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) results with sex, age and urticarial activity score (UAS) in patients with CU. Material and methods Fifty patients with CU and twenty healthy subjects admitted to our dermatology clinic were included in the present study. The ASST and APST were applied to all individuals. Results The positiveness rates of ASST and APST were significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p = 0.027, p = 0.001, respectively). Among patients, the APST positiveness rate (72%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ASST (46%). It was seen that 48% of patients with negative ASST results had positive APST. However, no patient with negative APST results had positive ASST. There were significant (p < 0.05) relations of the tests’ positiveness rates with sex and old age but with UAS. The diameter of the erythematous papule was remarkably (p < 0.05) larger in APST than ASST and also significantly (p < 0.05) larger in females compared to males in both tests (p < 0.05). It was positively increased with old age (p < 0.05). Conclusions We can suggest that APST is more sensitive than ASST in the assessment of autoimmunity in CU. A high positiveness rate of APST results may be attributed to high numbers of autoantibodies and coagulation factors present in plasma that might probably play a role in etiopathogenesis of CU. PMID:26161057

  8. Technology Use in Transition-Age Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: Reality and Promises.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Ulrich, Jenae; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2016-05-01

    Youth with chronic illnesses have the greatest risk for a decline in their health management during transition-age. Because of this demonstrated and well-known issue, research has focused on how to improve the transition of care process. Despite the increasing number of technological devices on the market and the advances in telemedicine modalities available to patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the utilization of technology is still suboptimal among patients of transition-age (ages 13-25). This article reviews the available resources, patterns of use in transition-age youth, and explores opportunities to advance technology use in transitioning patients with T1D from pediatric to adult care. PMID:26892506

  9. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    PubMed

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P < 0·01) effect on marbling score, longissimus muscle area, fat thickness and yield grade while breed group had an (P < 0·01) effect on marbling score and quality grade. In general, British and British cross bullocks produced carcasses with the thickest subcutaneous fat, the highest marbling score and the highest USDA quality grade while Jersey and Jersey cross bullocks yielded carcasses with the lowest weight, smallest longissimus muscle area and the lowest USDA quality grade of the four breed-type groups. Increases in chronological age (from 9 to 18 months) were generally associated with a decrease in USDA maturity score, and increases in marbling score, USDA quality grade, longissimus muscle area, subcutaneous fat thickness and USDA yield grade. Shear force values decreased as bulls matured from 9 to 18 months of age. The meat from Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P < 0·01) than that from bulls of the other breed groups. Steaks from British-type carcasses received the highest numerical ratings for sustained juiciness and flavor while steaks from the Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age. PMID:22055275

  10. Assessment of skeletal and dental ages of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Sanamaika Queiroga; Topolski, Francielle; França, Suzana Nesi; Brücker, Márcia Rejane; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the skeletal and dental ages of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Therefore, panoramic and hand-wrist radiographs of 82 patients, aged between 5 and 15 years, were collected and divided into case and control groups. The case group consisted of 41 panoramic and 41 hand-wrist radiographs of T1DM patients, whereas the control group consisted of 41 panoramic and 41 hand-wrist radiographs of patients without T1DM. Skeletal age was assessed according to the method of Greulich and Pyle (1999), whereas dental age was assessed according to the method of Nolla (1960). Chi-square tests revealed no statistically significant differences between skeletal and dental ages between the case and control groups (p > 0.05). However, in the case group, the skeletal age of females was greater than that of age-matched males (p = 0.005). Considering that skeletal and dental growth of the case and control groups were closely related, clinical interventions involving orthodontics and dentomaxillofacial orthopedics should be equally performed both for healthy and specific patient groups, such as those with T1DM. PMID:25627889

  11. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  12. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  13. Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Park, Yooheon; Park, Hyo Jung; Chang, Un Jae; Kim, Sun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential and skin safety of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) using Lactobacillus brevis for use as cosmetic ingredients. Concentrations of uronic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities were greater in FRG compared to RG. The contents of total ginsenosides were not significantly different. However, the ginsenoside metabolite content was higher in FRG (14,914.3 μg/mL) compared to RG (5697.9 μg/mL). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 27.63 μg/mL, and more potent compared with RG (34.14 μg/mL), (P<.05). The elastase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 117.07 μg/mL also higher compared with RG (157.90 μg/mL). In a primary skin irritation test, 10% RG and 10% FRG were classified as practically nonirritating materials. In a skin sensitization test, the RG group showed a sensitization rate of 100% and its mean evaluation score of irritation was 1.4, whereas the FRG group showed 20% and 0.2%, respectively. By fermentation of RG, FRG has increased contents of ginsenoside metabolites, such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, Rg2, and flavonoids content. Therefore, FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG. PMID:23126662

  14. Fermenting Red Ginseng Enhances Its Safety and Efficacy as a Novel Skin Care Anti-Aging Ingredient: In Vitro and Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Park, Yooheon; Park, Hyo Jung; Chang, Un Jae; Kim, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential and skin safety of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) using Lactobacillus brevis for use as cosmetic ingredients. Concentrations of uronic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities were greater in FRG compared to RG. The contents of total ginsenosides were not significantly different. However, the ginsenoside metabolite content was higher in FRG (14,914.3 μg/mL) compared to RG (5697.9 μg/mL). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC50) of FRG was 27.63 μg/mL, and more potent compared with RG (34.14 μg/mL), (P<.05). The elastase inhibitory activity (IC50) of FRG was 117.07 μg/mL also higher compared with RG (157.90 μg/mL). In a primary skin irritation test, 10% RG and 10% FRG were classified as practically nonirritating materials. In a skin sensitization test, the RG group showed a sensitization rate of 100% and its mean evaluation score of irritation was 1.4, whereas the FRG group showed 20% and 0.2%, respectively. By fermentation of RG, FRG has increased contents of ginsenoside metabolites, such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, Rg2, and flavonoids content. Therefore, FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG. PMID:23126662

  15. Autoantibodies to Type VII Collagen Mediate Fcγ-Dependent Neutrophil Activation and Induce Dermal-Epidermal Separation in Cryosections of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sitaru, Cassian; Kromminga, Arno; Hashimoto, Takashi; Bröcker, Eva B.; Zillikens, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies to type VII collagen, the major constituent of anchoring fibrils. Previous attempts to demonstrate the blister-inducing potential of autoantibodies to this protein have failed. To address this question, we used an in vitro model involving cryosections of human skin incubated with patients’ autoantibodies and leukocytes from healthy donors. We show that sera from 14 of 16 epidermolysis bullosa acquisita patients, in contrast to sera from healthy controls, induced dermal-epidermal separation in the cryosections. Recruitment and activation of neutrophils at the dermal-epidermal junction was necessary for split induction, whereas mononuclear cells were not required. Importantly, patients’ autoantibodies affinity-purified against a recombinant form of the noncollagenous 1 domain of type VII collagen retained their blister-inducing capacity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas patients’ IgG that was depleted of reactivity to type VII collagen lost this ability. Monoclonal antibody LH7.2 to the noncollagenous 1 domain of type VII collagen also induced subepidermal splits in the cryosections; F(ab′)2 fragments of autoantibodies to type VII collagen were not pathogenic. We demonstrate the capacity of autoantibodies to type VII collagen to trigger an Fcγ-dependent inflammation leading to split formation in cryosections of human skin. PMID:12107115

  16. The electric field near human skin wounds declines with age and provides a non-invasive indicator of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Li, Changyi; Narsing, Suman; Pariser, David M.; Lui, Kaying

    2011-01-01

    Due to the transepidermal potential of 15-50 mV, inside positive, an injury current is driven out of all human skin wounds. The flow of this current generates a lateral electric field within the epidermis that is more negative at the wound edge than at regions more lateral from the wound edge1. Electric fields in this region could be as large as 40 mV/mm2, and electric fields of this magnitude have been shown to stimulate human keratinocyte migration toward the wounded region3. After flowing out of the wound, the current returns through the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum, generating a lateral field above the epidermis in the opposite direction. Here we report the results from the first clinical trial designed to measure this lateral electric field adjacent to human skin wounds non-invasively. Using a new instrument, the Dermacorder®, we found that the mean lateral electric field in the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum adjacent to a lancet wound in 18-25 year olds is 107-148 mV/mm, 48% larger on average than that in 65-80 year olds. We also conducted extensive measurements of the lateral electric field adjacent to mouse wounds as they healed and compared this field with histological sections through the wound to determine the correlation between the electric field and the rate of epithelial wound closure. Immediately after wounding the average lateral electric field was 122 ± 9 mV/mm. When the wound is filled in with a thick, disorganized epidermal layer, the mean field falls to 79 ± 4 mV/mm. Once this epidermis forms a compact structure with only three cell layers, the mean field is 59 ± 5 mV/mm. Thus, the peak-to-peak spatial variation in surface potential is largest in fresh wounds and slowly declines as the wound closes. The rate of wound healing is slightly greater when wounds are kept moist as expected but we could find no correlation between the amplitude of the electric field and the rate of wound healing. PMID:22092802

  17. Attitudes and practices for smoking cessation counseling by provider type and patient age.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J; Clark, M A; Prohaska, T R; Slezak, J A; Crittenden, K S; Freels, S; Campbell, R T

    1995-03-01

    Attitudes and self-reported practices for smoking cessation counseling among 145 providers at a health maintenance organization were compared among two provider groups, physicians/nurse practitioners and registered/licensed practical nurses, and across three patient age groups, < 50, 50-64, and > or = 65. Smoking cessation attitudes did not differ by provider type but they did differ by patient age, especially among the registered/licensed practical nurses, whose attitudes were least favorable for the oldest smokers (> or = 65). While smoking cessation practices did not differ by patient age, they did differ by provider type. Self-reported performance of the 4 As of smoking cessation practice (Ask, Advise, Assist, Arrange) was more frequent among the physicians/nurse practitioners than among the registered/licensed practical nurses. However, among both groups, asking and advising practices were reported more often than were assisting and arranging. In all cases, different attitudes were correlated with different practice behaviors for the two provider groups. Also, there were more significant correlations between age-specific attitudes and practices among the registered/licensed practical nurses than among the physicians/nurse practitioners. This was true especially regarding the oldest patients. The findings suggest a need for provider education, especially among registered/licensed practical nurses, about the benefits of smoking cessation for patients of all ages and the potential effectiveness of provider-based intervention strategies that are targeted toward specific age groups. The findings also suggest that assisting and arranging practices in particular need improvement among all types of providers. PMID:7597023

  18. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  19. Histologic morphology and involucrin, filaggrin, and keratin expression in normal canine skin from dogs of different breeds and coat types

    PubMed Central

    Theerawatanasirikul, Sirin; Suriyaphol, Gunnaporn; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the thickness of canine epidermis at various anatomical sites according to localization of cornified envelopes (involucrin and filaggrin), keratins (keratin 10, 5), and their mRNA expression. This was done in the skin of five breeds of dogs including seven poodles, six golden retrievers, six Shih Tzus, four pugs, and four Labrador retrievers. Epidermal thickness of the stratum corneum and nucleated epidermal layer was significantly different. The greatest thickness was observed in the digital web area and the thinnest epidermis was in the axilla. Epidermal thickness was also significantly different between the breeds (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining scores revealed significant decreases of involucrin, filaggrin, and keratin 10 in the ventral and weight-bearing sites, and a relative increase of keratin 5 (p < 0.05). q-PCR analysis showed that their the levels of mRNA were positively correlated with expression of the corresponding proteins in skin samples (p < 0.05). The present study is the first to report the relationship between epidermal gene expression and histologic morphology of the skin in normal dogs. Further studies will be essential to fully understand the pathogenesis of skin barrier dysfunctions in canines. PMID:22705738

  20. Skin Advanced Glycation End Products Glucosepane and Methylglyoxal Hydroimidazolone Are Independently Associated With Long-term Microvascular Complication Progression of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanjie; Cleary, Patricia; Gao, Xiaoyu; Sell, David R.; Lachin, John

    2015-01-01

    Six skin collagen advanced glycation end products (AGEs) originally measured near to the time of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) closeout in 1993 may contribute to the “metabolic memory” phenomenon reported in the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. We have now investigated whether the addition of four originally unavailable AGEs (i.e., glucosepane [GSPNE], hydroimidazolones of methylglyoxal [MG-H1] and glyoxal, and carboxyethyl-lysine) improves associations with incident retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy events during 13–17 years after DCCT. The complete 10-AGE panel is associated with three-step Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale worsening of retinopathy (P ≤ 0.002), independent of either mean DCCT or EDIC study A1C level. GSPNE and fructose-lysine (furosine [FUR]) correlate with retinopathy progression, independently of A1C level. The complete panel also correlates with microalbuminuria (P = 0.008) and FUR with nephropathy independently of A1C level (P ≤ 0.02). Neuropathy correlates with the complete panel despite adjustment for A1C level (P ≤ 0.005). MG-H1 and FUR are dominant, independent of A1C level (P < 0.0001), whereas A1C loses significance after adjustment for the AGEs. Overall, the added set of four AGEs enhances the association of the original panel with progression risk of retinopathy and neuropathy (P < 0.04) but not nephropathy, while GSPNE and MG-H1 emerge as the principal new risk factors. Skin AGEs are robust long-term markers of microvascular disease progression, emphasizing the importance of early and sustained implementation of intensive therapy. PMID:25187362

  1. Skin advanced glycation end products glucosepane and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone are independently associated with long-term microvascular complication progression of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Genuth, Saul; Sun, Wanjie; Cleary, Patricia; Gao, Xiaoyu; Sell, David R; Lachin, John; Monnier, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Six skin collagen advanced glycation end products (AGEs) originally measured near to the time of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) closeout in 1993 may contribute to the "metabolic memory" phenomenon reported in the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. We have now investigated whether the addition of four originally unavailable AGEs (i.e., glucosepane [GSPNE], hydroimidazolones of methylglyoxal [MG-H1] and glyoxal, and carboxyethyl-lysine) improves associations with incident retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy events during 13-17 years after DCCT. The complete 10-AGE panel is associated with three-step Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale worsening of retinopathy (P ≤ 0.002), independent of either mean DCCT or EDIC study A1C level. GSPNE and fructose-lysine (furosine [FUR]) correlate with retinopathy progression, independently of A1C level. The complete panel also correlates with microalbuminuria (P = 0.008) and FUR with nephropathy independently of A1C level (P ≤ 0.02). Neuropathy correlates with the complete panel despite adjustment for A1C level (P ≤ 0.005). MG-H1 and FUR are dominant, independent of A1C level (P < 0.0001), whereas A1C loses significance after adjustment for the AGEs. Overall, the added set of four AGEs enhances the association of the original panel with progression risk of retinopathy and neuropathy (P < 0.04) but not nephropathy, while GSPNE and MG-H1 emerge as the principal new risk factors. Skin AGEs are robust long-term markers of microvascular disease progression, emphasizing the importance of early and sustained implementation of intensive therapy. PMID:25187362

  2. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  3. Effects of Grape Skin Extract on Age-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Memory and Life Span in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Asseburg, Heike; Schäfer, Carmina; Müller, Madeleine; Hagl, Stephanie; Pohland, Maximilian; Berressem, Dirk; Borchiellini, Marta; Plank, Christina; Eckert, Gunter P

    2016-09-01

    Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice. PGE was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/d in a 3-week short-term, 6-month long-term and life-long study. MD in the brains of aged mice (19-22 months old) compared to young mice (3 months old) was demonstrated by lower ATP levels and by impaired mitochondrial respiratory complex activity (except for mice treated with antioxidant-depleted food pellets). Long-term PGE feeding partly enhanced brain mitochondrial respiration with only minor beneficial effect on brain ATP levels and memory of aged mice. Life-long PGE feeding led to a transient but significant shift of survival curve toward higher survival rates but without effect on the overall survival. The moderate effects of PGE were associated with elevated SIRT1 but not SIRT3 mRNA expressions in brain and liver tissue. The beneficial effects of the grape extract may have been influenced by the profile of bioavailable polyphenols and the starting point of interventions. PMID:27455862

  4. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  5. Parental age and Neurofibromatosis Type 1: a report from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zoellner, Nancy; Gutmann, David H; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2015-06-01

    One of the potential etiologies for non-familial Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is increasing parental age. We sought to evaluate recent evidence for parental age effects in NF1 in a large study. Individuals with NF1 and a comparison group from the U.S. general population born between 1994 and 2012 were ascertained from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative (NPRI) and the National Center for Vital Statistics, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify differences between familial NF1, non-familial NF1, and U.S. population subjects in the mean parental ages at the time of the birth of offspring in each group. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of parental age on NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor history. A total of 313 subjects from the NPRI (including 99 brain tumor cases) matched by birth year at a 1:3 ratio to U.S. general population births (n = 939) were included. Compared to the U.S. general population and familial NF1 cases, the mean paternal age for non-familial NF1 cases was 4.34 years (95% CI 3.23-5.46, p ≤ 0.0001) and 3.39 years (95% CI 1.57-5.20, p ≤ 0.0001) older, respectively, after adjusting for birth year. A similar pattern was observed for maternal age. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean maternal or paternal ages between NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor. In conclusion, these data support a parental age effect for non-familial NF1 cases, but not for pediatric brain tumors in NF1. PMID:25523354

  6. Skin blister formation together with patterned intradermal hematoma: a special type of tire mark injury in victims run over by a wheel.

    PubMed

    Pircher, R; Epting, T; Schmidt, U; Geisenberger, D; Pollak, S; Kramer, L

    2015-04-01

    A traffic accident victim run over by a vehicle may show a patterned skin hematoma reflecting the grooves of the tire's profile. Apart from this well-known type of imprint mark, the affected skin can also be blistered provided that the wheel exerts high pressure on the body for a prolonged period of time. The macro- and micromorphological findings as well as the protein composition of the blister fluid were investigated on the basis of a relevant autopsy case. Analogous to blisters associated with hanging marks, the transudation of serous fluid with consecutive detachment of the epidermis is interpreted as a pressure-related effect which cannot be regarded as a sign of vitality. PMID:25659117

  7. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  8. The Effect of Types of Postsecondary Education on Drinking: Does Age of Enrollment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Leadbeater, Bonnie; Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from early adolescence through young adulthood, this study examined the association between different types of postsecondary education (PSE), age of enrollment in PSE, and the trajectory of alcohol use for Canadian young adults (N = 521). Trajectories of alcohol use were compared across young adults at 2-year colleges, 4-year universities, transfer programs (started at a 2-year college and transferred to a 4-year university), and terminal high school graduates. While initial findings revealed significant differences in the drinking trajectories of 2-year college students and 4-year university students, all differences were accounted for by variability in the age of enrollment. Overall, there were few differences in heavy drinking across types of institutions, but younger students increased their alcohol use more than older students following enrollment. However, young adults who do not attend PSE may be at greatest risk for heavy drinking over time. PMID:27308184

  9. Prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase pathway in human skeletal muscle: influence of muscle fiber type and age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sophia Z; Jemiolo, Bozena; Lavin, Kaleen M; Lester, Bridget E; Trappe, Scott W; Trappe, Todd A

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway regulates skeletal muscle protein turnover and exercise training adaptations. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) define the PGE2/COX pathway enzymes and receptors in human skeletal muscle, with a focus on type I and II muscle fibers; and 2) examine the influence of aging on this pathway. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the soleus (primarily type I fibers) and vastus lateralis (proportionally more type II fibers than soleus) of young men and women (n = 8; 26 ± 2 yr), and from the vastus lateralis of young (n = 8; 25 ± 1 yr) and old (n = 12; 79 ± 2 yr) men and women. PGE2/COX pathway proteins [COX enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), PGE2 synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and mPGES-2), and PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4)] were quantified via Western blot. COX-1, cPGES, mPGES-2, and all four PGE2 receptors were detected in all skeletal muscle samples examined. COX-1 (P < 0.1) and mPGES-2 were ∼20% higher, while EP3 was 99% higher and EP4 57% lower in soleus compared with vastus lateralis (P < 0.05). Aging did not change the level of skeletal muscle COX-1, while cPGES increased 45% and EP1 (P < 0.1), EP3, and EP4 decreased ∼33% (P < 0.05). In summary, PGE2 production capacity and receptor levels are different in human skeletal muscles with markedly different type I and II muscle fiber composition. In aging skeletal muscle, PGE2 production capacity is elevated and receptor levels are downregulated. These findings have implications for understanding the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise and aging by the PGE2/COX pathway and related inhibitors. PMID:26607246

  10. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  11. Age-related anabolic resistance after endurance-type exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William J.; Casperson, Shanon L.; Dillon, Edgar L.; Keske, Michelle A.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Sanford, Arthur P.; Hickner, Robert C.; Grady, James J.; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle loss is thought to stem from suboptimal nutrition and resistance to anabolic stimuli. Impaired microcirculatory (nutritive) blood flow may contribute to anabolic resistance by reducing delivery of amino acids to skeletal muscle. In this study, we employed contrast-enhanced ultrasound, microdialysis sampling of skeletal muscle interstitium, and stable isotope methodology, to assess hemodynamic and metabolic responses of older individuals to endurance type (walking) exercise during controlled amino acid provision. We hypothesized that older individuals would exhibit reduced microcirculatory blood flow, interstitial amino acid concentrations, and amino acid transport when compared with younger controls. We report for the first time that aging induces anabolic resistance following endurance exercise, manifested as reduced (by ∼40%) efficiency of muscle protein synthesis. Despite lower (by ∼40–45%) microcirculatory flow in the older than in the younger participants, circulating and interstitial amino acid concentrations and phenylalanine transport into skeletal muscle were all equal or higher in older individuals than in the young, comprehensively refuting our hypothesis that amino acid availability limits postexercise anabolism in older individuals. Our data point to alternative mediators of age-related anabolic resistance and importantly suggest correction of these impairments may reduce requirements for, and increase the efficacy of, dietary protein in older individuals. Durham, W. J., Casperson, S. L., Dillon, E. L., Keske, M. A., Paddon-Jones, D., Sanford, A. P., Hickner, R. C., Grady, J. J., Sheffield-Moore, M. Age-related anabolic resistance after endurance-type exercise in healthy humans. PMID:20547663

  12. Age-rotation relationship for late-type main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, T. N.

    1984-01-01

    With advancing spectral type and increasing age, late main-sequence stars exhibit monotonic decrease in rotational velocity. It is of great interest to extend the rotation-age relationship to stars of later spectral type. In recent times it has become possible to measure directly the rotational periods from the photometric modulation by Ca II H and K line emission. There have also been successful attempts to relate the chromospheric activity as manifested through Ca II H and K lines to the rotation period, and it was shown that the fraction of total stellar luminosity in Ca II H and K lines, corrected for photospheric contribution, is a function of a single parameter related to P and B-V. In the present investigation, this rotation-activity relation is utilized to infer the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. The period versus B-V plot is employed as a basis to infer that the rotational period of main-sequence stars is a single-valued function of mass (B-V color) and age.

  13. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Yong; Huang, Xun; Ma, Shuyuan; Ye, Hongyan; Cai, Jiye

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  14. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  15. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    PubMed Central

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  16. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    PubMed

    Tsicopoulos, A; Pestel, J; Fahy, O; Vorng, H; Vandenbusche, F; Porte, H; Eraldi, L; Wurtz, A; Akoum, H; Hamid, Q; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

    1998-06-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. PMID:9626072

  17. Type 2 diabetes model TSOD mouse is exposed to oxidative stress at young age

    PubMed Central

    Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Umeno, Aya; Yasunaga, Mayu; Shichiri, Mototada; Ishida, Noriko; Abe, Hiroko; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mouse, a model of obese type 2 diabetes, older than around 11 weeks of age develops diabetic phenotypes. Previous studies have indicated that the development of diabetes is partly due to three loci associated with body weight and glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about the initial events triggering the development of the diabetic phenotypes in TSOD mouse. Here, we investigated the alteration of diabetes-related parameters, including the levels of blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines, and the oxidative stress status, in young TSOD mice. TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age showed increases in body weight and plasma total cholesterol level, but not hyperglycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, compared with age-matched control Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obese (TSNO) mice. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were not detected in TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age. However, plasma total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was increased in TSOD mice relative to TSNO mice at same age. The results demonstrated that young TSOD mice are exposed to oxidative stress before developing the diabetic phenotypes, and suggested that oxidative stress is an initial event triggering the development of diabetes in TSOD mice. PMID:25411529

  18. Recombinant growth factor mixtures induce cell cycle progression and the upregulation of type I collagen in human skin fibroblasts, resulting in the acceleration of wound healing processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Ha; Cho, Jae-We; Kim, So Young; Kwon, Tae Rin; Choi, Sun Young; Choi, Yoo Mi; Lee, Jay; Yoon, Ho Sang; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-05-01

    Application of growth factor mixtures has been used for wound healing and anti-wrinkles agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant growth factor mixtures (RGFM) on the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, type I collagen, and wound healing processes of acute animal wound models. The results showed that RGFM induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts (HSF). In addition, expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, and Cdk2 proteins was markedly increased with a growth factor mixtures treatment in fibroblasts. Expression of type I collagen was also increased in growth factor mixtures-treated HSF. Moreover, growth factor mixtures-induced the upregulation of type I collagen was associated with the activation of Smad2/3. In the animal model, RGFM-treated mice showed accelerated wound closure, with the closure rate increasing as early as on day 7, as well as re-epithelization and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice. In conclusion, the results indicated that RGFM has the potential to accelerate wound healing through the upregulation of type I collagen, which is partly mediated by activation of Smad2/3-dependent signaling pathway as well as cell cycle progression in HSF. The topical application of growth factor mixtures to acute and chronic skin wound may accelerate the epithelization process through these molecular mechanisms. PMID:24626875

  19. 2-Aminoadipic acid is a marker of protein carbonyl oxidation in the aging human skin: effects of diabetes, renal failure and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Sell, David R.; Strauch, Christopher M.; Shen, Wei; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ϵ-amino group of lysine residues in longlived proteins oxidatively deaminates with age forming the carbonyl compound, allysine (α-aminoadipic acid-δ-semialdehyde), which can further oxidize into 2-aminoadipic acid. In the present study, we measured both products in insoluble human skin collagen from n=117 individuals of age range 10–90 years, of which n=61 and n=56 were non-diabetic and diabetic respectively, and a total of n=61 individuals had either acute or chronic renal failure. Allysine was reduced by borohydride into 6-hydroxynorleucine and both products were measured in acid hydrolysates by selective ion monitoring gas chromatography (GC)-MS. The results showed that 2-aminoadipic acid (P<0.0001), but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (P=0.14), significantly increased with age reaching levels of 1 and 0.3 mmol/mol lysine at late age respectively. Diabetes in the absence of renal failure significantly (P<0.0001) increased 2-aminoadipic acid up to <3 mmol/mol, but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (levels<0.4 mmol/mol, P=0.18). Renal failure even in the absence of diabetes markedly increased levels reaching up to <0.5 and 8 mmol/mol for 6-hydroxynorleucine and 2-aminoadipic acid respectively. Septicaemia significantly (P<0.0001) elevated 2-aminoadipic acid in non-diabetic, but not diabetic individuals, and mildly correlated with other glycoxidation markers, carboxymethyl-lysine and the methylglyoxal-derived products, carboxyethyl-lysine, argpyrimidine and MODIC (methylglyoxal-derived imidazolium cross-link). These results provide support for the presence of metal-catalysed oxidation (the Suyama pathway) in diabetes and the possible activation of myeloperoxidase during sepsis. We conclude that 2-aminoadipic acid is a more reliable marker for protein oxidation than its precursor, allysine. Its mechanism of formation in each of these conditions needs to be elucidated. PMID:17313367

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 2 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Souied, Eric H; El Ameen, Ala; Semoun, Oudy; Miere, Alexandra; Querques, Giuseppe; Cohen, Salomon Yves

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined choroidal neovascularization, known as type 2 neovascularization (NV) or classic NV, is the least representative phenotype of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Clinical aspects of type 2 NV have been widely described in the literature, and to date fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard for imaging age-related macular degeneration at initial presentation. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) can be used to image vessels based on flow characteristics without any dye injection. Type 2 NV can be visualized using OCT-A with very typical patterns. A neovascular membrane appears as either a medusa-shaped complex or a glomerulus-shaped lesion in the outer retina and the choriocapillaris layer. Furthermore, in the choriocapillaris layer, the external borders of the lesion appear as a dark ring in most cases, and one or more central feeder vessels that extend deeply into the more profound choroidal layers are visible. Identification of type 2 NV is easily feasible for any clinician using OCT-A, especially in areas where there are normally no vessels, like in subretinal space, if the interpretation rules are respected. PMID:27023798

  1. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D.

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin’ Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  2. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin' Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  3. Efficient Cellular Entry of (r-x-r)-Type Carbamate-Plasmid DNA Complexes and Its Implication for Noninvasive Topical DNA Delivery to Skin.

    PubMed

    Vij, Manika; Natarajan, Poornemaa; Yadav, Amit K; Patil, Kiran M; Pandey, Tanuja; Gupta, Nidhi; Santhiya, Deenan; Kumar, Vaijayanti A; Fernandes, Moneesha; Ganguli, Munia

    2016-06-01

    Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides are powerful tools for in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of a wide plethora of biomolecules. However, presence of consecutive arginine residues leads to enhanced amenability for proteolytic degradation as well as steric hindrances for membrane interactions which compromise its bioavailability. In order to overcome these limitations we previously reported a safe and stable octaarginine based oligomer, i.e., (r-x-r)4-carbamate, where the backbone amide linkages were replaced by carbamate linkages and 6-aminohexanoic acid based spacer moieties were incorporated for better flexibility, hydrophobicity, optimal spacing of guanidinium groups, and protection against proteolytic cleavage; resulting in improved transfection efficiency over its amide counterpart. In the present work we have investigated the mechanism behind this enhanced transfection efficiency and, based on our observations, demonstrate how the synergistic effect of rationalized oligomer designing, complex characteristics, and cell type contributes to overall effective intracellular delivery. Our results indicate that the (r-x-r)4-carbamate-plasmid DNA complexes primarily utilize lipid raft dependent pathway of cellular entry more than other pathways, and this possibly facilitates their increased entry in the lipid raft rich milieu of skin cells. We also emphasize the utility of oligomer (r-x-r)4-carbamate as an efficient carrier for topical delivery of nucleic acids in skin tissue. This carrier can be utilized for safe, efficient, and noninvasive delivery of therapeutically relevant macromolecular hydrophilic cargo like nucleic acids to skin. PMID:27175623

  4. A novel flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph for early melanoma detection, skin analysis, testing of anti-age products, and in situ nanoparticle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2010-02-01

    High-resolution 3D microscopy based on multiphoton induced autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been introduced in 1990. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have first been launched by JenLab company with the tomography DermaInspect®. This year, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel multiphoton tomograph MPTflex, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. Improved image quality and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are achieved by a very short source-drain spacing, by larger active areas of the detectors and by single photon counting (SPC) technology. Shorter image acquisition time due to improved image quality reduces artifacts and simplifies the operation of the system. The compact folded optical design and the light-weight structure of the optical head eases the handling. Dual channel detectors enable to distinguish between intratissue elastic fibers and collagenous structures simultaneously. Through the use of piezo-driven optics a stack of optical cross-sections (optical sectioning) can be acquired and 3D imaging can be performed. The multiphoton excitation of biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin is done by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key femtosescond near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid high-quality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research.

  5. Probing Radial age/metallicity degeneracy in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Elston, Richard

    1994-06-01

    It has been generally concluded that the optical broad band color and line index gradients observed in early-type galaxies are driven by metallicity. Yet, this conclusion remains uncertain due to the age/metallicity degeneracy inherent in most optical data. Furthermore, optical broad-band colors are susceptible to reddening in the presence of dust. Near-infrared colors, on the other hand, are significantly less age sensitive than optical colors in old stellar populations and are much less affected by dust. In principle, the combination of optical and near-IR data should provide less ambivalent age and metallicity discrimination than using optical or near-IR data alone. To investigate this possibility, near-IR images of early-type galaxies with significant U-R gradients have been measured. Comparison of the optical and near-IR results leads to the primary conclusion that broad-band optical and near-IR gradients are not tracing metallicity in concert but are affected by different astrophysical parameters. Three general possibilites are discussed: reddening, radial age gradients, and differing metallicity sensitivities. Proving the absence or presence of significant reddening is difficult from broad-band colors alone. In the absence of reddening, the optical color gradients would suggest that age decreases wit radius, leading to somewhat contrived evolution scenarios. Alternatively, it is proposed that the optical color gradients may be tracing light element (e.g. CNO) abundances while the near-IR gradients are tracing Fe- peak element abundances. This scenario leads to the conclusion that many of these galaxies have enhanced nuclear (light/FE) ratios, consistent with the recently published studies of nuclear line indices in these galaxies. Given the quality of the current available data, these hypotheses remain somewhat unconstrained. Nevertheless, this study reinforces the necessity of obtaining data over a long spectral baseline to properly interpret the ensemble

  6. Serotonin signalling is crucial in the induction of PUVA-induced systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity but not local apoptosis or inflammation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter; Byrne, Scott N; Limon-Flores, Alberto Y; Hoefler, Gerald; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2016-07-01

    Psoralen and UVA (PUVA) has immunosuppressive and proapoptotic effects, which are thought to be responsible alone or in combination for its therapeutic efficacy. However, the molecular mechanism by which PUVA mediates its effects is not well understood. Activation of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) pathway has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of T-cell responses and found to mediate UVB-induced immune suppression. In particular, the activation of the 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as one mechanism responsible for UV-induced immune suppression. We therefore hypothesized that 5-HT may play a role in PUVA-induced effects. The model of systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was used to study immune function after exposure of C3H and KIT(W) (-Sh/W-Sh) mice to a minimal inflammatory dose of topical PUVA. The intra-peritoneal injection of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin or cyproheptadine or an anti-5-HT antibody immediately before PUVA exposure entirely abrogated suppression of DTH but had no significant effect on inflammation, as measured by swelling and cellular infiltration of the skin, and apoptosis as determined by the number of sunburn cells in C3H mice. Importantly, the systemic injection of 5-HT recapitulated PUVA immune suppression of DTH but did not induce inflammation or apoptosis in the skin. KIT(W) (-Sh/W-Sh) mice (exhibiting myelopoietic abnormalities, including lack of 5-HT-containing mast cells) were resistant to PUVA-induced suppression of DTH but not local skin swelling. Thus, this points towards a crucial role of 5-HT signalling in PUVA-induced immune suppression but not inflammation or apoptosis in situ in the skin. PMID:26914366

  7. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  8. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  9. Extracellular Matrix Modulation: Optimizing Skin Care and Rejuvenation Procedures.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E

    2016-04-01

    Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures. PMID:27050707

  10. Neurocognitive Functioning in Preschool-age Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Delamater, Alan M.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Brady, Erika; Eidson, Margaret; Nemery, Robin; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Luis; Richton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Neurocognitive functioning may be compromised in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The factor most consistently implicated in the long-term neurocognitive functioning of children with T1DM is age of onset. The pediatric literature suggests that glycemic extremes may have an effect on the neurocognitive functioning of children, but findings are mixed. The purpose of this study was to compare the neurocognitive functioning of young children with T1DM diagnosed before six years of age and healthy children (i.e., without chronic illness). Additionally, in the children with T1DM, we examined the relationship between their neurocognitive functioning and glycemic control. Sixty eight (36 with T1DM and 32 without chronic illness) preschool-age children (M age = 4.4yrs) were recruited and administered a battery of instruments to measure cognitive, language, and fine motor skills. Children with T1DM performed similarly to the healthy controls and both groups' skills fell in the average range. Among children with diabetes, poor glycemic control (higher HbA1c) was related to lower general cognitive abilities (r = -.44, p < .04), slower fine motor speed (r = -.64, p < .02), and lower receptive language scores (r = -.39, p < .04). Such findings indicate that young children with T1DM already demonstrate some negative neurocognitive effects in association with chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:20456084

  11. The generation and maintenance of visual mental images: evidence from image type and aging.

    PubMed

    De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gardini, Simona

    2007-04-01

    Imagery is a multi-componential process involving different mental operations. This paper addresses whether separate processes underlie the generation, maintenance and transformation of mental images or whether these cognitive processes rely on the same mental functions. We also examine the influence of age on these mental operations for independence of components. In Experiment 1, younger (22 years) and older (69 years) adults generated and maintained general, specific, contextual and autobiographical visual mental images evoked in response to concrete nouns. The older adults had longer generation times, but there was no difference between the two groups on maintenance. Both groups had shortest generation and maintenance times for general images, whereas only the older adults took longest in generating autobiographical images. In Experiment 2, the total maintenance time and number of transformations for each type of image were compared in another group of younger and older adults. General images were less transformed and more subject to decay for both groups. The older people maintained the autobiographical mental images for longest compared to other image types. In conclusion, image generation, maintenance and transformation seem to be differently affected by type of image and aging, supporting a model of their cognitive segregation. PMID:17074426

  12. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  13. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  14. Effects of subprimal type, quality grade, and aging time on display color of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Garner, C M; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Boyle, E A E; Houser, T A

    2014-10-01