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Sample records for age smoking alcohol

  1. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  2. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  3. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  4. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss. PMID:24899378

  5. The influence of age, relative weight, smoking, and alcohol intake on the reproducibility of a dietary questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Sampson, L; Rosner, B; Hennekens, C H; Speizer, F E

    1987-09-01

    To evaluate factors that affect the reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study we compared an extended 99-item questionnaire with a shorter, 61-item form completed by 1497 women with an interval of nine months between. Correlation coefficients for individual items assessed by the two questionnaires were highest for beverages (Spearman r = 0.70). For other foods, coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.70 for items eaten frequently (or habitually), to values between 0.34 and 0.45 for foods, such as sweet potatoes and ready made pie, that were eaten less frequently. For food items, the correlation between mean frequency of consumption and the reproducibility coefficient (Spearman r) was 0.51 (p less than 0.01), formally confirming that the reproducibility of measurements was positively associated with frequency of use. Pearson correlation coefficients for calorie-adjusted intakes of nutrients between the two questionnaires ranged from 0.40 for trans-fatty acids to 0.71 for vitamin E (including supplements). These correlation coefficients did not vary materially between subjects in different categories of smoking status or tertiles of age or relative weight. Moderate alcohol use had minimal effect on correlation coefficients, but reproducibility was slightly reduced among heavier drinkers. These data indicate that this self-administered dietary questionnaire can provide reproducible information about individual food and nutrient intakes which is not altered materially by age and a number of important health habits.

  6. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  7. Smoking, alcohol drinking and serum carotenoids levels.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Ito, Y; Sasaki, R; Ohtani, M; Hamajima, N; Asano, A

    1987-10-01

    Serum carotenoids concentrations in healthy inhabitants, aged 40-79 years, of a community were measured. The results are as follows. 1. The alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene levels in serum were significantly higher in females than males. The alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations tended to increase with advancing age, this being especially marked for serum beta-carotene levels in males. However, beta-carotene levels were high in females throughout the age range of 50-69 years. There was no significant change in serum level of lycopene with age. 2. There was no significant difference in intake frequency of foods containing large amounts of carotenoids among the groups with or without smoking and drinking, as serum alpha- and beta-carotene levels were closely associated with intake frequency of green-yellow vegetables. 3. Regular alcohol drinkers or current smokers showed lower serum beta-carotene concentrations, and the effect of alcohol drinking on serum carotene level seemed to be larger than that of smoking. A synergistic lowering action of smoking and drinking on serum beta-carotene level was suggested. Among the alcohol drinkers, the more cigarettes consumed per day, the lower the serum beta-carotene level was, but this was not the case among the non-drinkers. Ex-smokers showed intermediate values between current smokers and non-smokers. The results suggest that alcohol drinking and smoking habit might be associated with lower serum beta-carotene level, which in turn may be related to excess incidence of cancer among smokers or drinkers.

  8. Non-daily Smoking and Alcohol Use, Hazardous Drinking, and Alcohol Diagnoses among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L.R.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-daily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with non-daily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between non-daily smoking and drinking behavior. Methods We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003; n=43,093). Young adults (age 18-25; n=5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, non-daily, and non-smokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Results 25% were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a non-daily basis. 71% were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared to non-daily smokers, with non-smokers consuming the least. Non-daily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, non-daily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with non-smoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46 — 26.48) in a non-daily smoker compared to a non-smoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54 — 9.36). A similar pattern of results was demonstrated

  9. Sexual orientation identity in relation to smoking history and alcohol use at age 18/19: cross-sectional associations from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)

    PubMed Central

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Taibjee, Rafik; Semlyen, Joanna; Fitchie, Isla; Fish, Julie; Meads, Catherine; Varney, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Information about the health behaviours of minority groups is essential for addressing health inequalities. We evaluated the association among lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) sexual orientation identity and smoking and alcohol use in young people in England. Design Data drawn from wave 6 of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE). Setting Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires. Participants Data from 7698 participants (3762 men) with information on sexual orientation identity and health behaviours at age 18/19. Outcome measures Cigarette smoking history, alcohol drinking frequency and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). Results LGB identity was reported by 3.1% of participants (55 gay, 33 lesbian, 35 bisexual male, 111 bisexual female), 3.5% when adjusting for the survey design. Adjusting for a range of covariates, identification as lesbian/gay was found to be associated with smoking (OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.51), alcohol drinking >2 days/week (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.17) and RSOD (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.86) more than weekly. Bisexual identity was associated with smoking history (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.61) but not alcohol drinking >2 days/week (OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.81) or RSOD (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.86). Conclusions In a sample of more than 7600 young people aged 18/19 years in England, lesbian/gay identity is associated with cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol frequency and RSOD. Bisexual identity is associated with smoking but not RSOD or frequent alcohol drinking. PMID:23985386

  10. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  11. Blood pressure, smoking and alcohol use, association with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The success of the ageing global population brings with it a growth in the number of dementia sufferers. Older adults are at highest risk of dementia and are likely to manifest both vascular and Alzheimer's pathology. Blood pressure also changes with ageing and there is evidence linking high blood pressure in midlife to an increased risk of later dementia. Data from later life is sparser. A number of intervention trials have been carried out with antihypertensives and have shown mixed results with regard to cognitive and dementia outcomes (both dementia overall and of vascular and Alzheimer's types). Meta-analyses have in general not found an association between blood pressure lowering and reduced dementia incidence, although the number of cases reported in the placebo controlled trials is invariably lower in the actively treated group. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also been published with regard to smoking and alcohol use and incident dementia. Despite mixed reports, overall smoking was associated with an increased risk of later dementia and alcohol with a 'U' or 'J' shaped relationship. Following the systematic reviews subsequent publications tend to report similar findings. The literature in this area suffers from differing populations, lengths of follow up and assessments of both risk factor and outcome. However, at present, maintenance of cognitive function would seem to be best served by treating cardiovascular risk factors in accordance with current guidelines, controlling blood pressure, reducing smoking and if consuming alcohol doing so in moderation. This review will concentrate on the prevention of dementia and attempt to provide an overview of the evidence relating to vascular related dementia and the potential risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use and smoking behaviour.

  12. Length of smoking deprivation moderates the effects of alcohol administration on urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Day, Anne M; Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2014-05-01

    Although smoking deprivation is often used in laboratory studies to induce urges to smoke cigarettes, the optimal length of deprivation has not been established. Previous research showed that overnight abstinence from cigarettes led to high baseline urge to smoke that potentially masked alcohol's acute effects on urge to smoke (Kahler et al., 2012). The current study examined whether alcohol's effects on smoking urge were more pronounced when a shorter length of smoking deprivation was used (i.e., 3h instead of overnight abstinence). Using a balanced placebo design for alcohol administration, we found that participants experienced a significant increase in self-reported urge to smoke when administered alcohol after a 3-h smoking deprivation (n=32), whereas this effect was smaller and nonsignificant when smokers were required to be abstinent overnight (n=96). Research on factors that heighten smoking urges may find stronger effects if a 3-h deprivation is used compared to using overnight abstinence.

  13. [Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Habeyche, Esther Campos; Oliz, Manoela Maciel; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel), as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the individuals interviewed, 53.9% were females and 42.3% were under 20 years. Regarding alcohol intake, 75% used alcohol once a month or less frequently, and the prevalence of risk for abusive alcohol intake was 6.2%. Regarding smoking, 10.2% reported smoking regularly or on weekends. More than 90% of those who smoked or used alcohol started before entering the university. Smoking was directly related to age and inversely related to self-rated health. In terms of alcohol intake, those who lived with friends were more likely to use it. Our data suggest the need for implementing strategies to promote healthy lifestyles among university students. However, the fact that more than 90% of individuals started to smoke or drink before entering the university suggests that interventions should target adolescents as a whole, and not only those who are university students, because onset of smoking and alcohol intake seems to occur at earlier ages.

  14. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  15. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  16. Alcohol and Smoking Affect Risk of Uncomplicated Colonic Diverticulosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1–180 g/week), moderate (181–360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400–799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1%) had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01), increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01) and smoking (P<0.01), and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01) as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral. PMID:24339905

  17. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  18. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  19. Pulmonary cytokine composition differs in the setting of alcohol use disorders and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Davis, Christopher S

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, and cigarette smoking are widely acknowledged and common risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia. Reasons for these associations are likely complex but may involve an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines within the lung. Delineating the specific effects of alcohol, smoking, and their combination on pulmonary cytokines may help unravel mechanisms that predispose these individuals to pneumococcal pneumonia. We hypothesized that the combination of AUD and cigarette smoking would be associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and diminished anti-inflammatory cytokines, compared with either AUDs or cigarette smoking alone. Acellular BAL fluid was obtained from 20 subjects with AUDs, who were identified using a validated questionnaire, and 19 control subjects, matched on the basis of age, sex, and smoking history. Half were current cigarette smokers; baseline pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs were normal. A positive relationship between regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) with increasing severity of alcohol dependence was observed, independent of cigarette smoking (P = 0.0001). Cigarette smoking duration was associated with higher IL-1β (P = 0.0009) but lower VEGF (P = 0.0007); cigarette smoking intensity was characterized by higher IL-1β and lower VEGF and diminished IL-12 (P = 0.0004). No synergistic effects of AUDs and cigarette smoking were observed. Collectively, our work suggests that AUDs and cigarette smoking each contribute to a proinflammatory pulmonary milieu in human subjects through independent effects on BAL RANTES and IL-1β. Furthermore, cigarette smoking additionally influences BAL IL-12 and VEGF that may be relevant to the pulmonary immune response.

  20. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  1. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cho Y; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Social learning models of addiction hypothesize that situational factors interact with cognitive determinants to influence a person's motivation to use substances. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 113 female smokers who enrolled in a study that tested an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment. Participants carried a palm-top personal computer for 7 days and were instructed to complete 4 random assessments each day and to initiate an assessment when they were tempted to smoke. Multilevel mediational analyses were used to examine (a) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (Model 1) and (b) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 (Model 2). Model 1 found a significant effect of alcohol consumption before time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (p = .04), and this effect was significantly mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j (p < .0001). Model 2 failed to find a significant effect of alcohol consumption before time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1. The findings suggest that alcohol consumption is significantly associated with increased positive smoking outcome expectancies that, in turn, are associated with increased smoking urge in women seeking to quit smoking.

  2. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, J; Schenkel, J A; van Erp-Baart, A M; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C; Schaafsma, G; Ockhuizen, T

    1993-07-01

    The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on dietary habits and smoking. A strong relationship between alcohol consumption and energy intake was found. The energy derived from alcohol was not compensated for by lower intake of other nutrients. There was no increase in Quetelet's index with increasing alcohol consumption, except for non-smoking men who were heavy drinking on midweek days. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of an overall effect of alcohol calories are discussed. Alcohol consumption was much higher on weekend days than on midweek days. No differences in nutrient intake were found between non-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers on midweek days. On weekend days, however, there was a slightly higher total fat and saturated fat intake in moderately drinking men. For women cholesterol intake was found to be higher in moderate and heavy drinkers. Finally, a strong positive relationship between alcohol consumption and smoking was observed. It is concluded that the observations with respect to energy and nutrient intake and smoking habits are not indicative of a healthier lifestyle in moderate alcohol users between 22 and 49 years of age. Consequently, the more favourable prognosis of moderate drinkers cannot be ascribed to a more healthy lifestyle.

  3. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  4. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  5. [Frequency of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and using drugs by the junior high school youth].

    PubMed

    Rzeńicki, Adam; Kowalska, Alina; Krakowiak, Jan; Chowański, Kamil; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    There is systematic decrease in the age of tobacco, alcohol and drug initiation in Poland among children and adolescents. Education concerning damage caused by smoking tobacco drinking alcohol and taking drugs, if started in due course, is of essence when it comes to the inhibition of these unfavourable phenomena. The aim of this work was to recognise the participation of smokers, people who drink alcohol and take drugs among students of junior high school as well as checking the dependency between early tobacco initiation and taking to drugs and alcohol among the youth. In March 2014, 288 students of 1-3 grades were included in the study of some selected junior high schools from the Moniecki region in Podlaskie voivodeship. While collecting empirical material, anonymous survey was carried out including 35 questions. Students were asked to fill it in freely during a lesson. In order to elaborate the collected data, descriptive meth, ods were used as well as methods of statistical interference. 163 women (56.6%) and 125 men (43.4%) were included in the survey. The most numerous group consisted of respondents at the age of 15 (40.1%) In the surveyed group, 100 students (34.7%) admitted to smoking at least one cigarette in their life. 6.3% of the respondents (18 people) smoked daily, whereas 9.0% (26 people) claimed they smoked occasionally. Majority of the surveyed people (51%, 147 people) answered that they had already drunk alcohol. 2.4% of the respondents (7 people) declared drinking daily whereas 18.4% (53 people) claimed to be drinking occasionally. Every tenth junior high school student stated the had used drugs at least once in their life (10.1%, 29 people). Despite the law in Poland prohibiting drug possession and trade as well as alcohol and tobacco purchase and consumption among minors, frequency of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette, and using drugs was high among the junior high school students.

  6. Integrating alcohol response feedback in a brief intervention for young adult heavy drinkers who smoke: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol’s stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Methods Thirty-three young adult (M ± SD age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years) HDS (8.7 ± 4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6 ± 6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n = 11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n = 10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n = 11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (0.8 g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. Results At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Conclusions Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. PMID:26341847

  7. Cigarette smoking and risk of alcohol use relapse among adults in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Methods Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N=9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (non-smoker, daily cigarette smoker, non-daily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Results Both daily and non-daily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 non-smoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Conclusions Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and non-daily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence three years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. PMID:26365044

  8. No Significant Effects of Smoking or Alcohol Consumption on Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking, but not higher alcohol consumption, is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to EAC. However, it is still unclear whether smoking or alcohol is implicated in the development of BE. Aim To evaluate the associations between smoking, alcohol and the risk of BE. Methods The study included eligible patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics. We compared 258 patients with definitive BE with two separate control groups: 453 patients from the primary care group (“colonoscopy controls”) and 1,145 patients from the elective EGD group (“endoscopy controls”) with no endoscopic or histopathologic BE. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Seventy-seven percent of BE cases, 75 % of colonoscopy controls and 72 % of endoscopy controls were ever smokers. Of these, approximately 45 % were current smokers. Overall, 91 % of study participants were ex or current alcohol drinkers, with the majority drinking beer. We found no association between various measure of smoking exposure (status, intensity, age at initiation, duration, pack-years and cessation) and risk of BE. Alcohol consumption was not associated with increased risk of BE. Conversely, moderate intake was associated with lower risk (14 to<28 drinks/week, OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.15–1.00). Conclusion Smoking and alcohol were not strong or consistent risk factors for BE. The likely role of smoking in increasing risk of EAC is through promoting progression from BE to cancer. PMID:24114046

  9. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in Busselton, 1966-1978.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Stenhouse, N S; McCall, M G; Wearne, K L; Murphy, B P

    1980-07-26

    In Busselton, mass health examination (MHE) questionnaires about alcohol consumption indicate that more people are drinking wine and fewer people are drinking beer. The evidence suggests an increase in the number of women consuming alcohol. The proportion of drinkers was higher among patients attending doctors with interests in wineries and/or vineyards compared with those patients attending doctors without such interests. More patients of doctors who smoked were smokers compared with those patient of doctors who were non-smokers. Smoking in Busselton appears to be declining at the rate of 0.5% to 1% of the population per annum; this decline is more marked in people who had attended one or more MHEs than in newcomers to MHEs. These trends have encouraged a more active approach to the prevention of smoking in school children.

  10. Contextual and individual demographic determinants of alcohol consumption and smoking: a comparative study in southwestern China and southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Le, Cai; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Apakupakul, Nualta

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between contextual and individual demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption and smoking in southwestern China and southern Thailand. In 2000, a cross-sectional study was carried out in southern Thailand on 703 subjects > or = 45 years old, and in 2005 in southwestern China on 6,006 subjects. Each participant was interviewed by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Information regarding demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was obtained. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model variation in the prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. The findings in both countries indicate that age was negatively associated with the probability of consuming alcohol and males were more likely to consume alcohol and tobacco than females. Chinese communities with a lower level of education were more likely to smoke. Thai individuals with a higher educational level were less likely to smoke. Yi ethnicity was associated with a higher probability of drinking both at the contextual level and at the individual level in China. Non-Muslims were more likely to consume alcohol in Thailand. Future contextual and individual level interventions regarding alcohol drinking and smoking are needed in China, and further studies with larger sample sizes are needed in Thailand before conclusions can be drawn.

  11. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  12. Smoking and alcohol consumption patterns among elderly Canadians with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobility disability is a major adverse health outcome associated with aging and an impediment to older adults’ well-being and behaviors in social and leisure activities. It has been shown that lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption, have been used as coping strategies to deal with the negative impact of disability. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among older Canadians with different levels of mobility disabilities and to examine factors associated with these two lifestyle patterns among those with disabilities. Methods Secondary data analysis was performed using individuals (n = 6,038) aged 65 years and older from both the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey and the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the relationship between disability severity and smoking as well as alcohol consumption while controlling for potential confounding socioeconomic factors. Results The proportion of current smokers among seniors with less-severe and more-severe mobility disabilities and those in the general population was comparable with 12.55%, 11.57% and 11.93%, respectively. Forty-eight percent of seniors in the general population consumed alcohol regularly, compared to only 12.85% with more-severe mobility disabilities. No significant association was shown between the severity level of mobility disabilities and smoking (odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.08). However, seniors having more-severe disability were less likely to consume alcohol regularly (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.89). Other variables including age, gender, income, living status, and social participation also impacted these lifestyle patterns among the study population. Conclusions Smoking and alcohol patterns present different associations with the severity level of mobility disabilities. Compared with the general

  13. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages.

  14. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843

  15. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  16. Combined Effects of Smoking and Alcohol on Metabolic Syndrome: The LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marieke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van Beek, André P.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI<25, normal weight; BMI 25–30, overweight; BMI≥30 kg/m2, obese). MetS was defined according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Within each BMI class and smoking subgroup (non-smoker, former smoker, <20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day), the cross-sectional association between alcohol and individual MetS components was tested using regression analysis. Results Prevalence of MetS varied greatly between the different smoking-alcohol subgroups (1.7–71.1%). HDL cholesterol levels in all alcohol drinkers were higher than in non-drinkers (0.02 to 0.29 mmol/L, P values<0.001). HDL cholesterol levels were lower when they were also a former or current smoker (<20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day). Consumption of ≤1 drink/day indicated a trend towards lower triglyceride levels (non-significant). Concurrent use alcohol (>1 drink/day) and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. Conclusion Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:24781037

  17. Juvenile (age 13-18) smoking incidence determinants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Aristidis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Roupa, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a form of medical addiction, usually adopted during adolescence. The aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking in adolescents, aged 13-18 years old, to investigate their attitudes towards smoking and determine the contribution of social influences to onset and continuation of smoking. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was filled in by 873 high school students of Central Greece. Smoking incidence was 19.2%, with a 13.7% of regular smokers. The presence of a smoker in the family and a smoker friend were correlated with increased smoking rates. School grades were correlated negatively with smoking attitude and positively with allowance. Age was correlated negatively with social influence. Social influence appears stronger on younger ages and is a main determinant of smoking behavior. A more susceptible attitude towards smoking is formed during late adolescence. Certain social predictive factors for attitude towards smoking are proposed. PMID:24628676

  18. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  19. Neighborhood environment perceptions and the likelihood of smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Heinrich, Katie M; Haddock, Christopher K; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, LaVerne; Poston, Walker S C

    2015-01-14

    Neighborhood characteristics are important correlates for a variety of health outcomes. Among several health risk behaviors, smoking and alcohol use have significant consequences. Perceptions of neighborhood problems are associated with depressive symptoms, lower physical activity, and lower quality of life. However, it is unclear which perceived aspects of neighborhoods might be related to smoking and drinking. We examined whether perceived neighborhood characteristics were associated with smoking and drinking patterns using data from US metropolitan Midwestern area adults. Participants completed surveys including sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood perceptions, behavioral and psychological health. For men, negative perceptions of neighborhood infrastructures were significant predictors for smoking and binge drinking. Among women, no perceived environmental factors were associated with smoking or drinking. However, education was a significant negative predictor for smoking. As age increased, the likelihood of using cigarettes, heavy and binge drinking in women decreased significantly. Depression was a positive predictor for smoking and heavy drinking in men and women, respectively. These findings indicate that the perceived neighborhood infrastructure was predictive of health behaviors among men, even after adjusting for key confounders. Closer attention may need to be paid to the role of neighborhood environmental characteristics along with individual-level characteristics in influencing unhealthy behaviors.

  20. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  1. [Smoking behavior and alcohol drinking in students in a rural area of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, R; Zirm, E; Uischner, C

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation ("Torgau Study") provides epidemiological information on a target population which in the past has hardly been in the focus of health promotion activities: the subgroup of children and adolescents of rural regions in Eastern Germany. A total survey was conducted that encompassed all classes from grade 6 to 10 of all schools in the district of Torgau (Saxony). Together, 5,925 students in the age range 12 to 16 years participated in this study (participation rate: 81.3%). The results provide a differentiated picture of their smoking behavior and alcohol use broken down by gender, school-type and grade. With respect to smoking the data show that the prevalence of regular smokers (i.e., daily smokers) in grade 10 is 41% in the Mittelschule (the school-type with a stronger vocational orientation) and 29% in the Gymnasium (the school-type with a university-preparatory curriculum). 51.9% of all students report that at least one parent smokes. There is a highly significant association between smoking status of the parents and smoking status of their children. The analysis of reasons for smoking highlight the stepwise transition into nicotine dependency from a psychological perspective. Most of the adolescents (about 80%) know about the dangers of passive smoking. However, with increasing age this knowledge loses its subjective relevance because dissonance-reducing strategies are applied ("doesn't matter"-attitude). Among girls, even in grade 10, there are almost no daily alcohol consumers (less than 1%); among boys in grade 10 the rate of daily alcohol users is about 8%. The rate of those 10th graders who consume alcoholic beverages at least once a week is however 30.6% (girls: 18.7%; boys: 44.2%). The longer the alcohol experience the more specific become the social and emotional motives for drinking. Altogether, the results suggest that efforts to prevent substance misuse in the rural regions of Eastern Germany are as necessary as in other

  2. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  3. Factors associated with readiness to stop smoking among patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anne; Lexau, Ben; Willenbring, Mark; Nugent, Sean; Nelson, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation (TASC) Study is a randomized controlled trial that examines the optimal timing of intervention for nicotine dependence in patients with alcohol use disorders. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline characteristics of study participants was used to identify characteristics associated with readiness of patients in intensive treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence to quit smoking. Baseline characteristics of 499 subjects enrolled in the TASC trial were analyzed. Readiness to quit was assessed by two self-rated measures: being in the preparation/action stages of change and scoring at least an 8 on the Contemplation Ladder. Univariate analyses showed a higher prevalence of African-Americans and other minorities than Caucasian, among participants planning to quit in the next month (p = 0.005). There were no other differences between groups. Participants in the preparation/action stages of change experienced significantly lower rates of current (p = 0.011) and past (p = 0.014) major depressive disorder and displayed significantly less current depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory (p = 0.008). Patients with Contemplation Ladder ratings between 8 and 10 showed similar results. Logistic regression models consistently confirmed that the degree of depression was negatively associated with the intention to quit, but different models suggested that increasing age, shorter duration of smoking history, race other than white, and a greater number of past quit attempts were positively associated with readiness to quit. Among patients in intensive treatment for alcohol use disorders who smoke, a history of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms predict less interest in quitting smoking.

  4. Ethnic differences in alcohol treatment outcomes and the effect of concurrent smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; Kodl, Molly; Willenbring, Mark; Nelson, David B; Nugent, Sean; Gravely, Amy A; Joseph, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation (TASC) Study tested the optimal timing of smoking cessation treatment in an alcohol-dependent population. Previously reported results suggest that providing concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate whether there are ethnic differences in alcohol and tobacco outcomes among a diverse sample of alcohol-dependent smokers using data from the TASC trial in which 499 participants were randomized to either concurrent (during alcohol treatment) or delayed (6 months later) smoking intervention. This analysis focused on smokers of Caucasian (n=381) and African American (n=78) ethnicity. Alcohol outcomes included 6 months sustained alcohol abstinence rates and time to first use of alcohol post-treatment. Tobacco outcomes included 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence. Random effects logistic regression analysis was used to investigate intervention group and ethnic differences in the longitudinally assessed alcohol outcomes. Alcohol abstinence outcomes were consistently worse in the concurrent group than the delayed group among Caucasians, but this was not the case for African Americans. No significant ethnic differences were observed in smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this analysis suggest that concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes for Caucasians but not necessarily for African Americans.

  5. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  6. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  7. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  8. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  9. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  10. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  11. Weekend alcoholism in youth and neurocognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Claudia; García-Moreno, Luis M; Expósito, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that alcohol intake causes neuropsychological disorders that affect various brain structures. The «premature ageing» hypothesis proposes that the brain areas of alcoholics undergo deterioration similar to that observed in old age. We investigated whether alcohol abuse by young people (binge drinking) causes alterations comparable to some found in elderly people. Ninety-one people were divided into four groups: a) young people who abused alcohol; b) young people who drank alcohol in moderation; c) young people who did not drink alcohol; and d) elderly adults without any significant cognitive deterioration. All of them were assessed with a neuropsychological battery. We observed some similarities in the results obtained by young drinkers and the elderly participants, which would provide some support for the hypothesis of premature aging. The tasks that young drinkers performed worse were those related to executive functions, in which the prefrontal cortex plays an essential role. We also found differences between the two groups of young drinkers (moderate and high consumption), which leads us to believe that the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of consumption are factors to consider in relation to cognitive impairment.

  12. Defining and predicting short-term alcohol use changes during a smoking cessation attempt

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kristin M.; Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol and nicotine are commonly used substances in the U.S., with significant impacts on health. Using both substances concurrently impacts quit attempts. While studies have sought to examine changes in alcohol use co-occurring with tobacco cessation, results have not been consistent. Understanding these changes has clinical implications. The objective of this study is to identify changes in alcohol consumption that occur following tobacco cessation, as well as predictors of alcohol use patterns following a smoking cessation attempt. Methods A secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of five tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies. Participants (N = 1301) reported their smoking and alcohol consumption daily for two weeks prior to, and two weeks after, the target quit date (TQD). Results Generally, alcohol use decreased post-TQD. Smokers who reported less pre-quit alcohol use, as well as smokers who were female, non-white, and had a history of alcohol dependence tended to use less alcohol post-quit. Pre- and post-quit alcohol use were more strongly related among men and among those without a history of alcohol dependence. Conclusions For most smokers alcohol use decreased following smoking cessation. These results suggest that the expectation should be of decreased alcohol use post cessation. However, attention may be warranted for those who drink higher amounts of alcohol pre-cessation because they may be more likely to drink more in the post-quit period which may influence smoking cessation success. PMID:25997014

  13. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  14. Reciprocal Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine in Smoking Cessation Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Carmody, Timothy P.; Humfleet, Gary; Delucchi, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Smoking and alcohol use are highly related; as such the present study investigated whether alcohol use is associated with failure in tobacco cessation attempts. We first examined the self-reported drinking behavior and smoking over the course of a year at a basic level. Next, we addressed two hypotheses to characterize this relationship at a deeper level: (H1) Alcohol use would be lower for those who attempted to quit smoking (quit for one or more days) during the year compared to those who never quit, and (H2) for those who relapsed to smoking after a quit increases in alcohol consumption would be positively associated with increases in smoking. Method Subjects were participants in two smoking cessation programs. One group of participants (N = 139) were part of a smoking cessation study in alcohol dependent smokers in early recovery and the other participants (N = 163) were drawn from a smoking cessation study for HIV positive smokers. H1 was tested using t-tests. For H2, a time series analysis examined relationships between smoking and alcohol use within person over a one year period. For D1 and for H4, the analyses utilized bivariate time series procedures. Timeline follow-back data allowed for detailed daily reports of both tobacco and alcohol use. Results In the overall sample, there was no difference in alcohol use between those who stopped smoking and those who never stopped. However, when broken up by study, a difference was found in the alcohol dependent sample such that mean drinks were higher for those who stopped compared to those who never stopped smoking (H1). The results indicated a high number of positive significant cross-correlations between tobacco and alcohol use such that one substance predicted current, as well as past and future use of the alternate substance. Same-day cross-correlations were the most common, and dissipated with time (H2). Conclusions This analysis provided insights into the proximal influence of one substance on

  15. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women.

  16. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  17. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  20. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  1. Older versus younger treatment-seeking smokers: differences in smoking behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychosocial and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sharon M; Humfleet, Gary L; Gorecki, Julie A; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Reus, Victor I; Prochaska, Judith J

    2008-03-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet few recent studies have described older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers aged 50 years or older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50) presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002-2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers aged 50+, and a second open to smokers aged 18 or older. As predicted, smokers aged 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and had poorer physical functioning than those aged <50. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women aged 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women aged <50, and less likely than men to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or as having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers aged <50. We found no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  2. Alcohol, Medicines and Aging | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol-Medicine Interactions Alcohol, Medicines and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... seen warnings on medicines about mixing them with alcohol. Doing so can cause nausea and vomiting, headaches, ...

  3. Variants located upstream of CHRNB4 on chromosome 15q25.1 are associated with age at onset of daily smoking and habitual smoking.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Manav; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bucholz, Kathy; Budde, John P; Hinrichs, Anthony; Agrawal, Arpana; Brooks, Andrew; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Foroud, Tatiana; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Manz, Niklas; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Rice, John; Tischfield, Jay; Xuei, Xiaoling; Schuckit, Marc; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24-q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster) with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to daily smoking (individuals who smoked cigarettes 4 or more days per week) in a cross sectional sample of adolescents and young adults from the COGA (Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism) families. Subjects were recruited from families affected with alcoholism (either as a first or second degree relative) and the comparison families. Participants completed the SSAGA interview, a comprehensive assessment of alcohol and other substance use and related behaviors. Using the Quantitative trait disequilibrium test (QTDT) significant association was detected between age at onset of daily smoking and variants located upstream of CHRNB4. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model further revealed that these variants significantly predict the age at onset of habitual smoking among daily smokers. These variants were not in high linkage disequilibrium (0.28smoking related diseases in adults. The data suggests that an age-associated relationship underlies the association of SNPs in CHRNB4 with onset of chronic smoking behaviors in adolescents and young adults and may improve genetic information that will lead to better prevention and intervention for substance use disorders among adolescents and young adults.

  4. Regulation of alcohol intake with advancing age.

    PubMed

    York, James L; Welte, John; Hirsch, Judith

    2005-05-01

    Previous surveys of alcohol use in the general population have not gathered sufficient data to allow for estimations of the blood alcohol levels (BACs) routinely achieved in survey participants. Our goal was to assess the influence of age on the estimated peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions in a representative sample (n=2,626) of the U.S. adult population. Variables related to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumption on typical drinking occasions were assessed by computer-assisted telephone interview. In addition, the height, weight, age, and gender of subjects were ascertained to be used in equations to predict the volume of distribution of ethanol (total body water). Prediction equations were used to estimate the probable peak BACs achieved during the typical drinking occasion. The survey identified 1,833 subjects ("current drinkers") of 18-89 years, who reported alcohol consumption within the past 12 months. Linear regression analyses performed on data from these "current drinkers" revealed that, for both men and women, there was an age-related decrease in the predicted peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions. The approaches used to modify the BAC with advancing age differed slightly for men and women, but both relied heavily upon a reduction in the quantity of consumption.

  5. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  6. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Jacobs, David R.; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A.; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Data on 6,680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Results Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. PMID:20609433

  7. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  8. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  9. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  10. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  11. Older versus Younger Treatment-Seeking Smokers: Differences in Smoking Behavior, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Psychosocial and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet there are few recent data describing older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers age 50 years and older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50), presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002–2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers age 50+, and a second open to smokers age18 and older. As predicted, smokers age 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and poorer physical functioning than those <50. Contrary to predictions, there were no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women age 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women <50, and less likely to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse then men. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers <50. There were no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both, the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  12. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  13. Smoking after the age of 65 years: a qualitative exploration of older current and former smokers' views on smoking, stopping smoking, and smoking cessation resources and services.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Susan; Watson, Hazel; Tolson, Debbie; Lough, Murray; Brown, Malcolm

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older current/former smokers' views on smoking, stopping smoking, and smoking cessation resources and services. Despite the fact that older smokers have been identified as a priority group, there is currently a dearth of age-related smoking cessation research to guide practice. The study adopted a qualitative approach and used the health belief model as a conceptual framework. Twenty current and former smokers aged>or=65 years were recruited through general practices and a forum for older adults in the West of Scotland. Data were collected using a semistructured interview schedule. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and then analysed using content analysis procedures. Current smokers reported many positive associations with smoking, which often prevented a smoking cessation attempt. The majority were aware that smoking had damaged their health; however, some were not convinced of the association. A common view was that 'the damage was done', and therefore, there was little point in attempting to stop smoking. When suggesting a cessation attempt, while some health professionals provided good levels of support, others were reported as providing very little. Some of the participants reported that they had never been advised to stop smoking. Knowledge of local smoking cessation services was generally poor. Finally, concern was voiced regarding the perceived health risks of using nicotine replacement therapy. The main reasons why the former smokers had stopped smoking were health-related. Many had received little help and support from health professionals when attempting to stop smoking. Most of the former smokers believed that stopping smoking in later life had been beneficial to their health. In conclusion, members of the primary care team have a key role to play in encouraging older people to stop smoking. In order to function effectively, it is essential that they take account of older smokers' health beliefs and that

  14. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential

  15. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  16. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696.

  17. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  18. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  19. Middle and high school students' exposure to alcohol- and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B Lynette; Shadel, William G

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors.

  20. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  1. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  2. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  3. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  4. Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking

  5. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  6. Effects of aging on the effectiveness of smoking cessation medication

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Jaqueline; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Buzo, Carolina Giusti; Lopes, Neuza Helena Moreira; Abe, Tania Marie Ogawa; Gaya, Patricia Viviane; Pierri, Humberto; Amorim, Clarice; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of different medications, it is plausible that the age of a smoker could affect the half-life of these drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of smoking cessation drugs (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) used either in isolation or in combination in adults under and over 60 years of age. Methods Data were collected from 940 Brazilian patients participating in a smoking cessation program. Participants were prescribed smoking cessation medication to be used for at least 12 weeks and were followed for 52 weeks. Results Cessation rates were significantly different among younger and older participants who were using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone. Being over 60 years of age was significantly associated with increased cessation success among those who used NRT alone (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.04, p = 0.002). The effectiveness of varenicline and bupropion were not significantly different according to age groups. Conclusion Using age as a predictor for tailoring smoking cessation drugs might potentially lead to a more individualized prescription of smoking cessation therapy. These results should be tested in randomized controlled trials. PMID:27166253

  7. Effect of age, smoking and other lifestyle factors on urinary 7-methylguanine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Tamae, Kazuyoshi; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yamasaki, Sayumi; Kawanami, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Masato; Takahashi, Ken; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kato, Noritada; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and 7-methylguanine (m7Gua) were measured by a column-switching high performance liquid chromatography method as markers of oxidative and methylating DNA damage, respectively. We investigated the associations between urinary 8-OH-dG or m7Gua and various lifestyle and demographic factors, such as age and sex. The urinary 8-OH-dG excretion level was positively correlated with cigarette smoking, but inversely correlated with fruit consumption, physical activity and total energy consumed per day. A multiple regression analysis revealed that daily physical activity and healthy meal combinations decreased the urinary 8-OH-dG level, whereas alcohol consumption increased it. In terms of the urinary m7Gua measurement, cigarette smoking, age and consumption of meat, fish, egg, soybean, etc. were positively correlated with the urinary m7Gua level, whereas body weight, BMI, physical activity, and dietary index score, which indicates good nutritional balance, were negatively correlated with the amount of m7Gua. Based on a multiple regression analysis, cigarette smoking and age correlated with the m7Gua level, while high BMI and healthy meal combinations have significant reducing effects on m7Gua level. Therefore, the urinary m7Gua level is considered to be a useful marker of DNA methylation, not only from smoking, but also from aging and unhealthy dietary habits.

  8. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  9. Pulmonary impairment in a cotton textile factory in Nigeria: is lifetime alcohol intake with low cigarette smoking a confounding factor?

    PubMed

    Oleru, U G

    1987-01-01

    A study of 60 Nigerian workers who seldom smoked and who were exposed for 2-15 yr in the printing, dyeing, and maintenance sections of a cotton textile factory showed a 38% airway and 20% "probably airway" symptoms. The airway symptoms were significantly (p less than .005) associated with a decrement in spirometric lung function before and after adjustment for age, height, and duration of employment. The change in residual pulmonary function (PFT) per year of employment was three times higher for the subjects with airway symptoms than for subjects presenting no symptoms. Lifetime alcohol intake was significantly (.025 greater than p less than .01) negatively correlated with pulmonary function and obstructive and restrictive lung disease parameters. Together with body weight, alcohol bottle-years accounted for between 18 and 22% of the variation in lung function, in a forward and reverse stepwise regression analysis. When duration of employment was standardized, subjects with considerable alcohol intake had significantly (.025 greater than p less than .005) lower pulmonary function before and after adjustment for age and height. When the residual PFT was further adjusted for duration of employment, the subjects with higher alcohol intake had significantly (.01 greater than p less than .005) higher residual per year of employment. The subjects presenting airway symptoms had significantly (.05 greater than p less than .005) higher alcohol intake than those in other symptom categories. These data suggest that alcohol intake is a probable confounder in the observed airway and PFT changes.

  10. Conditioning Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laura P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Classical conditioning procedures were used to change the attitudes and choice of social behavior of elementary and secondary students associated with drinking, smoking, and the use of drugs. The experimental group expressed more negative attitudes toward smoking and drinking and chose the use of drugs less frequently. (Author/BW)

  11. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  12. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  13. Increased risk of preterm birth among non- smoking, non- alcohol drinking women with maternal periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Le, Hang Thi Thu; Jareinpituk, Sutthi; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to examine the association between periodontitis and preterm birth among non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking women. The cases were 130 women who delivered a live singleton newborn before 37 weeks gestation. A random sample of 260 women who delivered a normal child on the same day as the cases were selected as controls. Periodontal examinations were performed during 24-hour period postpartum at bedside. Other related information was collected by structured questionnaire and medical records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, place of residence, education, occupation, income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, antenatal care (ANC), parity, systematic infections, genitourinary infections, antibiotics used, and history of periodontal treatment. Periodontitis (defined as presence of at least 4 teeth having > or = 1 site with a probing depth (PD) > or = 4 mm, clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or = 3 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) after 10 seconds at the same site) was diagnosed in 33.9% of cases and 10.4% of controls. Periodontitis was significantly associated with preterm birth (adjusted OR = 4.47, 95%Cl= 2.43, 8.20). These findings suggest that periodontitis may increase the risk of preterm delivery even among women who do not smoke or drink. PMID:17877238

  14. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (p<0.05) CYP2B6 protein was seen in four brain regions of smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking non-alcoholics: hippocampus (5.8-fold), caudate nucleus (3.3-fold), putamen (3.0-fold) and cerebellar hemisphere (1.6-fold). The genetic variant C1459T (R487C) has been associated with reduced hepatic enzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  15. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  16. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  17. A Model to Determine the Likely Age of an Adolescent’s First Drink of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace; Kramer, John R.; Wetherill, Leah; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Schuckit, Marc

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With the use of a new cohort of adolescent subjects, predictors from the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) interview and the Achenbach Youth Self Report (YSR) were combined to model age of first drink (AFD). METHODS: Subjects consisted of 820 adolescents (ages 14–17) drawn from the current phase of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Three Cox proportional hazards models were considered. Model 1 contained SSAGA variables equivalent to AFD predictors from our previous study: interview age, family history of alcohol dependence, and number of conduct disorder symptoms. Model 2 incorporated 2 additional SSAGA questions (best friends drink and smoked a cigarette before a reported AFD) plus 8 YSR-derived scale scores. Model 3 was a reduced version of model 2, retaining only significant predictors. RESULTS: Model 2 was a significant improvement over model 1. Model 3 was the best and the most parsimonious of the 3 with respect to likelihood ratio and Wald χ2 tests and retained only 5 variables from model 2. Included variables were the following: (1) best friends drink, (2) membership in a high-risk alcohol dependence family, (3) number of conduct disorder symptoms, (4) YSR externalizing score, and (5) YSR social problems score. CONCLUSIONS: Adding variables to those from our original study improved our ability to model the likely age of alcohol initiation. In addition to the SSAGA, the YSR appears to have utility as a research tool to predict the age of alcohol initiation. PMID:23296431

  18. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  19. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  20. Aging, alcoholism, anxiety, and sensation seeking: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; McAlhany, D A; McCurdy, R L; Shaw, D L; Roitzsch, J C

    1982-01-01

    Aging alcoholic (n = 36) and aging nonalcoholic (n = 35) male veterans were compared on biographic/demographic variables and psychological characteristics. Results indicated that aging alcoholics and nonalcoholics were married at approximately the same ages, married roughly the same number of times, and produced similar numbers of offspring, but aging alcoholics were better educated and had fewer persons economically dependent on them. They had higher scores than aging nonalcoholics on objective measures of state anxiety, trait anxiety, overall fears, tissue damage fears, social-interpersonal fears, miscellaneous fears, and failure/loss of self-esteem fears. Aging alcoholics also had higher scores on the sensation-seeking variable of boredom susceptibility and disinhibition, suggesting the existence of a relationship between need for sensory stimulation and maladaptive drinking among aging alcoholics. PMID:7080893

  1. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor.

  2. Second hand smoke, age of exposure and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Asomaning, Kofi; Miller, David P.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wain, John C.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer for three decades. It is also known that the lung continues to grow from birth to adulthood, when lung growth stops. We hypothesize that after adjusting for active cigarette smoking, if SHS exposure took place during the period of growth i.e. in the earlier part of life (0 to 25 years of age) the risk of lung cancer is greater compared to an exposure occurring after age 25. Method Second hand smoke exposure was self-reported for three different activities (leisure, work and at home) for this study population of 1669 cases and 1263 controls. We created variables that captured location of exposure and timing of first exposure with respect to a study participant's age (0 - 25, >25 years of age). Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between SHS exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for age, gender and active smoking variables. Result For study participants that were exposed to SHS at both activities (work and leisure) and compared to one or no activity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for lung cancer was 1.30(1.08-1.57) when exposure occurred between birth and age 25 and 0.66(0.21-1.57) if exposure occurred after age 25 years. Respective results for nonsmokers were: 1.29 (0.82-2.02) and 0.87 (0.22-3.38), and current and ex smokers combined 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 0.66 (0.15-2.85). Conclusion All individuals exposed to SHS have a higher risk of risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, this study suggests that subjects first exposed before age 25 have a higher lung cancer risk compared to those for whom first exposure occurred after age 25 years. PMID:18191495

  3. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  4. Frequency of alcohol and smoking cessation counseling in hepatitis C patients among internists and gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Tanu; Reyes, Mary; Nguyen, Huy; Borum, Marie

    2009-12-21

    Given the overwhelming evidence that both alcohol consumption and smoking accelerate the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease, we evaluated the frequency of alcohol and smoking counseling of patients with HCV-induced liver disease by their primary care internists and gastroenterologists. One hundred and twenty-three medical records of consecutive patients with HCV-induced liver disease referred by an internist to a gastroenterologist for its management were reviewed. Patient gender, race, history of and counseling against alcohol and tobacco use by a physician and a gastroenterologist were obtained. A database was created using Microsoft Excel. There were 105 African-Americans, 12 Caucasians and six patients of other races/ethnicities. Forty-six (37%) patients were daily tobacco users and 34 (28%) patients were daily alcohol consumers. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of alcohol (P = 0.0002) and smoking cessation (P = 0.0022) between gastroenterologists and internists. This study reveals that internists and gastroenterologists, alike, inadequately counsel patients with hepatitis C about tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:20014469

  5. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future.

  6. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  7. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  8. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  9. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  10. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  11. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  12. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  13. Age Differences on Alcoholic MMPI Scales: A Discriminant Analysis Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulstich, Michael E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to 91 male alcoholics after detoxification. Results indicated that the Psychopathic Deviant and Paranoia scales declined with age, while the Responsibility scale increased with age. (JAC)

  14. Does maternal tobacco smoking modify the effect of alcohol on fetal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Pereira, A da C; Olsen, S F

    1991-01-01

    Smoking and drinking habits were registered by a self-administered questionnaire in 36th week of gestation in 11,698 pregnant women, more than 80 percent of all such women in two Danish cities 1984-87. Alcohol consumption of 120 g/week or more was associated with a greater reduction in the average birthweight in the babies of smokers than of non-smokers (about 40 grams for the non-smokers and about 200 grams for the smokers). This is particularly striking considering that the average birthweight for smokers is lower than for non-smokers. A birthweight difference of more than 500 grams was found between babies of mothers who neither smoked nor drank and mothers who smoked and drank heavily. Our data suggest that women's smoking habits should be taken into consideration when giving pregnant women advice about drinking. PMID:1983919

  15. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Gerry; Mahmood, Lamia; Leyland, Alastair H; Batty, G David

    2011-01-01

    Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe. Conclusions Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades. PMID:21228431

  16. As You Age...A Guide to Aging, Medicines, and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Age… A Guide to Aging, Medicines, and Alcohol U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance ... older means that our bodies respond differently to alcohol and to medication than when we were younger. ...

  17. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  18. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  19. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  20. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  1. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Padrão, Patrícia; Lunet, Nuno; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men). Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification), using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR) favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68) in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65) in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69) and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44). Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89). When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70) in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61) in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23.1; 95%CI: 12.2

  2. EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON D2/D3 STRIATAL RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN ALCOHOLICS AND SOCIAL DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Daniel S.; Kareken, David A.; Yoder, Karmen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have reported lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D2/D3 receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D2/D3 receptor availability. Method Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [11C]raclopride scans. D2/D3 binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs). Results Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smoking controls. Conclusions Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability. PMID:23649848

  3. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life With Regard to Smoking, Consumption of Alcohol, and Sports Participation

    PubMed Central

    Emamvirdi, Rezvan; Hosseinzadeh Asl, Navidreza; Colakoglu, Filiz Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important determinant in a person’s life. Objectives In this study aimed at physical education students, alcohol consumption and smoking as risk factors and sports as a healthy factor could affect HRQoL. Patients and Methods This study was an analytical cross-sectional study. For our purpose, the subjects (n = 519) were asked to answer the SF-36 questionnaire (short form health survey for HRQOL). To analyze the data, two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the independent-samples t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were conducted. In this study, the P < 0.05 was considered a significant difference, and due to a Bonferroni correction, for ANOVAs tests, a P < 0.0125 was considered a significant difference. Results The results suggest that statistically significant differences for alcohol consumption were only obtained from the role-emotional (RE) scale, in which drinkers had lower mean scores than nondrinkers. For smoking, significant differences were obtained from the scales of RE, vitality (VT), emotional well-being (EW), social functioning (SF), and general health (GH), in which nonsmokers outdid smokers. The combination of alcohol drinking and smoking led to statistically significant lower scores on the RE scale and strongly destroyed the role-emotional part of HRQOL. Conclusions It can be concluded that smoking and alcohol consumption may be related to poor HRQOL in physical education and sports students despite the fact that they regularly engage in sports programs that could positively affect their HRQOL. PMID:27651950

  5. Factors associated with tobacco smoking practices among middle-aged and older women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Ahn, Sangnam; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, of better general health, and report past-year physician visits and fewer depressive symptoms. Mental health and smoking are interrelated, indicating the need for addressing depression in smoking-cessation efforts for aging women.

  6. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  7. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  8. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  9. [Consumption of medications, alcohol and smoking in pregnancy and assessment of teratogenic risks].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rebeca Silveira; Bezerra, Samara Cavalcante; Lima, José Welington de Oliveira; Costa, Fabrício da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Medications, alcohol and smoking can cause fetal damage. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 mothers of the Fortaleza General Hospital to evaluate the use of drugs, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy and its relation to teratogenic potential in different population characteristics, between 2006 and 2007. Postpartum women who had their babies in the research site were included and those whose babies were not admitted as hospital inpatients were excluded. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used in the analysis, with a p value <0.05 considered significant. 96.6% of the mothers took medications (2.8 drugs/ pregnancy) and self-medication occurred in 11.3% of the cases. Single women took more drugs with high teratogenic potential (p=0.037). 11 cases of fetal malformation were observed, five of them were exposed to high teratogenic risks. Smoking occurred in 11.3% and alcohol use in 16%. Being single was found to be a risk factor for exposure to high teratogenic potential. Quality of prenatal care and other sociodemographic variables weren't related to exposure to teratogenic risks.

  10. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  11. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  12. Sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages mediate alcohol intake in of-age undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Sarah A; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2005-01-17

    Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking. Participants used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate PROP bitterness and tastes from and preference for Pilsner beer, blended scotch whiskey, instant espresso and unsweetened grapefruit juice. Alcohol intake was reported over a typical week. Regression analysis tested the hypothesis that PROP bitterness influenced alcohol bitterness and sweetness, which in turn predicted alcohol intake. Those who tasted less PROP bitterness tasted all beverages as less bitter and more preferred. Sweetness of scotch was significantly greater in those who tasted PROP as least bitter. For scotch, greater sweetness and less bitterness from sampled scotch were direct predictors of greater alcohol intake. For beer, preference ratings were better predictors of alcohol intake than the bitter or sweet tastes of the sampled beer. These findings support that PROP bitterness predicts both positive and negative tastes from alcoholic beverages and that those tastes may predict alcohol intake. The college environment may attenuate direct effects of PROP bitterness and intake. Here, PROP bitterness does not predict alcohol intake directly, but acts instead through sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15639168

  13. Real-time patterns of smoking and alcohol use: an observational study protocol of risky-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Brandon, Thomas; Armeli, Stephen; Ehlke, Sarah; Bowers, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the strong relationship between smoking and health-related consequences, very few smokers quit. Heavy drinking is a significant risk factor for health consequences, and is implicated in persistent smoking and less success at quitting smoking. Self-efficacy (SE) to abstain from smoking is an important determinant of smoking outcomes and may link alcohol use to poor quit rates. Even though research has demonstrated a strong association between drinking and smoking, and the multiplicative effect of these substances on cancer-related, heavy-drinking smokers has been largely ignored in the literature. Further, research has not taken advantage of innovative methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, to capture the impact of daily factors on smoking cessation outcomes in this particular group. The proposed study identifies daily changing factors that impede or promote SE and future smoking cessation efforts in risky-drinking smokers. Methods and analysis This is an observational study of 84 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day) who drink at risky levels, report a desire to quit in the next 6 months, and show no evidence of psychiatric disturbance, severe history of alcohol withdrawal or drug dependence (excluding nicotine and caffeine). Participants report on their smoking, alcohol consumption and SE related to smoking twice a day for 28 days using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. Multilevel regression and path models will examine within-person daily associations among drinking, smoking and SE, and how these variables predict the likelihood of future smoking behaviour at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by an accredited Institutional Review Board. The findings will help us understand the factors that promote or impede smoking cessation among a high-risk group of smokers (heavy-drinking smokers) and will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at

  14. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  15. Television viewing and age at smoking initiation: does a relationship exist between higher levels of television viewing and earlier onset of smoking?

    PubMed

    Gutschoven, Klaas; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2005-06-01

    This cross-sectional study of children assessed the association between television viewing and age at smoking initiation, using self-reports administered by research assistants in schools. Participants were 909 students in their first and fourth years of secondary education in a random sample of 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, who had smoked at least one cigarette. The main outcome measure was age at smoking initiation. The independent variable was weekly television viewing volume. Gender, educational level, parental smoking, and peer smoking were the control variables. The relationship between television viewing and age at smoking initiation was significant. Higher levels of television viewing were related to earlier onset of smoking behavior in adolescents. The relationship of television viewing with age at smoking initiation was stronger than that of peer smoking, parental smoking, and gender. For each hour of television viewing per day, the average smoking initiation age decreased by 60 days. Heavier television viewers start smoking at an earlier age. Two possible explanations for this relationship are suggested. Social learning theory suggests that actors and actresses serve as behavioral role models for heavy viewers. Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to positive messages influences smoking attitudes. Further research should examine whether the relationship is causal and whether television acts as a provider of smoking role models or whether it influences smoking attitudes. PMID:16085505

  16. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  17. Childhood Passive Smoking Exposure and Age at Menarche in Chinese Women Who Had Never Smoked: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations between childhood passive smoking exposure and age at menarche in women who had never smoked in southern China. Methods Among 30,518 participants in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) from 2003-2008, 20,061 women who had never smoked and had complete outcome data were included. Childhood passive smoking exposure was defined as living with 1 or more smokers in the same household during childhood. Data on the number of smokers in the household and frequency of exposure (density and frequency) were also obtained. Age at menarche was measured as a continuous variable. Results 11,379 (56.7%) participants were exposed to passive smoking during childhood. Compared to those with no passive smoking exposure during childhood, those with exposure ≥5 days/week had menarche 0.19 year (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.25) earlier on average. Those exposed to more than two smokers had menarche 0.38 year earlier (95% CI: 0.29-0.47). Childhood exposure was associated with early age at menarche (≤13 vs. >13 years), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.21-1.48) for high density, and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.26) for high frequency of exposure. Conclusion Childhood passive smoking exposure was associated with earlier age at menarche, with a dose-response relationship in Chinese women who had never smoked. If causal, the results support the promotion of smoking cessation in families with children, particularly young girls. PMID:26186646

  18. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  19. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  20. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age one, three, and five years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20–25: n=1,717; ages 26–35: n=1,367; ages 36+: n=313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the five years post-delivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20–25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20–25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  1. Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviors on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang, C.S.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of smoking and drinking status in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and Materials: All patients with all stages and sites were included if complete information was available on baseline smoking and alcohol behavior (never, former, active), disease stage, primary site, radiation dose, sex, and age. Treatment was radiotherapy in 973 patients, postoperative radiotherapy in 469, and chemoradiotherapy in 429. Statistical analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods. Results: Data from 1,871 patients were available. At baseline, 9% of patients never smoked, 40% were former smokers, and 51% were active smokers; 20% never drank, 25% were former drinkers, and 55% were active drinkers. Smoking was associated with inferior local control and survival. For local control, the hazard ratio (HR) of active smokers vs. former smokers was 1.5 (p = 0.0001). For survival, the HRs of former smokers and active smokers vs. those who never smoked were also statistically significant (1.3 and 1.7, respectively, p = 0.000001). Alcohol drinking was associated with local control (p = 0.03), and was associated with survival. For survival, HRs of former and active drinkers compared with those who never drank were, respectively, 1.1 (p = 0.01) and 1.28 (p = 0.001). Adjusted 5-year local control and survival rates for those who never smoked and never drank were 87% and 77%, respectively, and for those who were both active smokers and active drinkers were 72% (p = 0.007) and 52% (p = 0.0009), respectively. Conclusion: Smoking and drinking at baseline were associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

  2. The lipoprotein lipase S447X polymorphism and plasma lipids: interactions with APOE polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Tan, C S; Chia, K S; Tan, C E; Chew, S K; Ordovas, J M; Tai, E S

    2004-06-01

    We studied 4,058 subjects from a representative sample of the Singapore population 1) to determine the association between the S447X polymorphism at the LPL locus and serum lipid concentration in Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore and 2) to explore any interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, exercise, obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake. Information on obesity, lifestyle factors (including smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise frequency), glucose tolerance, and fasting lipids was obtained. Male and female carriers of the X447 allele had lower serum triglyceride concentrations and higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The association between the X447 allele and serum HDL-C concentration was modulated by APOE genotype in males and cigarette smoking and alcohol intake in females. The effect of the X447 allele was greatest in men who carried the E4 allele and women who smoked or consumed alcohol. The X447 allele at the LPL locus is common and associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile in Asian populations. Interactions with APOE genotype, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake reinforce the importance of examining genetic associations, such as this one, in the context of the population of interest. PMID:15060087

  3. Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A; Quintana, M J

    1999-08-27

    To estimate the independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, we analyzed data from a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas in South America. A total of 830 case subjects and 1779 control subjects were included in the pooled analysis. All exposure characteristics of amount, duration, cessation and type of alcohol and tobacco consumed were strongly related to esophageal-cancer risk in both sexes. Women had the same exposure profile as men, but the magnitudes of the associations were lower than were those among men. Black-tobacco smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk as compared with the smoking of blond or mixed tobacco. Quitting either of the 2 habits significantly reduced esophageal-cancer risk. Alcohol and tobacco alone were strongly related to the risk of esophageal cancer, even in the absence of the other exposure. A history of simultaneous exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a strong multiplicative effect on risk. Concomitant exposure to heavy alcohol drinking and black-tobacco smoking identified the group with the highest risk for developing esophageal cancer (odds ratio = 107). A synergistic interaction was found between the 2 habits, particularly in women and in moderately exposed men. Moderate cigarette smoking without drinking and moderate alcohol drinking without smoking had a negligible effect on esophageal-cancer risk. However, simultaneous exposure to the same moderate amounts increased the risk 12- to 19-fold in men and in women respectively. The overall public-health implications of these findings are obvious for a tumor that depends on preventive strategies for its control.

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England

    PubMed Central

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Smoking in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzzeri, Alfred; Jason, Leonard A.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable erosion of gains have often been found during follow-up periods for behavioral treatment programs directed towards adult smokers. Focusing more attention on preventing smoking among youngsters currently not smoking or reducing smoking among those just beginning the habit might produce more favorable results. (Author)

  6. Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Population of Mainly Women Who Do Not Drink Alcohol: The MEC Study.

    PubMed

    Gram, Inger T; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively examined the association between smoking and the risk of breast cancer in a racially/ethnically diverse population comprising mainly women who did not drink alcohol. From 1993 to 2010, we followed 83,300 women who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study at 45-75 years of age. We identified cancer cases via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries that covered the states of Hawaii and California through December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for confounders that were decided a priori. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 4,484 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared with parous never smokers, women who had smoked for more than 20 pack-years and initiated smoking more than 5 years before their first childbirth had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 35% higher (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.63). Among women who did not drink alcohol, the risk was 40% higher (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.81). This higher risk did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups (P(interaction) = 0.82). We found that various measures of smoking exposure were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially smoking initiated many years before first childbirth, and that risk did not differ by alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) or racial/ethnic group.

  7. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations. PMID:25466934

  8. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  9. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population.

  10. Alcohol abuse and smoking alter inflammatory mediator production by pulmonary and systemic immune cells.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Jeanette; McNally, Alicia; Guo, Ruixin; Vandivier, R William; Simonian, Philip L; Burnham, Ellen L

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and tobacco smoking are associated with an increased predisposition for community-acquired pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms are incompletely established but may include alterations in response to pathogens by immune cells, including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We sought to determine the relationship of AUDs and smoking to expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by AMs and PBMCs from human subjects after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). AMs and PBMCs from healthy subjects with AUDs and controls, matched on smoking, were cultured with LPS (1 μg/ml) or LTA (5 μg/ml) in the presence and absence of the antioxidant precursor N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. Expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα in AMs and PBMCs was significantly increased in response to stimulation with LPS and LTA. AUDs were associated with augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-1β, by AMs and PBMCs in response to LPS. Smoking diminished the impact of AUDs on AM cytokine expression. Expression of basal AM and PBMC Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 was not clearly related to differences in cytokine expression; however, addition of N-acetylcysteine with LPS or LTA led to diminished AM and PBMC cytokine secretion, especially among current smokers. Our findings suggest that AM and PBMC immune cell responses to LPS and LTA are influenced by AUDs and smoking through mechanisms that may include alterations in cellular oxidative stress.

  11. Alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking are associated with global DNA hypermethylation: results from the German Investigation on Neurobiology in Alcoholism (GINA).

    PubMed

    Semmler, Alexander; Heese, Peter; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Muschler, Marc; Heberlein, Annemarie; Bigler, Laurent; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Frieling, Helge; Kornhuber, Johannes; Banger, Markus; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that smoking and alcoholism may be associated with altered DNA methylation and that alcohol consumption might induce changes in DNA methylation by altering homocysteine metabolism. In this monocenter study, we included 363 consecutive patients referred for hospitalization for alcohol detoxification treatment. Blood samples were obtained on treatment days 1, 3, and 7 for measurement of global DNA methylation in leukocytes by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping the following seven genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism: cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) c.844_855ins68, dihydrofolate-reductase (DHFR) c.594 + 59del19bp, methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) c.677C > T and c.1298A > C, methyltetrahydrofolate-transferase (MTR) c.2756A > G, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) c.80G > A, and transcobalamin 2 c.776C > G. Multivariate linear regression showed a positive correlation of global DNA methylation with alcohol consumption and smoking on day 1 of hospitalization. DNA methylation was not correlated with homocysteine or vitamin plasma levels, nor with the tested genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism. This suggests a direct effect of alcohol consumption and smoking on DNA methylation, which is not mediated by effects of alcohol on homocysteine metabolism.

  12. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  13. The effect of aging on smoke optical properties and scavenging characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Aging of smoke in dense smoke plumes is known to alter its size distribution and scavenging characteristics. In this paper, I review data pertaining to these processes and compare them to model simulations of the coagulation of smoke. Model simulations of the degree of smoke coagulation in the first few days after a nuclear war are summarized. The predicted size of smoke particles after several days of coagulation is found to be larger than that of any data pertaining to the absorption properties of smoke. Thus, it is suggested that more relevant data on the absorption properties of smoke is needed. I also review aging experiments pertaining to the number of cloud condensation nuclei in a smoke sample. I show that the fraction of smoke particles which act as CCN after aging depends on the number of particles initially present in the aging chamber. Smoke from an acetylene flame can quickly coagulate to sizes wherein nearly all of the particles act as CCN. On the other hand, only 10% of the smoke particles from an outdoor fire of gasoline and diesel fuel became CCN after 30 hours of aging. The development of CCN concentrations in this experiment may have been quenched by low initial concentrations in the aging chamber. Both experiments are consistent with particles as small as 0.08 micron in radius (and perhaps even smaller) acting as CCN. Model simulations of the coagulation of smoke particles above a large, intense fire show that coagulation would allow approximately 50% of the particles to become larger than 0.08 micron before the plume reaches cloud base. Furthermore, aging over several days time would transform nearly all the particles into the scavengable size range.

  14. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  15. Associations Between Anthropometry, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Jesse D.; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Oken, Martin M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55–74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993–2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (Ptrend < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: Ptrend = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  16. Latent Trajectory Classes for Alcohol-Related Blackouts from Age 15 to 19 in ALSPAC

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Munafo, Marcus R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Dick, Danielle M.; Davey-Smith, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs) are reported by ~50% of drinkers. While much is known about the prevalence of ARBs in young adults and their cross-sectional correlates, there are few prospective studies regarding their trajectories over time during mid-adolescence. This paper reports latent trajectory classes of alcohol-related blackouts between ages 15 and 19, along with predictors of those patterns. Methods Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to evaluate the pattern of occurrence of ARBs across four time points for 1402 drinking adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multinomial regression analyses evaluated age 15 demography, substance-related items, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance use as predictors of latent class membership. Results ARBs were reported at age 15 in 30% and at age 19 in 74% of these subjects. Four latent trajectory classes were identified: Class 1 (5.1%) reported no blackouts; for Class 2 (29.5%) ARBs rapidly increased with age; for Class 3 (44.9%) blackouts slowly increased; and for Class 4 (20.5%) ARBs were consistently reported. Using Class 2 (rapid increasers) as the reference, predictors of class membership included female sex, higher drinking quantities, smoking, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance involvement (pseudo R2 =.22). Conclusions ARBs were common and repetitive in these young subjects, and predictors of their trajectories over time involved multiple domains representing diverse characteristics. PMID:25516068

  17. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  18. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  19. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  20. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  1. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  2. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  3. Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Charles J; North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Carole K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Powers, Daniel A; Ockene, Judith K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence--general social support and living with a smoker--on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N=37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women.

  4. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  5. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  6. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L.; Jensen, Paul N.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R.; Chen, Lin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21–2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69–1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65–74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes. PMID:26756465

  7. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes. PMID:26756465

  8. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomomi; Kato, Keizo; Long, Nguyen Khanh; Makita, Hiroki; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kazuki; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity. PMID:24772313

  9. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, TOMOMI; KATO, KEIZO; LONG, NGUYEN KHANH; MAKITA, HIROKI; YONEMOTO, KAZUHIRO; IIDA, KAZUKI; TAMAOKI, NARITAKA; HATAKEYAMA, DAIJIRO; SHIBATA, TOSHIYUKI

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity. PMID:24772313

  10. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age.

    PubMed

    Fox, S H; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R

    1994-05-15

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important, avoidable factor associated with low birth weight. Maternal age is also associated with variations in birth weight. Using birth certificate data from all 347,650 singleton births for which maternal age and birth weight were recorded during 1984-1988 in Washington State, this study investigated birth weight and smoking during pregnancy (yes/no) for mothers of different ages. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for race, marital status, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, and urban/rural residence, the decrement in mean birth weight associated with smoking grew steadily from 117 g for the youngest mothers (age less than 16 years) to 376 g for the oldest (age 40 years or more). Similarly, the adjusted relative risk of having a low weight birth (less than 2,500 g) for smokers compared with nonsmokers was lowest for mothers aged 16-17 years, at 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.68), and increased steadily to 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.90) for mothers aged 40 or more. This result suggests that the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy is modified by advancing maternal age. Further research using data that more precisely measure the exposure (cigarettes per day, years smoked) could help further clarify this issue and better address the public health question of whether smoking cessation programs ought to focus limited resources more selectively toward pregnant smokers in particular age groups. PMID:8178780

  11. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  12. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  13. Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology. Methods We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2). Results The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population. Conclusion The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:24505444

  14. Effects of Smoking and Preeclampsia on Birth Weight for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Harland, Kari K.; Saftlas, Audrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A counterintuitive interaction between smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia on birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) outcomes was recently reported. In this report, we examine the relationship between these factors in a well-documented study population with exposure data on trimester of maternal smoking. Methods Preeclamptic (n=238), gestational hypertensive (n=219), and normotensive women (n=342) were selected from live-births to nulliparous Iowa women. Disease status was verified by medical chart review, and smoking exposure was assessed by self-report. Fetal growth was assessed as z-score of birth weight for gestational age (BWGA). Multiple linear regression was used to test for the association of maternal smoking and preeclampsia with BWGA z-score. Results There was no interaction between smoking with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension on fetal growth. BWGA z-scores were significantly lower among women with preeclampsia and those who smoked any time during pregnancy (β=−0.33, p=<0.0001 and β=−0.25, p=0.05) compared to normotensive and non-smoking women, respectively. Infants of women with gestational hypertension were comparable in size to infants born to normotensive women. Conclusions Women who developed preeclampsia and those who smoked during pregnancy delivered infants that were significantly smaller than infants of women who did not develop preeclampsia and non-smoking women, respectively. PMID:24893615

  15. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  16. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.

  17. Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain Aging and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β–amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia. PMID:22606286

  18. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Hu, Xiao-Shu; Wang, Pei-Hua; Qin, Yu; Lu, Yin-Chang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Ai-Min; Wu, De-Lin; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Frans, Kok J; Veer, Pieter van’t

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: Since 2003, a population-based case-control study has been conducted simultaneously in low-risk (Ganyu County) and high-risk (Dafeng County) areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Using identical protocols and pre-tested standardized questionnaire, following written informed consent, eligible subjects were inquired about their detail information on potential determinants of EC, including demographic information, socio-economic status, living conditions, disease history, family cancer history, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habits, frequency, amount of food intake, etc. Conditional logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95% CI), after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the preliminary analysis of the ongoing study, we recruited 291 pairs of cases and controls in Dafeng and 240 pairs of cases and controls in Ganyu, respectively. In both low-risk and high-risk areas, EC was inversely associated with socio-economic status, such as level of education, past economic status and body mass index. However, this disease was more frequent among those who had a family history of cancer or encountered misfortune in the past 10 years. EC was also more frequent among smokers, alcohol drinkers and fast eaters. Furthermore, there was a geographic variation of the associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and EC risk despite the similar prevalence of these risk factors in both low-risk and high-risk areas. The dose-response relationship of smoking and smoking related variables, such as age of the first smoking, duration and amount were apparent only in high-risk areas. On the contrary, a dose-response relationship on the effect of alcohol drinking on EC was observed only in low-risk areas

  19. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  20. Alcohol Use by Persons under the Legal Drinking Age of 21. The NHSDA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This report presents findings on underage alcohol use (i.e., alcohol use among persons under the age of 21) from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The NHSDA asks respondents about the quantity and frequency of their alcohol use in the past month. The NHSDA also asks about problems or behaviors associated with their alcohol use…

  1. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  2. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  3. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  4. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  5. On Consistency of Self- and Proxy-reported Regular Smoking Initiation Age.

    PubMed

    Soulakova, Julia N; Bright, Brianna C; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-12-16

    Early onset of smoking is associated with heavier tobacco consumption and longer smoking careers. Consequently, obtaining accurate estimates of early smoking is a priority. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of proxy reports of the age of smoking initiation, and specifically to explore whether there are differences in the consistency of proxy-reported and self-reported smoking behaviors. Data came from the 2002-2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, where the current smoking behaviors and smoking history of participants were reported by self-and proxy-respondents on two occasions, one year apart. Sequential multiple-testing methods were used to assess significance of the differences in reported prevalence of consistent reports among specific sub-populations defined by age, gender and survey administration mode. Results indicated that self-reports are more reliable (more consistent over time) than proxy reports or mixed reports that include self-report at one time point and proxy reports at another. The rate of perfect agreement was also highest for self-reports. The impact of respondent type on the consistency of reports also depended on the target subjects' age and the survey administration mode (phone or in-person). PMID:25408943

  6. On Consistency of Self- and Proxy-reported Regular Smoking Initiation Age.

    PubMed

    Soulakova, Julia N; Bright, Brianna C; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-12-16

    Early onset of smoking is associated with heavier tobacco consumption and longer smoking careers. Consequently, obtaining accurate estimates of early smoking is a priority. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of proxy reports of the age of smoking initiation, and specifically to explore whether there are differences in the consistency of proxy-reported and self-reported smoking behaviors. Data came from the 2002-2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, where the current smoking behaviors and smoking history of participants were reported by self-and proxy-respondents on two occasions, one year apart. Sequential multiple-testing methods were used to assess significance of the differences in reported prevalence of consistent reports among specific sub-populations defined by age, gender and survey administration mode. Results indicated that self-reports are more reliable (more consistent over time) than proxy reports or mixed reports that include self-report at one time point and proxy reports at another. The rate of perfect agreement was also highest for self-reports. The impact of respondent type on the consistency of reports also depended on the target subjects' age and the survey administration mode (phone or in-person).

  7. Is household smoking status associated with expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance? Results from the 1998–99 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine how household expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance vary between smoking and non-smoking households. Design: Cross sectional survey of households from private dwellings, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), using a stratified multistage area sample design. Setting: Australia, 1998–99. Participants: Nationally representative sample of households (n = 6892). Main outcome measures: Expenditure on meals at restaurants, alcohol, alcoholic beverages at licensed premises, gambling, and insurance. Results: The odds of reporting expenditure on restaurant food and health insurance were 20% and 40% smaller for smoking than non-smoking households, respectively. The odds of reporting expenditure on alcohol (not including expenditure at licensed premises), drinking at licensed premises, and gambling were 100%, 50%, and 40% greater for smoking than for non-smoking households, respectively. Conclusions: The study suggests that smokers are more likely to engage in risky behaviour. Implementing smoking bans in licensed premises and gambling venues can provide an opportunity to reduce smoking prevalence. Quitting or cutting down smoking can provide opportunities for expenditure on other products or services, and enhance standards of living. PMID:15564627

  8. Correlation of Smoking and Myocardial Infarction Among Sudanese Male Patients Above 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418

  9. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The multifaceted gut‐brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR‐1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre‐clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR‐1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre‐proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR‐1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population‐based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  10. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders.

  11. [Tobacco smoking in a sample of middle-size city inhabitants aged 35-55].

    PubMed

    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Maciak, Aleksandra; Kowalska, Alina; Bryła, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a common risk factor for the majority of civilization diseases, such as cardiovascular system diseases, malignant neoplasms and digestion and respiratory system disorders as well. Tobacco-related disorders relate to exacerbation of chronic diseases, for example diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Poland is one of those countries, where the prevalence of smoking is especially widespread. In Poland 42% of men and 25% of women smoke cigarettes and the amount of addicted people amounts to approximately 10 million. The latest data from the year 2003 show that the amount of cigarettes smoked by a particular citizen in Poland has risen fourfold since the beginning of 21st century. This paper presents an analysis of prevalence of tobacco smoking among inhabitants of a middle-size city in the Lodz province aged 35-55 years. The study sample comprised 124 people, including 75 females and 49 males. The tool of the research was a questionnaire survey containing questions concerning cigarette smoking. The study found out that 39.5% of respondents (41.3% of females and 36.7% of males) smoked cigarettes. The percentage of former smokers amounted to 15.3% and the percentage of non-smokers was higher than regular smokers and amounted to 44.8%. The study results showed that the majority of smokers were in the age interval of 45 to 49. Cigarette smoking influenced on smokers' health. The blood pressure and lipid balance was higher among smokers than among people who did not smoke cigarettes. The results of the conducted study confirm that there is a strong need of implementation of programmes towards limiting tobacco smoking, which may contribute to lowering the risk of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:19189562

  12. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  13. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  14. Effects of state cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies on state per capita alcohol consumption in the U.S., 1980–2009

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Plunk, Andrew D.; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing state cigarette excise taxes and strengthening smoke-free air laws are known to reduce smoking prevalence. Some studies suggest that such policies may also reduce alcohol use, but results for cigarette taxes have been mixed and associations with smoke-free air policies have been limited to some demographic subgroups. To shed further light on the potential secondary effects of tobacco control policy, we examined whether increases in cigarette taxes and strengthening of smoke-free air laws were associated with reductions of per capita alcohol consumption and whether any reductions were specific to certain beverage types. Methods State per capita alcohol consumption from 1980–2009 was modeled as a function of state price per pack of cigarettes and smoke-free air policy scores while controlling for secular trends and salient state covariates. Both policy measures also accounted for local policies. Total alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits consumption per capita were modeled separately. For each type of beverage, we used a nested models approach to determine whether the two policies together were associated with reduced consumption. Results For total alcohol consumption, and for beer or spirits (but not wine), one or both tobacco policies were associated with reductions in consumption. A one percent increase in cigarette price per pack was associated with a 0.083% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0002% to 0.166%, p=.0495), and a one point increase in SFA policy score, measured on a 6-point scale, was associated with a 1.1% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% CI 0.4% to 1.7%, p=.001; p<.001 for the hypothesis that the two policies are jointly associated with reduced alcohol consumption). Conclusions The public health benefits of increasing cigarette taxes and smoke-free policies may go beyond the reduction of smoking and extend to alcohol consumption, specifically beer and spirits

  15. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  16. Interactivity and Equifinality of Risks for Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian B.; Jackson-Carroll, Courtney J.

    2007-01-01

    Key psychosocial risks associated with adolescent smoking are well established. However, the ways in which the key risks of impulsivity, peer cigarette smoking, and self-reported use of alcohol interact to predict adolescent cigarette smoking is largely unknown. A sample of 210 Australian middle high school students aged 14-16 completed…

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  19. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  20. Smoking, Alcohol Use, Obesity, and Overall Survival from Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Susan M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Allmer, Cristine; Davis, Scott; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Lynch, Charles F.; Wang, Sophia S.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Hartge, Patricia; Cerhan, James R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking, alcohol use, and obesity appear to increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few studies have assessed their impact on NHL prognosis. METHODS We evaluated the association of pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index (BMI) on overall survival in 1,286 patients enrolled through population-based registries in the United States from 1998–2000. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS Through 2007, 442 patients died (34%), and the median follow-up on living patients was 7.7 years. Compared to never smokers, former (HR=1.59; 95% CI 1.12–2.26) and current (HR=1.50; 95% CI 0.97–2.29) smokers had poorer survival, and poorer survival was positively associated with smoking duration, number of cigarettes smoked per day, pack-years of smoking, and shorter time since quitting (all p-trend<0.01). Alcohol use was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.03); compared to non-users, those drinking more than 43.1 grams/week (median of intake among drinkers) had poorer survival (HR=1.55; 95% CI 1.06–2.27) while those drinkers consuming less than this amount showed no survival disadvantage (HR=1.13; 95% CI 0.75–1.71). Greater body mass index was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.046), but the survival disadvantage was only seen among obese individuals (HR=1.32 for BMI ≥30 versus 20–24.9 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.02–1.70). These results held for lymphoma-specific survival and were broadly similar for DLBCL and follicular lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS NHL patients who smoked, consumed alcohol or were obese prior to diagnosis had a poorer overall and lymphoma-specific survival. PMID:20564404

  1. Chronic cigarette smoking in alcohol dependence: associations with cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate levels in the extended brain reward system.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic smoking in alcohol dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain morphology and metabolite levels in large lobar regions (e.g. frontal lobe). Here, we evaluated if these abnormalities are specifically apparent in several cortical and select subcortical components of the extended brain reward system (BRS), a network that is critically involved in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. We studied 33 non-smoking and 43 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) with 1 week of abstinence and 42 non-smoking Controls. At 1.5 Tesla, we obtained regional measures of cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA; a surrogate marker of neuronal integrity) concentration in major components of the BRS as well as the corresponding measures throughout the cortex. Smoking ALC and non-smoking ALC demonstrated decreased thickness compared with Controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the total BRS, total frontal cortex and global cortex. Smoking ALC had significantly decreased thickness compared to non-smoking ALC in the ACC, insula, the total BRS and total frontal cortex. Smoking ALC had also lower NAA concentrations than both non-smoking ALC and Controls in the DLPFC, insula, superior corona radiata and the total BRS. Alcohol consumption and common medical and psychiatric co-morbidities did not mediate differences between smoking and non-smoking ALC. This dual modality magnetic resonance (MR) study indicated that chronic smoking in ALC was associated with significant cortical thinning and NAA abnormalities in anterior brain regions that are implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

  2. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as ‘alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances’) were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of ‘alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances’ was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including ‘alcohol brand appearances’, were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people. PMID:22039199

  3. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  4. Smoking prevalence among women of reproductive age--United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Women of reproductive age (18-44 years) who smoke risk adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse health consequences for themselves. They also are exposing their children to secondhand smoke and modeling behavior that will increase the likelihood that their children will become smokers. CDC analyzed state-specific prevalence of smoking and attempts to quit among women of reproductive age, using 2006 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The data indicated a six-fold difference between the state and territory with the highest and lowest prevalence (range: 5.8% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)]-34.7% [Kentucky]). Among women of reproductive age, those aged 18-24 years were most likely to have attempted to quit (68.4%), but least likely to have quit smoking (26.3%). Successful prevention and cessation interventions for this group of women can protect their own and their children's health.

  5. Interaction of asbestos, age, and cigarette smoking in producing radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Miller, A.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    The study of 3,472 chest x-rays from four populations with different levels of exposure to asbestos and with different cigarette smoking histories shows that smoking in the general population does not produce pulmonary fibrosis recognizable on chest radiography. In the general population of Michigan, the prevalence of a radiographic pattern of fibrosis was 0.5 percent in men and 0.0 percent in women. In a Long Beach, California census tract population, the prevalences were 3.7 percent for men and 0.6 percent for women. Similarly, cigarette smoking does not enhance fibrosis when the exposure to asbestos has been as light as that in households of shipyard workers. Asbestosis was recognized in 6.6 percent of 137 shipyard workers' wives who have never smoked and 7.6 percent of 132 who had ever smoked. Cigarette smoking and asbestos appear to be synergistic in those occupationally exposed to asbestos (as insulators), since 7.2 percent of 97 nonsmokers and 20.5 percent of 316 ever-smokers showed fibrosis. This apparent synergy was also found in shipyard workers up to age 70 with 31 percent of nonsmokers and 43.3 percent of ever-smokers having fibrosis. There were increases of approximately 10 percent in the prevalence of fibrosis in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers for each decade after age 40.

  6. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  7. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical in promoting alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyunghee; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Hye-In; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Bonghee

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a neurotoxic agent, since long-term heavy ingestion of alcohol can cause various neural diseases including fetal alcohol syndrome, cerebellar degeneracy and alcoholic dementia. However, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced neurotoxicity are still poorly understood despite numerous studies. Thus, we hypothesized that activated microglial cells with elevated AGE-albumin levels play an important role in promoting alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Our results revealed that microglial activation and neuronal damage were found in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex following alcohol treatment in a rat model. Increased AGE-albumin synthesis and secretion were also observed in activated microglial cells after alcohol exposure. The expressed levels of receptor for AGE (RAGE)-positive neurons and RAGE-dependent neuronal death were markedly elevated by AGE-albumin through the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Treatment with soluble RAGE or AGE inhibitors significantly diminished neuronal damage in the animal model. Furthermore, the levels of activated microglial cells, AGE-albumin and neuronal loss were significantly elevated in human brains from alcoholic indivisuals compared to normal controls. Taken together, our data suggest that increased AGE-albumin from activated microglial cells induces neuronal death, and that efficient regulation of its synthesis and secretion is a therapeutic target for preventing alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25140518

  8. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  9. Relationships between Age, Sex, Self-Esteem and Attitudes towards Alcohol Use amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Daniel; Banbury, Samantha; Lusher, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that self-esteem is related to alcohol consumption, with the majority of research finding that low self-esteem is associated with high levels of alcohol use and high self-esteem is associated with low levels of alcohol use. The present study examined this relationship among 100 university students aged 18-25 years. Further,…

  10. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  11. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065

  12. Age, body mass index, current smoking history, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels associated with bone mineral density in middle-aged Korean men.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Ki-Won; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Sun-Woo; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Il; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Park, Sung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health problem in women and in men. This cross-sectional study examined the association of anthropometric, lifestyle, and hormonal factors with bone mineral density (BMD) in 152 healthy Korean middle-aged men. Smoking habits and alcohol consumption were assessed by interview. Serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum growth hormone (GH) levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. GH stimulation tests were performed after the ingestion of 500 mg of L-dopa. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and at the femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Of the middle-aged men, 3.9% were osteoporotic and 28.3% were osteopenic at the lumbar spine site, and 5.9% were osteoporotic and 45.4% were osteopenic at the femoral neck site. Lumbar spine BMD correlated significantly with body mass index (BMI), and femoral neck BMD correlated significantly with age, BMI, and serum IGF-I levels. The lowest quartile group for serum IGF-I levels showed the lowest femoral neck BMD. Osteoporotic men by lumbar spine BMD showed significant differences from the normal BMD group in terms of BMI and smoking habits. Also, osteoporotic men by femoral neck BMD were significantly different for mean age, BMI, and serum IGF-I levels compared with the normal BMD group. On multiple regression analysis, BMI was found to be the only independent predictor of lumbar spine BMD, whereas both BMI and serum IGF-I levels were found to be the independent predictors of femoral neck BMD. Overall, 28.3%-45.4% of middle-aged Korean men were osteopenic. We suggest that higher age, a lower BMI, current smoking history, and lower serum IGF-I levels are risk factors for lower BMD in middle-aged Korean men; however, serum testosterone levels and GH secretory capacity were not found to be correlated with BMD.

  13. Influence of alcohol intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Jain, B K; Nag, A K

    1994-01-01

    To study the influence of alcohol (ethanol) intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels, we studied 210 healthy middle-aged men (age 45 +/- 8 years). Other factors influencing HDLC (physical exercise, diet, smoking and body mass index) were also studied. Individuals were classified according to daily ethanol consumption. There were 39 teetotallers, 29 took drink, 30 took 1-1.9, 25 took 2-2.9, 26 took 3-3.9, 28 took 4-4.9 and 33 took 5 or more drinks per day (1 drink = 14 gm ethanol). The overall mean serum total cholesterol was 191.4 +/- 53 mg/dl and HDLC was 46.4 +/- 9 mg/dl. Total cholesterol in teetotallers was not different from those consuming different amounts of alcohol. HDLC in teetotallers (44.5 +/- 8 mg/dl) was significantly lower than in those taking 1-1.9 drinks (46.7 +/- 11 mg/dl, p < 0.05) and 2-2.9 drinks/day (51.4 +/- 9 mg/dl, p < 0.01) but was not different from those consuming > or = 3.0 drinks. There was a weak positive linear correlation between ethanol and HDLC (r = 0.016). HDLC levels were significantly lower in smokers (43.5 +/- 9 vs 47.2 +/- 11 mg/dl in non-smokers), in non-vegetarians (43.5 +/- 10 vs 46.2 +/- 9 mg/dl in vegetarians) and in those with sedentary habits (42.4 +/- 7 vs 46.1 +/- 10 mg/dl in physically active). Low level ethanol consumption (< 3 drinks or 42 gm per day) is associated with increased HDLC levels.

  14. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  15. Smoking, alcohol, occupation, and hair dye use in cancer of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N

    1989-12-01

    This case-control study was based on 137 Caucasian and 124 Japanese cases of urinary tract cancer identified in Hawaii between 1977 and 1986. Each case was matched on sex, age, and race to two population-based controls. Heavy cigarette smokers (41 or more pack-years for men; 21 or more pack-years for women) had a significantly elevated risk compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio (OR) = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.1 for the men; OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3 for the women). When the men and women were combined, employment in high-risk industries (includes machinery, automotive, and textiles, among others) was significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Alcohol intake and hair dye use showed weaker positive associations with risk that were not statistically significant.

  16. Alcohol use across the lifespan: An analysis of adolescent and aged rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence and old age are unique periods of the lifespan characterized by differential sensitivity to the effects of alcohol. Adolescents and the elderly appear to be more vulnerable to many of alcohol's physiological and behavioral effects compared to adults. The current review explores the differential effects of acute alcohol, predominantly in terms of motor function and cognition, in adolescent and aged humans and rodents. Adolescents are less sensitive to the sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic, and motor-impairing effects of acute alcohol, but research results are less consistent as it relates to alcohol's effects on cognition. Specifically, previous research has shown adolescents to be more, less, and similarly sensitive to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits compared to adults. These equivocal findings suggest that learning acquisition may be differentially affected by ethanol compared to memory, or that ethanol-induced cognitive deficits are task-dependent. Older rodents appear to be particularly vulnerable to the motor- and cognitive-impairing effects of acute alcohol relative to younger adults. Given that alcohol consumption and abuse is prevalent throughout the lifespan, it is important to recognize age-related differences in response to acute and long-term alcohol. Unfortunately, diagnostic measures and treatment options for alcohol dependence are rarely dedicated to adolescent and aging populations. As discussed, although much scientific advancement has been made regarding the differential effects of alcohol between adolescents and adults, research with the aged is underrepresented. Future researchers should be aware that adolescents and the aged are uniquely affected by alcohol and should continue to investigate alcohol's effects at different stages of maturation. PMID:25842258

  17. Legal-Age Students' Provision of Alcohol to Underage College Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…

  18. A meta-analysis provides evidence that prenatal smoking exposure decreases age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Yermachenko, Anna; Dvornyk, Volodymyr

    2015-12-01

    Since studies of association between prenatal tobacco exposure and age at menarche have reported inconsistent results so far, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine this association. In total 36 relevant articles (1995-2014) were identified, 17 of which satisfied the inclusion criteria and were used in the analysis. Nearly one month decrease (-0.092 [95%CI:-0.160, -0.024] year) in age at menarche was found in women who were exposed to tobacco in utero. The meta-regression analysis showed that average year of birth in the cohorts might significantly influence association between maternal smoking and daughter's age at menarche. Based on results obtained from 5 studies where age at menarche was treated as a categorical variable, maternal smoking status during pregnancy increased a risk for daughters to have menarche earlier than at 11 years old by 15%.

  19. Age of Alcohol Drinking Onset Precursors and the Mediation of Alcohol Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnne; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983 and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic,…

  20. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  1. Observations of Smoke Aerosol from Biomass Burning in Mexico: Effect of Particle Aging on Radiative Forcing and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Bruintjes, Roelof; Holben, Brent N.; Christopher, Sundar

    1999-01-01

    We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.

  2. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  3. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  4. Marijuana, Alcohol Use and Attempted Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Kong, Grace; Bagot, Kara; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between the frequency of current marijuana and alcohol use and cigarette-quit attempts in male and female adolescent smokers. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors in high-school-age adolescents were analyzed. Current cigarette smokers (n=804) who reported use of at least 1 cigarette in the past month were divided into those with and without a history of at least 1 quit attempt (a self-reported episode of trying to “stop smoking”). Logistic regression models were fit to describe the association between the frequency of marijuana/alcohol use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts. Results Among the total sample, higher frequency marijuana use (more than six times in the past 30 days) and frequent binge drinking (more than 5 days of binge drinking in the past 30 days) decreased the odds of having a past cigarette-quit attempt (higher frequency marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.36–0.86) (frequent binge drinking AOR=0.49; 95%CI=0.29–0.83). A significant gender interaction was observed for the relationship between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts (p=0.03), with decreased odds in boys (AOR=0.41; 95% CI=0.22–0.77) but not in girls (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.37–1.33). Conclusions Adolescent smokers who report higher frequency marijuana use or frequent binge drinking have a decreased likelihood of a history of a cigarette-quit attempt. The gender-related association between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of quit attempts suggests that boys with greater substance use may need particularly intensive support to initiate quit attempts. PMID:25174418

  5. Age at Onset of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorder: Time-trend Study in Patients Seeking De-addiction Services in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Reghukumaran; Vidhukumar, K.; Prabhakaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Declining age at onset of alcohol consumption over years has been one of the alarming findings in the epidemiology of alcoholism. The study was done to examine whether there was a decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder in subjects categorized as birth cohorts over the last 60 years seeking de-addiction services from a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A time-trend study, based on data collected from records, was done among 700 randomly selected subjects seeking de-addiction services. The study was done in a Government Medical College. Besides birth year, family history of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric comorbidity were the main independent variables studied. Trend was tested by linear regression. Results: There was a significant linear decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. The mean age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder declined from 24 to 17 years and 46 to 21 years, respectively, from the pre-1950 birth cohort to the post-1985 birth cohort. Surprisingly, there was a plateau for mean age at onset of alcohol use during 1960s. The trend was significant even after adjusting for variables related to age at onset of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The trend of decreasing age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder over time has policy implications. Further studies are needed for exploring mediating or causal factors for the decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. PMID:27570342

  6. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, p<0.01); however, spirometric lung ages significantly deteriorated in the failure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, p<0.01). The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  8. Leveraging family values to decrease unhealthy alcohol use in aging Latino day laborers.

    PubMed

    del Pino, Homero E; Méndez-Luck, Carolyn; Bostean, Georgiana; Ramírez, Karina; Portillo, Marlom; Moore, Alison A

    2013-10-01

    In one Los Angeles study, 20 % of day laborers reported excessive drinking. Older adults are more sensitive to alcohol's effects, yet heavy drinking persists among Latinos until they are in their 60s. No interventions to reduce heavy drinking exist for aging day laborers. We recruited 14 day laborers aged 50 and older in Los Angeles. We identified their unhealthy alcohol use behaviors and comorbidities and conducted semi-structured interviews to understand their perceptions of unhealthy alcohol use. We found social disadvantages and conditions exacerbated by alcohol use, like depression. Participants were concerned with dying and premature aging, and reported that family could influence behavior change. An intervention should consider (1) integrating family values and (2) increasing knowledge about alcohol use and comorbidities. Further studies are needed to explore family influence on aging Latino day laborers.

  9. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  10. Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol habits are more rarely addressed than other health behavior topics in Swedish health care. This study examined whether differences between topics could be explained by their different associations with patient characteristics or by the differences in the prevalence of the disadvantageous health behavior, i.e., excessive alcohol use and smoking. The study moreover examined whether simply being asked questions about behavior, i.e., alcohol use or smoking, was associated with reported change. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional postal survey (n = 4 238, response rate 56.5 percent) representative of the adult population in Stockholm County in 2003. Retrospective self-reports were used to assess health care visits during the past 12 months, the questions and advice received there, patients characteristics, health behavior, and the present stage of change. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among the 68 percent who had visited health care. Results Among the health care visitors, 23 percent reported being asked about their alcohol habits, and 3 percent reported receiving advice or/and support to modify their alcohol use - fewer than for smoking, physical exercise, or diet. When regression models adjusted for patient characteristics, the differences between health behaviors in the extent of questioning and advice remained. However, when the models also adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption there was no difference between smoking and alcohol-related advice. In fact one-third of the present smokers and two-fifths of the persons dependent on alcohol reported having receiving advice the previous 12 months. Those who reported being asked questions or receiving advice more often reported a decreased alcohol use and similarly intended to cease smoking within 6 months. Questions about alcohol use were moreover related to a later stage of stage of change independently of advice among women but not among men

  11. COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history.

    PubMed

    Young, R P; Hopkins, R J; Christmas, T; Black, P N; Metcalf, P; Gamble, G D

    2009-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by age, sex and pack-yr smoking history, and/or by the possible effects of lung cancer on spirometry, may result in over-diagnosis of COPD prevalence. In the present study, the prevalence of COPD (pre-bronchodilator Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2+ criteria) in patients diagnosed with lung cancer was 50% compared with 8% in a randomly recruited community control group, matched for age, sex and pack-yr smoking exposure (n = 602, odds ratio 11.6; p<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of those with lung cancer and lung function measured prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 127), we found a nonsignificant increase in COPD prevalence following diagnosis (56-61%; p = 0.45). After controlling for important variables, the prevalence of COPD in newly diagnosed lung cancer cases was six-fold greater than in matched smokers; this is much greater than previously reported. We conclude that COPD is both a common and important independent risk factor for lung cancer.

  12. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  13. Associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with advanced or multiple colorectal adenoma risks: a colonoscopy-based case-control study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Hong, Chang Won; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Chang Kim, Byung; Han, Kyung Su; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2011-09-01

    The associations between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking habits and the risk for colorectal adenomatous polyps according to the detailed clinical information about polyps were assessed in a large colonoscopy-based study. The study enrolled participants who visited the National Cancer Center of the Republic of Korea for cancer screening between April 2007 and April 2009. In 1,242 newly diagnosed colorectal adenoma patients and 3,019 polyp-free controls, past smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.65) and current smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.11) had increased risks for adenomas compared with nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking conferred an even higher risk for advanced adenomas and 3 or more adenomas than for low-risk adenomas or a single adenoma. Dose-response relations were observed among the daily number of cigarettes smoked, the duration of smoking, the pack-years of smoking, and the risk for adenomas. A longer duration of alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk for advanced adenomas (for >28 years of consumption: OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.64) and 3 or more adenomas (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.76). In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption play roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, and the association differs by the clinical features of the adenomas.

  14. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  15. Asthma in Mexican school-age children is not associated with passive smoking or obesity

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Zepeda, Ana T.; López-Zaldo, Juan B.; Morales-Romero, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma has increased in various regions of the world. The factors associated with the growth in prevalence are still to be determined. Objective To evaluate the degree of association of the prevalence of asthma with passive smoking and obesity in school-children in western Mexico. Methods A population-based cross-section analytic study. A stratified random sample of 740 primary school pupils of between 6 and 12 years of age was chosen. Asthma, passive smoking and a background of allergic diseases were identified by means of a standardized questionnaire filled out by the parents of the participants. Obesity was identified by means of the body mass index. Proportional sections of population were estimated and the degree of association between asthma (dependent variable) and the independent variables was evaluated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results The following factors of prevalence were found: asthma 8.1%; obesity 19.9%; background of smoking in the father 6.7% and in the mother 13.3%. There was no significant association to be found with asthma in either passive smoking where one of the parents smoked (p = 0.39) or in obesity (p = 0.09). On the other hand, the background of allergic diseases in the mother showed statistically significant association with asthma in the boys (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 8.59), but not in the girls. Conclusion With the exception of the maternal background of allergy, neither obesity nor passive smoking are factors associated with asthma in Mexican children. PMID:23403916

  16. Association of Smoking with Mu- Opioid Receptor Availability Before and During Naltrexone Blockade in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Frost, J.James; Wong, Dean F.; McCaul, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared to social drinkers or nondrinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [11C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BPND) across mesolimbic regions including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BPND in mesolimbic regions Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BPND in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BPND across multiple brain regions in AD subjects. PMID:23252742

  17. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  18. The economic burden of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking, excess weight, alcohol use, and physical inactivity in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, H.; Andres, E.N.; Koot, J.M.; Reilly, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to calculate the proportion of cancers in Canada attributable to tobacco smoking (ts), alcohol use (au), excess weight (ew), and physical inactivity (pia); to explore variation in the proportions of those risk factors (rfs) over time by sex and province; to estimate the economic burden of cancer attributable to the 4 rfs; and to calculate the potential reduction in cancers and economic burden if all provinces achieved rf prevalence rates equivalent to the best in Canada. Methods We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions (pafs) to estimate the cancer-related economic burden associated with the four rfs. Sex-specific relative risk and age- and sex-specific prevalence data were used in the modelling. The economic burden was adjusted for potential double counting of cases and costs. Results In Canada, 27.7% of incident cancer cases [95% confidence interval (ci): 22.6% to 32.9%] in 2013 [47,000 of 170,000 (95% ci: 38,400–55,900)] were attributable to the four rfs: ts, 15.2% (95% ci: 13.7% to 16.9%); ew, 5.1% (95% ci: 3.8% to 6.4%); au, 3.9% (95% ci: 2.4% to 5.3%); and pia, 3.5% (95% ci: 2.7% to 4.3%). The annual economic burden attributable to the 47,000 total cancers was $9.6 billion (95% ci: $7.8 billion to $11.3 billion): consisting of $1.7 billion in direct and $8.0 billion in indirect costs. Applying the lowest rf rates to each province would result in an annual reduction of 6204 cancers (13.2% of the potentially avoidable cancers) and a reduction in economic burden of $1.2 billion. Conclusions Despite substantial reductions in the prevalence and intensity of ts, ts remains the dominant risk factor from the perspective of cancer prevention in Canada, although ew and au are becoming increasingly important rfs. PMID:27536174

  19. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as a Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Population (OPERA Study).

    PubMed

    Käräjämäki, Aki J; Pätsi, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Markku; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Huikuri, Heikki; Ukkola, Olavi

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are widespread diseases and have multiple common risk factors and comorbidities. No studies of association between ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD and AF exist in other than diabetic population. The goal of this prospective study was to study the value of NAFLD as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. This study had 958 subjects from the OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis) cohort, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 years. NAFLD was diagnosed if the subject had fatty liver in ultrasonography and no excess alcohol intake. AF was followed in the National Registers. In this study 249 subjects (26.0%) had NAFLD and 37 (14.9%) of these had AF whereas only 56 (7.9%) of those without NAFLD experienced AF during the follow-up time (p = 0.001). In the multiple Cox regression analysis including potential confounders (age, sex, study group, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (ALT), systolic blood pressure, quick index, left ventricular mass index, left atrial diameter, coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)), NAFLD remained as an independent predictor of AF (Adjusted OR, 1.88 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.45)). In conclusion, our data shows that NAFLD is independently associated with the risk of AF.

  20. Different Phenotypic and Genotypic Presentations in Alcohol Dependence: Age at Onset Matters*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chu; Prescott, Carol A.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several theoretical typology models have been proposed to classify alcoholism into more homogeneous subtypes using various criteria, for which age at onset of alcohol dependence is shared across many models. We investigated the evidence for the distinction between early- versus late-onset alcoholism by examining relevant phenotypic and genotypic variables. Method: Data are from 1,248 individuals with alcohol dependence, who were interviewed to collect detailed clinical information. Early versus late onset of alcohol dependence was defined by the age at onset of 22 years. Odds ratio (OR) and Cohen's d were calculated as effect size for comparisons of clinical features between the two groups. We adjusted interviewed age and gender in logistic regression models. Case-control genetic analyses were conducted for the association between HTR1B, SLC6A4, DRD2, and OPRμ1 genes and subgroups of alcohol dependence using a sample of 530 controls screened for alcohol problems. Results: Early-onset alcoholism exhibited significantly (p < .01) different clinical characteristics from late-onset alcoholism, including higher severity in alcohol dependence symptoms (d = 0.22) and maximum drinking quantity within 24 hours (d = 0.40), more rapid progression from regular drinking to meet alcohol dependence diagnosis (d = 1.73), higher expectancies for alcohol (d = 0.22−0.47), more comorbidity with externalizing disorders (ORs = 2.8−2.9), and greater prevalence of family alcohol use problems (d = 0.26−0.43). In addition, markers in the HTR1B and OPRμ1 genes showed genetic associations with subgroups of alcohol dependence (ORs = 1.5−2.4). Conclusions: Our findings support that subgroups of alcohol dependence defined by onset age have phenotypic and genetic differences. The early-onset subgroup had more severe features for almost every aspect we examined. Coupled with genetic association findings, age at onset of alcohol dependence may serve as a simple but important

  1. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  2. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  4. Development and Correlates of Alcohol Use from Ages 13-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Terry E.; Strycker, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined alcohol use development from ages 13-20 years. The sample comprised 256 youth (50.4% female; 51.2% White, 48.8% African American) assessed annually for 6 years. A cohort-sequential latent growth model was used to model categorical alcohol use (non-use vs. use). Covariates included gender, race, income, parent marital status,…

  5. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND EXERCISE, OBESITY AND SMOKING: MODERATION OF ASSOCIATIONS BY AGE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252

  6. Effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiangjin; Feng, Xiugao; Yang, Dawei; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently understated. Present study aims to investigate the relationship between them. A total of 425 patients with AS were recruited in the study and their smoking and drinking habit were investigated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) were evaluated. Parameters including fingertip-to-floor distance, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain, total back pain and morning stiffness were analyzed as well. Blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. For 118 (27.8%) AS patients with smoking habit, the scorings of BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and other physical parameters (including fingertip-to-floor, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain and total back pain) were higher than those in patients without smoking. 101 (23.8%) AS patients with alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher scores in BASMI (P < 0.05). In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption variables contributed to the variance in BASDAI scores, adding an additional 1.6% to the overall R-square, resulting in a final R-square of 5.1%. Smoking has a negative effect on disease activity of patients with AS and the patients' physical functioning. Alcohol consumption would aggravate the overall physical functioning of AS patient. The results indicated the potential benefit of quitting smoking and drinking for AS patients. PMID:26550348

  7. Nicotine Blocks the Depressogenic Effects of Alcohol: Implications for Drinking-Smoking Co-Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Kalejaiye, Olubukola; Bhatti, Babur H; Taylor, Robert E; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are two very commonly abused legal substances. Although various hypotheses for such co-dependence have been suggested, it is not known whether the effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood behavior may also contribute to such co-abuse. Chronic exposure to high alcohol levels may lead to various neurochemical changes and precipitate depressive-like behavior. Nicotine, on the other hand, may exert an antidepressant-like effect. Here, we sought to determine whether nicotine may also block or mitigate the "depressogenic" effects of alcohol in a rat model. Moreover, since hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been strongly implicated in mood regulation and effectiveness of antidepressants, the level of this neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus was also evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were injected (i.p.) with alcohol (1.0 g/kg), nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) or their combination once daily for 14 days. Controls received saline. The behavior of these rats in open field locomotor activity (LMA), the forced swim test (FST), a measure of helplessness, and sucrose intake, a measure of anhedonia were evaluated 16-18 h after the last injection. Chronic alcohol did not affect LMA, but increased immobility in FST and decreased sucrose consumption, suggesting a "depressogenic" effect. Nicotine by itself did not affect any of the measured behavior but blocked alcohol-induced changes in FST and sucrose intake. Parallel to the behavioral changes, chronic alcohol resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampal BDNF, which was normalized by nicotine. These findings suggest that the opposing effects of alcohol and nicotine on depressive-like behavior may contribute to their co-abuse. PMID:25309774

  8. Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Homa, David; England, Lucinda J; Burley, Kim; Tong, Van T; Dube, Shanta R; Bernert, John T

    2011-02-01

    Although clinic-based studies have used biochemical validation to estimate the percentage of pregnant women who deny smoking but are actually smokers, a population-based estimate of nondisclosure of smoking status in US pregnant women has not been calculated. The authors analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the percentage of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure). Active smoking was defined as self-reporting smoking or having a serum cotinine concentration that exceeded the cut point for active smoking. Overall, 13.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 17.1) of pregnant women and 29.7% (95% CI: 27.3, 32.1) of nonpregnant women were active smokers. Nondisclosure was higher among pregnant active smokers (22.9%, 95% CI: 11.8, 34.6) than among nonpregnant smokers (9.2%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.2). Among pregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with younger age (20-24 years). Among nonpregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. Studies and surveillance systems that rely on self-reported smoking status are subject to underestimation of smoking prevalence, especially among pregnant women, and underreporting may vary by demographic characteristics.

  9. Smoking and poverty.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2006-06-01

    The problem of poverty leads to increased use of both legal and illegal drugs. Tobacco and alcohol are legal drugs that cause particular concern. Both drugs are widely abused in Germany by people attempting to escape their everyday problems. For decades it has been known that tobacco and alcohol use are more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups of society (those with low educational achievement, compared with people with further or higher education qualifications). Tobacco and alcohol use is particularly high among the unemployed, either temporarily or long-term, as well as people living alone. Children and women are more concerned about smoking than men. Female loneliness, often accompanied by the appearance of depressive reactions or of depression, increases the likelihood of cigarette smoking. Poor people spend up to 20% of their income on tobacco. In many industrialized countries, the age of onset of smoking is becoming younger and younger, increasing the risk of development of avoidable tobacco-related illnesses at an earlier age. This means that young smokers who develop chronic tobacco-related illnesses will require medical care over many years, increasing the cost of treating tobacco-related disease. Within the next few years, effective prevention programs against smoking must be developed, particularly for the lower socio-economic populations, in order to stop the cost of healthcare systems spiraling over the coming decades. PMID:16926658

  10. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  11. Cigarette acquisition and proof of age among US high school students who smoke

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S; Sharp, D; Husten, C; Crossett, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine how US high school students who are under 18 years of age and who smoke obtain their cigarettes and whether they are asked for proof of age. Design and setting: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1995, 1997, and 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys which employed national probability samples of students in grades 9–12 (ages 14–18 years). Main outcome measures: Associations of usual source of cigarettes and request for proof of age with variables such as sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and frequency of smoking. Results: In 1999, among current smokers under age 18 years, 23.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), -4.5% to +4.5%) usually purchased their cigarettes in a store; among these students, 69.6% (95% CI -5.7% to +5.7%) were not asked to show proof of age. As days of past month smoking increased, reliance on buying cigarettes in a store (p < 0.001) and giving someone else money to buy cigarettes (p < 0.001) increased, and usually borrowing cigarettes decreased (p < 0.001). From 1995 to 1999, relying on store purchases significantly decreased (from 38.7% (95% CI -4.6% to + 4.6%) to 23.5% (95% CI -4.5% to +4.5%)); usually giving someone else money to buy cigarettes significantly increased (from 15.8% (95% CI -3.6% to +3.6%) to 29.9% (95% CI -4.5% to + 4.5%)). Conclusions: Stricter enforcement of tobacco access laws is needed to support other community and school efforts to reduce tobacco use among youth. Furthermore, effective interventions to reduce non-commercial sources of tobacco, including social, need to be developed and implemented. PMID:11891364

  12. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  13. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations. PMID:22094168

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  17. Associations between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    The ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio) and lipid accumulation product (LAP: a continuous marker of lipid over-accumulation determined by waist circumference and triglycerides) have been proposed to be good predictors of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices including TG/HDL-C ratio, LAP, and ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio). The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day, which is 2-3 times or more than the generally recommended border level of daily alcohol consumption of 20-30 g). The levels of each lipid-related index after adjustment for age, smoking, and regular exercise were compared among nondrinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (mean ± standard error: 0.445 ± 0.014) than in nondrinkers (0.388 ± 0.004) and regular heavy drinkers (0.359 ± 0.013), and was not significantly different in nondrinkers and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed LAP was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.51 ± 0.02) and regular heavy drinkers (1.44 ± 0.02) than in nondrinkers (1.34 ± 0.01), and was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers than in regular heavy drinkers. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in occasional heavy drinkers (2.41 ± 0.04) and regular heavy drinkers (1.72 ± 0.04) than in nondrinkers (2.62 ± 0.01) and was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers than in occasional heavy drinkers. Results of logistic regression analysis, using odds ratios for high lipid indices of occasional or regular heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers, agreed with the above results of analysis of covariance. Occasional heavy drinkers showed more detrimental and less favorable levels of the lipid indices than did regular heavy

  18. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if p<0,05. Predictive quality was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Independent predictors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The average age was 36,9±16,9 years (range: 16-84 years), 259 (86%) males and 41 (24%) females. There was a significant difference in gender (odds ratio for gender male 2,88; CI 95%: 1,24-6,67; p<0,001) and age dependent (odds ratio for each year of age 0,94; CI 95%: 0,93-0,96; p<0,0001) violence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  19. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539).

  20. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  1. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  2. Normal Thymus in Adults: Appearance on CT and Associations with Age, Sex, BMI and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Murakami, Takamichi; Washko, George R.; O'Connor, George T.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CT appearance and size of the thymus in associations with characteristics of participants. Materials and Methods 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51% female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size, and morphology. These were correlated with participants’ age, sex, BMI, and smoking history. Results Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74%) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18%) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7%) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2), and 36 (1%) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 (P<0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P<0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P<0.001) with higher pack-years (P=0.04). Conclusions Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores than men, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. PMID:25925358

  3. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  4. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Hippocampal Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional MRI studies with healthy, young-to-middle-aged adults reported no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers on total hippocampal volume. However, these studies did not specifically test for greater age-related volume loss in the total hippocampus or hippocampal subregions in smokers, and did they did not examine relationships between hippocampal and subfield volumes and episodic learning and memory performance. Methods Healthy, young-to-middle-aged (45 ± 12 years of age) smokers (n = 39) and non-smokers (n = 43) were compared on total hippocampal and subfield volumes derived from high-resolution 4 Tesla MRI, emphasizing testing for greater age-related volume losses in smokers. Associations between hippocampal volumes and measures of episodic learning and memory were examined. Results Smokers showed significantly smaller volumes, as well as greater volume loss with increasing age than non-smokers in the bilateral total hippocampus and multiple subfields. In smokers, greater pack-years were associated with smaller volumes of the total hippocampus, presubiculum, and subiculum. In the entire cohort, performance on measures of learning and memory was related to larger total hippocampal and several subfield volumes, predominately in the left hemisphere. Conclusions Chronic cigarette smoking in this young-to-middle aged cohort was associated with smaller total hippocampal and subfield volumes, which were was exacerbated by advancing age. Findings also indicated an adverse smoking dose/duration response (i.e., pack-years) with total hippocampal and select subfield volumes. These hippocampal volume abnormalities in smokers may be related to the deficiencies in episodic learning and memory in young-to-middle-aged smokers reported in previous studies. PMID:24051060

  5. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 women (aged 30 to 65 years). The risk of entering menopause and experiencing early menopause (before age 48) related to smoking were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The menopausal age among smokers was 0.75 years lower than that among non-smokers (p<0.001). The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for entering menopause related to smoking of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.46) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.47), respectively, and pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for experiencing early menopause related to smoking of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.80) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85), respectively. Conclusions: Smokers reached menopause earlier than non-smokers, and their risk for experiencing early menopause was higher. PMID:26265667

  6. Coping among Nonclinical College-Age Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    1991-01-01

    Compared 40 adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) to 40 non-ACAs on problem-solving appraisal, perceived social support, shame, suicidal ideation, and substance use; examined gender differences among ACAs; explored relations between problem-solving appraisal, perceived social support, and shame in predicting suicidal ideation and substance use. ACAs…

  7. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Four Second-Generation Antipsychotics and One First-Generation Antipsychotic on Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use in Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott

    2015-07-01

    No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  10. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  11. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  12. Childhood ADHD and Conduct Disorder as Independent Predictors of Male Alcohol Dependence at Age 40*

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Sullivan, Margaret A.; Murtaza, Syed; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes. Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two childhood measures were correlated, a multiple regression showed that each independently predicted a measure of lifetime alcoholism severity. Conclusions: ADHD comorbid with CD was the strongest predictor of later alcohol dependence. PMID:19261228

  13. Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.

    PubMed

    Guly, Hr

    2013-03-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, there was much discussion on the role of alcohol. The explorers expected to be able to consume alcohol, and the expeditions were supported by companies producing alcoholic beverages that used the Antarctic connection in their advertising. On the other side, it was said (incorrectly) than Fridjof Nansen, perhaps the most famous of the Arctic explorers, had taken no alcohol and this was used in the arguments against alcohol by the temperance movement. In general, alcohol consumption was low but it was felt that alcohol played an important role in maintaining the psychological welfare of the participants. A number of them had alcohol problems, and participation in an expedition was thought to be of benefit in that it would remove the temptation to consume alcohol. However, there were episodes of drunkenness on the ships and in the Antarctic. Cocaine was taken as one of a number of tonics but only one explorer is thought to have abused drugs, though another is said to have done so. PMID:24572800

  14. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  15. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  16. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  17. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Garmienė, Asta; Žemaitienė, Nida; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2006-01-01

    Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2%) boys and 158 (42.8%) girls) and 565 parents: 323 (57.2%) mothers and 242 (48.2%) fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5%) of parents (248 (77.0%) mothers and 207 (85.9%) fathers (p < 0.05)) reported frequenting alcohol furnished parties at least once a month. About half of the surveyed fathers (50.6%) together with one fifth of the mothers (19.9%) (p < 0.001) were smokers. More frequently than girls, boys reported having tried smoking (6.6% and 23.0% respectively; p < 0.001) as well as alcohol (31.16% and 40.1% respectively; p < 0.05). Child alcohol use was associated both with paternal alcohol use, and with the time, spent in joint family activities. For instance, boys were more prone to try alcohol, if their fathers frequented alcohol furnished parties, whereas girls were more prone to try alcohol, if family members spent less time together. Conclusion

  18. [Comorbidity of opioid addiction and alcoholism in patients of young age: clinical variants of the double diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bokhan, N A; Blagov, L N; Kurgak, D I

    2012-01-01

    A study included 115 male patients with opioid addiction, aged from 17 to 27 years. Comorbidity of opioid addiction and alcoholism in patients of young age was represented by two main variants distinguishing between primary dependence on opioid or alcohol. In the first variant, additional variants of vicarious alcoholization and replacement of addiction form were singled out. In the second case, alcoholism preceded opioid addiction that developed as a form of polyaddiction and the formation of preliminary (primary) alcoholism was considered as a protracted stage of searching narcotism with the transition from alcoholism to opioid addiction. Stages and differential criteria of the variants of double disorders are described.

  19. The relationship of perceived age and sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage customers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Stanford, E J; Lindsay, G B; Neiger, B L

    2000-10-01

    The ability of store clerks to estimate the age of their customers is critical in preventing illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage individuals. To avoid illegal sales of tobacco products to minors, the Food and Drug Administration created a policy in 1997 requiring store clerks to request identification of anyone perceived to be underage 27. A similar age standard has not been implemented for alcohol. The purpose of this article is to assess whether age 27 is adequate for minimizing tobacco sales to those under age 18 and whether this age is also a useful standard for minimizing illegal alcohol sales to those under age 21. The analysis is based on age estimates from 49 gas station and convenience store clerks. Each clerk estimated ages of 45 people filmed on video whose actual ages ranged from 15 to 29. T-tests, analysis of variance, contingency tables and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Store clerks found it more difficult to estimate ages of female customers than male customers. In addition, the store clerks significantly underestimated age of male customers under 18 and of female customers under 21. In contrast, the clerks significantly overestimated age of customers 21 years and older. Among underage customers, the store clerks' age, gender, work experience, education, and training in requesting identification had no influence on ability to judge age, nor did it have a strong influence on whether an underage customer was considered 18 or older or 21 or older. The results suggest that age 27 is adequate for minimizing illegal tobacco sales. Adoption of a similar or slightly older age may be appropriate for minimizing illegal alcohol sales. PMID:10982013

  20. Does smoking, age or gender affect the protein phenotype of extracellular vesicles in plasma?

    PubMed

    Bæk, R; Varming, K; Jørgensen, M M

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in several diseases, which have formed the basis for the potential use of EV analyses in a clinical setting. The protein phenotype of EVs can provide information on the functionality of the vesicles and may be used for identification of disease-related biomarkers. With this extensive study of 161 healthy individuals it was elucidated that certain markers of plasma EVs are influenced by demographic variations such as gender, age and smoking status. When the purpose is to use EVs as a diagnostic tool, it should be emphasized how important it is to choose the correct demographic group when comparing marker levels of plasma EVs. PMID:27470710

  1. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  2. [Wine and alcohol in apothecaries' shops during the Middle Ages in Southern countries].

    PubMed

    Bénézet, J P

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol, wine and their derivatives do not play during the Middle Ages the role they played during Antiquity. The reading of ancient authors by Arab doctors was probably at the origin of this lack of interest for wine. As ordinary wine, medicinal wines were a matter of conviviality more than of therapeutics. Vinegar was more often used, maybe because of its lack of inebriating properties. Alcohol, this mysterious product, was probably more pertinent in the area of alchemy. Doctors and pharmacists of the enlightened age gave it a new importance. The influence of Islam on Middle Age medicine in Christian occident could explain this lack of interest for wine.

  3. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  4. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    PubMed Central

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century was the nation's largest old-age home, it appears that alcohol's social ramifications were more important than its pathological or physiological manifestations in late 19th-century America. Drinking habits among aging Civil War veterans varied considerably: moderate consumption was acceptable; too much of a good thing caused problems. PMID:8472039

  5. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  6. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  7. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  8. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

  9. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  10. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning. PMID:9627509

  11. Executive Functioning in Preschool-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol, Cocaine, and Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Julia S.; Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reports from clinical and experimental (animal) research converge on the suggestion that prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana undermines executive functioning (EF) and its neurological underpinnings. However, large, adequately controlled, prospective studies of alcohol and marijuana effects on EF have reported conflicting findings, and there have been no such studies of cocaine exposure. Methods EF was investigated in a cohort (n = 316) of 4-year-old children the majority of whose mothers had used varying combinations of cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana during pregnancy. With use of postpartum maternal report and biological assay, children were assigned to overlapping prenatal cocaine-exposed, alcohol-exposed, and marijuana-exposed groups and to complementary control groups. The postnatal environmental assessment included measures of maternal intellectual and psychosocial functioning, current drug or alcohol use, and home environment. Results The children in the alcohol-exposed group had worse tapping-inhibition performance than children in the non–alcohol-exposed group, and this effect persisted when potential confounding environmental variables, other drug variables, and concurrent verbal intelligence were controlled for. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol is predictive of decreased EF in early childhood that could not be attributed to environmental factors. The results are discussed in terms of the age and overall high-risk status of the children. PMID:12711927

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of the Effects of Increasing the Minimum Purchase Age of Alcohol in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srirojn, Bangorn; Lilleston, Pam; Aramrattana, Apinun; Thomson, Nicholas; Celentano, David D.; Sherman, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Although prevalence of alcohol consumption has been relatively stable among Thai youth, concerns over alcohol-related harms affecting youth influenced the passage of new laws in early 2008, which made it illegal to sell alcohol to anyone under the age of 20. This qualitative study explored the effects of the law on the purchasing patterns of underage Thai bar patrons, in order to understand the strategies employed by underage youth to circumvent the law. Design and Methods A total of 41 in-depth interviews were conducted with 18–19 year old bar patrons in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Results Underage Thai bar patrons frequented shops where enforcement was not strict and purchased alcohol, from familiar shopkeepers in their neighborhoods. Participants suggested that purchasing alcohol was relatively easy as long as shopkeepers were driven by the need to make a profit. Discussion and Conclusions To address alcohol-related harms, the control law must be enforced in a meaningful way to deter youth from purchasing alcohol. Otherwise, the law will have minimal effectiveness in reducing the harms associated with alcohol. PMID:22762793

  13. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  14. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  15. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  16. Influence of age, systemic blood pressure, smoking, and blood viscosity on orbital blood velocities.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, T H; Lowe, G D; Baxter, G M

    1995-01-01

    The influence of multiple systemic factors upon the blood velocities obtained from the orbital circulations was investigated. The velocities obtained by colour Doppler imaging from the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and vein from 95 ophthalmologically healthy volunteers were analyzed. The effects of age, systemic blood pressure, and smoking habit were examined. In 24 volunteers blood viscosity was also measured and its relation with blood velocity assessed. Age was weakly negatively correlated with the blood velocities in the ophthalmic artery and weakly positively correlated with resistance to flow in the retinal circulation. Systolic blood pressure showed a positive correlation with the peak systolic velocities in the arteries while cigarette smoking was associated with lower ophthalmic artery velocities. Increased haematocrit and viscosity were positively correlated with resistance to flow proximal to the ophthalmic artery and red cell rigidity negatively correlated with the pulsatility of flow in the retinal vein. These results help to identify the roles of systemic conditions in the ocular circulation. The influence of blood viscosity on retinal venous flow may be relevant to the pathogenetic mechanisms of conditions such as central retinal vein occlusion. Images PMID:7880783

  17. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  18. Psychiatric and Familial Predictors of Transition Times Between Smoking Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Xian, Hong; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Haber, J. Randolph; Grant, Julia D.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Jacob, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The modifying effects of psychiatric and familial risk factors on age at smoking initiation, rate of progression from first cigarette to regular smoking, and transition time from regular smoking to nicotine dependence (ND) were examined in 1,269 offspring of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Mean age of the sample was 20.1 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusting for paternal alcohol dependence and ND status and maternal ND were conducted. Both early age at first cigarette and rapid transition from initiation to regular smoking were associated with externalizing disorders, alcohol consumption, and cannabis use. Rapid escalation from regular smoking to ND was also predicted by externalizing disorders, but in contrast to earlier transitions, revealed a strong association with internalizing disorders and no significant relationship with use of other substances. Findings characterize a rarely examined aspect of the course of ND development and highlight critical distinctions in risk profiles across stages of tobacco involvement. PMID:17900819

  19. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  20. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease among Mongolian and Han Chinese aged 55 years and over living in the Inner Mongolia farming area of China★

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Da, Lin; Zhao, Shigang; Wang, Desheng; Niu, Guangming; Huriletemuer

    2012-01-01

    Residents aged 55 years or older from 27 communities and two settlements in Xilingol League of Inner Mongolia were selected for participation in an Alzheimer's disease epidemiological investigation from June 2008 to June 2009, including 3 259 Mongolians and 5 887 Han Chinese. The Mongolian subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average), and more of them were male, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease and/or diabetes compared with the Mongolian subjects in the non-Alzheimer's disease group. The Han Chinese subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average) and more of them were women, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease, and less of them had a history of alcohol consumption compared with the non-Alzheimer's disease group. Non-conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified that male gender, increasing age and having a history of diabetes and/or coronary heart disease were associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease among Mongolians while having an educational background was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.259, 95%CI 0.174–0.386). Among the Han Chinese subjects, male gender, increasing age and having a history of coronary heart disease and/or hypertension was associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease, while having an educational background was associated lower odds (OR = 0.271, 95%CI 0.192–0.381). The results also indicated that extremely heavy smoking may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in Mongolian males aged over 55 years. There was no significant difference in smoking habits between the Mongolian and Han Chinese subjects with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25657695

  1. Boost Your High: Cigarette Smoking to Enhance Alcohol and Drug Effects among Southeast Asian American Youth.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined: 1) whether using cigarettes to enhance the effects of other drugs (here referred to as "boosting") is a unique practice related to blunts (i.e., small cheap cigars hollowed out and filled with cannabis) or marijuana use only; 2) the prevalence of boosting among drug-using young people; and 3) the relationship between boosting and other drug-related risk behaviors. We present data collected from 89 Southeast Asian American youth and young adults in Northern California (35 females). 72% respondents reported any lifetime boosting. Controlling for gender, results of linear regression analyses show a significant positive relationship between frequency of boosting to enhance alcohol high and number of drinks per occasion. Boosting was also found to be associated with use of blunts but not other forms of marijuana and with the number of blunts on a typical day. The findings indicate that boosting may be common among drug-using Southeast Asian youths. These findings also indicate a need for further research on boosting as an aspect of cigarette uptake and maintenance among drug- and alcohol-involved youths.

  2. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  3. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  4. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Enhances Cardiac Fibrosis Effects on the Aging Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ping; Chang-Lee, Shu Nu; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Chung, Li-Chin; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Examining aging rats exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) engenders changes in left ventricular remodeling due to age- or disease-dependent alterations. Methods Rats were placed in whole-body exposure chambers and exposed to 10 cigarettes. Filtered air was introduced into the chamber at a low rate. Rats were exposed to SHS for 30 min, twice a day, 5 days per week for 1 month. After 4 weeks SHS exposure, rats were sacrificed for morphological study with trichome staining and left ventricular remodeling related protein analysis using western blot. Results Characteristic fibrotic morphology in the left ventricle increased significantly with aging and exposure to SHS. Exposure to SHS elevated TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF and MMP2/MMP9 protein expression levels (p < 0.05). No significant differences in FGF-2 and UPA protein expression were noted as a result of SHS exposure. However, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 protein expression were suppressed by SHS exposure. We also observed increased TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF (p < 0.01), FGF-2/UPA (p < 0.05) and decreased TIMPs protein expression levels. Corresponding MMP2 and MMP9 upregulation occurred with aging and exposure to SHS. TGFβ1/p-Smad2/3/CTGF and FGF-2/UPA protein expression from SHS exposure were higher than that from aging. In contrast, MMP2 and MMP9 were increased in aging rats compared with SHS exposed rats (p < 0.05); however, TIMP-1 (p < 0.01), TIMP-2 (p < 0.01) and TIMP-3 (p < 0.05) were decreased. TIMP-4 protein expression levels were decreased compared with SHS exposed rats (p < 0.01). Conclusions Aging and SHS exposure in rats will produce elevated fibrosis. Exposure to SHS will accelerate aging and left ventricular fibrosis. PMID:27713609

  5. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  6. A Propensity Scoring Approach to Characterizing the Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Initial Responses to Cigarettes and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    When examining the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on later offspring substance use, it is critical to consider familial environments confounded with MSDP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MSDP on offspring's initial reactions to cigarettes and alcohol, which are indicators of future substance-use related problems. We tested these effects using two propensity score approaches (1) by controlling for confounding using the MSDP propensity score and (2) examining effects of MSDP across the MSDP risk distribution by grouping individuals into quantiles based on their MSDP propensity score. This study used data from 829 unrelated mothers with a reported lifetime history of smoking to determine the propensity for smoking only during their first trimester (MSDP-E) or throughout their entire pregnancy (MSDP-T). Propensity score analyses focused on the offspring (N = 1616 female twins) of a large subset of these mothers. We examined the effects of levels of MSDP-E/T on offspring initial reactions to their first experiences with alcohol and cigarettes, across the distribution of liability for MSDP-E/T. MSDP-E/T emerged as significant predictors of offspring reactions to alcohol and cigarettes, but the effects were confounded by the familial liability for MSDP. Further, the unique MSDP effects that emerged were not uniform across the MSDP familial risk distribution. Our findings underscore the importance of properly accounting for correlated familial risk factors when examining the effects of MSDP on substance related outcomes. PMID:27098899

  7. Secondary prevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in areas where smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing are prevalent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Lun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2010-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  8. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  9. A New Approach to Teen-age Smoking. Committee on Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pediatrics, 1976

    1976-01-01

    In light of recent statistics showing a marked increase in teenagers who smoke and the influence of siblings and parents, physicians are urged to undertake an early education approach to the smoking problem with parents and children. (CL)

  10. PNPLA3 I148M (rs738409) genetic variant and age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Burza, Maria Antonella; Molinaro, Antonio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Rotondo, Claudia; Attilia, Fabio; Ceccanti, Mauro; Ferri, Flaminia; Maldarelli, Federica; Maffongelli, Angela; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo Francesco; Romeo, Stefano; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Environmental and genetic factors contribute to alcoholic cirrhosis onset. In particular, age at exposure to liver stressors has been shown to be important in progression to fibrosis in hepatitis C individuals. However, no definite data on the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are available. Moreover, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) variant has been associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, but only in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M variant on alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. Methods A total of 384 at-risk alcohol drinkers were retrospectively examined. The association among age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption, PNPLA3 I148M variant and cirrhosis incidence was tested. Results A higher incidence of alcoholic cirrhosis was observed in individuals with an older (≥24 years) compared with a younger (<24) age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (P-value < 0.001). Moreover, PNPLA3 148M allele carriers showed an increased incidence of cirrhosis (P-value < 0.001). Both age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 148M allele were independent risk factors for developing cirrhosis (H.R. (95% C.I.): 2.76 (2.18–3.50), P-value < 0.001; 1.53(1.07–2.19), P-value = 0.021 respectively). The 148M allele was associated with a two-fold increased risk of cirrhosis in individuals with a younger compared with an older age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (H.R. (95% C.I.): 3.03(1.53–6.00) vs. 1.61(1.09–2.38). Conclusions Age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M genetic variant are independently associated with alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. PMID:24102786

  11. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286

  12. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…

  13. A Model for the Treatment of College Age Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Diane; Winterowd, Carrie

    A session by session cognitive behavioral approach to group treatment for college age children of alcoholics was presented. Four groups ranging in size from four to eight persons participated in these semester-long sessions offered during one academic year through the counseling center at a major midwestern university. The treatment was comprised…

  14. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  15. Current tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure among women of reproductive age--14 countries, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in reproductive-aged women can cause adverse reproductive health outcomes, such as pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, stillbirths, and infant death. Data on tobacco use and SHS exposure among reproductive-aged women in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. To examine current tobacco use and SHS exposure in women aged 15-49 years, data were analyzed from the 2008-2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 14 low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The results of this analysis indicated that, among reproductive-aged women, current tobacco smoking ranged from 0.4% in Egypt to 30.8% in Russia, current smokeless tobacco use was <1% in most countries, but common in Bangladesh (20.1%) and India (14.9%), and SHS exposure at home was common in all countries, ranging from 17.8% in Mexico to 72.3% in Vietnam. High tobacco smoking prevalence in some countries suggests that strategies promoting cessation should be a priority, whereas low prevalence in other countries suggests that strategies should focus on preventing smoking initiation. Promoting cessation and preventing initiation among both men and women would help to reduce the exposure of reproductive-aged women to SHS.

  16. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  17. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  18. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  19. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  20. Smoking and Youth

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  1. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p < 0.05). Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on. PMID:20534133

  2. Associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with low-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M

    1997-06-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with LDL subclasses in 355 individuals. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.05 nm within seven LDL subclasses: LDL-IVB (22.0 to 23.2 nm), LDL-IVA (23.3 to 24.1 nm), LDL-IIIB (24.2 to 24.6 nm), LDL-IIIA (24.7 to 25.5 nm), LDL-II (25.5 to 26.4 nm), LDL-I (26.0 to 28.5 nm), and intermediate-size lipoproteins (ISL, 28.0 to 32.0 nm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements of weight and height. In adult men, body mass index correlated positively with LDL-III, and alcohol intake correlated positively with larger LDL-I. Age was positively correlated with LDL-IIIA and ISL in both men and women and with LDL-IIIB and LDL-II in women. Postmenopausal women had higher LDL-IIIA, LDL-II, and ISL than both premenopausal and premenarchal females. Adult males, > or = 18 years old, had higher levels of LDL-IIIA and LDL-II than younger males. Adjustment for fasting plasma triglyceride levels eliminated the significant associations between age and LDL-IIIA in both men and women and between age and LDL-II in women. Partial correlation analyses showed that reductions in the LDL peak diameter associated with increasing age, male sexual maturation, menopause, and adiposity are attributable to increases in the LDL-IIIA subclass. Thus, densitometric measurements of protein-stained gradient gels reveal specific relationships between LDL subclasses and age, adiposity, and alcohol intake beyond those identified by the LDL peak or average diameter.

  3. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability. PMID:25726380

  4. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability.

  5. The amount of alcohol intake and some associated factors in a representative sample of 691 French boys aged 13-18.

    PubMed

    Weill, J; Le Bourhis, B

    1991-08-01

    As a first step in a longitudinal study, we studied a sample of 691 French boys selected at random so that the region, the type of dwelling, and the profession of the wage-earner agreed with the latest official census. About 200 questions were asked by professional interviewers. The amount of alcohol intake was calculated from questions concerning type and amount of drinks consumed on all possible occasions. The mean yearly alcohol consumption was 0.91 liters of pure ethanol at 13-14 years, 2.08 at 15-16, and 5.88 at 17-18 (national average in Frenchmen 15 years and over: 16.5). Alcohol intake increases significantly with frequency of café and public dance attendance in all three age groups. Other factors, such as cigarette smoking, pop concerts or night club attendance, familial environment, show significant difference in only one or two age groups. Type of habitation, number of siblings, church attendance, etc., are not significant.

  6. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  7. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences. PMID:10400276

  8. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  9. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  10. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  11. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  12. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  13. Middle-aged and older Chinese men and women in Singapore who smoke have less healthy diets and lifestyles than nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Can-Lan; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2005-10-01

    Although studies in Western populations have shown that smokers have decreased dietary intakes of antioxidants and other health-related nutrients, this has not been established in oriental populations. This study aimed to identify differences in dietary and lifestyle characteristics between current, former, and never-smokers among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. The subjects, 45-74 y old, were participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort that enrolled 63,257 (27,959 men and 35,298 women) Chinese in Singapore between 1993 and 1998. Data on current dietary habits (using a validated, semiquantitative FFQ) and other lifestyle factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Mean daily intakes of various nutrients were estimated using a food composition table that was specifically developed for this population. The current smoking rates were 36% in men and 6% in women; an additional 22% of men and 3% of women were former smokers. In both sexes, current smokers were less educated, had lower BMI, led a more sedentary lifestyle, and drank more alcohol and coffee than those who never smoked. Current smokers had dose-dependent decreases in the intakes of a wide range of antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and calcium, but increases in the intakes of cholesterol and nitrosamines compared with people who never smoked. Former smokers had dietary intakes that either were similar to never-smokers or intermediate between current and never-smokers. Our results are consistent with findings among Western populations, and suggest that the unhealthy diet and lifestyle in smokers occur across diverse cultures.

  14. Active and passive smoking and the risk of breast cancer in women aged 36–45 years: a population based case–control study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Roddam, A W; Pirie, K; Pike, M C; Chilvers, C; Crossley, B; Hermon, C; McPherson, K; Peto, J; Vessey, M; Beral, V

    2007-01-01

    Active smoking has little or no effect on breast cancer risk but some investigators have suggested that passive smoking and its interaction with active smoking may be associated with an increased risk. In a population based case–control study of breast cancer in women aged 36–45 years at diagnosis, information on active smoking, passive smoking in the home, and other factors, was collected at interview from 639 cases and 640 controls. Women were categorised jointly by their active and passive smoking exposure. Among never smoking controls, women who also reported no passive smoking exposure were significantly more likely to be nulliparous and to be recent users of oral contraceptives. Among those never exposed to passive smoking, there was no significant association between active smoking and breast cancer, relative risk (RR) of 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–1.73) for past smokers and RR of 1.19 (95% CI 0.72–1.95) for current smokers, nor was there an association with age started, duration or intensity of active smoking. Compared with women who were never active nor passive smokers, there was no significant association between passive smoking in the home and breast cancer risk in never smokers, RR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.64–1.25), in past smokers, RR of 1.09 (95% CI 0.75–1.56), or in current smokers, RR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.30). There was no trend with increasing duration of passive smoking and there was no heterogeneity among any of the subgroups examined. In this study, there was no evidence of an association between either active smoking or passive smoking in the home and risk of breast cancer. PMID:17579618

  15. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  16. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use as predictors of HIV testing in the United States: results from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Conserve, Donaldson; King, Gary; Turo, Angela; Wafula, Edith; Sevilla, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between HIV risk perception and HIV testing among cigarette smokers, alcohol users, dual consumers of cigarette and alcohol, and abstainers. Data were analyzed from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey of the full sample of 22,946 and separately for 1547 African Americans. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that alcohol users and dual consumers were significantly more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk of acquiring HIV. Cigarette smokers and alcohol users who considered themselves to be at risk for HIV and dual consumers who reported no perceived HIV risk were more likely to have been tested for HIV than abstainers who perceived no risk of acquiring HIV. Among African Americans, dual consumers and cigarette smokers only who perceived themselves at risk for HIV were more likely to have been tested for HIV than abstainers who perceived no risk of HIV infection. This study demonstrated that among the full sample and African Americans, cigarette smoking and alcohol use were significantly associated with HIV testing regardless of HIV risk perceptions.

  17. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS) among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years) in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  18. Smoking and smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murin, Susan; Rafii, Rokhsara; Bilello, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is among the leading preventable causes of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Smoking prevalence among young women is the primary determinant of smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking among women of childbearing age is associated with reduced fertility, increased complications of pregnancy, and a variety of adverse fetal outcomes. There is increasing evidence of lasting adverse effects on offspring. Guidelines for smoking cessation during pregnancy have been developed. This article reviews the epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy, the adverse effects of smoking on the mother, fetus, and offspring, and recommended approaches to smoking cessation for pregnant women. PMID:21277451

  19. Prenatal exposure to binge pattern of alcohol consumption: mental health and learning outcomes at age 11.

    PubMed

    Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Draper, Elizabeth; Alati, Rosa; Lewis, Sarah J; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Davey Smith, George; Gray, Ron

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate whether episodic binge pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is independently associated with child mental health and academic outcomes. Using data from the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the associations between binge patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (≥4 drinks per day) and child mental health [as rated by both parent (n = 4,610) and teacher (n = 4,274)] and academic outcomes [based on examination results (n = 6,939)] at age 11 years. After adjusting for prenatal and postnatal risk factors, binge pattern of alcohol consumption (≥4 drinks in a day on at least one occasion) during pregnancy was associated with higher levels of mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in girls at age 11 years, according to parental report. After disentangling binge-pattern and daily drinking, binge-pattern drinking was independently associated with teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention and lower academic scores in both genders. Episodic drinking involving ≥4 drinks per day during pregnancy may increase risk for child mental health problems and lower academic attainment even if daily average levels of alcohol consumption are low. Episodic binge pattern of drinking appears to be a risk factor for these outcomes, especially hyperactivity and inattention problems, in the absence of daily drinking.

  20. Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49

    PubMed Central

    Polk, Deborah E.; Wang, Xiaojing; Feingold, Eleanor; Shaffer, John R.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found both genetic and environmental influences on chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among previously identified genetic variants, smoking status, and two periodontal disease-related phenotypes (PSR1 and PSR2) in 625 Caucasian adults (aged 18–49 years). The PSR Index was used to classify participants as affected or unaffected under the PSR1 and PSR2 phenotype definitions. Using logistic regression, we found that the form of the relationship varied by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): For rs10457525 and rs12630931, the effects of smoking and genotype on risk were additive; whereas for rs10457526 and rs733048, smoking was not independently associated with affected status once genotype was taken into consideration. In contrast, smoking moderated the relationships of rs3870371 and rs733048 with affected status such that former and never smokers with select genotypes were at increased genetic risk. Thus, for several groups, knowledge of genotype may refine the risk prediction over that which can be determined by knowledge of smoking status alone. Future studies should replicate these findings. These findings provide the foundation for the exploration of novel pathways by which periodontitis may occur. PMID:23066400

  1. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  2. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…

  3. The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on markers of systemic inflammation, immunoglobulin levels and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this research was to study the influence of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on immune response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, immunoglobulin levels (Ig) and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathy (SpA). Methods In total, 505 patients were vaccinated. Six pre-specified groups were enrolled: RA on methotrexate (MTX) treatment in some cases other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (I); RA on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as monotherapy (II); RA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (III); SpA on anti-TNF as monotherapy (IV); SpA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (V); and SpA on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or analgesics (VI). Smoking (pack-years) and alcohol consumption (g/week) were calculated from patient questionnaires. Ig, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined at vaccination. IgG antibodies against serotypes 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and after four to six weeks using standard ELISA. Immune response (ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibodies; immune response (IR)) and positive immune response (≥2-fold increase in pre-vaccination antibodies; posIR) were calculated. Results Eighty-eight patients (17.4%) were current smokers. Smokers had higher CRP and ESR, lower IgG and lower IR for both serotypes (P between 0.012 and 0.045). RA patients on MTX who smoked ≥1pack-year had lower posIR for both serotypes (P = 0.021; OR 0.29; CI 0.1 to 0.7) compared to never-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with lower CRP (P = 0.05) and ESR (P = 0.003) but did not influence IR or Ig levels. Conclusion Smoking predicted impaired immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in RA patients on MTX. Smokers with arthritis had higher inflammatory markers and lower IgG regardless of diagnosis and treatment. Low to moderate alcohol consumption was related

  4. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carme; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Monleon, Toni; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Sunyer, Jordi; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pichini, Simona; Vall, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain). Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM) 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01) and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99) compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48). Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the children considered non-exposed by their mothers had detectable levels of cotinine above 1 ng/mL in their urine. Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred. PMID:18254964

  5. THE ROLE OF IMMIGRATION AGE ON ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG BORDER AND NON-BORDER MEXICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in two distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. Methods We used two samples of Mexican American adults; specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Zero-Inflated Poisson methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol and drug use behavior in adulthood. Results We found that participants who immigrate to the U.S. prior to age 12 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol and drug use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Similarly, adults who immigrated at younger ages and live along the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in non-border contexts. Conclusions Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 12 results in alcohol and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents. PMID:24846850

  6. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  7. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. Conclusion High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed. PMID:24112218

  8. Why should i comply? Sellers' accounts for (non-)compliance with legal age limits for alcohol sales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Availability is an important predictor of early and excessive alcohol consumption by adolescents. Many countries have implemented age limits to prevent underage purchases of alcohol. However, shop-floor compliance with these age limits appears to be problematic. This study addresses the issue of non-compliance with age limits. Which measures do vendors take to avoid underage alcohol sales, and what do they report as important reasons to comply or not with age limits for alcohol sales? Methods Open-ended telephone interviews were conducted with store managers selling alcohol (N = 106). Prior to the interviews, all outlets were visited by an underage mystery shopper in order to measure compliance with the legal age limits on alcohol sales. The interview results are compared against actual compliance rates. Results Several measures have been taken to prevent underage sales, but the compliance level is low. Furthermore, open coding resulted in 19 themes, representing both valid and invalid arguments, that vendors mentioned as relevant to their decisions of whether to comply with the law. Compliance with age limits is dependent on the knowledge of the rules and the ability and motivation to follow the rules. The ability aspect in particular seems to be problematic, but in many cases, the motivation to actively comply with the age limits is lacking. Conclusions To enhance compliance, it is important to raise the awareness of the importance of age limits and to connect possible violations of the regulations to negative consequences. PMID:22269016

  9. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  10. A History of Alcohol Dependence Augments HIV-associated Neurocognitive Deficits in Persons Aged 60 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults, and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. Methods We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder. Results Significant interactions of age and alcohol dependence history were found for global neurocognitive function, which was driven by the domains of executive function, processing speed, and semantic memory. Follow-up analyses indicated adverse effects of alcohol use history on neurocognitive measures that were evident only in HIV+ individuals 60 years and older. Conclusions While mounting evidence in younger cohorts indicates adverse synergistic HIV/alcohol effects on neurocognitive function, our novel preliminary findings in this elderly HIV+ cohort demonstrated the importance of even a relatively distant alcohol use history on the expression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that may not become apparent until much later in life. PMID:25201556

  11. A probabilistic model of biological ageing of the lungs for analysing the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a large body of literature is available that describes the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD on lung function, most studies are restricted to a small age range and to one factor. As a consequence, available results are incomplete and often difficult to compare, also due to the ways the effects are expressed. Furthermore, current approaches consider one type of measurement only or several types separately. Methods We propose a probabilistic model that expresses the effects as number of years added to chronological age or, in other words, that estimates the biological age of the lungs. Using biological age as a measure of the effects has the advantage of facilitating the understanding of their severity and comparison of results. In our model, chronological age and other factors affecting the health status of the lungs generate biological age, which in turn generates lung function measurements. This structure enables the use of multiple types of measurement to obtain a more precise estimate of the effects and parameter sharing for characterization over large age ranges and of co-occurrence of factors with little data. We treat the parameters that model smoking habits and lung diseases as random variables to obtain uncertainty in the estimated effects. Results We use the model to investigate the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD on the TwinsUK Registry. Our results suggest that the combination of smoking with lung disease(s) has higher effect than smoking or lung disease(s) alone, and that in smokers, co-occurrence of asthma and COPD is more detrimental than asthma or COPD alone. Conclusions The proposed model or other models based on a similar approach could be of help in improving the understanding of factors affecting lung function by enabling characterizations over large age ranges and of co-occurrence of factors with little data and the use of multiple types of measurement. The software implementing the model can be downloaded at the first

  12. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-11-01

    Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help

  13. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  14. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Wright, Shana; Rotrosen, John; Khan, Rubina; Lee, Joshua D.; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    The time required to conduct drug and alcohol screening has been a major barrier to its implementation in mainstream healthcare settings. Because patient self-administered tools are potentially more efficient, we translated the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) into an audio guided computer assisted self interview (ACASI) format. This study reports on the test-retest reliability of the ACASI ASSIST in an adult primary care population. Adult primary care patients completed the ACASI ASSIST, in English or Spanish, twice within a 1–4 week period. Among the 101 participants, there were no significant differences between test administrations in detecting moderate to high risk use for tobacco, alcohol, or any other drug class. Substance risk scores from the two administrations had excellent concordance (90–98%) and high correlation (ICC 0.90–0.97) for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The ACASI ASSIST has good test-retest reliability, and warrants additional study to evaluate its validity for detecting unhealthy substance use. PMID:24629887

  15. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  16. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  17. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  18. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  19. Glutathione peroxidase activity in a healthy Canadian population. Effects of age, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    L'abbe, M R; Collins, M W; Trick, K D; Laffey, P J

    1992-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.

  20. Smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking status among Vietnamese in California

    PubMed Central

    Gildengorin, G.; Nguyen, T.; Tsoh, J.; Modayil, M.; Wong, C.; McPhee, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vietnamese American men have smoking prevalence rates higher than the general population. We analyzed Vietnamese American smoking behavior by demographic and health-related factors, including some specific to Vietnamese, in the largest tobacco-specific survey yet targeting the Vietnamese population. Methods: Using a statewide surname probability sample and computer-assisted telephone interviewing, we surveyed 1,101 Vietnamese men and 1,078 Vietnamese women in California (63.5% participation among successfully contacted eligible individuals) in 2007–2008. We conducted multivariate regression models to analyze the association between Vietnamese male smoking status and demographic and health-related factors. Results: Among women, <1% were current smokers and <2% were former smokers. Among men, 25% were current and 24% were former smokers. Regression models for Vietnamese men delineated factors associated with both current and former smoking (vs. never smoking): being married, being employed, having lower educational attainment, and consuming alcohol. Other factors associated with current smoking (vs. never smoking) were having no health insurance, having seen a Vietnamese doctor or no doctor visit in the past year, having Vietnamese military or Vietnamese reeducation camp experience, having less knowledge about the harms of smoking, and reporting higher depression symptoms. Increasing age and not being Buddhist were associated with former (vs. never) smoking. Discussion: Smoking patterns of Vietnamese women and Vietnamese men are significantly different from the general California population. Tobacco control efforts targeting Vietnamese men should include community outreach since current smokers have low health care access, utilization, and knowledge. PMID:20488931

  1. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-19

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  3. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  4. Impaired delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in school-age children with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; Stanton, Mark E.; Dodge, Neil C.; Pienaar, Mariska; Fuller, Douglas S.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Khaole, Nathaniel; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. Methods Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by expert dysmorphologists in a large sample of Cape Coloured, South African children. Delay EBC was examined in a new sample of 63 children at 11.3 years, and trace conditioning in 32 of the same children at 12.8 years. At each age, two sessions of 50 trials each were administered on the same day; two more sessions the next day, for children not meeting criterion for conditioning. Results 6 of 34 (17.6%) children born to heavy drinkers were diagnosed with FAS, 28 were heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and 29 were non-exposed controls. Only 33.3% with FAS and 42.9% of HE met criterion for delay conditioning, compared with 79.3% of controls. The more difficult trace conditioning task was also highly sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Only 16.7% of the FAS and 21.4% of HE met criterion for trace conditioning, compared with 66.7% of controls. The magnitude of the effect of diagnostic group on trace conditioning was not greater than the effect on short delay conditioning, findings consistent with recent rat studies. Longer latency to onset and peak eyeblink CR in exposed children indicated poor timing and failure to blink in anticipation of the puff. Extended training resulted in some but not all of the children reaching criterion. Conclusions These data showing alcohol-related delay and trace conditioning deficits extend our earlier findings of impaired EBC in 5-year-olds to school-age. Alcohol-related impairment in the cerebellar circuitry required for both forms of conditioning may be sufficient to account for the deficit in both tasks. Extended training was beneficial for some exposed children. EBC provides a well

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, Colorado, and New York, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

    2015-01-30

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7‒9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS. PMID:25632951

  6. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  7. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-02

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group.

  8. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  9. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged 10–11 years in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. Setting State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Participants Children aged 10–11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Primary outcome variable Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. Results The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Conclusions Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. PMID:25636793

  10. Effects of Age and Life Transitions on Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Over Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, common life transitions, treatment, and social support on outcomes 5–9 years after alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment intake. Method: Participants were patients from a large outpatient AOD treatment program in an integrated health plan. There were 1,951 participants interviewed at intake, of whom 1,646 (84%) completed one or more telephone follow-up interviews at 5, 7, and 9 years. Measures included AOD use based on the Addiction Severity Index; treatment; and changes in marital, employment, and health status in the years between each follow-up. We compared participants by age group (18–39, 40–54, and >55 years old at intake) and examined factors (time invariant and time varying) associated with outcomes at 5, 7, and 9 years by fitting mixed-effects logistic random intercept models. Results: Changes in marital, employment, and health status varied significantly by age. Factors associated with remission across Years 5–9 included being in the middle-aged versus younger group (p < .001); female gender (p < .001); not losing a partner to separation, divorce, or death (p < .001); not experiencing a decline in health (p = .021); having any close friends supportive of recovery (p < .001); and not having any close friends who encourage AOD use (p < .001). Additional predictors, including employment changes, varied by drug versus alcohol abstinence outcome measures. Conclusions: Negative life transitions vary by age and are associated with worse outcomes. Older age and social support are associated with long-term AOD remission and abstinence. Findings inform treatment strategies to enhance recovery across the life span. PMID:22456251

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  12. A State of Double Jeopardy: Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Adverse Environments on the Social Communicative Abilities of School-Age Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Truman E.; Timler, Geralyn R.; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a retrospective examination of environmental risk, language performance, and narrative discourse data from a clinical database of school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Method: A case-defined diagnostic approach for measuring and reporting the full spectrum of disabilities in children with…

  13. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  14. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  15. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (P<0.001). In conclusion, any maternal smoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  16. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  17. Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors – a study based on national samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany – respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Methods: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27–65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of ≥5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of ≥60g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27–44 years versus 45–65 years) and genders. Results: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27–44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. Conclusion: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings. PMID:20200658

  18. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  19. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  20. Early predictors of age at first use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J P; Kellam, S G; Brown, C H

    1982-08-01

    This paper is a report of the relationships between various measures of social adaptation to the first grade classroom and the age at which alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were first used by teenagers who began elementary school in a poor black urban community on the South Side of Chicago. Prospective longitudinal community epidemiological data were collected periodically in first and third grades from consecutive total cohorts of children in the 1960s. The 1966-67 population (cohort 3) was followed up at age 16 or 17. This population of 705 children is reported on here regarding early predictors of their first use of these substances. There are three main findings: (1) boys tended to use all substances at an earlier age than girls; (2) students who performed better on first grade IQ and Readiness tests tended to initiate substance use at an earlier age; (3) girls (but not boys) who were rated by their first grade teachers as shy or having learning problems tended to initiate use at a later age. The relationships of these findings to our past investigations of paths leading to substance use are discussed. PMID:6982159

  1. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  2. Mitochondrial DNA content increase in response to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Masayesva, Brett G; Mambo, Elizabeth; Taylor, Rodney J; Goloubeva, Olga G; Zhou, Shaoyu; Cohen, Yoram; Minhas, Khalid; Koch, Wayne; Sciubba, James; Alberg, Anthony J; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and decline in mitochondrial function occurs with aging and in response to DNA-damaging agents, including tobacco smoke. We did a cross-sectional study and quantified changes in mtDNA content in a population of individuals with varied smoking and alcohol exposure. Age, smoking history, ethanol intake, and other demographic data were characterized for 604 individuals participating in a screening study for smoking-related upper aerodigestive malignancy. Total DNA was extracted from exfoliated cells in saliva. DNA from a nuclear gene, beta-actin, and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I and II (Cox I and Cox II), were quantified by real-time PCR. mtDNA content was correlated with age, exposure history, and other variables using multivariate regression analyses. A significant increase (P<0.001) in mtDNA content was noted in smokers (31% and 29% increase for Cox I and Cox II, respectively) and former smokers (31% and 34%) when compared with never smokers. This association persisted after adjustment for other significant factors including age, alcohol drinking, and income (P<0.001). Increased mtDNA content was positively associated with pack-years of smoking (P=0.02). Despite an average smoking cessation interval of 21 years in former smokers, tobacco cessation interval was not statistically significantly associated with mtDNA content. Smoking is associated with increased mtDNA content in a dose-dependent fashion. Mitochondrial DNA alterations in response to smoking persist for several decades after smoking cessation, consistent with long-term, smoking-related damage.

  3. Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, A.; Machado, A. P.; Barros, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal, information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between smoking and the characteristics evaluated. Overall, 35.8% students had never smoked, 39.4% had tried it ("experimental" smokers) but were not smokers, 3.3% were former smokers, 6.6% occasional smokers, and 14.9% regular smokers. The mean age for starting smoking was 13.4 +/- 2.1 years for males and 13.4 +/- 1.6 years for females. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among males than females, but the difference was not significant. Male students were significantly more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day than were females. The prevalence of smoking was significantly associated with the following variables: being aged > 12 years; having parents who had attended school for < 4 years; having a mother (OR = 1.88), siblings (OR = 1.96) or friends (OR = 1.75) who smoked; low academic performance (OR = 1.74 for one or two failures and OR = 2.27 for more than two failures at school); and consumption of coffee (OR = 2.90), alcohol (OR = 3.53), or illicit drugs (OR = 6.69). The prevalence of smoking among adolescents increased with age. There is therefore a need for school-based tobacco prevention programmes which also deal with family influences on smoking. PMID:10427936

  4. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  5. Evaluation of a regional community action intervention in New Zealand to improve age checks for young people purchasing alcohol.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Taisia; Conway, Kim; Casswell, Sally; Pledger, Megan

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a regional community action intervention to reduce access to alcohol from off-license premises by minors. The intervention focussed on: (1) monitoring alcohol sales made without age identification from off-licenses; (2) utilizing data on alcohol sales for media advocacy and direct contact with alcohol retailers and (3) working with key enforcement staff to encourage increased monitoring and enforcement of minimum purchase age legislation for off-licenses. Evaluation of this intervention used a case study design. Purchase survey data was obtained before and after intervention. Media items were monitored and included pre- and post-intervention phases. Interviews, with key enforcement staff, and document review were undertaken post-intervention. Purchase survey data showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in sales of alcohol made to young people without age identification pre- and post-intervention. Pre-intervention: 60% of visits resulted in a sale made without age identification; post-intervention this proportion was 46%. Principal component analysis of newsprint media indicated increased coverage of items advocating improved age checking for off-licenses following intervention. Interview data and document review indicate that some enforcement staff in the region implemented increased enforcement strategies including, controlled purchase operations and increased visits to off-licenses due to the intervention. Evaluation findings indicate that collaborative and intersectoral community action interventions implemented regionally can be effective in redirecting resources to achieve preventive outcomes at a population level.

  6. Evaluation of a regional community action intervention in New Zealand to improve age checks for young people purchasing alcohol.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Taisia; Conway, Kim; Casswell, Sally; Pledger, Megan

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a regional community action intervention to reduce access to alcohol from off-license premises by minors. The intervention focussed on: (1) monitoring alcohol sales made without age identification from off-licenses; (2) utilizing data on alcohol sales for media advocacy and direct contact with alcohol retailers and (3) working with key enforcement staff to encourage increased monitoring and enforcement of minimum purchase age legislation for off-licenses. Evaluation of this intervention used a case study design. Purchase survey data was obtained before and after intervention. Media items were monitored and included pre- and post-intervention phases. Interviews, with key enforcement staff, and document review were undertaken post-intervention. Purchase survey data showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in sales of alcohol made to young people without age identification pre- and post-intervention. Pre-intervention: 60% of visits resulted in a sale made without age identification; post-intervention this proportion was 46%. Principal component analysis of newsprint media indicated increased coverage of items advocating improved age checking for off-licenses following intervention. Interview data and document review indicate that some enforcement staff in the region implemented increased enforcement strategies including, controlled purchase operations and increased visits to off-licenses due to the intervention. Evaluation findings indicate that collaborative and intersectoral community action interventions implemented regionally can be effective in redirecting resources to achieve preventive outcomes at a population level. PMID:15722363

  7. Parental Perspectives on Alcohol Use among School-Aged Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Research on alcohol misuse and abuse indicates that it can cause many personal health and family problems. This study investigated whether Ghanaian parents would reward their children with alcohol if they sent the children to buy alcoholic drinks and whether they would favor legislation banning children from using alcohol. Also addressed in this…

  8. Circulating t(14;18)-Positive Cells in Healthy Individuals – Association with Age and Sex but not with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Carsten; Weitmann, Kerstin; Schüler, Frank; Kiefer, Thomas; Rabkin, Charles S.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dölken, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    t(14;18)-positive cells can not only be detected in follicular lymphoma (FL) patients but also in healthy individuals (HI). We used epidemiological data and blood samples of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) to analyze associations of FL risk factors and t(14;18)-positive cells in HI. Buffy coat samples from 4152 study participants were tested by real-time PCR for t(14;18)-positive cells. Out of 3966 evaluable subjects, 1526 were t(14;18)-PCR positive (38.5%, median 3.9 t(14;18)-positive per million nucleated cells, range 0.6 – 9299). In multivariable analyses age and sex but not parameters of smoking exposure were significantly associated with t(14;18)-prevalence (logistic regression, p < 0.001). Multivariable analyses of t(14;18)-frequency showed a positive association with age but not with sex or smoking. These age and sex associations in HI require careful control in future studies of t(14;18) as a potential biomarker of lymphoma risk. PMID:23527525

  9. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical

  10. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard. PMID:27450908

  11. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  12. Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the minimum legal drinking age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.

  13. Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences Among Youths?

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions. PMID:20395573

  14. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not

  15. Use of an age-period-cohort model to reveal the impact of cigarette smoking on trends in twentieth-century adult cohort mortality in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Di Cesare, Mariachiara

    2012-11-01

    We use an age-period-cohort (APC) model to estimate the contribution of smoking-related mortality to cohort changes in adult mortality in Britain since 1950. We show that lung cancer and overall mortality can be satisfactorily modelled using cohort relative risk and a fixed age pattern. The results of the model suggest that smoking by itself can account for a substantial fraction of change in cohort mortality for those born around the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, smoking provides an explanation for the higher-than-average improvement in the mortality of both males and females born around 1930. Our confidence in the correctness of the results of the models is strengthened by the fact that they are very similar to those of the Peto-Lopez and Preston-Glei-Wilmoth models that estimate the contribution of smoking-related to overall mortality.

  16. Fatal accidents among car and truck drivers: effects of fatigue, age, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Summala, H; Mikkola, T

    1994-06-01

    Fatigue increases the risk of an accident if the driver, on recognizing symptoms of fatigue, does not stop driving. We studied whether a tendency to continue the current activity and complete the task especially affects younger drivers, who are more susceptible to motivational pressures at the wheel in general. The data consisted of Finnish in-depth studies on 586 single-vehicle and 1357 multiple-vehicle accidents in which at least one vehicle occupant died. When excluding alcohol-related cases, the results showed that, first, trailer-truck drivers who either fell asleep or were tired to a degree that contributed to the accident were younger than those involved in the other fatalities. For car drivers, the proportion of fatigue-related cases was approximately constant in each age group, but a variation was seen when studied according to the time of day of the accident, mainly resulting from two distinct peaks. The first was in young drivers 18 to 20 years old between midnight and 6:00 a.m. The other occurred in drivers 56 years and older during the late afternoon hours. These data also indicate that in terms of fatal accidents, fatigue and alcohol seem to be less of a problem for truckers than for car drivers. PMID:8070795

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  18. Prospective Developmental Subtypes of Alcohol Dependence from Age 18 to 32 Years: Implications for Nosology, Etiology, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Slutske, Wendy S.; Harrington, HonaLee; Jackson, Kristina M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify child and adult correlates that differentiate (a) individuals with persistent alcohol dependence from individuals with developmentally-limited alcohol dependence and (b) individuals with adult-onset alcohol dependence from individuals who never diagnose. Participants are 1,037 members of the Dunedin longitudinal study, a birth cohort followed prospectively from birth until age 32. Past-year DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses were ascertained with structured diagnostic interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Individuals were classified as developmentally-limited, persistent, or adult-onset subtypes based on their time-ordered pattern of diagnoses. The persistent subtype generally exhibited the worst scores on all correlates, including family psychiatric history, adolescent and adult externalizing and internalizing problems, adolescent and adult substance use, adult quality of life, and coping strategies. The prospective predictors that distinguished them from the developmentally-limited subtype involved family liability, adolescent negative affectivity, daily alcohol use, and frequent marijuana use. Furthermore, young people who developed the persistent subtype of alcohol dependence were distinguished from the developmentally-limited subtype by an inability to reduce drinking and by continued use despite problems, already by age 18. The adult-onset group members were virtually indistinguishable from ordinary cohort members as children or adolescents, but, in adulthood, adult-onset cases were distinguished by problems with depression, substance use, stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Information about age-of-onset and developmental course is fundamental for identifying subtypes of alcohol dependence. Subtype-specific etiologies point to targeted prevention and intervention efforts based on characteristics of each subtype. PMID:23880392

  19. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin aging model.

    PubMed

    Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process.

  1. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  2. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-04-01

    Land clearing for crops, plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of distinct fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. The local MISR overpass at 10:30 a.m. misses the afternoon peak of Borneo fire emissions, and may preferentially sample longer plumes from persistent fires burning overnight. Typically the smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 km, 708 m, and 27% of the plume length, respectively. 50% of these plumes have length between 24 and 50 km, height between 523 and 993 m and width between 18% and 30% of plume length. Length and cross-plume width are lognormally distributed, while height follows a normal distribution. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are on average nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes. This could be due to sampling or to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 km2, with 25th and 75th percentiles at 99 km2 and 304 km2, respectively) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere reflectance peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The

  3. Cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fabiana Cristina Ribeiro de; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Peixoto, Eliane Rezende de Morais; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among psychiatric patients attended in care facilities in Brazil and assess associated factors. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted of psychiatric patients (N = 2,475) selected from 26 care facilities. Current and ex-smokers were compared to those who had never smoked. Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression. The current and past smoking prevalence rates were 52.7% and 18.9%, respectively. Being male, aged 40 years or over, drug and alcohol use, unprotected sex and a history of physical violence were factors associated with both current and past smoking, while a low education level (≤ 8 years of schooling), history of homelessness, not practicing a religion, current or previous psychiatric hospitalization, and main psychiatric diagnosis substance use disorders, were factors only associated with current smoking. Tobacco smoking prevalence among this population was high and was higher than the rate in the general population. Appropriate interventions and smoking prevention policies should be incorporated into mental health services. PMID:25099043

  4. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie L.; Kydd, Robyn M.; Dickson, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO) frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), from 26–32 and 32–38 years of age. Methods Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years. Results Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported “usually/always”), and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to “use alcohol to make it easier to have sex” and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32–38. Conclusions Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour. PMID:26267272

  5. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  6. Risky alcohol use among reproductive-age men, not women, in Mae La refugee camp, Thailand, 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, alcohol use contributes to close to 4% of all deaths and is a leading cause of ill health and premature death among men of reproductive age. Problem alcohol use is an unaddressed public health issue among populations displaced by conflict. Assessing the magnitude of the problem and identifying affected groups and risk behaviours is difficult in mobile and unstable populations. Methods From 15–28 December 2009 we conducted a simple rapid screening test of risky alcohol use using the single item modified Short Assessment Screening Questionnaire (mSASQ) by all women currently enrolled in the antenatal care clinic in Mae La refugee camp, a long standing displaced setting on the Thai Burma border. Women self- reported and gave a secondary report of their male partners. Gender differences in alcohol use were further explored in semi-structured interviews with camp residents on attitudes, behaviours, and beliefs regarding alcohol and analysed thematically. Results Of 636 women screened in the antenatal clinic, almost none (0.2%, 95CI 0.0-0.9%) reported risky alcohol use prior to pregnancy, whereas around a quarter (24.4%, 95CI 21.2-27.9%) reported risky alcohol use by their male partners. Interviews with 97 camp residents described strong social controls against women’s alcohol use and men’s drinking to intoxication, despite a dominant perception that the social context of life in displacement promoted alcohol use and that controls are loosening. Conclusions As a stigmatised behaviour, alcohol use is difficult to assess, particularly in the context of highly mobile adult male populations: the simple assessment methods here show that it is feasible to obtain adequate data for the purposes of intervention design. The data suggest that risky drinking is common and normalised among men, but that the population may have been partially protected from rapid rises in problem alcohol use observed in nation-wide data from Thailand. The changing social

  7. Joint Effects of Smoking and Gene Variants Involved in Sex Steroid Metabolism on Hot Flashes in Late Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex

  8. Comorbidities, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Age Predict Outcomes after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Graf, Solomon A; Vaughn, Jennifer E; Chauncey, Thomas R; Storer, Barry E; Gopal, Ajay K; Holmberg, Leona A; McCune, Jeannine S; Bensinger, William I; Maloney, David G; Press, Oliver W; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2016-09-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment option for many patients diagnosed with lymphoma. The effects of patient-specific factors on outcomes after autologous HCT are not well characterized. Here, we studied a sequential cohort of 754 patients with lymphoma treated with autologous HCT between 2000 and 2010. In multivariate analysis, patient-specific factors that were statistically significantly associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) included HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) scores  ≥ 3 (HR, 1.94; P = .05), a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) (HR, 2.17; P = .004), and older age stratified by decade (HR, 1.29; P = .02). HCT-CI ≥ 3, a history of AUD, and age > 50 were combined into a composite risk model: NRM and overall mortality rates at 5 years increased from 6% to 30% and 32% to 58%, respectively, in patients with 0 versus all 3 risk factors. The HCT-CI is a valid tool in predicting mortality risks after autologous HCT for lymphoma. AUD and older age exert independent prognostic impact on outcomes. Whether AUD indicates additional organ dysfunction or sociobehavioral abnormality warrants further investigation. The composite model may improve risk stratification before autologous HCT. PMID:27311969

  9. Age-Related Differences in Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced H2O2 Production by Lung Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Montgomery, David W.; Merkle, Carrie J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress in the lung resulting in injury and disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were age-related differences in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced production of reactive species in single and co-cultures of alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells and microvascular endothelial cells harvested from the lungs (MVECLs) of neonatal, young and old male Fischer 344 rats. Cultures of AT I cells and MVECLs grown separately (single culture) and together (co-culture) were exposed to CSE (1, 10, 50, 100%). Cultures were assayed for the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl radical (OH·), peroxynitrite (ONOO−), nitric oxide (NO) and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Single and co-cultures of AT I cells and MVECLs from all three ages produced minimal intracellular ROS in response to CSE. All ages of MVECLs produced H2O2 in response to CSE, but young MVECLs produced significantly less H2O2 compared to neonatal and old MVECLs. Interestingly, when grown as a co-culture with age-matched AT I cells, neonatal and old MVECLs demonstrated ~50% reduction in H2O2 production in response to CSE. However, H2O2 production in young MVECLs grown as a co-culture with young AT I cells did not change with CSE exposure. To begin investigating for a potential mechanism to explain the reduction in H2O2 production in the co-cultures, we evaluated single and co-cultures for extracellular total antioxidant capacity. We also performed gene expression profiling specific to oxidant and anti-oxidant pathways. The total antioxidant capacity of the AT I cell supernatant was ~5 times greater than that of the MVECLs, and when grown as a co-culture and exposed to CSE (≥ 10%), the total antioxidant capacity of the supernatant was reduced by ~50 %. There were no age-related differences in total antioxidant capacity of the cell supernatants. Gene expression profiling found eight genes to be significantly up

  10. Aging and chronic alcohol consumption are determinants of p16 gene expression, genomic DNA methylation and p16 promoter methylation in the mouse colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  11. Ageing, chronic alcohol consumption and folate are determinants of genomic DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and the expression of p16 in the mouse colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  12. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  13. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  14. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  15. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  16. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  17. A discrete-time analysis of the effects of more prolonged exposure to neighborhood poverty on the risk of smoking initiation by age 25.

    PubMed

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults.

  18. The influence of age, smoking, antiretroviral therapy, and esophagitis on the local immunity of the esophagus in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; de Melo e Silva, Ana Teresa; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rocha, Laura Penna

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.

  19. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  20. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  1. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  2. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, Shin-Ichi; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Bonham, Ann C

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  3. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  4. Exploring Factors that Influence Smoking Initiation and Cessation among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chezhian, Cheangaivendan; Murthy, Shruti; Prasad, Satish; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Sharma, Sangeeta; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, cigarette smoking kills 5 million people annually, and leads to illness, disability and death. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing smoking initiation and cessation among current smokers in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 in Chennai, India. A convenient sample of 100 current smokers aged >15 years was enrolled. A modified version of Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screen Test (ASSIST) questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographics, smoking initiation and cessation, expenditure on smoking products and perceptions on incentives for smoking cessation. Results Surrounding influence (44%), stress (42%) and fun (40%) were major reasons for smoking initiation. Majority of participants (68%) attempted to quit smoking within past 6 months but failed. Health promotion programs (61%) and financial incentives (20%) were perceived to be helpful in smoking cessation. Conclusion Smoking cessation strategies, especially at workplaces, should target the multi-factorial nature of smoking initiation and cessation. There is a need to review national guidelines to evaluate the accessibility and availability of smoking products in and around the workplace. PMID:26155500

  5. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  6. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films. PMID:27404576

  7. Family roles and smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  8. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  9. Patterns of alcohol dependence in Thai drinkers: a differential item functioning analysis of gender and age bias.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Kittiratanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Kongsuk, Thoranin; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri

    2012-02-01

    In Caucasians, the patterns of alcohol use disorders in women and adolescents are likely to be different from those in men and adults, respectively. The authors examined these differences in a Southeast Asian sample of Thai people living in communities. A two-parameter logistic model of the IRT log-likelihood-ratio (IRTLR) test for differential item functioning (DIF) procedure was used. Participants were a subsample of 3718 current drinkers participating in the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey (n=17,140). The 1-year prevalence rates of alcohol dependence were 1.4% in women and 13.7% in men. Based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), alcohol dependence and abuse module, all current drinkers were interviewed for a yes/no response to each of seven alcohol dependence criteria. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a single-factor model of alcohol dependence criteria (χ2=211.51, RMSEA=0.06, SRMR=0.03 and CFI=0.96). Compared with 3174 men, 544 women had a significantly higher threshold estimate for quit/control problems and a lower threshold value for drinking despite physical/mental problems (b parameter difference of 0.25 and -0.30, respectively). Thai adolescents (n=272) and Thai adults (n=3446) had no statistically significant DIF on any criterion. The criterion of time spent drinking had significantly high discrimination estimates in women, men, adolescent and adults (a parameters of 2.50, 2.08, 2.33 and 2.16, respectively). Gender bias on alcohol dependence criteria can be found in Thai drinkers. Time spent drinking may be the most useful criterion for discriminating the severity of alcohol dependence across age and gender groups of Thai drinkers.

  10. Husband's smoking status and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the Takayama study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Akihiro; Takeyama, Naoharu; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2015-04-01

    The effects of smoking on breast cancer remain unclear. We assessed the associations of subjects' or husbands' smoking status with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective study in Japan. The subjects were 15 719 women aged 35 years or older. The follow up was conducted from September 1992 to March 2008. Cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries. Breast cancer was defined as code C50 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision. Lifestyle, including smoking status, was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. After multivariate adjustments for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, education, age at menarche, age at first delivery, menopausal status, number of children and history of hormone replacement therapy, active smoking was not associated with the risk of breast cancer. Compared with never smokers whose husband had never smoked, the risks of breast cancer were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.03-3.84) among never smokers whose husband was a current smoker of 21 cigarettes per day or more. The increased risk of breast cancer among women having a smoking husband was pronounced among those who did not habitually consume alcohol. These results suggest that exposure to smoke from husbands is a potential risk factor for breast cancer. The impact of alcohol consumption on the increased breast cancer risk from passive smoking needs to be addressed in further studies.

  11. Barely legal: is attraction and estimated age of young female faces disrupted by alcohol use, make up, and the sex of the observer?

    PubMed

    Egan, Vincent; Cordan, Giray

    2009-05-01

    One 'reasonable ground' for unlawful sex with a minor is mistaken age. Alcohol consumption and make-up are often deemed further influences on impaired perception. Two hundred and forty persons in bars and cafes rated the attractiveness of composite faces of immature and mature females with and without additional makeup, alcohol users having their concurrent blood-alcohol level measured using a breathalyser. A non-sex-specific preference for immature faces over sexually mature faces was found. Alcohol and make-up did not inflate attractiveness ratings in immature faces. While alcohol consumption significantly inflated attractiveness ratings for participants viewing made-up sexually mature faces, greater alcohol consumption itself did not lead to overestimation of age. Although alcohol limited the processing of maturity cues in female observers, it had no effect on the age perceptions of males viewing female faces, suggesting male mate preferences are not easily disrupted. Participants consistently overestimated the age of sexually immature- and sexually mature-faces by an average of 3.5 years. Our study suggests that even heavy alcohol consumption does not interfere with age-perception tasks in men, so is not of itself an excuse for apparent mistaken age in cases of unlawful sex with a minor.

  12. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  13. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  14. Differences in Lifestyle of a Smoking and Non-smoking Population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Umeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Kazuo; Liu, Qiang; Sakamoto, Juichi

    2000-01-01

    If smokers have different lifestyle including dietary habit in comparison to non-smokers, this difference have an influence on the evaluation of the risks of smoking for tobacco-related diseases or the design of anti-smoking campaigns. In Japan, 1,745 men over the age of 40 were surveyed regarding health consciousness in 1996 and 2,136 men between the ages of 50 and 65 were surveyed regarding dietary habits in 1993-1994. Comparative analysis was done among the smoking and non-smoking groups. The rate of participation in cancer mass-screening for smokers was significantly lower than for non-smokers. Smokers had consumed significantly lower amounts of vegetables, fruits and beans, which are well known beneficial factors for health than non-smokers, and had consumed more salt, salty food and alcohol, which are well known risk factors for health. It is suggested that smokers have disadvantageous characteristics for promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle more than in non-smokers. Accordingly, to evaluate the risk of smoking for tobacco-related diseases in epidemiological researches, we should properly treat these data as confounding factors. Furthermore, anti-smoking campaigns should be performed considering these differences. PMID:12718672

  15. Differences in Lifestyle of a Smoking and Non-smoking Population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Umeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Kazuo; Liu, Qiang; Sakamoto, Juichi

    2000-01-01

    If smokers have different lifestyle including dietary habit in comparison to non-smokers, this difference have an influence on the evaluation of the risks of smoking for tobacco-related diseases or the design of anti-smoking campaigns. In Japan, 1,745 men over the age of 40 were surveyed regarding health consciousness in 1996 and 2,136 men between the ages of 50 and 65 were surveyed regarding dietary habits in 1993-1994. Comparative analysis was done among the smoking and non-smoking groups. The rate of participation in cancer mass-screening for smokers was significantly lower than for non-smokers. Smokers had consumed significantly lower amounts of vegetables, fruits and beans, which are well known beneficial factors for health than non-smokers, and had consumed more salt, salty food and alcohol, which are well known risk factors for health. It is suggested that smokers have disadvantageous characteristics for promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle more than in non-smokers. Accordingly, to evaluate the risk of smoking for tobacco-related diseases in epidemiological researches, we should properly treat these data as confounding factors. Furthermore, anti-smoking campaigns should be performed considering these differences.

  16. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  17. Effects of pre-natal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Sex, age and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Christine J; Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Helfer, Jennifer L; Christie, Brian R

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol during gestation is detrimental to the developing central nervous system (CNS). The severity of structural and functional brain alterations associated with alcohol intake depends on many factors including the timing and duration of alcohol consumption. The hippocampal formation, a brain region implicated in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to the effects of developmental alcohol exposure. Some of the observed effects of alcohol on learning and memory may be due to changes at the synaptic level, as this teratogen has been repeatedly shown to interfere with hippocampal synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level alcohol interferes with receptor proteins and can disrupt hormones that are important for neuronal signaling and synaptic plasticity. In this review we examine the consequences of prenatal and early postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and highlight the numerous factors that can modulate the effects of alcohol. We also discuss some potential mechanisms responsible for these changes as well as emerging therapeutic avenues that are beginning to be explored. PMID:26906760

  18. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  19. Smoking initiation and nicotine dependence symptoms in Ukraine: Findings from the Ukraine World Mental Health survey

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Charles P.M.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Tintle, Nathan L.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Gluzman, Semyon F.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Havenaar, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in former Soviet countries. This study examined the personal, familial and psychiatric risk factors for smoking initiation and development of nicotine dependence symptoms in Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods Smoking history and dependence symptoms were ascertained from N=1,711 adults in Ukraine as part of a national mental health survey conducted in 2002. Separate analyses were conducted for men and women. Results The prevalence of lifetime regular smoking was 80.5% in men and 18.7% in women, with median ages at initiation among smokers of 17 and 18, respectively. Furthermore, 61.2% of men and 11.9% of women were current smokers; among the subgroup of lifetime smokers, 75.9% of men and 63.1% of women currently smoked. The youngest female cohort (born 1965–1984) was 26 times more likely to start smoking than the oldest. Smoking initiation was also linked to childhood externalizing behaviors and antecedent use of alcohol in both genders, as well as marital status and personal alcohol abuse in men, and childhood urbanicity and birth cohort in women. Dependence symptoms developed in 61.7% of male and 47.1% of female smokers. The rate increased sharply in the first four years after smoking initiation. Dependence symptoms were related to birth cohort and alcohol abuse in both genders, as well as growing up in a suburb or town and childhood externalizing behaviors in men, and parental antisocial behavior in women. Conclusions Increased smoking in young women heralds a rising epidemic in Ukraine and underscores the need for primary prevention programs, especially in urban areas. Our findings support the importance of childhood and alcohol-related risk factors, especially in women, while pre-existing depression and anxiety disorders were only weakly associated with starting to smoke or developing dependence symptoms. PMID:17544466

  20. [Effects of tianeptine on learning and memory in mice. Improvement of impairments induced by chronic alcoholism and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Jaffard, R; Mocaër, E; Lebrun, C; Béracochéa, D

    1991-11-14

    Tianeptine, a molecule with antidepressant properties, was found to affect certain learning and memory impairments induced by chronic alcoholism and aging in the mouse. Impairment in spontaneous alternation induced by chronic (12 months) alcohol intake and accelerated loss of spatial learning skills related to aging disappeared totally after administration of tianeptine (10 mg.kg-1). In certain situations (discrimination acquisitions), tianeptine was uneffective in older animals at this dosage, but had a facilitating effect in young animals. The effects of tianeptine on serotonin mediated transmission and the probable implication of hypofunctioning central cholinergic systems in the observed impairments are discussed. Tianeptine might reduce the inhibiting action of serotonin terminaisons on acetylcholine release and might thus permit normal cholinergic transmission.

  1. Cannabis smoke can be a major risk factor for early-age laryngeal cancer--a molecular signaling-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower <