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Sample records for age smoking diabetes

  1. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts.

  2. Smoking and diabetes in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Ko, G; Chan, J; Tsang, L; Critchley, J; Cockram, C

    2001-01-01

    Smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor and cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Evidence concerning whether smoking increases the incidence of diabetes remains conflicting. Glycaemic status and smoking habits were analysed in 3718 Chinese subjects in order to assess the possible association between smoking and risk of diabetes in the Chinese population. The World Health Organisation 1998 criteria were used for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance. Smoking was defined as current cigarette smoking or ex-smoking without regard to daily consumption. The smoking habits of the studied subjects were correlated with glycaemic status. There were 3003 (80.8%) women and 715 (19.2%) men. The mean age (SD) was 38.4 (12.8) years (median 35.0, range 12-88 years). Of the 3718 subjects, 786 (21.1%) had diabetes, 708 (19.1%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 2224 (59.8%) had normal results. Of the 3003 women, only 87 (2.9%) were smokers. The female smokers were younger, heavier, and had higher alcohol consumption than non-smokers. The prevalence of diabetes was similar between female smokers and non-smokers after adjustment for age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, and alcohol. Of the 715 men, 175 (24.5%) were smokers. The male smokers were younger, had lower blood pressure, and higher alcohol consumption. After adjustment for age, body mass index, family history of diabetes and alcohol, the male smokers had lower blood pressure, higher one hour plasma glucose, and more diabetes. Using logistic regression analysis (stepwise forward) with age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, and family history of diabetes as independent variables to predict the risk of having diabetes, age and body mass index are independently associated with diabetes in both men and women. In addition, smoking is independently associated with the risk of diabetes in men, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) being

  3. Mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults (The ELSA and Bambui cohort ageing studies)

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, Michael G.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Juliana; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare 6-year mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults. This study represents a rare opportunity to approach the subject in two different social and economic contexts. Methods: Data from the data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing (Brazil) were used. Deaths in both cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Risk factors considered in this study were baseline smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Both age–sex adjusted hazard ratios and population attributable risks (PAR) of all-cause mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Participants were 3205 English and 1382 Brazilians aged 60 years and over. First, Brazilians showed much higher absolute risk of mortality than English and this finding was consistent in all age, independently of sex. Second, as a rule, hazard ratios for mortality to smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed more similarities than differences between these two populations. Third, there was strong difference among English and Brazilians on attributable deaths to hypertension. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, despite of being in more recent transitions, the attributable deaths to one or more risk factors was twofold among Brazilians relative to the English. These findings call attention for the challenge imposed to health systems to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic level. PMID:26666869

  4. Diabetes in the Aged

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, Wulf

    1970-01-01

    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  5. [Smoking and diabetes. An intervention protocol].

    PubMed

    García Maeso, T; Cuevas Moreno, M J; Cantarero Lafuufente, L; Martínez Martínez, M I

    1998-06-01

    Tobacco smoking habit has been considered like an important cause of diabetes mellitus complications. Health education efficiency has been supported by many experiences in order to promote tobacco withdrawal by personal counselling with a direct nurse role at primary health care level. This study was carried out by all this information with tre straight goal of describing changes in the diabetic tobacco behaviour after a stepped counselling and a primary care nurse following. Description details are given of the smoking diabetic population counselled and listed at the same time in a nurse control clinic over a 18 months period. A Smokers Helping Scheme (SHS) was used. SHS understood that tobacco withdrawal is behavioural changing process with a few steps. Smokers were given with special written material for thes purpose. Results data were caught by the researchers from the chronical patient's census and from the tobacco program control sheets. Tobacco withdrawal was verified by espirated air CO determination (Smokorlizar system) and has been maintained by the 25% of managed diabetic people in this investigation. We strongly believe that nursing diabetic tobacco counselling by SHS acts like a behavioural modificator as results are showing. Health state improvement and a better life quality have been got on the diabetic people that has been managed.

  6. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indicating the impact of nicotine on type 2 diabetes development.

  7. The Relationship of Diabetes and Smoking Status to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mortality.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Hsieh; Lu, Chia-Wen; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-02-01

    The relationship of diabetes and smoking status to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation relative to diabetes status with subsequent deaths from HCC.We followed up 51,164 participants (aged 44-94 years) without chronic hepatitis B or C from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008 enrolled from nationwide health screening units in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcomes were deaths from HCC.During the study period, there were 253 deaths from HCC. History of diabetes was associated with deaths from HCC for both total participants (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-4.23) and ever smokers with current or past smoking habits (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10-3.34). Both never smokers (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32-0.65) and quitters (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97) had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths compared with current smokers. Among all ever smokers with current or past smoking habits, as compared with diabetic smokers, only quitters without diabetes had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78). However, quitters with diabetes were observed to have a similar risk of deaths from HCC when compared with smokers with diabetes. Regarding the interaction between diabetes and smoking status on adjusted HCC-related deaths, with the exception of quitters without history of diabetes, all groups had significantly higher HRs than nondiabetic never smokers. There was also a significant multiplicative interaction between diabetes and smoking status on risk of dying from HCC (P = 0.033). We suggest clinicians should promote diabetes prevention and never smoking to associate with reduced subsequent HCC mortality even in adults without chronic viral hepatitis.

  8. Smoking in diabetic nephropathy: sparks in the fuel tank?

    PubMed

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2012-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is associated with high morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of this disease is continuously increasing worldwide. Long-term diabetes increases the likelihood of developing secondary complications like nephropathy, the most common cause of end stage renal disease. Usually, other factors like hypertension, alcoholism and smoking also partly contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Among this, cigarette smoking in diabetes has been repeatedly confirmed as an independent risk factor for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various studies suggest that smoking is a major fuel in the development of high oxidative stress and subsequently hyperlipidemia, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, activation of the renin angiotensin system and Rho-kinase, which are observed to play a pathogenic role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, cigarette smoking in diabetic patients with vascular complications produces a variety of pathological changes in the kidney, such as thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial expansion with progression in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, which ultimately results in end stage renal failure. Strong associations are consistently found between chronic cigarette smoking and diabetic microvascular complications. A diverse group of studies unveil potential mechanisms that may explain the role of cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tremendous efforts are being made to control smoking mediated progression of diabetic nephropathy, but no promising therapy is yet available. The present review critically discusses the possible detrimental role of chronic cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and various possible pharmacological interventions to attenuate the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Smoking in diabetic nephropathy: sparks in the fuel tank?

    PubMed Central

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is associated with high morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of this disease is continuously increasing worldwide. Long-term diabetes increases the likelihood of developing secondary complications like nephropathy, the most common cause of end stage renal disease. Usually, other factors like hypertension, alcoholism and smoking also partly contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Among this, cigarette smoking in diabetes has been repeatedly confirmed as an independent risk factor for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various studies suggest that smoking is a major fuel in the development of high oxidative stress and subsequently hyperlipidemia, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, activation of the renin angiotensin system and Rho-kinase, which are observed to play a pathogenic role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, cigarette smoking in diabetic patients with vascular complications produces a variety of pathological changes in the kidney, such as thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial expansion with progression in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, which ultimately results in end stage renal failure. Strong associations are consistently found between chronic cigarette smoking and diabetic microvascular complications. A diverse group of studies unveil potential mechanisms that may explain the role of cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tremendous efforts are being made to control smoking mediated progression of diabetic nephropathy, but no promising therapy is yet available. The present review critically discusses the possible detrimental role of chronic cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and various possible pharmacological interventions to attenuate the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23301120

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  11. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: review and update.

    PubMed

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health.

  12. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  13. [Skin graft, smoking and diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Fidalgo-Rodríguez, Félix T; Gaston, Kate L; Rioja, Luis F; Thomas, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and hyperglycemia decrease the success of skin graft survival in specific circumstances. It is well known that smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 increase the oxidative and impair the endothelial function. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if smoking and DM type 2 are factors associated with lower skin graft survival, in different etiologies of the injury associated to the skin loss. It was a bicentric, retrospective, cross sectional case control study, carried out on 2457 medical patients who met the inclusion criteria. It was carried out over a 10 years period between January 2000-December 2009, at Reina Sofía University Hospital (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA). The percentage of successful graft for each group and its control were analyzed by Chi-square test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Smoking and DM type 2 decreased the percentage of skin graft survival when compared with their control groups. DM type 2 was associated with greater negative success on skin graft survival than smoking when compared with their control groups. There was a statistically significant drop in skin graft of 18% in smoking group (range: 68-86%) and 25% in DM type 2 group (53-78%). The OR showed a clear association between the risk factors studied and the lower skin graft success, being stronger for DM type 2. In conclusion, DM type 2 and smoking are factors associated to lower skin graft take.

  14. Diabetes mellitus and smoking among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jali, M V; Mahishale, V K; Hiremath, M B; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Nagaraja, S B; Isaakidis, P

    2013-11-04

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking are risk factors for adverse outcomes in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). In a tertiary care hospital at Belgaum in the South Indian State of Karnataka, all TB patients aged ≥18 years consecutively diagnosed from February to September 2012 were evaluated for DM and smoking. Of 307 TB patients, 35.5% were found to have DM, 9.8% were current smokers, and 3.6% had DM and were also smokers. Measures to assess and address both these factors need to be taken into account during TB treatment.

  15. [Intensified smoking cessation for diabetic patients--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Brath, H; Lasar, D; Buchhäusl, I; Kästenbauer, T; Binter, E

    1999-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most prominent yet avoidable cause of illness in the general population as well as in patients with diabetes. The danger of developing late complications is much higher for smoking than for non-smoking diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether an intensified smoking cessation program for patients with diabetes, including an initial 3 week-period of inpatient cessation, is effective and more successful than a mere outpatient program. The outpatient program consisted of at least 7 consultations within 2 years, and included nicotine replacement therapy, steps for modifying the smokers' behavioural patterns, advice in dietary and exercise as well as measurements of amounts of exhaled carbonmonoxide and lung function. In the inpatient program the patients passed the first 3 cessation weeks in a specialised clinic providing a similar, but intensified program, aside from daily life and professional routine. The following consultations corresponded to those of the outpatient program. Altogether we analysed 89 patients (64 in the outpatient and 25 in the inpatient program).

  16. Self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanzhang; Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes in three population groups: urban residents, migrants in urban settings, and rural residents. Methods We used data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The sample included 993 participants age 45 and older who reported having diabetes diagnosed from a health professional. We performed multilevel regressions performed to examine the associations between characteristics and different aspects of diabetes education received. Findings Our study shows that 20.24% of the participants received no diabetes education at all. Among those who received information, 46.82% of respondents with diabetes received weight control advice from a health care provider, 90.97% received advice on exercise, 60.37% received diet advice, 35.12% were spoken to smoking control, and only 17.89% of persons were informed of foot care. After controlling socioeconomic factors, life style, number of comorbidities and community factors, we found that compared with migrant population and rural residents, urban residents were more likely to receive diabetes education on diet. Urban residents were also more likely to obtain diabetes education and more aspects of diabetes education comparison with migrants and rural residents. Conclusions Our study suggests diabetes education is a serious concern in China, and a significant proportion of the participants did not receive advice on smoking control and foot care. Rural residents and migrants from rural areas received much less diabetes education compared with urban residents. Efforts to improve diabetes educations are urgently needed in China. PMID:27698998

  17. Diabetes and ageing-induced vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Assar, Mariam El; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-04-15

    Diabetes and the ageing process independently increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since incidence of diabetes increases as people get older, the diabetic older adults represent the largest population of diabetic subjects. This group of patients would potentially be threatened by the development of CVD related to both ageing and diabetes. The relationship between CVD, ageing and diabetes is explained by the negative impact of these conditions on vascular function. Functional and clinical evidence supports the role of vascular inflammation induced by the ageing process and by diabetes in vascular impairment and CVD. Inflammatory mechanisms in both aged and diabetic vasculature include pro-inflammatory cytokines, vascular hyperactivation of nuclear factor-кB, increased expression of cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, imbalanced expression of pro/anti-inflammatory microRNAs, and dysfunctional stress-response systems (sirtuins, Nrf2). In contrast, there are scarce data regarding the interaction of these mechanisms when ageing and diabetes co-exist and its impact on vascular function. Older diabetic animals and humans display higher vascular impairment and CVD risk than those either aged or diabetic, suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation in ageing creates a vascular environment favouring the mechanisms of vascular damage driven by diabetes. Further research is needed to determine the specific inflammatory mechanisms responsible for exacerbated vascular impairment in older diabetic subjects in order to design effective therapeutic interventions to minimize the impact of vascular inflammation. This would help to prevent or delay CVD and the specific clinical manifestations (cognitive decline, frailty and disability) promoted by diabetes-induced vascular impairment in the elderly.

  18. [Influence of smoking and abdominal obesity on lung age].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kyoko; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Ayako; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hino, Yumiko; Takahuta, Keisuke; Ikeda, Taeko; Habara, Toshiyuki

    2011-09-01

    Smoking is the riskiest factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Recent researches have indicated that abdominal obesity is also associated with the impairment. 'Lung age' is a novel index to evaluate respiratory function, and it is calculated from the data of the height, sex, and forced expiratory volume in 1-second. Using 'lung age' as an index, we studied on the relationship of 'lung age' to smoking, waist circumference, BMI, or metabolic syndrome. The study population included 1,681 persons who visited our Medical Checkup Office, and the population consisted of smoker group (n = 279) and non-smoker group (n = 1,402). In both men and women, 'lung age' was significantly higher in the smoker group than in non-smoker group (p < 0.05). In addition, the smoker group and non-smoker group were classified by waist circumference, BMI, and the presence of metabolic syndrome, respectively. As a result, 'lung age' of smoker with abdominal obesity group, smoker with obesity group, and smoker with metabolic syndrome group were significantly high. Furthermore, in multivariate linear regression analysis, we examined relation between 'lung age' and the following factors including gender, smoking, waist circumference, BMI and metabolic syndrome. There was closely related to 'lung age' in order of gender, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and waist circumference. Both smoking and abdominal obesity should be significant risk factors in increasing 'lung age'.

  19. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  20. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group): nondiabetic (ND) and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D), diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS) and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP). At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development. PMID:21851636

  1. Linear depolarization of lidar returns by aged smoke particles.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Dlugach, Janna M; Liu, Li

    2016-12-10

    We use the numerically exact (superposition) T-matrix method to analyze recent measurements of the backscattering linear depolarization ratio (LDR) for a plume of aged smoke at lidar wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm. We show that the unique spectral dependence of the measured LDRs can be modeled, but only by assuming expressly nonspherical morphologies of smoke particles containing substantial amounts of nonabsorbing (or weakly absorbing) refractory materials such as sulfates. Our results demonstrate that spectral backscattering LDR measurements can be indicative of the presence of morphologically complex smoke particles, but additional (e.g., passive polarimetric or bistatic lidar) measurements may be required for a definitive characterization of the particle morphology and composition.

  2. AGE, RAGE, and ROS in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Adeline L Y; Forbes, Josephine M; Cooper, Mark E

    2007-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Two key mechanisms implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy include advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Advanced glycation is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto amino groups of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGE modification of proteins may lead to alterations in normal function by inducing cross-linking of extracellular matrices. Intracellular formation of AGEs also can cause generalized cellular dysfunction. Furthermore, AGEs can mediate their effects via specific receptors, such as the receptor for AGE (RAGE), activating diverse signal transduction cascades and downstream pathways, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs as a result of the imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defenses. Sources of ROS include the mitochondria, auto-oxidation of glucose, and enzymatic pathways including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NAD[P]H) oxidase. Beyond the current treatments to treat diabetic complications such as the optimization of blood pressure and glycemic control, it is predicted that new therapies designed to target AGEs, including AGE formation inhibitors and cross-link breakers, as well as targeting ROS using novel highly specific antioxidants, will become part of the treatment regimen for diabetic renal disease.

  3. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Hypertensive Adults Aged 45 to 75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wei; Fan, Fangfang; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45–75 years. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/l] and IFG (6.1–6.9mmol/l) were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90cm for men and ≥80cm for women), non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal) were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal) were important independent associated factors for IFG. Conclusion In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG

  5. Cigarette Smoking and the Association with Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Proteinuria in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Isseki; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2, which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick. Results During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner. Conclusions In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions. PMID:21885794

  6. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care. ITADI Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies about smoking cessation in diabetics in primary care, a level of healthcare that plays an essential role in these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in diabetic patients in primary care. Methods/Design Cluster randomized trial, controlled and multicentric. Randomization unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 546 diabetic smokers older than 14 years of age whose disease is controlled by one of the primary care teams in the study. Outcome Measures: Continuous tobacco abstinence (a person who has not smoked for at least six months and with a CO level of less than 6 ppm measured by a cooximeter) , evolution in the Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change, number of cigarettes/day, length of the visit. Point of assessment: one- year post- inclusion in the study. Intervention: Brief motivational interview for diabetic smokers at the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage, intensive motivational interview with pharmacotherapy for diabetic smokers in the preparation-action stage and reinforcing intevention in the maintenance stage. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive analysis of all variables will be done, as well as a multilevel logistic regression and a Poisson regression. All analyses will be done with an intention to treatment basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Statistical packages: SPSS15, STATA10 y HLM6

  7. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  8. Diabetes and Altered Glucose Metabolism with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Egan, Josephine M.

    2013-01-01

    I. Synopsis Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance affect a substantial proportion of older adults. While the aging process can be associated with alterations in glucose metabolism, including both relative insulin resistance and islet cell dysfunction, abnormal glucose metabolism is not a necessary component of aging. Instead, older adults with diabetes and altered glucose status likely represent a vulnerable subset of the population at high-risk for complications and adverse geriatric syndromes such as accelerated muscle loss, functional disability, frailty, and early mortality. Goals for treatment of diabetes in the elderly include control of hyperglycemia, prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, avoidance of hypoglycemia and preservation of quality of life. Given the heterogeneity of the elderly population with regards to the presence of comorbidities, life expectancy, and functional status, an individualized approach to diabetes management is often appropriate. A growing area of research seeks to explore associations of dysglycemia and insulin resistance with the development of adverse outcomes in the elderly and may ultimately inform guidelines on the use of future glucose-lowering therapies in this population. PMID:23702405

  9. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  11. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  12. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  13. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  14. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  15. Reduced dermis thickness and AGE accumulation in diabetic abdominal skin.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yiwen; Cao, Xiaozan; Song, Fei; Xie, Ting; Ji, Xiaoyun; Miao, Mingyuan; Dong, Jiaoyun; Tian, Ming; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Shuliang

    2012-09-01

    Dermatological problems in diabetes might play an important role in the spontaneous ulcers and impaired wound healing that are seen in diabetic patients. Investigation of the cause of diabetic skin disorders is critical for identifying effective treatment. The abdominal full-thickness skin tissues of 33 patients (14 nondiabetic and 19 diabetic) were analyzed. The cell viability and malondialdehyde (MDA) production of fibroblasts were measured after advanced glycosylation end product (AGE)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) exposure. Cutaneous histological observation showed reduced thickness of the diabetic abdominal dermis with morphological characteristics of obscured multilayer epithelium and shortened, thinned, and disorganized collagen fibrils with focal chronic inflammatory cell infiltration when compared with controls of the same age. Accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin was prominent. Less hydroxyproline, higher myeloperoxidase activity, and increased MDA content were detected in diabetic skin. In vitro, the time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects of AGE-BSA on fibroblast viability as well as the fact that AGE-BSA could promote MDA production of fibroblasts were shown. It is shown that the accumulation of AGEs in diabetic skin tissue induces an oxidative damage of fibroblasts and acts as an important contributor to the thinner diabetic abdominal dermis. The authors believe that diabetic cutaneous properties at baseline may increase the susceptibility to injury, and diabetic wounds possess atypical origin in the repair process.

  16. Does smoking increase the risk of progression of nephropathy and/or cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and those without albuminuria?

    PubMed Central

    Bentata, Yassamine; Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Alaoui, Fatiha El; Haddiya, Intissar; Abouqal, Redouane

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cigarette smoking is probably the most complex and the least understood among the risk factors for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of smoking on progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and those without albuminuria. Methods: This is a prospective study. The Ethics Committee of Morocco’s Mohammed V University in Rabat approved the study protocol. Inclusion criteria targeted patients who were type 2 diabetics and who had nephrology follow up for at least 36 months. Results: A total of 671 cases of T2D were included. Mean age of all patients was 65 ± 11 years and 12.1% were smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between T2D patients with albuminuria according to absence of presence of smoking at the time of enrollment, at 1 year and 3 years of follow-up, concerning the median albumin excretion rate (mg/day): 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.59); 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.15) and 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.52) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between T2D patients with albuminuria according to absence or presence of smoking at the time of enrollment and the end of follow-up, concerning cardiovascular events: 56 (12.3%) vs. 19 (28.4%) (p<0.001) and 66 (14.5%) vs. 19 (28.4%) (p=0.004) respectively. Conclusion: Smoking remains one of the most important modifiable risk factors for progression of renal and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients, thus adding to the burden of morbimortality. PMID:27335692

  17. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  18. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.

  19. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  20. Association of relative telomere length with progression of chronic kidney disease in two cohorts: effect modification by smoking and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Ritchie, James; Lane, Beverley; Kalra, Philip A; Ritz, Eberhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-07-07

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n = 166) and the CRISIS-Study (n = 889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage renal disease (both studies). 59 and 105 of the patients from MMKD and CRISIS experienced a progression of CKD. Mean standardized pooled RTL was 0.74 ± 0.29. In the meta-analysis shorter RTL at baseline showed a borderline association with CKD progression (HR = 1.07 [95%CI 1.00-1.15]; p = 0.06). We observed an effect modification of RTL and CKD progression by smoking and diabetes (p-values of interaction p = 0.02 and p = 0.09, respectively). Each 0.1 unit shorter RTL was significantly associated with an increased hazard for CKD progression in active-smokers by 44% (HR = 1.44 [1.16-1.81]; p = 0.001) and in patients with diabetes mellitus by 16% (HR = 1.16 [1.01-1.34]; p = 0.03). Estimates were adjusted for baseline age, sex, proteinuria and GFR. This study in two independent cohorts reinforces that RTL is a marker and potentially a pathogenetic factor for CKD progression.

  1. Association of relative telomere length with progression of chronic kidney disease in two cohorts: effect modification by smoking and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Ritchie, James; Lane, Beverley; Kalra, Philip A.; Ritz, Eberhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n = 166) and the CRISIS-Study (n = 889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage renal disease (both studies). 59 and 105 of the patients from MMKD and CRISIS experienced a progression of CKD. Mean standardized pooled RTL was 0.74 ± 0.29. In the meta-analysis shorter RTL at baseline showed a borderline association with CKD progression (HR = 1.07 [95%CI 1.00–1.15]; p = 0.06). We observed an effect modification of RTL and CKD progression by smoking and diabetes (p-values of interaction p = 0.02 and p = 0.09, respectively). Each 0.1 unit shorter RTL was significantly associated with an increased hazard for CKD progression in active-smokers by 44% (HR = 1.44 [1.16–1.81]; p = 0.001) and in patients with diabetes mellitus by 16% (HR = 1.16 [1.01–1.34]; p = 0.03). Estimates were adjusted for baseline age, sex, proteinuria and GFR. This study in two independent cohorts reinforces that RTL is a marker and potentially a pathogenetic factor for CKD progression. PMID:26149682

  2. Glycemia, diabetes status, and cognition in middle aged Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José A.; Cabral, Rafi; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Teresi, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognition among 600 Hispanics aged 55 to 64 years from Northern Manhattan. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by history or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and pre-diabetes were ascertained with HbA1c. Memory was assessed with the Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Executive abilities were assessed using the Color trails 1 and 2, and verbal fluency test. The cross-sectional association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognitive performance was examined using linear regression. Results Participants were a mean age of 59.2 ± 2.9 years old, 76.7% were women, and more than 65% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. HbA1C (β = − 0.97; p <0.001) and diabetes (β = − 2.06; p = 0.001) were related with lower SRT total recall after adjustment for demographics, education, and vascular risk factors. Pre-diabetes was associated with worse performance in color trails 2 (β = − 6.45 p = 0.022) after full adjustment. Conclusions Higher glycemia and diabetes are related to worse memory and executive abilities in late middle age, while pre-diabetes is related only to worse executive abilities. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the order and progression of these deficits. PMID:26163818

  3. AGE restriction in diabetes mellitus: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

    2011-05-24

    Persistently elevated oxidative stress and inflammation precede or occur during the development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and precipitate devastating complications. Given the rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and obesity in the space of a few decades, new genetic mutations are unlikely to be the cause, instead pointing to environmental initiators. A hallmark of contemporary culture is a preference for thermally processed foods, replete with pro-oxidant advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). These molecules are appetite-increasing and, thus, efficient enhancers of overnutrition (which promotes obesity) and oxidant overload (which promotes inflammation). Studies of genetic and nongenetic animal models of diabetes mellitus suggest that suppression of host defenses, under sustained pressure from food-derived AGEs, may potentially shift homeostasis towards a higher basal level of oxidative stress, inflammation and injury of both insulin-producing and insulin-responsive cells. This sequence promotes both types of diabetes mellitus. Reducing basal oxidative stress by AGE restriction in mice, without energy or nutrient change, reinstates host defenses, alleviates inflammation, prevents diabetes mellitus, vascular and renal complications and extends normal lifespan. Studies in healthy humans and in those with diabetes mellitus show that consumption of high amounts of food-related AGEs is a determinant of insulin resistance and inflammation and that AGE restriction improves both. This Review focuses on AGEs as novel initiators of oxidative stress that precedes, rather than results from, diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic gains from AGE restriction constitute a paradigm shift.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of raising the legal smoking age in California.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2005-01-01

    Given evidence that most smokers start smoking before the age of 18 and that smokers who start earlier in life are less likely to quit, policies that reduce or delay initiation could have a large impact on public health. Raising the legal minimum purchase age of cigarettes to 21 may be an effective way for states to reduce youth smoking by making it harder for teens to buy cigarettes from stores and by reducing the number of legal buyers they encounter in their normal social circles. To inform the ongoing debate over this policy option in California, this study provides an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of raising the state's legal smoking age to 21. Costs and benefits were estimated from a societal perspective using a dynamic computer simulation model that simulates changes to the California population in age, composition, and smoking behavior over time. Secondary data for model parameters were obtained from publicly available sources. Population health impacts were estimated in terms of smoking prevalence and the change in cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to the California population over a 50-year period. Economic impacts were measured in monetary terms for medical cost savings, cost of law enforcement, and cost of checking identification. Compared to a status quo simulation, raising the smoking age to 21 would result in a drop in teen (ages 14-17) smoking prevalence from 13.3% to 2.4% (82% reduction). The policy would generate no net costs, in fact saving the state and its inhabitants a total of $24 billion over the next 50 years with a gain of 1.47 million QALYs compared to status quo. This research should prove useful to California's policy makers as they contemplate legislation to raise the state's legal smoking age.

  5. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forga, Luis; Goñi, María José; Cambra, Koldo; García-Mouriz, Marta; Iriarte, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8) years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7%) developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age <10 years, the risk of retinopathy increased 2.5-, 3-, 3.3-, and 3.7-fold in the groups with onset at 10–14, 15–29, 30–44, and >44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy. PMID:27213158

  6. The Association of Lung Age with Smoking Status in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Joo Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung age, calculated from sex, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and height, was developed to illustrate premature changes to the lungs and could be used to motivate smoking cessation. However, this method has not been tested in association with smoking in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of lung age with smoking and other factors in Korean males. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,100 healthy men who visited a health promotion center at Ewha Womans University Medical Center from January 2008 to June 2009. Lung age was calculated from FEV1 and normal predictive values of spirometry according to age in the Korean population. The difference between lung age and chronological age was evaluated in relation to smoking status, weight, body mass index, waist, muscle mass, fat mass, and exercise. Results The age difference was significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (12.47 ± 19.90 vs. 7.30 ± 19.52, P < 0.001). Additionally, the age difference was positively correlated with life time pack-year (β = 0.223; P < 0.001) and fat mass (β = 0.462; P < 0.001). Lung age increased 1 year for 4.48 pack-year increase or for 2.16% increase in fat mass. Conclusion We found a significant relationship between lung age and both smoking status and fat mass in healthy Korean males. Lung age may be a useful tool for motivating cessation of cigarette smoking and management of risk factors related to obesity. PMID:24501668

  7. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  8. Cigarette smoke metabolically promotes cancer, via autophagy and premature aging in the host stromal microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Galbiati, Ferruccio; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been directly implicated in the disease pathogenesis of a plethora of different human cancer subtypes, including breast cancers. The prevailing view is that cigarette smoke acts as a mutagen and DNA damaging agent in normal epithelial cells, driving tumor initiation. However, its potential negative metabolic effects on the normal stromal microenvironment have been largely ignored. Here, we propose a new mechanism by which carcinogen-rich cigarette smoke may promote cancer growth, by metabolically “fertilizing” the host microenvironment. More specifically, we show that cigarette smoke exposure is indeed sufficient to drive the onset of the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype via the induction of DNA damage, autophagy and mitophagy in the tumor stroma. In turn, cigarette smoke exposure induces premature aging and mitochondrial dysfunction in stromal fibroblasts, leading to the secretion of high-energy mitochondrial fuels, such as L-lactate and ketone bodies. Hence, cigarette smoke induces catabolism in the local microenvironment, directly fueling oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in neighboring epithelial cancer cells, actively promoting anabolic tumor growth. Remarkably, these autophagic-senescent fibroblasts increased breast cancer tumor growth in vivo by up to 4-fold. Importantly, we show that cigarette smoke-induced metabolic reprogramming of the fibroblastic stroma occurs independently of tumor neo-angiogenesis. We discuss the possible implications of our current findings for the prevention of aging-associated human diseases and, especially, common epithelial cancers, as we show that cigarette smoke can systemically accelerate aging in the host microenvironment. Finally, our current findings are consistent with the idea that cigarette smoke induces the “reverse Warburg effect,” thereby fueling “two-compartment tumor metabolism” and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells. PMID:23388463

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Smoking in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Daniel A.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Marti, C. Nathan; Ockene, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking research and intervention efforts have neglected older women. Depressive symptoms, which are common in middle-aged and older women, are related to the maintenance of adult smoking. Methods: This study investigated the relation of a composite measure of current depressive symptoms, derived from a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and history of depressive symptoms, derived from two items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, to smoking outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (N = 90,627). Participants were postmenopausal with an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Participants were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural areas surrounding 40 clinical centers in the United States. Analyses controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Results: In multinomial logistic regression analyses, depressive symptoms were related cross-sectionally to current light (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14–1.23) and heavier (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.23–1.32) smoking at baseline compared with nonsmokers. In prospective multiple logistic regression analyses, baseline depressive symptoms were negatively predictive of smoking cessation at a 1-year follow-up (OR = .85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.93) and at participants’ final assessments in the study (OR = .92, 95% CI = 0.85–0.98). Light smokers had more than 2 times higher odds of smoking cessation than did heavier smokers. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate a consistent link between depressive symptoms and negative smoking-related behaviors among middle-aged and older women at both light and heavier smoking levels. PMID:21504881

  10. Brief intervention to promote smoking cessation and improve glycemic control in smokers with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, William H. C.; Wang, M. P.; LAM, T. H.; Cheung, Yannes T. Y.; Cheung, Derek Y. T.; Suen, Y. N.; Ho, K. Y.; Tan, Kathryn C. B.; CHAN, Sophia S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a brief stage-matched smoking cessation intervention group compared with a control group (with usual care) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who smoked by randomized controlled trial. There were 557 patients, randomized either into the intervention group (n = 283) who received brief (20- minute) individualized face-to-face counseling by trained nurses and a diabetes mellitus-specific leaflet, or a control group (n = 274) who received standard care. Patient follow-ups were at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months via telephone, and assessment of smoking status from 2012 to 2014. Patients smoked an average of 14 cigarettes per day for more than 37 years, and more than 70% were in the precontemplation stage of quitting. The primary outcome showed that both the intervention and control groups had similar 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence (9.2% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.08). The secondary outcome showed that HbA1c levels with 7.95% [63 mmol/mol] vs. 8.05% [64 mmol/mol], p = 0.49 at 12 months, respectively. There was no evidence for effectiveness in promoting the brief stage-matched smoking cessation or improving glycemic control in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly those in the pre-contemplation stage. PMID:28378764

  11. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  12. Impact of smoking on fertility and age of menopause: a population-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bastardot, François; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Studies in patients seeking medically assisted reproduction have shown that smoking reduces fertility, but little information is available in the general population. We assessed the associations between smoking and the number of children, childbearing planning and age at menopause in a representative sample of the population of Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Data from 6711 participants (3530 women, age range 35–75 years) collected between 2003 and 2006 and again in 2009 and 2012. Smoking status, number of offsprings and age of menopause were assessed. Results Women who currently smoke had significantly less children than former or never smokers: the number of children per women (average±SD) was 1.38±1.05, 1.45±1.07 and 1.576±1.16, respectively (p<0.001). Women who currently smoke had their first child at an earlier age than the others: 26.7±5.2, 27.4±5.4 and 26.9±5.2 years old for current, former and never smokers, respectively, (p=0.01). Similar findings were found for men: number of children per men 1.475±1.16, 1.67±1.13 and 1.55±1.22 for current, former and never smokers, respectively (p<0.001); no difference was found regarding age at the first child. The difference persisted after multivariate adjustment (adjusted for age, body mass index, Caucasian origins, alcohol consumption, caffeinated drinks consumption, educational level, receiving social help and women taking contraceptives) for the age at first child among women. No association was found between Heaviness of Smoking Index and the number of children among current smokers in both genders. Women who smoke had their menopause more than 1 year prior than never-smoking women (48.9±0.2 years compared with 47.8±0.3 years, respectively, p=0.002). Conclusions Smoking is associated with an earlier age of having the first child and of menopause among women. PMID:27864244

  13. The Association of Smoking and Surgery in Inflammatory Bowel Disease is Modified by Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Frolkis, Alexandra D; de Bruyn, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Lowerison, Mark; Engbers, Jordan; Ghali, William; Lewis, James D; Vallerand, Isabelle; Patten, Scott; Eksteen, Bertus; Barnabe, Cheryl; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed the association of smoking at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the need for an intestinal resection. Methods: The Health Improvement Network was used to identify an inception cohort of Crohn's disease (n=1519) and ulcerative colitis (n=3600) patients from 1999–2009. Poisson regression explored temporal trends for the proportion of newly diagnosed IBD patients who never smoked before their diagnosis and the risk of surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between smoking and surgery, and effect modification was explored for age at diagnosis. Results: The rate of never smokers increased by 3% per year for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease patients (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.05), but not for ulcerative colitis. The rate of surgery decreased among Crohn's disease patients aged 17–40 years (IRR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.98), but not for ulcerative colitis. Smoking at diagnosis increased the risk of surgery for Crohn's disease patients diagnosed after the age of 40 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99; 95% CI: 1.52–5.92), but not for those diagnosed before age 40. Ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between the ages of 17 and 40 years and who quit smoking before their diagnosis were more likely to undergo a colectomy (ex-smoker vs. never smoker: HR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04–2.66). The age-specific findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses for Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: In this study, the association of smoking and surgical resection was dependent on the age at diagnosis of IBD. PMID:27101004

  14. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  15. Interaction of asbestos, age, and cigarette smoking in producing radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Miller, A.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    The study of 3,472 chest x-rays from four populations with different levels of exposure to asbestos and with different cigarette smoking histories shows that smoking in the general population does not produce pulmonary fibrosis recognizable on chest radiography. In the general population of Michigan, the prevalence of a radiographic pattern of fibrosis was 0.5 percent in men and 0.0 percent in women. In a Long Beach, California census tract population, the prevalences were 3.7 percent for men and 0.6 percent for women. Similarly, cigarette smoking does not enhance fibrosis when the exposure to asbestos has been as light as that in households of shipyard workers. Asbestosis was recognized in 6.6 percent of 137 shipyard workers' wives who have never smoked and 7.6 percent of 132 who had ever smoked. Cigarette smoking and asbestos appear to be synergistic in those occupationally exposed to asbestos (as insulators), since 7.2 percent of 97 nonsmokers and 20.5 percent of 316 ever-smokers showed fibrosis. This apparent synergy was also found in shipyard workers up to age 70 with 31 percent of nonsmokers and 43.3 percent of ever-smokers having fibrosis. There were increases of approximately 10 percent in the prevalence of fibrosis in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers for each decade after age 40.

  16. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  17. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  18. Comparison of Age of Onset and Frequency of Diabetic Complications in the Very Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in elderly people has increased dramatically in the last few decades. This study was designed to clarify the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes in patients aged ≥80 years according to age of onset. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 289 patients aged ≥80 years with type 2 diabetes at the outpatient diabetes clinics of Kangwon National University Hospital from September 2010 to June 2014. We divided the patients into middle-age-onset diabetes (onset before 65 years of age) and elderly-onset diabetes (onset at 65+ years of age). Results There were 141 male and 148 female patients. The patients had a mean age of 83.2±2.9 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 14.3±10.4 years. One hundred and ninety-nine patients had elderly-onset diabetes. The patients with elderly-onset diabetes had a significantly lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, lower serum creatinine levels, lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and similar coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction rates compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. There was no frequency difference in coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction and HbA1c levels between three subgroups (<5, 5 to 15, and ≥15 years) of diabetes duration in elderly onset diabetes. However, both in the elderly onset diabetes and middle-age-onset diabetes, the cumulative incidence of retinopathy was increasing rapidly according to the duration of diabetes. Conclusion We report that individuals with elderly-onset diabetes have a lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy and similar cardiovascular complications compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. PMID:27586451

  19. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  20. Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between age at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether exposure to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with age at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS exposure and age at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS exposure (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later age at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later age at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later age at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that exposure to PTS and ETS is associated with later age at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth.

  1. Frontal Gray Matter Atrophy in Middle Aged Adults with Type 1 Diabetes is Independent of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Nunley, Karen; Gianaros, Peter J.; Miller, Rachel; Costacou, Tina; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Rosano, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if regional gray matter volume (GMV) differences in middle-aged adults with and without type-1 diabetes (T1D) are localized in areas most vulnerable to aging, e.g. fronto-subcortical networks; and if these differences are explained by cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications. Methods Regional GMV was computed using 3 Tesla MRI of 104 adults with a childhood onset of T1D (mean age: 49+7 and duration: 41±6 years) and 151 adults without diabetes (mean age: 40+6). A Bonferroni threshold (n=45, p≤0.001) was applied to account for multiple between-group comparisons and analyses were repeated in an age- and gender-matched subset of participants with T1D and controls (n=44 in each group, mean age [SD] and range: 44.0, [4.3], 17.4 and 44.6 [4.3], 17.0, respectively). Results Compared to controls, T1D patients had smaller GMV in the frontal lobe (6 to 19% smaller) and adjacent supramarginal and postcentral gyri (8 to 13% smaller). Between-group differences were independent of age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting total cholesterol and smoking status and were similar in sensitivity analyses restricted to age- and gender-matched participants. Associations between GMV and diabetes complications were not significant. Conclusions These findings extend the notion of accelerated brain aging in T1D to middle-aged adults. The pathophysiology of frontal gray matter atrophy and its impact on future development of disability and dementia need further study, especially as middle-aged T1D patients progress to older age. PMID:23994432

  2. The hazards of death by smoking in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Gram, Inger T; Sandin, Sven; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have found that the risk of death continues to increase among female smokers, as compared with women who have never smoked. We wanted to examine the effect of smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality and calculate the corresponding population attributable fraction (PAF) of mortality in the Norwegian women and cancer study; a nationally representative prospective cohort study. We followed 85,320 women, aged 31–70 years, who completed a questionnaire in 1991–1997, through linkages to national registries through December 2008. Questionnaire data included information on lifestyle factors, including lifetime history of smoking. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, birth cohort, education, postmenopausal status, alcohol consumption and body mass index, all at enrollment. During a mean follow-up time of 14 years 2,842 deaths occurred. Compared with that of never smokers, current smokers had a mortality rate that was double (RR = 2.34; 95 % CI 2.13–2.62) from deaths overall, triple (RR = 3.30; 95 % CI 2.21–4.82) from cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction (RR = 3.65; 95 % CI 2.18–6.15), 12 times (RR = 12.16; 95 % CI 7.80–19.00) from lung cancer and seventeen times (RR = 17.00; 95 % CI 5.90–48.78) from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The PAF of mortality due to smoking was 34 % (CI 30–39). In summary, one in three deaths among middle aged women in Norway could have been prevented if the women did not smoke. More middle-aged women, than ever before, are dying prematurely due to smoking in Norway.

  3. Effect of age, smoking and other lifestyle factors on urinary 7-methylguanine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Tamae, Kazuyoshi; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yamasaki, Sayumi; Kawanami, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Masato; Takahashi, Ken; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kato, Noritada; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and 7-methylguanine (m7Gua) were measured by a column-switching high performance liquid chromatography method as markers of oxidative and methylating DNA damage, respectively. We investigated the associations between urinary 8-OH-dG or m7Gua and various lifestyle and demographic factors, such as age and sex. The urinary 8-OH-dG excretion level was positively correlated with cigarette smoking, but inversely correlated with fruit consumption, physical activity and total energy consumed per day. A multiple regression analysis revealed that daily physical activity and healthy meal combinations decreased the urinary 8-OH-dG level, whereas alcohol consumption increased it. In terms of the urinary m7Gua measurement, cigarette smoking, age and consumption of meat, fish, egg, soybean, etc. were positively correlated with the urinary m7Gua level, whereas body weight, BMI, physical activity, and dietary index score, which indicates good nutritional balance, were negatively correlated with the amount of m7Gua. Based on a multiple regression analysis, cigarette smoking and age correlated with the m7Gua level, while high BMI and healthy meal combinations have significant reducing effects on m7Gua level. Therefore, the urinary m7Gua level is considered to be a useful marker of DNA methylation, not only from smoking, but also from aging and unhealthy dietary habits.

  4. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  5. Observations of Smoke Aerosol from Biomass Burning in Mexico: Effect of Particle Aging on Radiative Forcing and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Bruintjes, Roelof; Holben, Brent N.; Christopher, Sundar

    1999-01-01

    We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.

  6. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The “Brain Age Gap Estimation” (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2

  7. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality.

  8. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Methods We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Results Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36–2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07–2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41–4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06–2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45–0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41–0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.97). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26872919

  9. An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C.; Komro, K.; Dudovitz, B.; Veblen-Mortenson, S.; Jeddeloh, R.; Koele, R.; Gallanar, I.; Farbakhsh, K.; Stigler, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the impact of a theatre production on smoking-related attitudes, norms, and intentions of children in grades 1-6 (aged 6-12 years).
DESIGN—Seventeen schools were randomly selected among 160 that were participating in the implementation of the theatre production 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Schools that participated in the theatre production after 3 December 1997 were assigned as control schools. Assignment of schools to a given date for the theatre production was a random process. Students in grades 1-6 were surveyed before and after the theatre production and associated activities. The data were examined for pretest-posttest differences and intervention-control differences. The school was the unit of analysis.
SETTING—Elementary schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS—Students in grades 1-6 in 17 elementary schools.
INTERVENTION—Two plays 2 Smart 2 Smoke for grades 1-3 (6-8 year olds) and grades 4-6 (9-12 year olds), respectively, with follow-up activities for the classroom and home. A national theatre company performed the plays at the schools.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Intention to smoke in the future, normative expectations about how many people smoke, functional meanings of smoking, expected outcomes of smoking.
RESULTS—10% more students reported that they would never smoke a cigarette after the theatre production. Students in grades 4-6 showed changes in the functional meanings and expected outcomes of smoking. Students in grades 1-3 showed changes in normative expectations.
CONCLUSIONS—Further research on the impact of live theatre productions as a smoking prevention strategy is recommended.


Keywords: smoking prevention; children; theatre production PMID:10478401

  10. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  11. [Smoking among military personnel of young age: bad habit and risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moroz, H Z; Hrytsenko, O O; Piteĭ, M V

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous questioning was done among military personnel to study their attitude to healthy way of living and smoking. 80 military persons aged from 18 till 30 participated in the study (40 officers and 40 soldiers). Obtained results showed that 72,5% of soldiers and 42,5% of officers smoked it in connection with compromised heredity may lead to the development of chronic non-infectious disease. Military personnel realize their own responsibility in relation to their health and have all necessary knowledge of healthy way of living but apply their knowledge not in full extent to maintain and strengthen their health. Revealed discrepancy shows that military personnel underestimate bad effect of smoking on health. It necessitates enhancing sanitary and educational measures and individual responsibility of military personal toward their health and providing influence on motivation to lead healthy way of living.

  12. Smoking Status, Physical Health–Related Quality of Life, and Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Women who smoke, particularly older women, have been relatively neglected in smoking research. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the relation of level of smoking to quality of life and mortality among middle-aged and older women smokers. Methods: This study examined the relation of smoking status to physical health–related quality of life (PHRQL) and total mortality in women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were 90,849 postmenopausal women, who were an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple linear and Cox proportional hazards regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Never-smokers were the reference group. Results: We found that smoking status was significantly related to PHRQL cross-sectionally at baseline and prospectively at a 3-year follow-up, with those who smoked having lower PHRQL. Heavier smokers showed large, clinically meaningful associations with PHRQL and light smokers showed small associations. In addition, we found that the smoking status at baseline was significantly related to 10-year total mortality. Both light and heavier smoking at baseline significantly correlated with higher mortality risk; however, the relationship of smoking to mortality was dose dependent. Among former smokers, those who had smoked longer showed significantly lower PHRQL and significantly increased mortality risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the risks of smoking may not be evident to light smokers and that educational interventions targeted to middle-aged and older women stressing the consequences of light smoking may be particularly beneficial. PMID:22965789

  13. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  14. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  15. Smoking Cessation Carries a Short-Term Rising Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Independently of Weight Gain: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Chang, I-Jen; Lin, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effects of smoking on human metabolism are complex. Although smoking increases risk for diabetes mellitus, smoking cessation was also reported to be associated with weight gain and incident diabetes mellitus. We therefore conducted this study to clarify the association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods. An analysis was done using the data of a mass health examination performed annually in an industrial park from 2007 to 2013. The association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was analyzed with adjustment for weight gain and other potential confounders. Results. Compared with never-smokers, not only current smokers but also ex-smokers in their first two years of abstinence had higher odds ratios (ORs) for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (never-smokers 3.6%, OR as 1; current smokers 5.5%, OR = 1.499, 95% CI = 1.147–1.960, and p = 0.003; ex-smokers in their first year of abstinence 7.5%, OR = 1.829, 95% CI = 0.906–3.694, and p = 0.092; and ex-smokers in their second year of abstinence 9.0%, OR = 2.020, 95% CI = 1.031–3.955, and p = 0.040). Conclusion. Smoking cessation generally decreased risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. However, increased odds were seen within the first 2 years of abstinence independently of weight gain. PMID:27478846

  16. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  17. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND EXERCISE, OBESITY AND SMOKING: MODERATION OF ASSOCIATIONS BY AGE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252

  18. Relationship of cytokines and AGE products in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Sadaf; Gul, Anjuman; Hamid, Qamar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines are important mediators of inflammatory and immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cytokines concentration (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) and serum advanced glycation end products (sAGEs) in senile diabetics with or without cataract and non-diabetic patients with cataract. Methodology The study included 124 subjects (sixty or over sixty years age), distributed as four groups thirty senile diabetic patients with cataract (Group I) (16 female and 14 male), thirty senile non-diabetic patients with cataract (Group II) (15 female and 15 male), thirty three senile diabetic patients without any complication (Group III) (16 female and 17 male), thirty one apparently normal healthy individuals (Group IV) (16 female and 15 male), age, sex and weight matched with senile control subjects were investigated. Patients were selected on clinical grounds from Eye Ward Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre. Results Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.001) in Group I and III as compared to Group II and IV. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum fructosamine, malondialdehyde (MDA), sAGEs, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were significantly increased (P < 0.001) in Group I as compared to Group II and the levels were almost same in Group II and IV. There was a significant decrease in serum vitamin E and total antioxidant status (p< 0.001) in Group I and Group III as compared to Group II and Group IV. Conclusion The results of the present study thus demonstrated that levels increased in both condition but are more severe in diabetic patients with cataract that may be a predictor for cataractogenesis and the levels were almost same in Group II and IV. PMID:27833515

  19. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  20. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  1. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  2. Cigarette acquisition and proof of age among US high school students who smoke

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S; Sharp, D; Husten, C; Crossett, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine how US high school students who are under 18 years of age and who smoke obtain their cigarettes and whether they are asked for proof of age. Design and setting: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1995, 1997, and 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys which employed national probability samples of students in grades 9–12 (ages 14–18 years). Main outcome measures: Associations of usual source of cigarettes and request for proof of age with variables such as sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and frequency of smoking. Results: In 1999, among current smokers under age 18 years, 23.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), -4.5% to +4.5%) usually purchased their cigarettes in a store; among these students, 69.6% (95% CI -5.7% to +5.7%) were not asked to show proof of age. As days of past month smoking increased, reliance on buying cigarettes in a store (p < 0.001) and giving someone else money to buy cigarettes (p < 0.001) increased, and usually borrowing cigarettes decreased (p < 0.001). From 1995 to 1999, relying on store purchases significantly decreased (from 38.7% (95% CI -4.6% to + 4.6%) to 23.5% (95% CI -4.5% to +4.5%)); usually giving someone else money to buy cigarettes significantly increased (from 15.8% (95% CI -3.6% to +3.6%) to 29.9% (95% CI -4.5% to + 4.5%)). Conclusions: Stricter enforcement of tobacco access laws is needed to support other community and school efforts to reduce tobacco use among youth. Furthermore, effective interventions to reduce non-commercial sources of tobacco, including social, need to be developed and implemented. PMID:11891364

  3. The role of childhood social position in adult type 2 diabetes: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic circumstances in childhood and early adulthood may influence the later onset of chronic disease, although such research is limited for type 2 diabetes and its risk factors at the different stages of life. The main aim of the present study is to examine the role of childhood social position and later inflammatory markers and health behaviours in developing type 2 diabetes at older ages using a pathway analytic approach. Methods Data on childhood and adult life circumstances of 2,994 men and 4,021 women from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were used to evaluate their association with diabetes at age 50 years and more. The cases of diabetes were based on having increased blood levels of glycated haemoglobin and/or self-reported medication for diabetes and/or being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Father’s job when ELSA participants were aged 14 years was used as the measure of childhood social position. Current social characteristics, health behaviours and inflammatory biomarkers were used as potential mediators in the statistical analysis to assess direct and indirect effects of childhood circumstances on diabetes in later life. Results 12.6 per cent of participants were classified as having diabetes. A disadvantaged social position in childhood, as measured by father’s manual occupation, was associated at conventional levels of statistical significance with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood, both directly and indirectly through inflammation, adulthood social position and a risk score constructed from adult health behaviours including tobacco smoking and limited physical activity. The direct effect of childhood social position was reduced by mediation analysis (standardised coefficient decreased from 0.089 to 0.043) but remained statistically significant (p = 0.035). All three indirect pathways made a statistically significantly contribution to the overall effect of childhood social position on adulthood

  4. Neurobehaviour of school age children born to diabetic mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Peretz, E; Soriano, D; Dulitzky, M

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To study the neurobehavioural effects that diabetes during pregnancy might have on children by school age.
METHODS—The neurobehavioural function of 57 school age children born to 48, well controlled diabetic mothers was compared with 57control children matched for age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status, using several cognitive, behavioural, sensory and motor neurological tests.
RESULTS—The IQ scores of the index group children were similar to those of control children (117.7±13.4 vs 118.5±10.1). There were no differences between the groups in various sensory motor functions. However, the index group children performed less well than the controls on indices of fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of children born to diabetic mothers were higher than controls on the Touwen and Prechtl neurological examination. They also performed worse in the Pollack tapper test which is designed to detect minor neurological deficits, inattention, and hyperactivity. The index children had higher scores on the Conners abbreviated parent-teacher questionnaire which measures hyperactivity and inattention. There was a negative correlation between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental and behavioural tests and the severity of hyperglycaemia, as assessed by blood glycosylated haemoglobin and acetonuria.
CONCLUSIONS—Diabetes during pregnancy adversely affects some fine neurological functions in children at school age, but not their cognitive scores. These effects are not correlated with the degree of glycaemic control.

 PMID:9828733

  5. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  6. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease among Mongolian and Han Chinese aged 55 years and over living in the Inner Mongolia farming area of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Da, Lin; Zhao, Shigang; Wang, Desheng; Niu, Guangming; Huriletemuer

    2012-07-15

    Residents aged 55 years or older from 27 communities and two settlements in Xilingol League of Inner Mongolia were selected for participation in an Alzheimer's disease epidemiological investigation from June 2008 to June 2009, including 3 259 Mongolians and 5 887 Han Chinese. The Mongolian subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average), and more of them were male, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease and/or diabetes compared with the Mongolian subjects in the non-Alzheimer's disease group. The Han Chinese subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average) and more of them were women, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease, and less of them had a history of alcohol consumption compared with the non-Alzheimer's disease group. Non-conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified that male gender, increasing age and having a history of diabetes and/or coronary heart disease were associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease among Mongolians while having an educational background was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.259, 95%CI 0.174-0.386). Among the Han Chinese subjects, male gender, increasing age and having a history of coronary heart disease and/or hypertension was associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease, while having an educational background was associated lower odds (OR = 0.271, 95%CI 0.192-0.381). The results also indicated that extremely heavy smoking may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in Mongolian males aged over 55 years. There was no significant difference in smoking habits between the Mongolian and Han Chinese subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Diabetes Onset at 31–45 Years of Age is Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wenjun; Ni, Lisha; Lu, Qianyi; Zou, Chen; Zhao, Minjie; Xu, Xun; Chen, Haibing; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This hospital-based, cross-sectional study investigated the effect of age of diabetes onset on the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. A total of 5,214 patients with type 2 DM who were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology at the Shanghai First People’s Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was eligible for inclusion. Diabetic retinopathy status was classified using the grading system of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Logistic and hierarchical regression analyses were used to identify independent variables affecting the development of DR. Upon multiple logistic regression analysis, patient age at the time of diabetes onset was significantly associated with development of DR. Further, when the risk of retinopathy was stratified by patient age at the onset of diabetes, the risk was highest in patients in whom diabetes developed at an age of 31–45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.815 [1.139–2.892]; p = 0.012). Furthermore, when patients were divided into four groups based on the duration of diabetes, DR development was maximal at a diabetes onset age of 31–45 years within each group. A diabetes onset age of 31–45 years is an independent risk factor for DR development in Chinese type 2 DM patients. PMID:27897261

  9. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  10. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  11. Do stronger school smoking policies make a difference? Analysis of the health behaviour in school-aged children survey

    PubMed Central

    Hallingberg, B.; Fletcher, A.; Murphy, S.; Morgan, K.; Littlecott, H.J.; Roberts, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Associations of the strength of school smoking policies with cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use in Wales were examined. Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of pupils aged 11–16 years (N=7376) in Wales. Senior management team members from 67 schools completed questionnaires about school smoking policies, substance use education and tobacco cessation initiatives. Multi-level, logistic regression analyses investigated self-reported cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use, for all students and those aged 15–16 years. Results: Prevalence of current smoking, e-cigarette use and cannabis use in the past month were 5.3%, 11.5% and 2.9%, respectively. Of schools that provided details about smoking policies (66/67), 39.4% were strong (written policy applied to everyone in all locations), 43.9% were moderate (written policy not applied to everyone in all locations) and 16.7% had no written policy. There was no evidence of an association of school smoking policies with pupils’ tobacco or e-cigarette use. However, students from schools with a moderate policy [OR = 0.47; 95% (confidence interval) CI: 0.26–0.84] were less likely to have used cannabis in the past month compared to schools with no written policy. This trend was stronger for students aged 15–16 years (moderate policy: OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22–0.80; strong policy: OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23–0.87). Conclusions: School smoking policies may exert less influence on young people’s smoking behaviours than they did during times of higher adolescent smoking prevalence. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the potential influence of school smoking policies on cannabis use and mechanisms explaining this association. PMID:27335332

  12. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  13. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  14. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  15. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  16. Temporal associations of cigarette smoking with social influences, academic performance, and delinquency: a four-wave longitudinal study from ages 13-23.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Martínez, José Felipe; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Edelen, Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the temporal associations of cigarette smoking with prosmoking social influences, academic performance, and delinquency in a cohort of 6,527 adolescents surveyed at ages 13, 16, 18, and 23 years. Prosmoking peer and family influences were risk factors for future smoking throughout adolescence, with family influences perhaps also operating indirectly through the adolescent's exposure to prosmoking peers. There were reciprocal associations of youth smoking with parental approval, peer smoking, and poor grades (but not delinquency), with youth smoking emerging as a stronger antecedent than consequence of these psychosocial factors. Few gender differences in these associations were observed. Implications of these findings for efforts to prevent youth smoking are discussed.

  17. Screening gestational diabetes mellitus: The role of maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chun-Heng; Chen, Szu-Chi; Fang, Chi-Tai; Nien, Feng-Jung; Wu, En-Tzu; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using a specific cutoff of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to screen gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can reduce the use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Since the prevalence of GDM increases with age, this screening method may not be appropriate in healthcare systems where women become pregnant at older ages. Therefore, we aimed to develop a screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration. Methods We included 945 pregnant women without history of GDM who received 75g OGTT to diagnose GDM in 2011. Screening algorithms using FPG with or without age were developed. Another 362 pregnant women were recruited in 2013–2015 as the validation cohort. Results Using FPG criteria alone, more GDM diagnoses were missed in women ≥35 years than in women <35 years (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p <0.001). Among GDM women ≥35 years, 63.6% had FPG <92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L). Use of the algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could reduce the use of OGTT (OGTT%) from 77.6% to 62.9%, while maintaining good sensitivity (from 91.9% to 90.2%) and specificity (from 100% to 100%). Similar reduction in OGTT% was found in the validation cohort (from 86.4% to 76.8%). In the simulation, if the percentage of women ≥35 years were 40% or more, the screening algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could further reduce OGTT% by 11.0%-18.8%. Conclusions A screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration can reduce the use of OGTT when women become pregnant at older ages. PMID:28296923

  18. Case-control study of passive smoking and the risk of small-for-gestational-age at term.

    PubMed

    Chen, L H; Petitti, D B

    1995-07-15

    There is concern about the effects of passive smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth. The authors conducted a case-control study of the association of maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and the risk of term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in a population of white women who did not smoke during pregnancy and had only a small percentage of users of illegal drugs and alcohol. A total of 111 cases, defined as singleton term (> or = 37 weeks) infants with birth weights < or = 10th percentile for gestational age were compared with 124 term, non-SGA controls. All were identified from Contra Costa, California birth certificates for January 1-September 30, 1991. Subjects were interviewed face-to-face to collect information on exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy. The estimated relative risk for term SGA in association with passive smoke exposure during pregnancy was not increased (> or = 30 hours: odds ratio (OR) = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.12-1.29) and the risk of term SGA did not increase with increasing hours of exposure to passive smoking. Controlling for parity, weight gain, prepregnancy weight, maternal age, prenatal care, education, income, alcohol consumption, and work during pregnancy in multivariate analysis did not change the findings (> or = 30 hours: OR = 0.47, 95% Cl 0.13-1.69). In this study, maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of term SGA. Although difficulties in precisely assessing exposure limit these findings, they should provide some reassurance to women who cannot avoid passive exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  19. Sexuality Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Tang, Hui; Gomero, Ada; Vable, Anusha; Huang, Elbert S.; Drum, Melinda L.; Qato, Dima M.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe sexual activity, behavior, and problems among middle-age and older adults by diabetes status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a substudy of 1,993 community-residing adults, aged 57–85 years, from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample (N = 3,005). In-home interviews, observed medications, and A1C were used to stratify by diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, or no diabetes. Logistic regression was used to model associations between diabetes conditions and sexual characteristics, separately by gender. RESULTS The survey response rate was 75.5%. More than 60% of partnered individuals with diagnosed diabetes were sexually active. Women with diagnosed diabetes were less likely than men with diagnosed diabetes (adjusted odds ratio 0.28 [95% CI 0.16–0.49]) and other women (0.63 [0.45–0.87]) to be sexually active. Partnered sexual behaviors did not differ by gender or diabetes status. The prevalence of orgasm problems was similarly elevated among men with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes compared with that for other men, but erectile difficulties were elevated only among men with diagnosed diabetes (2.51 [1.53 to 4.14]). Women with undiagnosed diabetes were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician (11%) than women with diagnosed diabetes (19%) and men with undiagnosed (28%) or diagnosed (47%) diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Many middle-age and older adults with diabetes are sexually active and engage in sexual behaviors similarly to individuals without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely than men to cease all sexual activity. Older women with diabetes are as likely to have sexual problems but are significantly less likely than men to discuss them. PMID:20802158

  20. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  1. Ventilatory function of healthy, urban, non smoking, Pakistani young adults aged 18-24 years.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, M A; Raza, S N; Malik, M A

    1999-08-01

    Age may have a different contribution to normal lung function values in those aged less than 25 years, as compared to older individuals. We report regression equations predicting ventilatory parameters in this age group, as none have been reported from Pakistan. The study was conducted on students of King Edward Medical College Lahore, Pakistan. Participants had never smoked and reported no respiratory symptoms. In addition to anthropometric data, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) were measured. Equations predicting normal values of these parameters were derived using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.) P < or = 0.05 was treated as statistically significant. Of the students, 519 took part in the study. All four parameters correlated significantly (P < 0.001) and positively with height. FEF50 had a negative correlation with age in both sexes (P < 0.05). The correlation of other parameters with age was variable and not statistically significant. On multiple regression, height featured as an independent predictor in equations for all parameters. The contribution of age as an independent predictor of ventilatory function was, once again, variable. Independent variables were retained in the raw form as their transformation did not improve the goodness of fit of the derived equations. Only height and age emerged as independent predictors of ventilatory function. Values derived from the equations presented in this study were less than those for height and age matched white Caucasians. Such differences were greater than the 'Asian correction factors'.

  2. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  3. [Effects of diabetes mellitus on the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Yu-sheng

    2011-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus causing long term disturbed glucose metabolism could result in tissue injury and multiple complications. According to recent studies, diabetes mellitus might be regarded as one of the risk factors of age related macular degeneration (AMD). Diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. By studying epidemiological investigation and basic research on this subject comprehensively, it is required to review the correlation between diabetes mellitus and AMD.

  4. Diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-09-23

    Essential facts Type 1 and type 2 diabetes affect 3.2 million people in the UK. Diabetes is associated with serious complications, including heart disease and stroke, which can lead to disability and premature death. It is the leading cause of preventable sight loss in people of working age in the UK. A quarter of people with diabetes will have kidney disease at some point in their lives, and the condition increases the risk of amputation. Good diabetes management has been shown to reduce the incidence of these serious complications.

  5. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  6. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ryoji; Murray, David B; Metz, Thomas O; Baynes, John W

    2012-03-01

    This article outlines evidence that advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors and breakers act primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions that catalyze AGE formation. We then present evidence that chelation is the most likely mechanism by which ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldose reductase inhibitors inhibit AGE formation in diabetes. Finally, we note several recent studies demonstrating therapeutic benefits of chelators for diabetic cardiovascular and renal disease. We conclude that chronic, low-dose chelation therapy deserves serious consideration as a clinical tool for prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

  7. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…

  8. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality.

  9. The influence of age, smoking and hyperthyroidism on plasma propranolol steady state concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Feely, J; Crooks, J; Stevenson, I H

    1981-01-01

    1 Plasma propranolol steady state concentration (Css) was determined during chronic dosage (160 mg/day) in 22 hyperthyroid patients (aged 16-75 years, 11 smokers, 11 non-smokers) and again following treatment when euthyroid. 2 There was a positive correlation between plasma propranolol Css and age in patients both when hyperthyroid (r = 0.74, P less than 0.01) and when euthyroid (r = 0.58, P less than 0.05). 3 Plasma propranolol Css in hyperthyroid patients were lower (P less than 0.05) in smokers than in non-smokers. 4 Following correction of hyperthyroidism there was a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in both the plasma propranolol Css and degree of plasma protein binding of propranolol. 5 Hyperthyroidism and smoking are known to increase the rate of drug metabolism and it is suggested that these variables may give rise to or accentuate an age related reduction in propranolol clearance. PMID:6264937

  10. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  11. The Influence of Age on the Effects of Lifestyle Modification and Metformin in Prevention of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Jill; Schade, David; Ma, Yong; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Fowler, Sarah; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; Andres, Reubin

    2007-01-01

    Background The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with age. It is unknown whether interventions to prevent diabetes are as effective in elderly persons as in younger adults. Methods The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) or metformin could prevent or delay diabetes. A predefined secondary outcome of DPP was to determine if treatment effects varied by age. Results At baseline, participants aged 60–85 years were leaner and had the best insulin sensitivity and lowest insulin secretion compared to younger age groups. Diabetes incidence rates did not differ by age in the placebo group, but ILS was more effective with increasing age (6.3, 4.9, and 3.3 cases per 100 person-years, in the 25–44, 45–59, and 60–85 year age groups, respectively; ptrend = .007). Participants aged 60–85 years had the most weight loss and metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours of physical activity. The metformin group showed a trend toward higher diabetes incidence among older participants (6.7, 7.7, and 9.3 cases per 100 person-years in the 25–44, 45–59, and 60–85 year age groups, respectively; ptrend = .07); and diabetes risk increased with age (hazard ratio [age 60–85 vs 25–44] 1.63, p .02), after adjusting for the greater weight loss in the 60–85 year age group. Conclusions Lifestyle modification was exceptionally effective in preventing diabetes in older individuals; this finding was largely explained by greater weight loss and physical activity. The limited effectiveness of metformin in older persons may reflect age-related differences in insulin action and secretion. A lifestyle modification program can be recommended for older individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:17077202

  12. Probit Models to Investigate Prevalence of Total Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among Aged 45 Years or Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Minghui; Augustin, Balekouzou; Shu, Chang; Qin, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the most important predictors of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and estimate the mean change in the predicted probability among aged 45+ adults in China. We used baseline data collected from 2011 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (n = 9,513). First, we estimated the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed, and undiagnosed diabetes. Second, we used probit models to determine whether individual attributes, socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral health factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, central obesity, are associated with total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. We also consider other factors, including contact with medical system, hypertension and urban/rural settings. Third, we estimated average marginal effects of variables in probit models. Among Chinese people aged 45+, the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were 5.8% (95%CI, 5.3%-6.3%), 14.7% (95%CI, 14.0%-15.4%), 17.0% (95%CI, 16.3%-17.7%), 11.3% (95%CI, 10.6%-12.0%), respectively. The probability of total diagnosed diabetes is 3.3% (95% CI, 1.2%-5.3%) and 10.2% (95% CI, 7.0%-13.5%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 5.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-7.1%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference, 5.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-7.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%- 2.7%) higher in urban areas than in rural areas, respectively. The probability of undiagnosed diabetes is 2.7% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.2%) and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-9.6%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 2.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-4.4%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference and 2.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive, respectively, and -1.5% (95% CI, -2.5% to -0.5%) lower for individuals who were in contact with the medical system. Greater focus on prevention of diabetes is necessary for obesity

  13. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences.

  14. The Role of AGE/RAGE Signaling in Diabetes-Mediated Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AGE/RAGE signaling has been a well-studied cascade in many different disease states, particularly diabetes. Due to the complex nature of the receptor and multiple intersecting pathways, the AGE/RAGE signaling mechanism is still not well understood. The purpose of this review is to highlight key areas of AGE/RAGE mediated vascular calcification as a complication of diabetes. AGE/RAGE signaling heavily influences both cellular and systemic responses to increase bone matrix proteins through PKC, p38 MAPK, fetuin-A, TGF-β, NFκB, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in both hyperglycemic and calcification conditions. AGE/RAGE signaling has been shown to increase oxidative stress to promote diabetes-mediated vascular calcification through activation of Nox-1 and decreased expression of SOD-1. AGE/RAGE signaling in diabetes-mediated vascular calcification was also attributed to increased oxidative stress resulting in the phenotypic switch of VSMCs to osteoblast-like cells in AGEs-induced calcification. Researchers found that pharmacological agents and certain antioxidants decreased the level of calcium deposition in AGEs-induced diabetes-mediated vascular calcification. By understanding the role the AGE/RAGE signaling cascade plays diabetes-mediated vascular calcification will allow for pharmacological intervention to decrease the severity of this diabetic complication. PMID:27547766

  15. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  16. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation.

  17. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is independently associated with cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata K; Mudi, Sonchita R; Mollah, Forhadul H; Bierhaus, Angelika; Arslan, M Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationship between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects. A total of 98 non-diabetic, otherwise healthy male subjects were recruited. A fasting blood sample and medical history including detail history of cigarette smoking was collected. The serum sRAGE levels were found significantly higher (p=0.002) in cigarette smokers (1475±422 pg/ml, n=45) compared with non-smokers (1165±350 pg/ml, n=53). Moreover, among the cigarette smokers, serum sRAGE levels were found significantly correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.60, p<0.001). In bivariate analysis in the total population, sRAGE positively correlated with smoking habit (r=0.37, p=0.002) and negatively correlated with systolic (r=-0.32, p=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.36, p=0.003). However, in stepwise multivariate linear regression model, sRAGE showed a significant independent association with smoking habit (b=0.32, p=0.007, R2=0.23). In conclusion, this study for the first time shows a significant elevation of serum sRAGE in cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers, a strong correlation between sRAGE and number of cigarettes smoked per day and an independent association of sRAGE with smoking habit in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

  18. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  19. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  20. Impulsivity and the role of smoking-related outcome expectancies among dependent college-aged cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Vanderveen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; Trotter, David R M; Collins, Frank L

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between trait-impulsivity and smoking expectancies on smoking progression in undergraduate college students was examined over a 48-hour period of smoking abstinence. Participants were forty-nine college-aged dependent cigarette smokers who completed measures designed to assess impulsivity, nicotine dependence, and smoking expectancies. Using a series of multilevel models, impulsivity by time analyses indicated significant differences in positive reinforcement expectancies, [F (2, 94)=3.19, p<.05], but not in negative reinforcement expectancies, [F (2, 94)=0.49, p=.61]. Simple slopes analyses indicated that heightened trait-impulsivity predicted greater increases in positive reinforcement outcome expectancies at 48 h of abstinence. Level of impulsivity, however, was not related to changes in negative reinforcement expectancies. Results indicate that during an abstinence period, college students higher in trait-impulsivity may be more prone to relapse due to stronger beliefs about the positive effects from smoking a cigarette. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the interaction of personality and cognitive factors when working with young adult smokers wishing to quit this health-compromising behavior.

  1. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  2. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in vascular damage in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-04-01

    A non-enzymatic reaction between ketones or aldehydes and the amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules and to the development and progression of various age-related disorders such as vascular complications of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cancer growth and metastasis, insulin resistance and degenerative bone disease. Under hyperglycemic and/or oxidative stress conditions, this process begins with the conversion of reversible Schiff base adducts, and then to more stable, covalently-bound Amadori rearrangement products. Over a course of days to weeks, these early glycation products undergo further reactions and rearrangements to become irreversibly crossed-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). There is a growing body of evidence that AGE and their receptor RAGE (receptor for AGEs) interaction elicits oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and thrombosis, thereby being involved in vascular aging and damage. These observations suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is a novel therapeutic target for preventing diabetic vascular complications. In this paper, we review the pathophysiological role of the AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress system and its therapeutic intervention in vascular damage in diabetes. We also discuss here the potential utility of the restriction of food-derived AGEs in diabetic vascular complications.

  3. Body mass index, smoking, and risk of death between 40 and 70 years of age in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men.

    PubMed

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Tverdal, Aage; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-01-01

    Overweight-obesity and smoking are two main preventable causes of premature death. Because the relationship between smoking and body mass index (BMI) complicates the interpretation of associations between BMI and death risks, direct estimates of risks associated with joint exposures are helpful. We have studied the relationships of BMI and smoking to middle age (40-69 years) death risk-overall and by causes-in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men who were 35-49 years old when baseline measurements and lifestyle information were collected in 1974-1988. Individuals with a history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline were excluded. Mortality follow-up was through 2009. The relationship between BMI and middle age death risk was U-shaped. Overall middle age death risks were 11% in women and 21 % in men. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking resulted in fivefold increase in middle age death risks in both women and men: For women middle age death risk ranged from 6 % among never smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI group to 31% (adjusted 28%) in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). The corresponding figures in men were 10% and 53% (adjusted 45%). Obese never smokers and light (1-9 cigarettes/day) smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI groups both experienced a twofold increase in middle age risks of death. For women, cancer (56%) was the most common cause of death followed by cardiovascular disease (22%). In men, cardiovascular disease was most common (41%) followed by cancer (34%). Cardiovascular disease deaths were more strongly related to BMI than were cancer deaths.

  4. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…

  5. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  6. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  7. Influence of Age, Past Smoking, and Disease Severity on TLR2, Neutrophilic Inflammation, and MMP-9 Levels in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jodie L.; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Baines, Katherine J.; Oreo, Kevin M.; Wang, Fang; Hansbro, Philip M.; Gibson, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and serious respiratory disease, particularly in older individuals, characterised by fixed airway obstruction and persistent airway neutrophilia. The mechanisms that lead to these features are not well established. We investigated the contribution of age, prior smoking, and fixed airflow obstruction on sputum neutrophils, TLR2 expression, and markers of neutrophilic inflammation. Induced sputum from adults with COPD (n = 69) and healthy controls (n = 51) was examined. A sputum portion was dispersed, total, differential cell count and viability recorded, and supernatant assayed for CXCL8, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9, neutrophil elastase, and soluble TLR2. Peripheral blood cells (n = 7) were stimulated and TLR2 activation examined. TLR2 levels were increased with ageing, while sputum neutrophils and total sputum MMP-9 levels increased with age, previous smoking, and COPD. In multivariate regression, TLR2 gene expression and MMP-9 levels were significant independent contributors to the proportion of sputum neutrophils after adjustment for age, prior smoking, and the presence of airflow obstruction. TLR2 stimulation led to enhanced release of MMP-9 from peripheral blood granulocytes. TLR2 stimulation activates neutrophils for MMP-9 release. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of TLR2 signalling and subsequent MMP-9 production in COPD may assist in understanding neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. PMID:23606791

  8. A probabilistic model of biological ageing of the lungs for analysing the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a large body of literature is available that describes the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD on lung function, most studies are restricted to a small age range and to one factor. As a consequence, available results are incomplete and often difficult to compare, also due to the ways the effects are expressed. Furthermore, current approaches consider one type of measurement only or several types separately. Methods We propose a probabilistic model that expresses the effects as number of years added to chronological age or, in other words, that estimates the biological age of the lungs. Using biological age as a measure of the effects has the advantage of facilitating the understanding of their severity and comparison of results. In our model, chronological age and other factors affecting the health status of the lungs generate biological age, which in turn generates lung function measurements. This structure enables the use of multiple types of measurement to obtain a more precise estimate of the effects and parameter sharing for characterization over large age ranges and of co-occurrence of factors with little data. We treat the parameters that model smoking habits and lung diseases as random variables to obtain uncertainty in the estimated effects. Results We use the model to investigate the effects of smoking, asthma and COPD on the TwinsUK Registry. Our results suggest that the combination of smoking with lung disease(s) has higher effect than smoking or lung disease(s) alone, and that in smokers, co-occurrence of asthma and COPD is more detrimental than asthma or COPD alone. Conclusions The proposed model or other models based on a similar approach could be of help in improving the understanding of factors affecting lung function by enabling characterizations over large age ranges and of co-occurrence of factors with little data and the use of multiple types of measurement. The software implementing the model can be downloaded at the first

  9. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-11-01

    Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help

  10. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001--2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolewski, A. G.; Zender, C. S.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Land use for agriculture and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands, including in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (σ /√ {N}) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to greater fuel loads and fire emissions in Indonesia. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help atmospheric models estimate the effects of

  11. Joanna Briggs Collaboration Aged Care Fellowship Project: implementing a smoking cessation program in a young, frail aged residential care facility.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Elayne

    2008-03-01

    Background  The subject site (Ian George Court) caters for clients from a socially disadvantaged background. All clients have been homeless or at risk of homelessness and have a history of alcohol and substance abuse often linked to mental health issues. This project was developed to examine if the site provided best practice in the promotion of smoking cessation. Objectives  The first objective of this project was to improve client knowledge to make informed choice about smoking cessation, ensuring that client advice was given in line with best available evidence and assist the client in accessing community programs. The second objective was to fully review the current assessment tool used in relation to gathering baseline data about smoking habits and act on the information provided. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published studies and papers. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified keywords. Conclusion  A smoking assessment tool was developed and is now in use across all Anglicare sites in South Australia. This provides staff with consistent baseline information and offers evidence-based health care in a package format to aid clients in smoking cessation.

  12. [Age-related features of immunocompetent cells of human placenta associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Durnova, A O; Poliakova, V O; Pal'chenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    The immune-competent cells of placenta play the important role in protection of developing fetus against infectious agents; but their dysfunction can lead to development of placental insufficiency that affects health both fetus and mother. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of presence of immune competent cells in villous chorion of mature placenta, taken from women with diabetes of different age groups. In our study we found three subpopulations of immune cells in villous chorion of mature placenta: natural killer cells (NK), B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Prevailing subpopulation are macrophages, they are detected 1,8 times more often than B-lymphocytes, and 2,3 times more often than NK. The quantity of immune competent cells in groups with diabetes of various types is different. Thus, the greatest number of macrophages was detected in group with diabetes type II of middle age (29-35 years)-- 4.62 +/- 0.93%, B-lymphocytes in group of women with diabetes type I of younger age (18-28 years)--2.50 +/- 0.30%, NK-cells in group with diabetes type I of younger age--1.98 +/- 0,42%. Analysis of received data showed the differences in expression of markers of immune cells in women of different age groups, which brings about the conclusion of various reactance of immune system of women with diabetes depending on age.

  13. Age as an independent factor for the development of neuropathy in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Simona; Timar, Bogdan; Baderca, Flavia; Simu, Mihaela; Diaconu, Laura; Velea, Iulian; Timar, Romulus

    2016-01-01

    Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in the history of humanity. As type 2 diabetes mellitus is predominantly more prevalent in aging populations, this creates a major public health burden. Older adults with diabetes have the highest rates of major lower-extremity amputation, myocardial infarction, visual impairment, and end-stage renal disease of any age group. The aims of our study were to assess whether age is an independent factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy (DN), and to evaluate the relationship between the presence and the severity of DN and the diabetes duration and blood glucose level. In this study, we enrolled 198 patients, previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For all patients, we measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and body mass index and we assessed the presence and severity of DN using the evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms. Patients had a median age of 62 years, with a median of diabetes duration of 7 years; 55.1% of the patients were men and the average HbA1c in the cohort was 8.2%. The prevalence of DN according to Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was 28.8%, being significantly and positively correlated with higher age (65 vs 59 years; P=0.001) and HbA1c (8.6% vs 8.0%; P=0.027). No significant correlations were observed between the severity of DN and diabetes duration, body mass index (31.9 vs 29.9 kg/m(2)), or the number of centimeters exceeding the normal waist circumference (25.2 vs 17.3 cm; P=0.003). In conclusion, age influences the presence of DN, independent on other risk factors. This influence persists even after adjusting for other, very important risk factors, like blood glucose level or diabetes duration.

  14. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment.

  15. Body weight: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A. G.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the body mass index associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study of a male cohort. SETTING: One general practice in each of 24 British towns. SUBJECTS: 7735 men aged 40-59 years at screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause death rate, heart attacks, and stroke (fatal and non-fatal) and development of diabetes, or any of these outcomes (combined end point) over an average follow up of 14.8 years. RESULTS: There were 1271 deaths from all causes, 974 heart attacks, 290 strokes, and 245 new cases of diabetes mellitus. All cause mortality was increased only in men with a body mass index (kg/m2) < 20 and in men with an index > or = 30. However, risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and diabetes increased progressively from an index of < 20 even after age, smoking, social class, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were adjusted for. For the combined end point the lowest risks were seen for an index of 20.0-23.9. In never smokers and former smokers, deaths from any cause rose progressively from an index of 20.0-21.9 and for the combined end point, from 20.0-23.9. Age adjusted levels of a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors rose or fell progressively from an index < 20. CONCLUSION: A healthy body mass index in these middle aged British men seems to be about 22. PMID:9158466

  16. Detection of RAGE expression and its application to diabetic wound age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yang; Ye, Guang-Hua; Dong, Miao-Wu; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Han, Jun-Ge; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Li, Xing-Biao; Yu, Lin-Sheng; Fan, Yan-Yan

    2017-01-11

    With the prevalence of diabetes, it is becoming important to analyze the diabetic wound age in forensic practice. The present study investigated the time-dependent expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) during diabetic wound healing in mice and its applicability to wound age determination by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. After an incision was created in genetically diabetic db/db mice and control mice, mice were killed at posttraumatic intervals ranging from 6 h to 14 days, followed by the sampling of wound margin. Compared with control mice, diabetic mice showed the delayed wound healing. In control and diabetic wound specimens, RAGE immunoreactivity was observed in a small number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), a number of macrophages, and fibroblasts. Morphometrically, the positive ratios of RAGE in macrophages or fibroblasts considerably increased in diabetic wounds during late repair, which exceeded 60% at 7 and 10 days post-injury. There were no control wound specimens to show a ratio of >60% in macrophages or fibroblasts. By Western blotting analysis, the ratios of RAGE to GAPDH were >1.4 in all diabetic wound samples from 7 to 10 days post-injury, which were >1.8 at 10 days after injury. By comparison, no control wound specimens indicated a ratio of >1.4. In conclusion, the expression of RAGE is upregulated and temporally distributed in macrophages and fibroblasts during diabetic wound healing, which might be closely involved in prolonged inflammation and deficient healing. Moreover, RAGE is promising as a useful marker for diabetic wound age determination.

  17. Prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya; Hu, Rong; Ouyang, Ling-yun; Liu, Jian-xiong; Li, Xiu-jun; Yi, Yan-jing; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. From September 2013 to March 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4021 hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years living in Chengdu and Chongqing, China. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h plasma glucose (2-hPG) in an oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) were used for assessments. Whether the patients previously had diabetes (DM) was determined by their own reports. The survey was carried out by the same questionnaire for all respondents. DM prevalence was 32.0% in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China, with the rates of 29.6% and 33.5% in men and women, respectively (P<0.001). DM prevalence increased with age age and body-mass index. DM prevalence rates were 16.9%, 24.7%, 38.2% and 41.9% in hypertensive patients aged 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and over 70, respectively. DM prevalence were 30.6%, 27.9%, 37.1%, and 37.4%, for BMI<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and ≥30, respectively. Prevalence of unrecognized DM were 20.8% in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. Using only fasting blood glucose testing without OGTT would have resulted in 65.0% of missed DM diagnosis in these newly diagnosed patients. The prevalence of DM and unrecognized DM were high in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China.These findings indicate that hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years should regularly submit to community-based OGTT screening for timely DM diagnosis. PMID:28192474

  18. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  19. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  20. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  1. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  2. When aging-onset diabetes is coming across with Alzheimer disease: comparable pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Pei, Yijin; Zhou, Guangji

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose because of the insulin-resistance and insulin-deficiency in Type 2, while the insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas in Type 1. The development of Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. Aging patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing cognitive and memory dysfunctions, which is one of the significant symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Also, over 2/3 of AD patients were clinically indentified with impairment of glucose. Cognitive dysfunction would be associated with poor self-care ability in diabetes patients. This review will briefly summarize the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of these two diseases and highlight similarities in their pathophysiologies. Furthermore, we will shortly discuss recent progress in the insulin-targeted strategy, aiming to explore the inner linkage between these two diseases in aging populations.

  3. Primary Care Providers’ Views on Using Lung Age as an Aid to Smoking Cessation Counseling for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Donna R.; Eltinge, Sarah; Rafferty, Caitlin; Eaton, Charles B.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Goldman, Roberta E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smoking cessation is the primary goal for managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who smoke. However, previous studies have demonstrated poor cessation rates. The “lung age” concept (an estimate of the age at which the FEV1 would be considered normal) was developed to present spirometry data in an understandable format and to serve as a tool to encourage smokers to quit. Primary care physicians’ (PCPs) views of using lung age to help COPD patients to quit smoking were assessed. Methods Post-intervention interviews were conducted with PCPs in the U.S. who participated in the randomized clinical trial, “Translating the GOLD COPD Guidelines into Primary Care Practice.” Results 29 physicians completed the interview. Themes identified during interviews included: general usefulness of lung age for smoking cessation counseling, ease of understanding the concept, impact on patients’ thoughts of quitting smoking, and comparison to FEV1. Most providers found lung age easy to communicate. Moreover, some found the tool to be less judgmental for smoking cessation and others remarked on the merits of having a simple, tangible number to discuss with their patients. However, some expressed doubt over the long-term benefits of lung age and several others thought that there might be a potential backfire for healthy smokers if their lung age was ≤ to their chronological age. Conclusions This study suggests that lung age was well received by the majority of PCPs and appears feasible to use with COPD patients who smoke. However, further investigation in needed to explore COPD patients’ perspectives of obtaining their lung age to help motivate them to quit in randomized clinical trials. PMID:25791068

  4. Molecular mechanisms of AGE/RAGE-mediated fibrosis in the diabetic heart

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Randive, Rushil; Stewart, James A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is one of the main characteristics of diabetes. Persistent exposure to elevated glucose levels has been recognized as one of the major causal factors of diabetic complications. In pathologies, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), mechanical and biochemical stimuli activate profibrotic signaling cascades resulting in myocardial fibrosis and subsequent impaired cardiac performance due to ventricular stiffness. High levels of glucose nonenzymatically react with long-lived proteins, such as collagen, to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGE-modified collagen increase matrix stiffness making it resistant to hydrolytic turnover, resulting in an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. AGEs account for many of the diabetic cardiovascular complications through their engagement of the receptor for AGE (RAGE). AGE/RAGE activation stimulates the secretion of numerous profibrotic growth factors, promotes increased collagen deposition leading to tissue fibrosis, as well as increased RAGE expression. To date, the AGE/RAGE cascade is not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss one of the major fibrotic signaling pathways, the AGE/RAGE signaling cascade, as well as propose an alternate pathway via Rap1a that may offer insight into cardiovascular ECM remodeling in T2DM. In a series of studies, we demonstrate a role for Rap1a in the regulation of fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation in isolated diabetic and non-diabetic fibroblasts. While these studies are still in a preliminary stage, inhibiting Rap1a protein expression appears to down-regulate the molecular switch used to activate the ζ isotype of protein kinase C thereby promote AGE/RAGE-mediated fibrosis. PMID:25512788

  5. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients aged <65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Dogo Study.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, S; Sakai, T; Niiya, T; Miyaoka, H; Miyake, T; Yamamoto, S; Maruyama, K; Ueda, T; Senba, H; Todo, Y; Torisu, M; Minami, H; Onji, M; Tanigawa, T; Matsuura, B; Hiasa, Y; Miyake, Y

    2017-01-01

    Only limited epidemiological evidence exists regarding the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction (ED) among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and ED among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 287 male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, age (19-65 years). Diabetic neuropathy was diagnosed if the patients showed two or more of the following three characteristics: neuropathic symptoms, decreased or disappeared Achilles tendon reflex and/or abnormal vibration perception. ED, moderate to severe ED, and severe ED were defined as present when a subject had a Sexual Health Inventory for Men score <22, <12 and <8, respectively. The prevalence values of diabetic neuropathy and severe ED were 47.0 and 39.0%, respectively. Diabetic neuropathy was independently positively associated with severe ED, but not ED and moderate ED: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.38). No relationships were found between diabetic retinopathy or diabetic nephropathy and ED. Diabetic neuropathy is positively associated with severe erectile dysfunction among Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged <65 years.

  6. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  7. Diabetes exacerbates amyloid and neurovascular pathology in aging-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Currais, Antonio; Prior, Marguerite; Lo, David; Jolivalt, Corinne; Schubert, David; Maher, Pamela

    2012-12-01

    Mounting evidence supports a link between diabetes, cognitive dysfunction, and aging. However, the physiological mechanisms by which diabetes impacts brain function and cognition are not fully understood. To determine how diabetes contributes to cognitive dysfunction and age-associated pathology, we used streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes (T1D) in senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) and senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Contextual fear conditioning demonstrated that T1D resulted in the development of cognitive deficits in SAMR1 mice similar to those seen in age-matched, nondiabetic SAMP8 mice. No further cognitive deficits were observed when the SAMP8 mice were made diabetic. T1D dramatically increased Aβ and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice and to a lesser extent in age-matched SAMR1 mice. Further analysis revealed aggregated Aβ within astrocyte processes surrounding vessels. Western blot analyses from T1D SAMP8 mice showed elevated amyloid precursor protein processing and protein glycation along with increased inflammation. T1D elevated tau phosphorylation in the SAMR1 mice but did not further increase it in the SAMP8 mice where it was already significantly higher. These data suggest that aberrant glucose metabolism potentiates the aging phenotype in old mice and contributes to early stage central nervous system pathology in younger animals.

  8. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 18–29, 30–39, and 40–50 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend ≤0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (18–29 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 30–39 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 40–50 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Further, patients with diabetes, regardless of age onset, displayed a significantly higher prevalence of maternal history of diabetes at baseline (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In relatively young adults, predictability of baseline cardiometabolic risk factors along with race, sex, and parental history of diabetes for the onset of type 2 diabetes varied by age-group. These findings have implications for early prevention and intervention in relatively young adults. PMID:22399694

  9. RAGE and AGEs in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs; RAGE) binds to both AGEs and amyloid-beta peptides. RAGE is involved in chronic complications of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to investigate the roles of RAGE, AGEs and the Gly82Ser polymorphism of RAGE in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Of the 167 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients recruited, 82 satisfied the diagnostic criteria for MCI, and 85 matched control individuals were classified as non-MCI. Demographic data were collected, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations, serum AGE-peptide (AGE-P) levels, RAGE Gly82Ser genotype and neuropsychological test results were examined. Results The MCI group exhibited a decreased sRAGE level (0.87±0.35 vs. 1.05±0.52 ng/ml, p<0.01) and an increased serum AGE-P level (3.54±1.27 vs. 2.71±1.18 U/ml, p<0.01) compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each unit reduction in the sRAGE concentration increased the MCI risk by 54% (OR 0.46[95% CI 0.22–0.96], p = 0.04) and that each unit increase in the AGE-P level increased the MCI risk by 72% in the type 2 diabetes patients (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.31–2.28], p<0.01). The serum sRAGE level was negatively correlated with the score on the trail making test-B (TMT-B) (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), which indicates early cognitive deficits related to diabetes. Moreover, the AGE-P level was positively correlated with multiple cognitive domains (all p<0.05). No significant differences in the neuropsychological test results or serum RAGE concentrations between the different RAGE genotypes or in the RAGE genotype frequencies between the MCI and control groups were identified (all p>0.05). Conclusions The RAGE pathway partially mediates AGE-induced MCI in diabetic patients. The serum AGE-P level may serve as a serum biomarker of MCI in these individuals, and sRAGE represents a predictor and even a potential intervention target of

  10. Coming of age: the artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The artificial pancreas (closed-loop system) addresses the unmet clinical need for improved glucose control whilst reducing the burden of diabetes self-care in type 1 diabetes. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery above and below a preset insulin amount informed by sensor glucose readings differentiates closed-loop systems from conventional, threshold-suspend and predictive-suspend insulin pump therapy. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes can vary between one-third-threefold on a daily basis. Closed-loop systems accommodate these variations and mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with tight glucose control. In this review we focus on the progress being made in the development and evaluation of closed-loop systems in outpatient settings. Randomised transitional studies have shown feasibility and efficacy of closed-loop systems under supervision or remote monitoring. Closed-loop application during free-living, unsupervised conditions by children, adolescents and adults compared with sensor-augmented pumps have shown improved glucose outcomes, reduced hypoglycaemia and positive user acceptance. Innovative approaches to enhance closed-loop performance are discussed and we also present the outlook and strategies used to ease clinical adoption of closed-loop systems.

  11. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  12. Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Fuemmeler, Bernard; Lee, Chien-Ti; Ranby, Krista W.; Clark, Trenette; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Kollins, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Methods Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Results Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Conclusions Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. PMID:23499056

  13. Cardiac and renal function are progressively impaired with aging in Zucker diabetic fatty type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baynes, John; Murray, David B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC(n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27%respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks,without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  14. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical

  15. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) and Diabetes: Cause, Effect, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Despite new and effective drug therapies, insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its complications remain major medical challenges. It is accepted that IR, often associated with over-nutrition and obesity, results from chronically elevated oxidant stress (OS) and chronic inflammation. Less acknowledged is that a major cause for this inflammation is excessive consumption of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with the standard western diet. AGEs, which were largely thought as oxidative derivatives resulting from diabetic hyperglycemia, are increasingly seen as a potential risk for islet β-cell injury, peripheral IR and diabetes. Here we discuss the relationships between exogenous AGEs, chronic inflammation, IR, and T2D. We propose that under chronic exogenous oxidant AGE pressure the depletion of innate defense mechanisms is an important factor, which raises susceptibility to inflammation, IR, T2D and its complications. Finally we review evidence on dietary AGE restriction as a non-pharmacologic intervention, which effectively lowers AGEs, restores innate defenses and improves IR, thus, offering new perspectives on diabetes etiology and therapy. PMID:24292971

  16. Food-advanced glycation end products aggravate the diabetic vascular complications via modulating the AGEs/RAGE pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xing; Lv, Gao-Hong; Dai, Guo-Ying; Sun, Hong-Mei; Xu, Hui-Qin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet on diabetic vascular complications. The Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were fed with high-AGEs diet. Diabetic characteristics, indicators of renal and cardiovascular functions, and pathohistology of pancreas, heart and renal were evaluated. AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway parameters were determined. During the experiments, the diabetic mice exhibited typical characteristics including weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, high-blood glucose, and low-serum insulin levels. However, high-AGEs diet effectively aggravated these diabetic characteristics. It also increased the 24-h urine protein levels, serum levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, c-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diabetic mice. High-AGEs diet deteriorated the histology of pancreas, heart, and kidneys, and caused structural alterations of endothelial cells, mesangial cells and podocytes in renal cortex. Eventually, high-AGEs diet contributed to the high-AGE levels in serum and kidneys, high-levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low-levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum, heart, and kidneys. It also upregulated RAGE mRNA and protein expression in heart and kidneys. Our results showed that high-AGEs diet deteriorated vascular complications in the diabetic mice. The activation of AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes.

  17. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Yong; Huang, Xun; Ma, Shuyuan; Ye, Hongyan; Cai, Jiye

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  18. A Growing Troubling Triad: Diabetes, Aging, and Falls

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Ryan T.; Yalla, Sai V.; Fleischer, Adam E.; Wu, Stephanie C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant and troubling link between diabetes (DM) and falls in the elderly. Individuals with DM are prone to fall for reasons such as decreased sensorimotor function, musculoskeletal/neuromuscular deficits, foot and body pain, pharmacological complications, and specialty (offloading) footwear devices. Additionally, there is some concern that DM patients are prone to have more severe problems with falls than non-DM individuals. Fractures, poorer rehabilitation, and increased number of falls are all concerns. Fortunately, efforts to mitigate falls by DM patients show promise. A number of studies have shown that balance, strength, and gait training may be utilized to successfully reduce fall risk in this population. Furthermore, new technologies such as virtual reality proprioceptive training may be able to provide this reduced risk within a safe training environment. PMID:23476773

  19. A growing troubling triad: diabetes, aging, and falls.

    PubMed

    Crews, Ryan T; Yalla, Sai V; Fleischer, Adam E; Wu, Stephanie C

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant and troubling link between diabetes (DM) and falls in the elderly. Individuals with DM are prone to fall for reasons such as decreased sensorimotor function, musculoskeletal/neuromuscular deficits, foot and body pain, pharmacological complications, and specialty (offloading) footwear devices. Additionally, there is some concern that DM patients are prone to have more severe problems with falls than non-DM individuals. Fractures, poorer rehabilitation, and increased number of falls are all concerns. Fortunately, efforts to mitigate falls by DM patients show promise. A number of studies have shown that balance, strength, and gait training may be utilized to successfully reduce fall risk in this population. Furthermore, new technologies such as virtual reality proprioceptive training may be able to provide this reduced risk within a safe training environment.

  20. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells. PMID:27657123

  1. Age and cigarette smoking modulate the relationship between pulmonary function and arterial stiffness in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Hu, Bangchuan; Gong, Shijin; Yu, Yihua; Yan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between arterial stiffness and pulmonary function in chronic heart failure (CHF). Outpatients previously diagnosed as CHF were enrolled between April 2008 and March 2010, and submitted to arterial stiffness measurement and lung function assessment. Spirometry was performed by measuring forced vital capacity (FVC), the fraction of predicted FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the percentage of predicted FEV1 in 1 second, FEV1 to FVC ratio, and the percentage of predicted FEV1/FVC. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was considered for the estimation of arterial stiffness. The 354 patients assessed included 315 nonsmokers, and were 68.2 ± 7.2 years’ old. Unadjusted correlation analyses demonstrated CAVI was positively related to age (r = 0.3664, P < 0.0001), and negatively related to body mass index (BMI, r = −0.2040, P = 0.0001), E/A ratio (r = −0.1759, P = 0.0010), and FEV1 (r = −0.2987, P < 0.0001). Stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed age (r2 = 0.2391, P < 0.0001), BMI (r2 = −0.2139, P < 0.0001), smoking (r2 = 0.1211, P = 0.0130), E/A ratio (r2 = −0.1082, P = 0.0386), and FEV1 (r2 = −0.2550, P < 0.0001) were independent determinants of CAVI. In addition, there is a significant interaction between CAVI and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in relation to age (Pint < 0.0001) and smoking (Pint = 0.0001). Meanwhile, pulmonary function was not associated with BMI or E/A ratio. These findings demonstrated that reduced pulmonary function is associated with the increased CAVI, and had an interactive effect with age and smoking on CAVI in patients with CHF. PMID:28272233

  2. Cavernous antioxidant effect of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate with/without sildenafil citrate intake in aged diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Sabry, D; Abdelaal, A M; Mostafa, I; Taymour, M

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the cavernous antioxidant effect of green tea (GT), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with/without sildenafil citrate intake in aged diabetic rats. One hundred and four aged male white albino rat were divided into controls that received ordinary chow, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced aged diabetic rats, STZ-induced diabetic rats on infused green tea, induced diabetic rats on epigallocatechin-3-gallate and STZ-induced diabetic rats on sildenafil citrate added to EGCG. After 8 weeks, dissected cavernous tissues were assessed for gene expression of eNOS, cavernous malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and serum testosterone (T). STZ-induced diabetic rats on GT demonstrated significant increase in cavernous eNOS, cGMP, GPx and significant decrease in cavernous MDA compared with diabetic rats. Diabetic rats on EGCG demonstrated significant increase in cavernous eNOS, cGMP, GPx and significant decrease in cavernous MDA compared with diabetic rats or diabetic rats on GT. Diabetic rats on EGCG added to sildenafil showed significant increase in cavernous eNOS, cGMP and significant decrease in cavernous MDA compared with other groups. Serum T demonstrated nonsignificant difference between the investigated groups. It is concluded that GT and EGCG have significant cavernous antioxidant effects that are increased if sildenafil is added.

  3. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  4. Joint Effects of Smoking and Gene Variants Involved in Sex Steroid Metabolism on Hot Flashes in Late Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex

  5. Sarcopenia: a potential cause and consequence of type 2 diabetes in Australia's ageing population?

    PubMed

    Scott, David; de Courten, Barbora; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-10-03

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Australia's older adult population. Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, quality and function, may make a significant but under-appreciated contribution to increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. As skeletal muscle is the largest insulin-sensitive tissue in the body, low muscle mass in sarcopenia likely results in reduced capacity for glucose disposal. Age-related declines in muscle quality, including increased mitochondrial dysfunction and fat infiltration, are also implicated in skeletal muscle inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance. Prospective studies have shown that low muscle mass and strength are associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Prevalent type 2 diabetes also appears to exacerbate progression of sarcopenia in older adults. Recently developed operational definitions and the inclusion of sarcopenia in the International classification of diseases, 10th revision, clinical modification, provide impetus for clinicians to diagnose and treat sarcopenia in older patients. Simple assessments to diagnose sarcopenia can potentially play a role in primary and secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes in older patients. Lifestyle modification programs for older adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those with sarcopenia, should incorporate progressive resistance training, along with adequate intakes of protein and vitamin D, which may improve both functional and metabolic health and prevent undesirable decreases in muscle mass associated with weight loss interventions. As some older adults with type 2 diabetes have a poor response to exercise, clinicians must ensure that lifestyle modification programs are appropriately prescribed, regularly monitored and modified if necessary.

  6. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50 years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49 years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56 years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=−0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30 years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30 years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  7. A Discrete-Time Analysis of the Effects of More Prolonged Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty on the Risk of Smoking Initiation by Age 25

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents’ neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults. PMID:26685707

  8. The influence of age, smoking, antiretroviral therapy, and esophagitis on the local immunity of the esophagus in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; de Melo e Silva, Ana Teresa; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rocha, Laura Penna

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.

  9. Neurodevelopmental outcome at early school age of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Wolf, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Dulitzky, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes, on the long term development of children.
METHODS—The neuropsychological function of 32 school age children born to 32 mothers with well controlled gestational diabetes and 57 control children matched by age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status was studied.
RESULTS—There were no differences in head circumference and height, but the children born to diabetic mothers were heavier. The verbal IQ scores of index children below the age of 9 years were lower than those of control children. No differences were found between the groups in various sensory and motor functions and in the Touwen and Prechtl neurological test. The young index group children performed less well than controls in fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of young children born to mothers with gestational diabetes were also lower than controls on the Pollack tapper test, and there were more index group children who scored abnormally on the parents' Conners questionnaire. No correlation was found between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental tests and the severity of perinatal complications. The differences tended to disappear with age.
CONCLUSIONS—Gestational diabetes, as a result of the metabolic abnormalities in the second half of pregnancy, induces long term minor neurological deficits which are more pronounced in younger children. There does not seem to be any direct relation between the appearance of congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental outcome.

 PMID:10375355

  10. Effect of age and methacholine on the rate and coronary flow of isolated hearts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, X S; Tanz, R D; Chang, K S

    1989-08-01

    1. Isolated hearts perfused by the method of Langendorff from 6, 12 and 24 week streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats displayed a significant bradycardia following 60 min equilibration. The rate of hearts from 12-week diabetic rats (164 +/- 17) displayed the greatest bradycardia compared to age-matched controls (268 +/- 15; P less than 0.001), and diabetics treated with insulin (232 +/- 17; P less than 0.01), but by 52 weeks the heart rate of the 3 groups was similar. With advancing age the effect of STZ diabetes on the rate of rat isolated perfused hearts remained unchanged but the rate of the control and diabetic + insulin groups declined. 2. Hearts from 6-52 week STZ-treated rats were found to be more sensitive to the negative chronotropic effect of methacholine, the greatest difference occurring in hearts from the 12 week animals. Atropine (10(-7) M) did not affect the resting heart rate of age-matched controls or diabetics but blocked methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M)-induced bradycardia in both, suggesting that the site of action of diabetic bradycardia is not the muscarinic receptors. 3. At the end of equilibration there was a significant decrease in coronary flow in hearts from 12 week diabetic animals. In spontaneously beating diabetic rat hearts administration of methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M) produced a significantly greater decrease in coronary flow in the 12, 24 and 52 week diabetic hearts. When electrically paced (5 Hz) however, there was no difference in response to methacholine between the three groups except at 52 weeks between the age-matched control and diabetic groups. This suggests that the more pronounced reduction induced by methacholine on the coronary flow of diabetic hearts is secondary to its negative chronotropic effect. 4. In general, hearts from diabetic animals treated with insulin respond similarly to their agematched controls in the presence and absence of methacholine.

  11. Features of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Adults and Their Dependency on Age, Sex, and Smoking: Results from the German KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Caroline; Breinlich, Valentin; Stark, Klaus J.; Enzinger, Sabrina; Aßenmacher, Matthias; Olden, Matthias; Grassmann, Felix; Graw, Jochen; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Helbig, Horst; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Heid, Iris M.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision impairing disease of the central retina characterized by early and late forms in individuals older than 50 years of age. However, there is little knowledge to what extent also younger adults are affected. We have thus set out to estimate the prevalence of early AMD features and late AMD in a general adult population by acquiring color fundus images in 2,840 individuals aged 25 to 74 years of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg project (KORA) in South Germany. Among the 2,546 participants with gradable images for each eye, 10.9% (n = 277) had early AMD features (applying the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale), 0.2% (n = 6) had late AMD. Prevalence increased with age, reaching 26.3% for early AMD features and 1.9% for late AMD at the age 70+. However, signs of early AMD were found in subjects as young as 25 years, with the risk for early AMD features increasing linearly by years of age in men, and, less consistent with a linear increase, in women. Risk for early AMD features increased linearly by pack years of smoking in men, not in women, nor was there any association with other lifestyle or metabolic factors. By providing much sought-after prevalence estimates for AMD from Central Europe, our data underscores a substantial proportion of the adult population with signs of early AMD, including individuals younger than 50 years. This supports the notion that early AMD features in the young might be under-acknowledged. PMID:27893849

  12. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Møller, Bente K.; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T.; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. Objective To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. Design We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Results Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.19) and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.15). Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001) and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01). Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p<005) and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005). Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings. Conclusions Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not

  13. Smoking initiation and smoking patterns among US college students.

    PubMed

    Everett, S A; Husten, C G; Kann, L; Warren, C W; Sharp, D; Crossett, L

    1999-09-01

    The ages at which 18- to 24-year-old college students started smoking and its relationship to subsequent smoking were explored, using data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. Most students (70%) had tried smoking; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers, 19% were current frequent smokers, and 13% were current daily smokers. The majority (81%) who had ever smoked daily began doing so at age 18 years or younger, and 19% began smoking daily at age 19 years or older. Women were as likely as men to report ever having smoked a whole cigarette or ever having smoked daily. Most students (82%) who had ever smoked daily had tried to quit, but 3 in 4 were still smokers. Policies and programs designed to prevent the initiation of smoking and to help smokers quit are needed at both the high school and the college levels to reduce the proportion of young adults who smoke cigarettes.

  14. Proteome wide reduction in AGE modification in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice by hydralazine mediated transglycation

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Suresh K.; Bhat, Shweta; Golegaonkar, Sandeep B.; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Deshmukh, Arati B.; Patil, Harshal S.; Bhosale, Santosh D.; Shaikh, Mahemud L.; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2013-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between glucose and protein can be chemically reversed by transglycation. Here we report the transglycation activity of hydralazine using a newly developed MALDI-TOF-MS based assay. Hydralazine mediated transglycation of HbA1c, plasma proteins and kidney proteins was demonstrated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, as evidenced by decrease in protein glycation, as well as presence of hydralazine-glucose conjugate in urine of diabetic mice treated with hydralazine. Hydralazine down regulated the expression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE), NADPH oxidase (NOX), and super oxide dismutase (SOD). These findings will provide a new dimension for developing intervention strategies for the treatment of glycation associated diseases such as diabetes complications, atherosclerosis, and aging. PMID:24126953

  15. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  16. Epidemiological Issues in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Peter H; Aldington, Stephen J; Stratton, Irene M

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of diabetes in the world, principally type 2 diabetes that is linked to changing lifestyle, obesity, and increasing age of the population. Latest estimates from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) forecasts a rise from 366 million people worldwide to 552 million by 2030. Type 1 diabetes is more common in the Northern hemisphere with the highest rates in Finland and there is evidence of a rise in some central European countries, particularly in the younger children under 5 years of age. Modifiable risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are blood glucose, blood pressure, serum lipids, and smoking. Nonmodifiable risk factors are duration, age, genetic predisposition, and ethnicity. Other risk factors are pregnancy, microaneurysm count in an eye, microaneurysm formation rate, and the presence of any DR in the second eye. DR, macular edema (ME), and proliferative DR (PDR) develop with increased duration of diabetes and the rates are dependent on the above risk factors. In one study of type 1 diabetes, the median individual risk for the development of early retinal changes was 9.1 years of diabetes duration. Another study reported the 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among population-based cohort of type 1 patients with diabetes was 42.9%. In recent years, people with diabetes have lower rates of progression than historically to PDR and severe visual loss, which may reflect better control of glucose, blood pressure, and serum lipids, and earlier diagnosis. PMID:24339678

  17. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  18. Evaluation of an intensive intervention programme to protect children aged 1-5 years from environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yücel, U; Ocek, Z A; Ciçeklioğlu, M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in Turkey, who smoked and/or whose spouses smoked. It was found that at least one parent of a total of 182 children smoked and 80 of these mothers were taken into stratified sampling based on the number of the smoking parents. Mothers were visited at their homes. During the initial visit, they were educated and urine samples were taken from their children. Following this initial visit, mothers were randomized to the intensive intervention (n = 38) or the minimal intervention group (n = 40). The levels of cotinine in the intensive intervention (P = 0.000) and minimal intervention (P = 0.000) groups in the final follow-up were significantly lower than the initial levels. The proportion of mothers reporting a complete smoking ban at home in the final follow-up was higher in the intensive intervention group than the minimal intervention group (P = 0.000). The education provided during the home visits and the reporting of the urinary cotinine levels of the children were effective in lowering the children's exposure to ETS at their home.

  19. Adverse Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on the Skeleton of Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Ardura, Juan Antonio; Lozano, Daniel; Bolívar, Oskarina Hernández; López-Herradón, Ana; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Irene; Proctor, Alexander; van der Eerden, Bram; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; van Leeuwen, Johannes; Alcaraz, María José; Mulero, Francisca; de la Fuente, Mónica; Esbrit, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the possibility that a diabetic (DM) status might worsen age-related bone deterioration was explored in mice. Male CD-1 mice aged 2 (young control group) or 16 months, nondiabetic or made diabetic by streptozotocin injections, were used. DM induced a decrease in bone volume, trabecular number, and eroded surface, and in mineral apposition and bone formation rates, but an increased trabecular separation, in L1-L3 vertebrae of aged mice. Three-point bending and reference point indentation tests showed slight changes pointing to increased frailty and brittleness in the mouse tibia of diabetic old mice. DM was related to a decreased expression of both vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor 2, which paralleled that of femoral vasculature, and increased expression of the pro-adipogenic gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and adipocyte number, without affecting β-catenin pathway in old mouse bone. Concomitant DM in old mice failed to affect total glutathione levels or activity of main anti-oxidative stress enzymes, although xanthine oxidase was slightly increased, in the bone marrow, but increased the senescence marker caveolin-1 gene. In conclusion, DM worsens bone alterations of aged mice, related to decreased bone turnover and bone vasculature and increased senescence, independently of the anti-oxidative stress machinery.

  20. The role of methylglyoxal and the glyoxalase system in diabetes and other age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Dionne E M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2015-06-01

    The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are related to diabetes and other age-related diseases. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is the major precursor in the formation of AGEs. MGO is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis. Under physiological circumstances, MGO is detoxified by the glyoxalase system into D-lactate, with glyoxalase I (GLO1) as the key enzyme in the anti-glycation defence. New insights indicate that increased levels of MGO and the major MGO-derived AGE, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), and dysfunctioning of the glyoxalase system are linked to several age-related health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and disorders of the central nervous system. The present review summarizes the mechanisms through which MGO is formed, its detoxification by the glyoxalase system and its effect on biochemical pathways in relation to the development of age-related diseases. Although several scavengers of MGO have been developed over the years, therapies to treat MGO-associated complications are not yet available for application in clinical practice. Small bioactive inducers of GLO1 can potentially form the basis for new treatment strategies for age-related disorders in which MGO plays a pivotal role.

  1. Age at first introduction to complementary foods is associated with sociodemographic factors in children with increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Silvis, Katherine; Hummel, Sandra; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2015-10-01

    Infant's age at introduction to certain complementary foods (CF) has in previous studies been associated with islet autoimmunity, which is an early marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Various maternal sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with early introduction to CF. The aims of this study were to describe early infant feeding and identify sociodemographic factors associated with early introduction to CF in a multinational cohort of infants with an increased genetic risk for T1D. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study is a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Infants (N = 6404) screened for T1D high risk human leucocyte antigen-DQ genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9 and DR3/9) were followed for 2 years at six clinical research centres: three in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland, Germany). Age at first introduction to any food was reported at clinical visits every third month from the age of 3 months. Maternal sociodemographic data were self-reported through questionnaires. Age at first introduction to CF was primarily associated with country of residence. Root vegetables and fruits were usually the first CF introduced in Finland and Sweden and cereals were usually the first CF introduced in the United States. Between 15% and 20% of the infants were introduced to solid foods before the age of 4 months. Young maternal age (<25 years), low educational level (<12 years) and smoking during pregnancy were significant predictors of early introduction to CF in this cohort. Infants with a relative with T1D were more likely to be introduced to CF later.

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  3. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  4. Age-related differences in biomedical and folk beliefs as causes for diabetes and heart disease among Mexican origin adults.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Wilkinson, Anna V; Sandoval, Juan-Miguel; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    An understanding of health beliefs is key to creating culturally appropriate health services for Hispanic populations in the US. In this study we explore age-based variations in causal beliefs for heart disease and diabetes among Mexican origin adults in Houston, TX. This cross-sectional study included 497 adults of Mexican origin. Participants were asked to indicate the importance of biomedically defined and folk illness-related risk factors as causes for heart disease and diabetes. Biomedical risk factors were ranked highest as causes of diabetes and heart disease among all participants. Folk illness-related factors were ranked below biomedical factors as causes of heart disease among all age groups. Susto was ranked above the median as a risk factor for diabetes among older participants. Age-related differences in causal beliefs may have implications for designing culturally appropriate health services, such as tailored diabetes interventions for older Mexican origin adults.

  5. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  6. Estrogen deficiency promotes cigarette smoke-induced changes in the extracellular matrix in the lungs of aging female mice.

    PubMed

    Glassberg, Marilyn K; Catanuto, Paola; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Aliniazee, Muddassir; Lilo, Sarit; Rubio, Gustavo A; Elliot, Sharon J

    2016-12-01

    Female smokers have a faster decline in lung function with increasing age and overall develop a greater loss of lung function than male smokers. This raises the question of whether estrogen status in women affects susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease. Mouse models suggest that female mice are more susceptible than males to CS-induced lung disease. Moreover, young CS-exposed female mice develop emphysema earlier than male mice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of estrogen status on the pattern and severity of CS-induced lung disease. In this study, 15-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were ovariectomized and administered either placebo (pla) or 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.025 mg) 2 weeks after ovariectomy. They were further divided into those that were exposed to CS and no-smoke controls (NSC). Mice were exposed to CS in stainless steel inhalation chambers 3 hours a day, 5 days a week for 6 months, and sacrificed after 24 weeks of CS exposure. Blood and urine were collected at sacrifice to measure estrogen and cotinine levels, a metabolite of nicotine. Uterine weight was recorded as an indicator of estrogen status. Results showed that CS in the absence of E2 induced a decrease in hydroxyproline content, macrophage number, and respiratory chain complex-1 protein. CS without E2 also resulted in an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and apoptosis and a change in the ratio of estrogen receptor subtype. These findings were abrogated with administration of E2, suggesting that estrogen deficiency increases susceptibility to CS-induced lung disease.

  7. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  8. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI.

  9. Confocal Raman study of aging process in diabetes mellitus human voluntaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Liliane; Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; dos Santos, Laurita; Ali, Syed Mohammed; Fávero, Priscila Pereira; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of AGEs [Advanced Glycation End - products] occurs slowly during the human aging process. However, its formation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we perform a noninvasive analysis of glycation effect on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. This technique uses a laser of 785 nm as excitation source and, by the inelastic scattering of light, it is possible to obtain information about the biochemical composition of the skin. Our aim in this work was to characterize the aging process resulting from the glycation process in a group of 10 Health Elderly Women (HEW) and 10 Diabetic Elderly Women (DEW). The Raman data were collected from the dermis at a depth of 70-130 microns. Through the theory of functional density (DFT) the bands positions of hydroxyproline, proline and AGEs (pentosidine and glucosepane) were calculated by using Gaussian 0.9 software. A molecular interpretation of changes in type I collagen was performed by the changes in the vibrational modes of the proline (P) and hydroxyproline (HP). The data analysis shows that the aging effects caused by glycation of proteins degrades type I collagen differently and leads to accelerated aging process.

  10. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  11. Retinopathy in old persons with and without diabetes mellitus: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility—Reykjavik Study (AGES-R)

    PubMed Central

    Gunnlaugsdottir, E.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Klein, R.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Klein, B. E.; Benediktsson, R.; Harris, T. B.; Launer, L. J.; Aspelund, T.; Gudnason, V.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We aimed to describe the prevalence of retinopathy in an aged cohort of Icelanders with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods The study population consisted of 4,994 persons aged ≥67 years, who participated in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility—Reykjavik Study (AGES-R). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (>48 mmol/mol). Retinopathy was assessed by grading fundus photographs using the modified Airlie House adaptation of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. Associations between retinopathy and risk factors were estimated using odds ratios obtained from multivariate analyses. Results The overall prevalence of retinopathy in AGES-R was 12.4%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 516 persons (10.3%), for 512 of whom gradable fundus photos were available, including 138 persons (27.0%, 95% CI 23.2, 31.0) with any retinopathy. Five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3) had proliferative retinopathy. Clinically significant macular oedema was present in five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3). Independent risk factors for retinopathy in diabetic patients in a multivariate model included HbA1c, insulin use and use of oral hypoglycaemic agents, the last two being indicators of longer disease duration. In 4478 participants without diabetes mellitus, gradable fundus photos were available for 4,453 participants, with retinopathy present in 476 (10.7%, 95% CI 9.8, 11.6) and clinically significant macular oedema in three persons. Independent risk factors included increasing age and microalbuminuria. Conclusions/interpretation Over three-quarters (78%) of retinopathy cases were found in persons without diabetes and a strong association between microalbuminuria and non-diabetic retinopathy was found. These results may have implications for patient management of the aged. PMID:22134840

  12. Statin, testosterone and phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitor treatments and age related mortality in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Geoffrey; Jones, Peter W; Strange, Richard C; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine how statins, testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) and phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors (PDE5I) influence age related mortality in diabetic men. METHODS We studied 857 diabetic men screened for the BLAST study, stratifying them (mean follow-up = 3.8 years) into: (1) Normal T levels/untreated (total T > 12 nmol/L and free T > 0.25 nmol/L), Low T/untreated and Low T/treated; (2) PDE5I/untreated and PDE5I/treated; and (3) statin/untreated and statin/treated groups. The relationship between age and mortality, alone and with T/TRT, statin and PDE5I treatment was studied using logistic regression. Mortality probability and 95%CI were calculated from the above models for each individual. RESULTS Age was associated with mortality (logistic regression, OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.08-1.13, P < 0.001). With all factors included, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.11, P < 0.001), Low T/treated (OR = 0.38, 95%CI: 0.15-0.92, P = 0.033), PDE5I/treated (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.053-0.56, P = 0.004) and statin/treated (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.36-0.97, P = 0.038) were associated with lower mortality. Age related mortality was as described by Gompertz, r2 = 0.881 when Ln (mortality) was plotted against age. The probability of mortality and 95%CI (from logistic regression) of individuals, treated/untreated with the drugs, alone and in combination was plotted against age. Overlap of 95%CI lines was evident with statins and TRT. No overlap was evident with PDE5I alone and with statins and TRT, this suggesting a change in the relationship between age and mortality. CONCLUSION We show that statins, PDE5I and TRT reduce mortality in diabetes. PDE5I, alone and with the other treatments significantly alter age related mortality in diabetic men. PMID:28344753

  13. Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker. PMID:17950405

  14. Effects of active and passive smoking on the development of cardiovascular disease as assessed by a carotid intima-media thickness examination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Sun, Xue; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Tang, Shanshan; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness has been widely used as a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This study aimed to assess the effects of active and passive smoking exposure on the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study. A standardized questionnaire on smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and the number of years of smoking cessation was provided to the patients, and their responses were collected for analysis. The carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and the internal diameter of the common carotid artery were determined by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Compared to non-smokers, passive female smokers had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio = 3.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-9.49, P = 0.009); they also had a significantly larger common carotid artery (P = 0.041) and risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.1980-4.0505, P = 0.01). Both active and passive male smokers had a significantly greater carotid intima-media thickness than non-smokers (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Male active smokers had a significantly higher risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.4788-5.6094, P = 0.001). In conclusion, cumulative active and passive smoking exposures are significant risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results highlight the importance of endorsing a smoke-free environment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Renal function in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dabla, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. Cardiovascular and renal complications share common risk factors such as blood pressure, blood lipids, and glycemic control. Thus, chronic kidney disease may predict cardiovascular disease in the general population. The impact of diabetes on renal impairment changes with increasing age. Serum markers of glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria identify renal impairment in different segments of the diabetic population, indicating that serum markers as well as microalbuminuria tests should be used in screening for nephropathy in diabetic older people. The American Diabetes Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from serum creatinine at least once a year in all people with diabetes for detection of kidney dysfunction. eGFR remains an independent and significant predictor after adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, obesity, blood pressure, and glycemic and lipid control, as well as presence of diabetic retinopathy. Cystatin-C (Cys C) may in future be the preferred marker of diabetic nephropathy due differences in measurements of serum creatinine by various methods. The appropriate reference limit for Cys C in geriatric clinical practice must be defined by further research. Various studies have shown the importance of measurement of albuminuria, eGFR, serum creatinine and hemoglobin level to further enhance the prediction of end stage renal disease. PMID:21537427

  16. Predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving of the aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Toshioki; Sakurai, Takashi; Kuranaga, Masako; Endo, Hidetoshi; Yokono, Koichi

    2011-01-21

    To identify predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving among a group of aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan, retrospective chart review was performed in 288 diabetic subjects aged 65 years or older. Independent variables, based on the chart review, were age, sex, diagnosis, diabetic control and complications. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed to obtain information on the functional capacity and demographic variables, including physical and mental function, and socioeconomic status. 131 diabetic patients were considered as frail elderly and characterized for their higher age, longer duration of diabetes, higher frequency of insulin use, lower cognitive function, and lower QOL, in comparison with those of non-frail patients. All non-frail diabetic patients were independently treated at their homes, while 38 subjects out of 131 frail diabetic patients were hospitalized or institutionalized. Apparent clinical features of hospitalized/institutionalized patients were higher age, higher serum creatinine, and higher prevalence of stroke episodes, advanced cognitive decline and absence of key caregiver in the family members, in comparison with those of in-home frail diabetic patients. The predicted probabilities from the multivariate logistic regression analysis in predicting hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving were as follows: Log p/(1 - p) = -19.801x1 - 54.269x2 + 721.405; where x1 = cognitive function (score), x2 = social support (score). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a satisfactory discrimination for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving in frail diabetic elderly with 92.9% of sensitivity and 91.4% of specificity, when the cutoff point of the model was set at 0.992. We concluded that cognitive decline and low social support are the predictive for hospital and institutional care-giving, and that demographic and mental information as well as diagnostic data should be

  17. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

  18. The impact of managing school-aged children's diabetes: the role of child behavior problems and parental discipline strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anna C; DeCourcey, Wendy M; Freeman, Kurt A

    2009-09-01

    Models of diabetes management in children emphasize family relationships, particularly parent-child interactions. In adolescents, parental involvement in disease-specific management relates to better health and adherence. However, information about parental involvement in disease management for young children is limited and mixed. This study investigated behavior problems of school-aged children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in association with parent discipline strategies and parents' perceptions of (1) time spent managing diabetes and (2) the impact their child's diabetes has on their discipline strategies. Parents of children ages 5-12 with T1DM completed standardized measures of child misbehavior, parent discipline strategies, and responded to questions regarding perceived time spent managing diabetes, and perceived impact of diabetes on ability to discipline. Results showed child mealtime misbehavior was common and associated with overreactive parental discipline. Further, overreactive discipline was also associated with reports of less time spent managing child's illness. Child misbehavior was positively associated with parents' perceived amount of time spent managing diabetes and with the impact of child diabetes on discipline. Findings suggest the importance of considering parent discipline strategies and child misbehavior when working with young children with diabetes.

  19. Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krings, A; Rahman, S; Huang, S; Lu, Y; Czernik, P J; Lecka-Czernik, B

    2012-02-01

    Fat occupies a significant portion of bone cavity however its function is largely unknown. Marrow fat expands during aging and in conditions which affect energy metabolism, indicating that fat in bone is under similar regulatory mechanisms as other fat depots. On the other hand, its location may determine specific functions in the maintenance of the environment for bone remodeling and hematopoiesis. We have demonstrated that marrow fat has a distinctive phenotype, which resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene markers of brown adipocytes at levels characteristic for the BAT, including transcription factor Prdm16, and regulators of thermogenesis such as deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and PGC1α. The levels of expression of BAT-specific gene markers are decreased in bone of 24 mo old C57BL/6 and in diabetic yellow agouti A(vy)/a mice implicating functional changes of marrow fat occurring with aging and diabetes. Administration of antidiabetic TZD rosiglitazone, which sensitizes cells to insulin and increases adipocyte metabolic functions, significantly increased both, BAT (UCP1, PGC1α, Dio2, β3AR, Prdm16, and FoxC2) and WAT (adiponectin and leptin) gene expression in marrow of normoglycemic C57BL/6 mice, but failed to increase the expression of BAT, but not WAT, gene markers in diabetic mice. In conclusion, the metabolic phenotype of marrow fat combines both BAT and WAT characteristics. Decrease in BAT-like characteristics with aging and diabetes may contribute to the negative changes in the marrow environment supporting bone remodeling and hematopoiesis.

  20. Diabetic macular edema, retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration as inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complications affecting about 25% of all patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are a major cause of significant decrease in vision and quality of life. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not uncommon, and diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. Recent studies suggest that DME, DR and AMD are inflammatory conditions characterized by a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, inflammatory processes and an increase in vascular permeability. Key factors that seem to have a dominant role in DME, DR and AMD are angiotensin II, prostaglandins and the vascular endothelial growth factor and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and enhanced production of pro-angiogenic factors may initiate the onset and progression of DME, DR and AMD. This implies that bioactive lipids that possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of angiogenic factors could be employed in the prevention and management of DME, DR and AMD. PMID:27695506

  1. Long term bone alterations in aged rats suffering type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luciana Marina; De Lucca, Romina Cármen; Lewicki, Marianela; Ubios, Ángela Matilde

    2016-12-01

    Increasing duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus alters bone metabolism. Clinical studies and experimental studies in long bones of rats with experimentally induced diabetes have reported a decrease in bone density. Few studies have explored this diabetes related alteration in the maxillae. Given that this finding could indicate the possible development of osteopenia in the maxilla in the long term, the present study sought to analyze alterations in alveolar bone in aged rats, 12, 18, and 24weeks after inducing diabetes, and compare alveolar bone response to that of tibial subchondral bone at the same experimental times. Thirty-six male Wistar rats, 130g body weight, were divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (E) receiving a single i.p. 60mg/kg dose of streptozotocin, and a control group (C). Both the control and experimental groups were divided into 3 sub-sets, according to the time of euthanasia: 12, 18 and 24weeks. The alveolar bone and tibiae were examined histologically and histomorphometrically. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test; a value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  2. Diabetic macular edema, retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration as inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complications affecting about 25% of all patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are a major cause of significant decrease in vision and quality of life. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not uncommon, and diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. Recent studies suggest that DME, DR and AMD are inflammatory conditions characterized by a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, inflammatory processes and an increase in vascular permeability. Key factors that seem to have a dominant role in DME, DR and AMD are angiotensin II, prostaglandins and the vascular endothelial growth factor and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and enhanced production of pro-angiogenic factors may initiate the onset and progression of DME, DR and AMD. This implies that bioactive lipids that possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of angiogenic factors could be employed in the prevention and management of DME, DR and AMD.

  3. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  4. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  5. Technology Use in Transition-Age Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Los, Evan; Ulrich, Jenae; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Youth with chronic illnesses have the greatest risk for a decline in their health management during transition-age. Because of this demonstrated and well-known issue, research has focused on how to improve the transition of care process. Despite the increasing number of technological devices on the market and the advances in telemedicine modalities available to patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the utilization of technology is still suboptimal among patients of transition-age (ages 13-25). This article reviews the available resources, patterns of use in transition-age youth, and explores opportunities to advance technology use in transitioning patients with T1D from pediatric to adult care. PMID:26892506

  6. Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Kontos, Emily Zobel; Ryff, Carol D.; Ayanian, John Z.; Albert, Michelle A.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Year-to-year decreases in smoking in the US have been observed only sporadically in recent years, which suggest a need for intensified efforts to identify those at risk for persistent smoking. To address this need, we examined the association between a variety of psychosocial stressors and smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years among adults in the United States (N=4938, ages 25–74). Methods Using information provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Stressors related to relationships, finances, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, neighborhood, discrimination, and past-year family problems were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results High stress at both assessments was associated with greater odds of persistent smoking for stressors related to relationships, finances, work, perceived inequality, past-year family problems, and a summary score. Among respondents who were smokers at baseline, high stress at both time-points for relationship stress, perceived inequality, and past-year family problems was associated with nearly double the odds of failure to quit. Conclusions Interventions to address psychosocial stress may be important components within smoking cessation efforts. PMID:23860953

  7. AGE-breakers cleave model compounds, but do not break Maillard crosslinks in skin and tail collagen from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengzu; Litchfield, John E; Baynes, John W

    2003-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE), formed by nonenzymatic Maillard reactions between carbohydrate and protein, contribute to the increase in chemical modification and crosslinking of tissue proteins with age. Acceleration of AGE formation in collagen during hyperglycemia, with resultant effects on vascular elasticity and basement membrane permeability, is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. AGE-breakers, such as N-phenacylthiazolium (PTB) and N-phenacyl-4,5-dimethylthiazolium (PMT) halides, have been proposed as therapeutic agents for reversing the increase in protein crosslinking in aging and diabetes. We have confirmed that these compounds, as well as the AGE-inhibitor pyridoxamine (PM), cleave the model AGE crosslink, phenylpropanedione, and have studied the effects of these compounds in reversing the increased crosslinking of skin and tail collagen isolated from diabetic rats. Crosslinking of skin collagen, measured as the half-time for solubilization of collagen by pepsin in 0.5M acetic acid, was increased approximately 5-fold in diabetic, compared to nondiabetic rats. Crosslinking of tail tendon collagen, measured as insolubility in 0.05 N acetic acid, was increased approximately 10-fold. Collagen preparations were incubated in the presence or absence of AGE-breakers or PM in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, for 24h at 37 degrees C. These treatments did not decrease the half-time for solubilization of diabetic skin collagen by pepsin or increase the acid solubility of diabetic tail tendon collagen. We conclude that, although AGE-breakers and PM cleave model crosslinks, they do not significantly cleave AGE crosslinks formed in vivo in skin collagen of diabetic rats.

  8. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  9. Experimental induction of type 2 diabetes in aging-accelerated mice triggered Alzheimer-like pathology and memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Jogender; Chauhan, Balwantsinh C; Chauhan, Neelima B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease constituting ~95% of late-onset non-familial/sporadic AD, and only ~5% accounting for early-onset familial AD. Availability of a pertinent model representing sporadic AD is essential for testing candidate therapies. Emerging evidence indicates a causal link between diabetes and AD. People with diabetes are >1.5-fold more likely to develop AD. Senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of accelerated aging displays many features occurring early in AD. Given the role played by diabetes in the pre-disposition of AD, and the utility of SAMP8 non-transgenic mouse model of accelerated aging, we examined if high fat diet-induced experimental type 2 diabetes in SAMP8 mice will trigger pathological aging of the brain. Results showed that compared to non-diabetic SAMP8 mice, diabetic SAMP8 mice exhibited increased cerebral amyloid-β, dysregulated tau-phosphorylating glycogen synthase kinase 3β, reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and displayed memory deficits, indicating Alzheimer-like changes. High fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic SAMP8 mice may represent the metabolic model of AD.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Babic, Ana; Clish, Clary B; Kraft, Peter; Bao, Ying; Qian, Zhi Rong; Rubinson, Douglas A; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Stampfer, Meir J; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D; Cochrane, Barbara B; Manson, JoAnn E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2017-03-30

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the association of smoking with patient survival. Patients and Methods We analyzed survival by smoking status among 1,037 patients from two large US prospective cohort studies diagnosed from 1986 to 2013. Among 485 patients from four prospective US cohorts, we also evaluated survival by prediagnostic circulating levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine that is proportional to tobacco smoke exposure. On the basis of prediagnosis cotinine levels, we classified patients as nonsmokers (< 3.1 ng/mL), light smokers (3.1-20.9 ng/mL), or heavy smokers (≥ 21.0 ng/mL). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status, diagnosis year, and cancer stage. Results The multivariable-adjusted HR for death was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.69) comparing current smokers with never smokers ( P = .003). A statistically significant negative trend in survival was observed for increasing pack-years of smoking ( Ptrend = .008), with HR for death of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.10) for > 60 pack-years of smoking versus never smoking. Survival among former smokers was similar to that for never smokers, regardless of time since quitting. Heavy smokers defined by prediagnostic circulating cotinine levels had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.51) compared with nonsmokers. Among patients with circulating cotinine levels measured within 5 years before diagnosis, heavy smokers had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.92) compared with nonsmokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking was associated with a reduction in survival among patients with pancreatic cancer.

  11. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  12. Impact of trace element changes on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in healthy and diabetic states among middle-age and elderly Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El Husseiny, Noha M; Said, Elham Sobhy; El Shahat Mohamed, Naglaa; Othman, Azza Ismail

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium, copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups: healthy middle-aged, healthy elderly, middle-aged diabetics, and elderly diabetics. Our results revealed a statistically significant decrease in the level of DHEAS in the elderly compared to middle-aged healthy and diabetic groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the middle-aged groups with respect to zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium levels. Zinc and copper were lower in the diabetic subjects while chromium and cadmium were higher in the same group in comparison to healthy subjects. In the elderly groups, there were significant increases in chromium and cadmium levels in diabetic subjects rather than healthy ones. There was a significant increase in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in the elderly healthy and diabetic groups and a significant decrease in the glutathione level in the elderly groups. There was no correlation between the levels of trace elements and DHEAS or between the levels of DHEAS, oxidants, and antioxidants in all of the tested groups. In conclusion, only the DHEAS level was correlated with age. There was no difference between the diabetic and healthy groups with respect to the levels of trace elements, with the exception of chromium and cadmium, which suggests the effect of pollution on the pathogenesis of diabetes in Egyptians. No correlation existed between the levels of DHEAS and trace elements, oxidants, and antioxidants. Finally, we believe that there is a large regional variation in the levels of trace elements due to different environmental exposure and nutritional factors which are responsible for contradictory results

  13. Interactions of hearing loss and Diabetes Mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Olga N.; Frisina, Susan T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broadband noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (~32g), but there was a significant (~5g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited ~10g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3 fold for T1DM, 1.3 fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus. PMID:19271313

  14. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  15. Glycation-altered proteolysis as a pathobiologic mechanism that links dietary glycemic index, aging, and age-related disease in non diabetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the risks for major age-related debilities including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are diminished in people who consume lower glycemic index (GI) diets, but lack of a unifying physiobiochemical mechanism that explains...

  16. The sensitivity of Flemish citizens to androstenone: influence of gender, age, location and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; De Brabander, H F; Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Vandendriessche, F; Vanhaecke, L

    2011-07-01

    Skatole and androstenone are the main boar taint compounds. Whereas nearly everybody is sensitive to skatole, the sensitivity to androstenone is genetically determined and differs between countries. In this study the methodology for testing androstenone sensitivity was refined and applied to 1569 consumers that were approached at six shopping malls in Flanders. Participants were asked to smell the contents of four bottles (three were filled with water and one with androstenone solved in water) and to identify and describe the odour of the strongest smelling bottle. This test was performed twice. 45.3% of the respondents were classified as sensitive to androstenone (i.e. the percentage of participants that identified the correct bottle in both tests minus a guess correction). Sensitivity differed between sexes (men: 38.3%-women: 51.1%, P<0.001), according to age (older people were less sensitive, P<0.001), and between the test locations (P<0.001), but not between smokers versus non-smokers.

  17. Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: Evidence for interaction with multiple genes

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect models, SNP x AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154

  18. Age and family relationship accentuate the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in relatives of patients with IDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, A.B.; Krischer, J.P.; Cuthbertson, D.D.

    1995-12-01

    The international community of diabetologists is rapidly becomine involved in intervention trials aimed at preventing insulin-dependent diabetes in high risk relatives. Whereas age and relationship to a proband with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus interacting with detected islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) are risk factors, their independent contribution to that risk remains unclear. In a prospective study of 6851 nondiabetic relatives of 2742 probands conducted between 1979-1993, we found age, but not relationship, to be a dramatic risk variable in ICA-positive persons as estimated by the Cox regression model. The 5-yr risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 66% for those found to have ICA detectable before age 10 yr, falling progressively to less than 16% for ICA-positive relatives over age 40 yr. In ICA-negative relatives, age and relationship are independent prognostic variables. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    SciTech Connect

    Barregard, Lars; Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  20. Health state utilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health state utility values (HSUVs) are important in the assessment of the cost effectiveness of new interventions. In the case of visual conditions, models generally tend have tended to be built around a set of health states defined by visual acuity (VA). The aim of this review was to assess the impact of VA on HSUVs in patients with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema or age-related macular degeneration. Methods A systematic literature search was undertaken in major bibliographic databases to identify articles reporting on the relationship between HSUVs and vision. Data were extracted for population characteristics, visual levels and estimated utilities. Evidence from reported statistical models, where available, was considered in the evaluation of vision in the better-seeing eye and the worse-seeing eye. Due to the heterogeneity of included studies, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Of the 17 relevant studies, 9 studies had data that could be used in the analysis of the impact of vision on HSUVs. Visual loss was associated with a marked impact on health utilities. However, the relationship was not comparable between conditions or by measure of HSUVs. Key results included the finding that overall, self-rated time-trade off estimates were more likely to discriminate between different VA levels than EQ-5D values. Additionally, a stronger correlation was observed between HSUVs and better-seeing eye VA compared to worse-seeing eye VA. Conclusions Visual acuity has a significant impact on HSUVs. Nevertheless, care must be taken in the interpretation and use of estimates in cost-effectiveness models due to differences in measures and population diversity. PMID:24304921

  1. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Faranak; Ghasemi, Leila; Mousavinasab, Nouraddin

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD).Genetic susceptibility for autoantibody formation in association with ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about its prevailing situation in Iran. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti thyroglubolin (Anti TG) antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, and compared the effect of age and sex on the thyroid autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iran.Ninety one subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and one hundred and sixty three unrelated normal controls under the age of thirty years were recruited for the detection of anti-TPO and anti-TG. Radio Immuno Assay and chemiluminescence methods were used for anti-TPO and anti-TG detection respectively.Among 91 type 1 diabetic patients, 36 (39.6%) were positive for anti-TPO and 27(30%) were positive for antiTG. Anti-TPO antibodies were detected only in 6.7% of control group. Comparing with those without thyroid autoimmunity, there was a female preponderance for the type 1 diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity (female: male, 28:14 vs. 28:20 respectively). Among the type 1 diabetic patients those with thyroid autoimmunity, tended to be older (p: 0.04) and to have higher TSH concentration (p: 0.03). Patients with high anti-TPO levels had longer duration of diabetes (P: 0.02).The presence of anti-TPO in 39.6% of our type 1 diabetic patients comparing with 8.5% of normal subjects confirmed the strong association of ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Fractures and lifestyle: effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and relative weight on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in middle-aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, D; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and low relative weight are often cited as risk factors for osteoporosis. In a prospective cohort study of 96,508 middle-aged nurses 35 to 59 years of age we found that smoking was not a risk factor for hip and forearm fracture. Women who drank more than 15 grams of alcohol per day and whose relative weight was less than 21 kg/m2 were at increased risk of fractures, but these risk factors were not independent. Only the combination of alcohol intake and thinness substantially increased the likelihood of fracture. The low weight women consuming more than one drink per day comprised but 4 per cent of our population of middle-class women and sustained 6 per cent of the fractures. PMID:3189632

  3. mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer, diabetes and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Zoncu, Roberto; Sabatini, David M.; Efeyan, Alejo

    2012-01-01

    Preface In all eukaryotes, the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway couples energy and nutrient abundance to the execution of cell growth and division, owing to the ability of TOR protein kinase to simultaneously sense energy, nutrients and stress, and, in metazoan, growth factors. Mammalian TOR complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2) exert their actions by regulating other important kinases, such as S6K and Akt. In the last few years, a significant advance in our understanding of the regulation and functions of mTOR has revealed its critical involvement in the onset and progression of diabetes, cancer and ageing. PMID:21157483

  4. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  5. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  6. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  8. Phacoemulsification without preoperative mydriasis in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the effect of intracameral injection of preservative-free lignocaine to induce pupil dilatation, without using any preoperative dilating eyedrops or intraoperative mydriatics in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design This was a prospective, observational, and interventional case series conducted at a tertiary eyecare center in rural India. Materials and methods A total of 32 patients underwent phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia for visually significant cataract. Preoperative pupillary diameter was measured 3 days prior to surgical procedure under mydriatics (tropicamide 0.8%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 5%). Intraoperative pupillary dilatation was achieved by 1% intracameral lignocaine solution alone. Effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), total surgical time, and final pupillary diameter were recorded at the conclusion of surgery. Results The average duration of diabetes was 11.2 (range 5–25) years. There was no difference in dilatation by preoperative pupil-dilating drops (5.2±0.5 mm, range 3–8.3 mm) and intracameral 1% lignocaine during the surgical procedure (P=0.63). There was a negative correlation (r=−0.92) between diabetes duration and dilatation of pupils with dilating drops and intracameral lignocaine. The duration of the surgery, EPT, and phacoemulsification chop had statistically insignificant effects on mydriasis, while the grade of the nucleus had a statistically significant effect on mydriasis. Intracameral lignocaine had no significant effect on blood pressure or pulse. There were no surgical complications that could have compromised the visual outcome. None of the patients developed macular edema in a follow-up period of 3 months; 28 patients (87.5%) had best-corrected visual acuity from 20/30 to 20/20. Conclusion Intracameral lignocaine 1% provides sufficient mydriasis for the safe phacoemulsification of cataract in patients with type 2 diabetes of variable duration

  9. Basic and Clinical Research Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs): New Compounds to Tackle Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Nenna, Antonio; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Lusini, Mario; Ulianich, Luca; Chello, Massimo; Nappi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and recent advances in research indicate that a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of its effects is mandatory to reduce diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) play a central role in the genesis and progression of complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and have been found to be important even in non-diabetic patients as a marker of cardiovascular disease. AGEs have a profound impact on patient's prognosis regardless of the glycemic control, and therefore pharmacologic approaches against AGEs accumulation have been proposed over the years to treat cardiovascular diseases, parallel to a more detailed understanding of AGEs pathophysiology. Compounds with anti-AGEs effects are currently under investigation in both pre-clinical and clinical scenarios, and many of the drugs previously used to treat specific diseases have been found to have AGE-inhibitory effects. Some products are still in "bench evaluation", whereas others have been already investigated in clinical trials with conflicting evidences. This review aims at summarizing the mechanisms of AGEs formation and accumulation, and the most relevant issues in pre-clinical and clinical experiences in anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular research.

  10. Nanomedicine for treatment of diabetes in an aging population: state-of-the-art and future developments.

    PubMed

    Krol, Silke; Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge; Marchetti, Piero

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes (which is strongly related to the Western diet and life-style), has developed worldwide into an epidemic disease. Nanomedicine aims to provide novel tools for diagnosis, therapy and point-of-care management of patients. Several nanotechnological approaches were developed to improve life quality for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. They facilitate blood glucose management by non-invasive glucose measurement as well as insulin administration mainly by delivering the fragile protein as protected and targeted formulation via nasal or oral route. In the present review the oral or nasal insulin delivery by polymeric nanoparticles is discussed with focus on physiological change either related to the disease, diabetes or age-related metabolic variations influencing insulin release and bioavailability. One critical point is that new generations of targeted nanoparticle based drugs are developed and optimized for certain metabolic conditions. These conditions may change with age or disease. The influence of age-related factors such as immaturity in very young age, metabolic and physiologic changes in old age or insufficient animal models are still under-investigated not only in nanomedicine but also generally in pharmacology. Summarizing it can be noted that the bioavailability of insulin administered via routes others than subcutaneously is comparably low (max. 60%). Moreover factors like changed gut permeability as described for diabetes type 1 or other metabolic peculiarities such as insulin resistance in case of type 2 diabetes also play a role in affecting the development of novel nanoparticulated drug preparations and can be responsible for unsuccessful translation of promising animal results into human therapy. In future insulin nanoparticle development for diabetes must consider not only requirements imposed by the drug but also metabolic changes inflicted by disease or by age. Moreover new approaches are

  11. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  12. Diabetes recovery by age-dependent conversion of pancreatic δ-cells into insulin producers.

    PubMed

    Chera, Simona; Baronnier, Delphine; Ghila, Luiza; Cigliola, Valentina; Jensen, Jan N; Gu, Guoqiang; Furuyama, Kenichiro; Thorel, Fabrizio; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Herrera, Pedro L

    2014-10-23

    Total or near-total loss of insulin-producing β-cells occurs in type 1 diabetes. Restoration of insulin production in type 1 diabetes is thus a major medical challenge. We previously observed in mice in which β-cells are completely ablated that the pancreas reconstitutes new insulin-producing cells in the absence of autoimmunity. The process involves the contribution of islet non-β-cells; specifically, glucagon-producing α-cells begin producing insulin by a process of reprogramming (transdifferentiation) without proliferation. Here we show the influence of age on β-cell reconstitution from heterologous islet cells after near-total β-cell loss in mice. We found that senescence does not alter α-cell plasticity: α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty through to adulthood, and also in aged individuals, even a long time after β-cell loss. In contrast, before puberty there is no detectable α-cell conversion, although β-cell reconstitution after injury is more efficient, always leading to diabetes recovery. This process occurs through a newly discovered mechanism: the spontaneous en masse reprogramming of somatostatin-producing δ-cells. The juveniles display 'somatostatin-to-insulin' δ-cell conversion, involving dedifferentiation, proliferation and re-expression of islet developmental regulators. This juvenile adaptability relies, at least in part, upon the combined action of FoxO1 and downstream effectors. Restoration of insulin producing-cells from non-β-cell origins is thus enabled throughout life via δ- or α-cell spontaneous reprogramming. A landscape with multiple intra-islet cell interconversion events is emerging, offering new perspectives for therapy.

  13. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  14. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  15. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.

  16. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  17. Hyperinsulinemia/Diabetes, Hearing, and Aging in the University of Wisconsin Calorie Restriction Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Cynthia G.; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Colman, Ricki; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Beasley, T. Mark; Weindruch, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of hyperinsulinemia/Type 2 diabetes mellitus (HI-T2DM) on hearing impairment using rhesus monkeys to obtain control over diet and lifestyle factors that confound human studies. The study is a retrospective evaluation of rhesus monkeys from the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC) study on caloric restriction and aging. The research questions were the following: 1. Is HI-T2DM related to hearing impairment? 2. If so, what is the site of lesion in the auditory system? and 3. What physiological factors affect the risk of hearing loss in HI-T2DM? Three groups of eight monkeys each were matched by sex and age; the caloric restricted (CR) monkeys had a reduced risk of diabetes, the normal control (NL) group had a normal risk, and the hyperinsulinemia/diabetes (HI-D) group had already developed HI-T2DM. Auditory testing included distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) with f2 frequencies from 2211–8837 Hz and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) obtained with clicks and tone bursts (8, 16, and 32 kHz). DPOAEs had signal-to-noise ratios 8–17 dB larger in the NL group than in the HID and CR groups, signifying that cochlear function was best in the NL group. ABR thresholds were 5–8 dB better in the NL group than in the HI-D group, although no significant differences across the groups were evident for the thresholds, latencies, interwave intervals, or amplitudes. Correlations were significant for quadratic relations between body mass index (BMI) and DPOAE, with largest DPOAEs for animals in the middle of the BMI range. ABR thresholds elicited with 16 and 32 kHz signals were significantly correlated, positively with BMI and HbA1c, and negatively with KG (glucose tolerance), SI (insulin sensitivity index) and DI (disposition index). These findings suggest that the hearing loss associated with HI-T2DM is predominantly cochlear, and auditory structures underlying the higher frequencies are at risk

  18. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giuseppina; Pintaudi, Basilio; Giorda, Carlo; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Suraci, Concetta; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. PMID:25873960

  19. A prospective observational study of quality of diabetes care in a shared care setting: trends and age differences (ZODIAC-19)

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Drion, Iefke; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van der Meer, Klaas; Bilo, Henk J G

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study was initiated in 1998 to investigate the effects of shared care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Netherlands, and to reduce the number of diabetes-related complications. Benchmarking the performance of diabetes care was and is an important aspect of this study. We aimed to investigate trends in diabetes care, within the ZODIAC study for a wide variety of quality indicators during a long follow-up period (1998–2008), with special interest for different age groups. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Primary care, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Participants Patients with T2DM. Methods A dataset of quality measures was collected annually during the patient's visit to the practice nurse or general practitioner. Linear time trends from 1998 to 2008 were estimated using linear mixed models in which we adjusted for age and gender. Age was included in the model as a categorical variable: for each follow-up year all participants were categorised into the categories <60, 60–75 and >75 years. Differences in trends between the age categories were investigated by adding an interaction term to the model. Results The number of patients who were reported to participate increased in the period 1998–2008 from 1622 to 27 438. All quality indicators improved in this study, except for body mass index. The prevalence albuminuria decreased in an 11-year-period from 42% to 21%. No relevant differences between the trends for the three age categories were observed. During all years of follow-up, mean blood pressure and body mass index were the lowest and highest, respectively, in the group of patients <60 years (data not shown). Conclusions Quality of diabetes care within the Dutch ZODIAC study, a shared care project, has considerably improved in the period 1998–2008. There were no relevant differences between trends across various age categories

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae oropharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae oropharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6–17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13–0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90–2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations. PMID:26575615

  2. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  3. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W M; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-10-06

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs.

  4. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans

    PubMed Central

    Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W. M.; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs. PMID:26337083

  5. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting.

  6. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  7. The Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men Is Synergistically Affected by Parental History of Diabetes and Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Wikner, Cecilia; Gigante, Bruna; Hellénius, Mai-Lis; de Faire, Ulf; Leander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between genetic- and lifestyle factors may be of specific importance for the development of type 2 diabetes. Only a few earlier studies have evaluated interaction effects for the combination of family history of diabetes and presence of risk factors related to lifestyle. We explored whether 60-year-old men and women from Stockholm with a parental history of diabetes are more susceptible than their counterparts without a parental history of diabetes to the negative influence from physical inactivity, overweight or smoking regarding risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The study comprised 4232 participants of which 205 men and 113 women had diabetes (the vast majority type 2 diabetes considering the age of study participants) and 224 men and 115 women had prediabetes (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l). Prevalence odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Biologic interaction was analyzed using a Synergy index (S) score. The crude OR for type 2 diabetes associated with a parental history of diabetes was 2.4 (95% CI 1.7–3.5) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.3) in women. Adjustments for overweight, physical inactivity and current smoking had minimal effects on the association observed in men whereas in women it attenuated results. In men, but not in women, a significant interaction effect that synergistically increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes was observed for the combination of BMI>30 and a parental history of diabetes, S 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.1). No signs of interactions were noted for a parental history of diabetes combined with physical inactivity and smoking, respectively. In conclusion, obesity in combination with presence of a parental history of diabetes may be particularly hazardous in men as these two factors were observed to synergistically increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in men. PMID:23630613

  8. The risk of type 2 diabetes in men is synergistically affected by parental history of diabetes and overweight.

    PubMed

    Wikner, Cecilia; Gigante, Bruna; Hellénius, Mai-Lis; de Faire, Ulf; Leander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between genetic- and lifestyle factors may be of specific importance for the development of type 2 diabetes. Only a few earlier studies have evaluated interaction effects for the combination of family history of diabetes and presence of risk factors related to lifestyle. We explored whether 60-year-old men and women from Stockholm with a parental history of diabetes are more susceptible than their counterparts without a parental history of diabetes to the negative influence from physical inactivity, overweight or smoking regarding risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The study comprised 4232 participants of which 205 men and 113 women had diabetes (the vast majority type 2 diabetes considering the age of study participants) and 224 men and 115 women had prediabetes (fasting glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/l). Prevalence odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Biologic interaction was analyzed using a Synergy index (S) score. The crude OR for type 2 diabetes associated with a parental history of diabetes was 2.4 (95% CI 1.7-3.5) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.3) in women. Adjustments for overweight, physical inactivity and current smoking had minimal effects on the association observed in men whereas in women it attenuated results. In men, but not in women, a significant interaction effect that synergistically increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes was observed for the combination of BMI>30 and a parental history of diabetes, S 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). No signs of interactions were noted for a parental history of diabetes combined with physical inactivity and smoking, respectively. In conclusion, obesity in combination with presence of a parental history of diabetes may be particularly hazardous in men as these two factors were observed to synergistically increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in men.

  9. Age-dependent systemic DNA damage in early Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rogulj, Dinko; El Aklouk, Ismail; Konjevoda, Paško; Ljubić, Spomenka; Pibernik Okanović, Mirjana; Barbir, Ante; Luburić, Marijana; Radman, Maja; Budinski, Ninoslav; Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana

    2017-03-30

    Oxidative stress, capable of eliciting damage to various biomolecules including DNA, is a recognized component of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as other unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the development of T2DM, by investigating association of oxidative DNA damage with metabolic parameters in subjects with MetS and early T2DM. Selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters of MetS, inflammation and oxidative DNA damage: body mass index (BMI), fatty liver index (FLI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leukocyte/neutrophil count, and urinary 8-hidroxy-deoxyguanosine (u-8-OHdG) were assessed in male subjects with MetS and both younger (≤55 years) and older (>55 years) subjects with T2DM of short duration without complications. BMI, FLI, WC, total and LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were higher, while the u-8-OHdG was lower in MetS group, when compared to older T2DM subjects. None of these parameters were different neither between MetS and younger T2DM, nor between two sub-groups of subjects with T2DM. Values of CRP, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, GGT, leukocytes and neutrophils were not different between all examined groups of subjects. Higher 8-OHdG in older subjects with T2DM suggests that both aging process and diabetes could contribute to the development of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage cannot serve as an universal early marker of T2DM.

  10. Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lomberk, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatologists have often divided research of the pancreas based upon the origin of the function or disease, namely the endocrine or exocrine pancreas. In fact, as a result, many of our meetings and conferences have followed separate paths. Interestingly, among patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, both disorders of the exocrine pancreas, diabetes is common. However, the clinical features of the diabetes associated with these two differ. Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the predominant diabetic traits in pancreatic cancer, while reduced islet cell mass and impaired insulin secretion are observed more often in chronic pancreatitis. The causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer remains an intriguing but unanswered question. Since diabetes often precedes pancreatic cancer, it is regarded as a potential risk factor for malignancy. On the other hand, there remains the possibility that pancreatic cancer secretes diabetogenic factors. Regardless of how the science ultimately illuminates this issue, there is increasing interest in utilizing screening for diabetes to aid early detection of pancreatic tumor lesions. Therefore, in this issue of Pancreatology and the Web, we explore the topic of diabetes to keep us alert to this very important association, even if we study diseases of the exocrine pancreas.

  11. Exercise interventions in polypathological aging patients that coexist with diabetes mellitus: improving functional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-06-01

    In elderly populations, diabetes is associated with reduced muscle strength, poor muscle quality, and accelerated loss of muscle mass. In addition, diabetes mellitus increases risk for accelerated aging and for the development of frailty syndrome. This disease is also associated with a polypathological condition, and its complications progressively affect quality of life and survival. Exercise interventions, including resistance training, represent the cornerstones of diabetes management, especially in patients at severe functional decline. This review manuscript aimed to describe the beneficial effects of different exercise interventions on the functional capacity of elderly diabetics, including those at polypathological condition. The SciELO, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1980 to 2015 for articles published from original scientific investigations. In addition to the beneficial effects of exercise interventions on glycemic control, and on the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes, physical exercise is an effective intervention to improve muscle strength, power output, and aerobic power and functional capacity in elderly diabetic patients. Thus, a combination of resistance and endurance training is the most effective exercise intervention to promote overall physical fitness in these patients. In addition, in diabetic patients with frailty and severe functional decline, a multicomponent exercise program including strength and power training, balance exercises, and gait retraining may be an effective intervention to reduce falls and improve functional capacity and quality of life in these patients.

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L

    2017-02-17

    Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO₄ > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  13. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B.; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  14. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries).

  15. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Takis, Alexandros; Alonistiotis, Dimitrios; Panagiotidis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Background The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04) compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first time. PMID:24596452

  16. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  17. Impact of population aging on trends in diabetes prevalence: A meta-regression analysis of 160,000 Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and Methods In the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Results For both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70 years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5–6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5–8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2–9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9–16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5–12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. Conclusions This large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population. PMID:26417410

  18. The Diabetic Lung - A New Target Organ?

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Fuso, Leonello; Conte, Emanuele G.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Condoluci, Carola; Scavone, Giuseppe; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Several abnormalities of the respiratory function have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These abnormalities concern lung volume, pulmonary diffusing capacity, control of ventilation, bronchomotor tone, and neuroadrenergic bronchial innervation. Many hypotheses have emerged, and characteristic histological changes have been described in the "diabetic lung", which could explain this abnormal respiratory function. Given the specific abnormalities in diabetic patients, the lung could thus be considered as a target organ in diabetes. Although the practical implications of these functional changes are mild, the presence of an associated acute or chronic pulmonary and/or cardiac disease could determine severe respiratory derangements in diabetic patients. Another clinical consequence of the pulmonary involvement in diabetes is the accelerated decline in respiratory function. The rate of decline in respiratory function in diabetics has been found to be two-to-three times faster than in normal non-smoking subjects, as reported in longitudinal studies. This finding, together with the presence of anatomical and biological changes similar to those described in the aging lung, indicates that the "diabetic lung" could even be considered a model of accelerated aging. This review describes and analyses the current insight into the relationship of diabetes and lung disease, and suggests intensifying research into the lung as a possible target organ in diabetes. PMID:22972442

  19. Smoking Initiation and Smoking Patterns among U.S. College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Sherry A.; Husten, Corinne G.; Kann, Laura; Warren, Charles W.; Sharp, Donald; Crossett, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the age at which college students started smoking and its relationship to subsequent smoking using data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Surveys. Most students had tried smoking, and most who had ever smoked daily began doing so at age 18 years or younger. Most smokers had tried to quit, but three in four still…

  20. Comorbidity and health care visit burden in working-age commercially insured patients with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Szilárd; Chandwani, Hitesh S; Cole, Ashley L; Patel, Vaishali D; Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Dugel, Pravin U

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the comorbidity profile and update estimates of health care resource utilization for commercially insured, working-age adults with diabetic macular edema (DME) relative to a matched comparison group of diabetic adults without DME. Additional comparisons were made in the subgroup of pseudophakic patients. Patients and methods A retrospective matched-cohort study of commercially insured diabetic adults aged 18–63 years was conducted using medical and outpatient pharmacy claims (July 1, 2008–June 30, 2013). Outcomes included diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities and health care resource utilization (any health care visit days, outpatient visit days, inpatient visit days, emergency room visits, eye care-related visit days, unique medications) in the 12-month post-index period. Results All diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities were significantly more prevalent in DME cases versus non-DME controls (P<0.05). A significantly greater proportion of DME cases utilized eye care-related visits compared with non-DME controls (P<0.001). DME cases had almost twice the mean number of total health care visit days compared to non-DME controls (28.6 vs 16.9 days, P<0.001), with a minority of visit days being eye care-related (mean 5.1 vs 1.5 days, P<0.001). Similar trends were observed in pseudophakic cohorts. Conclusion This working-age DME population experienced a mean of 29 health care visit days per year. Eye care-related visit days were a minority of the overall visit burden (mean 5 days) emphasizing the trade-offs DME patients face between managing DME and their overall diabetic disease. Insights into the complex comorbidity profile and health care needs of diabetic patients with DME will better inform treatment decisions and help optimize disease management. PMID:27994438

  1. Linkage of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of age at onset to a genetic location on chromosome 10q in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Duggirala, R; Blangero, J; Almasy, L; Dyer, T D; Williams, K L; Leach, R J; O'Connell, P; Stern, M P

    1999-01-01

    Since little is known about chromosomal locations harboring type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes, we conducted a genomewide scan for such genes in a Mexican American population. We used data from 27 low-income extended Mexican American pedigrees consisting of 440 individuals for whom genotypic data are available for 379 markers. We used a variance-components technique to conduct multipoint linkage analyses for two phenotypes: type 2 diabetes (a discrete trait) and age at onset of diabetes (a truncated quantitative trait). For the multipoint analyses, a subset of 295 markers was selected on the basis of optimal spacing and informativeness. We found significant evidence that a susceptibility locus near the marker D10S587 on chromosome 10q influences age at onset of diabetes (LOD score 3.75) and is also linked with type 2 diabetes itself (LOD score 2.88). This susceptibility locus explains 63.8%+/-9.9% (P=. 000016) of the total phenotypic variation in age at onset of diabetes and 65.7%+/-10.9% (P=.000135) of the total variation in liability to type 2 diabetes. Weaker evidence was found for linkage of diabetes and of age at onset to regions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, and 9p. In conclusion, our strongest evidence for linkage to both age at onset of diabetes and type 2 diabetes itself in the Mexican American population was for a region on chromosome 10q. PMID:10090898

  2. The role of collagen crosslinks in ageing and diabetes - the good, the bad, and the ugly

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Jess G.; Gautieri, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Summary The non-enzymatic reaction of proteins with glucose (glycation) is a topic of rapidly growing importance in human health and medicine. There is increasing evidence that this reaction plays a central role in ageing and disease of connective tissues. Of particular interest are changes in type-I collagens, long-lived proteins that form the mechanical backbone of connective tissues in nearly every human organ. Despite considerable correlative evidence relating extracellular matrix (ECM) glycation to disease, little is known of how ECM modification by glucose impacts matrix mechanics and damage, cell-matrix interactions, and matrix turnover during aging. More daunting is to understand how these factors interact to cumulatively affect local repair of matrix damage, progression of tissue disease, or systemic health and longevity. This focused review will summarize what is currently known regarding collagen glycation as a potential driver of connective tissue disease. We concentrate attention on tendon as an affected connective tissue with large clinical relevance, and as a tissue that can serve as a useful model tissue for investigation into glycation as a potentially critical player in tissue fibrosis related to ageing and diabetes. PMID:25489547

  3. Composite estimates of physiological stress, age, and diabetes in American Samoans.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E

    2007-07-01

    Composite estimates of physiological stress such as allostatic load (AL) were developed to help assess cumulative impacts of psychosocial and physical stressors on the body. Physiological responses to stress generally accelerate somatic wear-and-tear and chronic degenerative conditions (CDCs). Following McEwen (Neuropsychopharmacology 22 (1999) 108-124) and others, primary physiological mediators of somatic stress responses include glucocorticoids (cortisol), catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), and serum dihydroepiandosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Conversely, blood pressure (BP), serum HDL and total cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and waist/hip (w/h) ratio are modulated by such hormones, thereby acting as secondary mediators of stress response. When these risk factors are aggregated into a composite score, higher stress loads are associated with increased risks for days of school/work missed, functional losses, morbidity, and mortality in US samples. To examine stress loads in American Samoans, data on all 6 secondary mediators along with estimates of body habitus (i.e. height, weight, circumferences, skinfolds) and physiology (i.e. fasting insulin, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose) were measured on 273 individuals residing on Tutuila Island in 1992. Four combinations of these physiological factors were used to determine composite estimates of stress. These were then assessed by sex for associations with age and the presence of diabetes. Composite estimates of stress load were higher in Samoan women than men. Associations with age tended to be low and negative in men, but positive in women, appearing to reflect cultural circumstances and population history. Stress load scores also were higher among those with diabetes than those without among both men and women. These results suggest that composite estimates of stress may be useful for assessing future risks of CDC's and the senescent processes that may underlie them in cross-cultural research.

  4. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  5. Myosteatosis increases with aging and is associated with incident diabetes in African ancestry men

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, I; Kuipers, AL; Cvejkus, R; Bunker, CH; Patrick, AL; Gordon, CL; Zmuda, JM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle fat infiltration (known as myosteatosis) is greater in African compared with European ancestry men and may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, prospective studies examining the magnitude of changes in myosteatosis with aging and their metabolic consequences are sparse. Methods We examined longitudinal changes in peripheral quantitative computed tomography measured calf myosteatosis [inter-muscular fat (mm2) and skeletal muscle density as a measure of intra-muscular fat (mg/cm3)] in 1,515 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40+ years recruited without regard to their health status. Results During an average of 6.2 years of follow-up, we observed an age-related increase in inter-muscular fat and a decrease in skeletal muscle density (all P<0.0001), which remained significant in those who lost weight, gained weight, or remained weight-stable (all P<0.0001). In addition, muscle density loss accelerated with increasing age (P<0.0001). Increased inter-muscular fat during follow-up was associated with an increased incident risk of T2D independent of factors known to be associated with T2D (Odds ratios per 1-SD increase in inter-muscular fat=1.29; 95% CI=1.08-1.53). Conclusions Our findings suggest that both inter- and intra- muscular fat increase with advancing age and that inter-muscular fat contributes to development of T2D among African ancestry men. PMID:26694517

  6. Diabetic kidney disease; review of the current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Rezaii, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in most parts of the world. 20 to 30% of diabetic patient have diabetic nephropathy in type 1 and type 2. Hyperglycemia is the key of nephropathy creation. Hyperglycemia also by production of toxic materials, advanced glycosylated end product (AGE), increased activity of aldose reductase has some role. Some metabolites of arachidonic acid, hemodynamic derangements and genetic factors have also some role. Although diabetic nephropathy is most common cause of nephropathy in these patients, but diabetic patients are also prone to other urinary tract and renal parenchymal disease and should not be confused with renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy. The principle of treatment of diabetic nephropathy is based on tight control of hyperglycemia, tight control of blood pressure and glomerular pressure, control of dyslipidemia, restriction of protein intake and smoking withdrawal.

  7. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  8. Clinically Relevant Cognitive Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults With Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Jennings, J. Richard; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Costacou, Tina; Boudreau, Robert M.; Miller, Rachel; Orchard, Trevor J.; Saxton, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and correlates of clinically relevant cognitive impairment in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During 2010–2013, 97 adults diagnosed with T1D and aged <18 years (age and duration 49 ± 7 and 41 ± 6 years, respectively; 51% female) and 138 similarly aged adults without T1D (age 49 ± 7 years; 55% female) completed extensive neuropsychological testing. Biomedical data on participants with T1D were collected periodically since 1986–1988. Cognitive impairment status was based on the number of test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than demographically appropriate published norms: none, mild (only one test), or clinically relevant (two or more tests). RESULTS The prevalence of clinically relevant cognitive impairment was five times higher among participants with than without T1D (28% vs. 5%; P < 0.0001), independent of education, age, or blood pressure. Effect sizes were large (Cohen d 0.6–0.9; P < 0.0001) for psychomotor speed and visuoconstruction tasks and were modest (d 0.3–0.6; P < 0.05) for measures of executive function. Among participants with T1D, prevalent cognitive impairment was related to 14-year average A1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol) (odds ratio [OR] 3.0; P = 0.009), proliferative retinopathy (OR 2.8; P = 0.01), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (OR 2.6; P = 0.03) measured 5 years earlier; higher BMI (OR 1.1; P = 0.03); and ankle-brachial index ≥1.3 (OR 4.2; P = 0.01) measured 20 years earlier, independent of education. CONCLUSIONS Clinically relevant cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among these middle-aged adults with childhood-onset T1D. In this aging cohort, chronic hyperglycemia and prevalent microvascular disease were associated with cognitive impairment, relationships shown previously in younger populations with T1D. Two additional potentially modifiable risk factors for T1D-related cognitive impairment, vascular health and BMI

  9. Susceptibility of Diabetic Rats to Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Inhaled Photochemically-Aged Atmosphere and Ozone (O3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Susceptibility of Diabetic Rats to Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Inhaled Photochemically-Aged Atmosphere and Ozone (O3)MC Schladweiler1, SJ Snow2, QT Krantz1, C King1, JD Krug2, N Modak2, A Henriquez3, V Bass4, DJ Miller3, JE Richards1, EH Boykin1, R Jaskot1, MI Gilmour1 and ...

  10. Combined Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-AGE Drug Treatments Have a Protective Effect on Intervertebral Discs in Mice with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Junger, Svenja; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Laudier, Damien M.; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diabetes and low back pain are debilitating diseases and modern epidemics. Diabetes and obesity are also highly correlated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and back pain. Advanced-glycation-end-products (AGEs) increase reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) and inflammation, and are one cause for early development of diabetes mellitus. We hypothesize that diabetes results in accumulation of AGEs in spines and associated spinal pathology via increased catabolism. We present a mouse model showing that: 1) diabetes induces pathological changes to structure and composition of IVDs and vertebrae; 2) diabetes is associated with accumulation of AGEs, TNFα, and increased catabolism spinal structures; and 3) oral-treatments with a combination of anti-inflammatory and anti-AGE drugs mitigate these diabetes-induced degenerative changes to the spine. Methods Three age-matched groups of ROP-Os mice were compared: non-diabetic, diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ)-induced), or diabetic mice treated with pentosan-polysulfate (anti-inflammatory) and pyridoxamine (AGE-inhibitor). Mice were euthanized and vertebra-IVD segments were analyzed by μCT, histology and Immunohistochemistry. Results Diabetic mice exhibited several pathological changes including loss in IVD height, decreased vertebral bone mass, decreased glycosaminoglycan content and morphologically altered IVDs with focal deposition of tissues highly expressing TNFα, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5. Accumulation of larger amounts of methylglyoxal suggested that AGE accumulation was associated with these diabetic degenerative changes. However, treatment prevented or reduced these pathological effects on vertebrae and IVD. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate specific degenerative changes to nucleus pulposus (NP) morphology and their association with AGE accumulation in a diabetic mouse model. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate that oral-treatments can inhibit AGE-induced ROS and inflammation in

  11. Who smokes in smoke-free public places in China? Findings from a 21 city survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free public places was 41.2%. Of those who smoked in smoke-free public places, 45.9% had been advised to stop smoking. Participants stated that no-smoking warnings/signs with ‘please’ in the statement had a better likelihood of gaining compliance and preventing smoking in public spaces. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, education, occupation, type of smoking, age of smoking initiation, smoking situation, stress, household smoking restrictions and city population were all associated with smoking in smoke-free public places. Interestingly local smoke-free regulations were not associated with smoking in public places. The findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in public places in China should emphasize strong enforcement, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of second hand smoke. PMID:26546594

  12. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

  13. Pharmacologic management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mimi S; Coppenrath, Valerie A; Dallinga, Bree A

    2015-02-01

    The numbers of women of childbearing age with pregestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes existing before pregnancy) are increasing, primarily because more patients are developing type 2 diabetes at younger ages. The teratogenicity associated with hyperglycemia in early pregnancy is well documented, and tight glucose control minimizes the risk of congenital malformation. Preconception planning is essential; thus contraception that does not worsen complications of diabetes is desirable. In addition, because contraceptives are not 100% effective, the treatment of elevated blood glucose levels, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these women requires consideration of unplanned pregnancy. We summarized the literature to aid clinicians in choosing individualized treatment that minimizes risk in case pregnancy occurs and maximizes benefit in preventing the complications of diabetes. In women with well-controlled diabetes without vascular disease, all contraceptive methods are safe. Intrauterine devices are recommended due to their minimal effects on risk factors for diabetic complications and their lack of reliance on patient adherence for efficacy. Among insulins, the insulin analogs-insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin detemir-offer patients greater convenience than regular insulin and NPH insulin, and they are safe in case of unplanned pregnancy. Of the noninsulin agents, glyburide and metformin are the safest during pregnancy, but many of the other agents pose minimal risk as long as they are withdrawn during early pregnancy. The risks and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in women with compelling indications must be weighed individually. In hypertensive patients at a high risk for unplanned pregnancy, nifedipine should be considered due to literature supporting its safety during early pregnancy. Pravastatin is recommended for women with dyslipidemia who are using effective contraception because there have been no reports of birth defects with

  14. Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Rende, Richard; Boergers, Julie; Abrams, David B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Clark, Melissa A.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Hitsman, Brian; Kazura, Alessandra N.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Stroud, Laura R.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Adolescence is an important period of risk for the development of lifelong smoking behaviors. Compelling, although inconsistent, evidence suggests a relation between parental smoking and the risk of smoking initiation during adolescence. This study investigates unresolved issues concerning the strength and nature of the association between parent smoking and offspring smoking initiation. Methods We enrolled 564 adolescents aged 12-17, along with one of their parents, into the New England Family Study between 2001-2004. Lifetime smoking histories were obtained from parents and their adolescent offspring. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the influence of parental smoking histories on the risk of adolescent smoking initiation. Results Parental smoking was associated with a significantly higher risk of smoking initiation in adolescent offspring (odds ratio=2.81, 95% CI=1.78, 4.41). In addition, the likelihood of offspring smoking initiation increased with the number of smoking parents and the duration of exposure to parental smoking, suggesting a dose-response relation between parental smoking and offspring smoking. Offspring of parents who had quit smoking were no more likely to smoke than offspring of parents who had never smoked. The effects of parental smoking on offspring initiation differed by sex (with a stronger effect of father's smoking on boys than girls), developmental period (with a stronger effect of parental smoking before the adolescent was age 13 than afterwards), and residence of parents (with effects of father's smoking being dependent on living in the same household as the adolescent). Parental smoking was also associated with stronger negative reactions to adolescents' first cigarette, a potential marker of the risk of progression to higher levels of use. Conclusions Parental smoking is an important source of vulnerability to smoking initiation among adolescents, and parental smoking cessation might attenuate this

  15. AGEs Induced Autophagy Impairs Cutaneous Wound Healing via Stimulating Macrophage Polarization to M1 in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Lin, Cai; Xu, Peng; Wu, Shan; Fu, Xiujun; Xia, Weidong; Yao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is essential in physiological and pathological processes, however, the role of autophagy in cutaneous wound healing and the underlying molecular mechanism remain elusive. We hypothesized that autophagy plays an important role in regulating wound healing. Here, we show that enhanced autophagy negatively impacts on normal cutaneous healing process and is related to chronic wounds as demonstrated by the increased LC3 in diabetic mice skin or patients’ chronic wounds. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA restores delayed healing in C57BL/6 or db/db mice, demonstrating that autophagy is involved in regulating wound healing. Furthermore, we identify that macrophage is a major cell type underwent autophagy in wounds and increased autophagy induces macrophages polarization into M1 with elevated CD11c population and gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. To explore the mechanism underlying autophagy-impaired wound healing, we tested the role of IRF8, a regulator of autophagy, in autophagy-modulated macrophages polarization. IRF8 activation is up-regulating autophagy and M1 polarization of macrophages after AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts) treatment, blocking the IRF8 with shIRF8 inhibits autophagic activity and M1 polarization. In summary, this study elucidates that AGEs induces autophagy and modulates macrophage polarization to M1 via IRF8 activation in impairment of cutaneous wound healing. PMID:27805071

  16. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  17. Effects of fresh, aged and cooked garlic extracts on short- and long-term memory in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Valipour Chehardacheric, Saeed; Farbood, Yaghoub; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Basirian, Effat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of fresh, aged, and cooked garlic extracts on blood glucose and memory of diabetic rats induced by streptozocine (STZ). Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg of each garlic extract was given daily for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Five days after STZ injection, five groups were formed: Control (intact) rats (Cont) + Vehicle of garlic extract (normal saline) (Veh), STZ + Veh, STZ + Fresh (row) garlic (FG), STZ + Aged garlic (AG), and STZ + cooked (boiled) garlic (CG). In order to assess the passive avoidance memory, rats were gently placed on the wooden platform, and latency to step-down (SDL) was recorded as initial phase, after then a light electrical shock [0.3 mA, 3 sec, Alternative current (AC)] was delivered to their foot paw. The retrieval tests were done for short- and long-term memories, respectively. Blood glucose was assayed by glucometer before and after treatment with STZ and garlic extracts. Results: Hyperglycemia induced by STZ decreased short-term memory in both diabetic males and females rats significantly compared with the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.01). Fresh and cooked but not aged garlic extracts decreased blood glucose in diabetic males and increased memory in both diabetic male and female rats significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Conclusions: STZ causes elevation of the blood glucose and resulted in memory deficits, possibly viafree radicals production in brain tissue. Garlic has some bioactive chemicals including allicin and sulfur compound (OSC) which could lower the blood glucose during chronic hyperglycemia, inhibit free radicals production in brain, and improve short-term (but not long-term) memory. PMID:25050258

  18. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.

  19. Activation of α7nAChR Promotes Diabetic Wound Healing by Suppressing AGE-Induced TNF-α Production.

    PubMed

    Dong, Miao-Wu; Li, Ming; Chen, Jie; Fu, Tong-Tong; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Ye, Guang-Hua; Han, Jun-Ge; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Li, Xing-Biao; Yu, Lin-Sheng; Fan, Yan-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes frequently presents accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which might induce excessive TNF-α production from macrophages to cause impaired wound healing. Recent studies have shown that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages efficiently suppressed TNF-α synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of AGEs in the wounds and determine whether PNU282987, an α7nAChR agonist, can improve wound repair by inhibiting AGE-mediated TNF-α production in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. Animals were assigned into four groups: wounded control group, wounded diabetic group, wounded diabetic group treated intraperitoneally with PNU282987, or wounded diabetic group treated intraperitoneally with vehicle. Compared with the non-diabetic control mice, the diabetic mice exhibited delayed wound healing that was characterized by elevated accumulation of AGEs, increased TNF-α level and macrophage infiltration, and decreased fibroblast number and collagen deposition at the late stage of repair. Besides, macrophages of diabetic wounds showed expression of α7nAChR. During late repair, PNU282987 treatment of diabetic mice significantly reduced the level of TNF-α, accelerated wound healing, and elevated fibroblast number and collagen deposition. To investigate the cellular mechanism of these observations, RAW 264.7 cells, a macrophage cell line, were incubated with AGEs in the presence or absence of PNU282987. TNF-α production from AGE-stimulated macrophages was significantly decreased by PNU282987 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PNU282987 significantly inhibited AGE-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and receptor for AGE (RAGE) expression. These results strongly suggest that activating α7nAChR can promote diabetic wound healing by suppressing AGE-induced TNF-α production, which may be closely associated with the blockage of NF-κB activation in macrophages.

  20. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  2. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  3. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  4. Teen Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ... org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teen-smoking/art-20047069 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  5. DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    A new study shows that statin therapy before diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is not associated with an increased risk of microvascular disease and might even be beneficial for retinopathy and neuropathy. These data suggest a potential protective effect of statins in specific complications, which should be further investigated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:25366041

  6. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... retinopathy gets worse, it may lead to blindness.Laser surgery can often be used to treat or slow down retinopathy, especially if the problem is found early. People who have diabetes should have an eye exam once a year.Warning signs of eye problemsCall your doctor if you ...

  7. Age-Dependent Loss of Tolerance to an Immunodominant Epitope of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Diabetic prone RIP-B7/DR4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gebe, John A.; Unrath, Kellee A; Falk, Ben A.; Ito, Kouichi; Wen, Li; Daniels, Terri L.; Lernmark, Åke; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified for the first time an age-dependent spontaneous loss of tolerance to two self-antigenic epitopes derived from putative diabetes associated antigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in RIP-B7/DRB1*0404 HLA transgenic mice. Diabetic and older non-diabetic mice exhibited a proliferative response to an immunodominant epitope from GAD65 (555-567) and also from GFAP (240-252) but not from an immunogenic epitope from diabetes associated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. The response to both of these self-antigens is not observed in young mice but is observed in older non-diabetic mice, and is accompanied by histological evidence of insulitis in the absence of overt diabetes. Islet infiltrates in older non-diabetic mice and diabetic mice contain CD4+/FoxP3+ cells and suggest the presence of a regulatory mechanism prior and during diabetic disease. Diabetes penetrance in RIP-B7/DR0404 mice is 23% with a mean onset age of 40 weeks and is similar to that reported for RIP-B7/DR0401 mice. A gender preference is observed in that 38% of female mice become diabetic compared to 8% of male mice. PMID:16979383

  8. Age-dependent loss of tolerance to an immunodominant epitope of glutamic acid decarboxylase in diabetic-prone RIP-B7/DR4 mice.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Unrath, Kellee A; Falk, Ben A; Ito, Kouichi; Wen, Li; Daniels, Terri L; Lernmark, Ake; Nepom, Gerald T

    2006-12-01

    We have identified for the first time an age-dependent spontaneous loss of tolerance to two self-antigenic epitopes derived from putative diabetes-associated antigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in RIP-B7/DRB1*0404 HLA transgenic mice. Diabetic and older non-diabetic mice exhibited a proliferative response to an immunodominant epitope from GAD65 (555-567) and also from GFAP (240-252) but not from an immunogenic epitope from diabetes-associated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. The response to both of these self-antigens is not observed in young mice but is observed in older non-diabetic mice and is accompanied by histological evidence of insulitis in the absence of overt diabetes. Islet infiltrates in older non-diabetic mice and diabetic mice contain CD4(+)/FoxP3(+) cells and suggest the presence of a regulatory mechanism prior and during diabetic disease. Diabetes penetrance in RIP-B7/DR0404 mice is 23% with a mean onset age of 40 weeks and is similar to that reported for RIP-B7/DR0401 mice. A gender preference is observed in that 38% of female mice become diabetic compared to 8% of male mice.

  9. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you quit, ... In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of ...

  10. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  11. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  12. Diabetes Complications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... go about your daily activities. Do not smoke cigarettes or use any tobacco products. Tobacco, whether smoked ... the journal Diabetes Care . Kidney Disease: Your kidneys filter the waste materials in your blood. Diabetes can ...

  13. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Ibrahim, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk. PMID:26989695

  14. Direct Social Support and Long-term Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176

  15. The changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis of streptozotocin-treated male rats depend from age at diabetes onset.

    PubMed

    Pitton, I; Bestetti, G E; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    The influence of age at diabetes onset and of capillary microangiopathy on the severity and evolution of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal changes was studied morphologically and morphometrically in male rats 4 and 8 months after streptozotocin injection. At each time period we studied 2 groups of rats, one made diabetic before (age 1 month), the other after puberty (age 3 months), and compared them with corresponding controls. The size of hypothalamic axons, numerical density and size of pituitary gonadotrophs, size of testicular tubules, and basement membrane thickness of retinal capillaries were measured. Major differences were found at 8 months. Changes of pituitary glands (i.e. small and numerous gonadotrophs) and testes (i.e. small tubular size) were more important in pre- than in postpubertal diabetic rats. This was a consequence of the aggravating prepubertal diabetes between 4 and 8 months. On the contrary, these changes partially regressed in postpubertal diabetic animals. Pituitary and testicular changes were correlated. Other lesions, such as swollen axonal processes in the hypothalamus, increased thickness of seminiferous epithelium and of capillary basement membranes, though very evident in diabetics, were independent from age at induction. Neither microangiopathy nor glycemia were correlated with any other change which confirmed their secondary role in diabetic neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, two types of diabetic disorders of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis could be distinguished: 1) those with irreversible effects on immature yet partially reversible effects on mature structures; and 2) those independent from age at induction.

  16. Berberine exerts renoprotective effects by regulating the AGEs-RAGE signaling pathway in mesangial cells during diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuan-Ye; Tang, Li-Qin; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we explored the effect of berberine treatment on the AGEs-RAGE pathway in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy, and we investigated the mechanism by which key factors caused kidney injury and the effects of berberine. In vivo, berberine improved fasting blood glucose, body weight, the majority of biochemical and renal function parameters and histopathological changes in the diabetic kidney. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed significant increases in the levels of AGEs, RAGE, P-PKC-β and TGF-β1 in injured kidneys, and these levels were markedly decreased by treatment with berberine. In vitro, berberine inhibited mesangial cell proliferation. Cells treated with berberine showed reduced levels of AGEs, accompanied by decreased RAGE, p-PKC and TGF-β1 levels soon afterwards. Berberine exhibited renoprotective effects in diabetic nephropathy rats, and the molecular mechanism was associated with changes in the levels and regulation of the AGEs-RAGE-PKC-β-TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

  17. Altered basal and stimulated accumbens dopamine release in obese OLETF rats as a function of age and diabetic status

    PubMed Central

    Anderzhanova, Elmira; Covasa, Mihai; Hajnal, Andras

    2011-01-01

    The Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat lacking the CCK-1 receptor is hyperphagic, prefers palatable and high caloric meals, and gradually develops obesity and type-2 diabetes. To determine dopamine levels in this strain, we used in-vivo quantitative (no-net flux) microdialyis at three different ages representing non-diabetic (8 weeks), pre-diabetic (18 weeks), and diabetic (56 weeks) stages in OLETF and age-matched lean LETO controls. Results showed significantly elevated basal dopamine levels in the caudomedial nucleus accumbens of OLETF rats compared to LETO at younger ages (8 weeks: 20.10 ± 5.61 nM vs. 15.85 ± 5.63 nM; 18 weeks: 7.37 ± 3.71 nM vs. 4.75 ± 1.25 nM, Mean ± SD). In contrast, at 56 weeks of age, a profound decline in extracellular dopamine concentrations was seen in both strains with a tendency for a greater effect in OLETF rats (1.78 ± 0.40 nM vs. 2.39 ± 0.42 nM). Further, extracellular fraction, an index for reuptake, was higher in 56-week old OLETF compared to LETO (0.648 ± 0.049 vs. 0.526 ± 0.057). Potassium-stimulated dopamine efflux revealed an increased capacity of vesicular pool in OLETF rats compared to LETO across all age groups with an accentuated strain difference at 56 weeks. These findings demonstrate altered striatal dopamine functions (i.e. increased stimulated release and uptake) in obese OLETF rat. This could be due to the lack of functional CCK-1 receptors, or metabolic and hormonal factors associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, or both. PMID:17553848

  18. RAS mutations in early age leukaemia modulated by NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T) are associated with second-hand smoking exposures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deregulation of the MAPK genes signalling caused by somatic mutations have been implied in leukaemia pathogenesis, including RAS mutation (RASmut) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which has been associated with intra-uterine chemical exposures. A case-case study was conducted in order to explore maternal and child exposures to tobacco smoking associations with early age leukaemia (EAL). Methods Covariables of reference were MLL rearrangements (MLL-r), RASmut and NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T). Samples from 150 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 85 AML were included. Maternal exposures were assessed using a structured questionnaire with demographic, personal habits and residence history information. Restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography were used to screen FLT3, KRAS, and NRAS mutations; direct sequencing was performed to validate the results. NQO1 polymorphism was detected by real-time allelic discrimination technique. Results Overall, RASmut were detected in 28.7% of EAL cases; BRAFmut was found only in one AML patient. Higher rate of KRASmut was found in ALL (30.3%) compared to AML (20.8%) with MLL-r; RASmut showed an association with second-hand tobacco smoking exposures (OR, 3.06, 95% CI, 1.03-9.07). A considerable increased risk for EAL with the combination of RASmut and NQO1 609CT (OR, 4.24, 95% CI, 1.24-14.50) was observed. Conclusions Our data demonstrated the increased risk association between maternal smoking and EAL with MLL-r. Additionally, suggests that children second-hand tobacco exposures are associated with increased risk of EAL with RASmut modulated by NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T). PMID:24571676

  19. Mobile Applications for Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Expert-Based Usability Evaluation Considering the Special Requirements of Diabetes Patients Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Objective We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. Methods We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. Results In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion “comprehensibility” (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of “fault tolerance” (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of

  20. Meeting the Challenge of Diabetes in Ageing and Diverse Populations: A Review of the Literature from the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Emma; Waqar, Muhammad; Sinclair, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The impact of type 2 diabetes on ageing societies is great and populations across the globe are becoming more diverse. Complications of diabetes unequally affect particular groups in the UK older people, and people with a South Asian background are two population groups with increased risk whose numbers will grow in the future. We explored the evidence about diabetes care for older people with South Asian ethnicity to understand the contexts and mechanisms behind interventions to reduce inequalities. We used a realist approach to review the literature, mapped the main areas where relevant evidence exists, and explored the concepts and mechanisms which underpinned interventions. From this we constructed a theoretical framework for a programme of research and put forward suggestions for what our analysis might mean to providers, researchers, and policy makers. Broad themes of cultural competency; comorbidities and stratification; and access emerged as mid-level mechanisms which have individualised, culturally intelligent, and ethical care at their heart and through which inequalities can be addressed. These provide a theoretical framework for future research to advance knowledge about concordance; culturally meaningful measures of depression and cognitive impairment; and care planning in different contexts which support effective diabetes care for aging and diverse populations. PMID:27830158

  1. Long-term effectiveness of ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angie H C; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are major causes of visual impairment in the elderly population worldwide. With the aging population, the prevalence of neovascular AMD and DME has increased substantially over the recent years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of both neovascular AMD and DME. Since its introduction in 2006, ranibizumab, a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody fragment against all isoforms of VEGF-A, has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD has been demonstrated in the ANCHOR and MARINA trials. Further studies including the PIER, PrONTO, and SUSTAIN trials have also evaluated the optimal dosing regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD. The CATT and IVAN trials compared the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab with off-label use of bevacizumab. Studies such as SUSTAIN and HORIZON have shown that ranibizumab has a good safety profile and is well tolerated for over 4 years with very few serious ocular and systemic adverse events. For DME, Phase II RESOLVE study and Phase III RISE and RIDE studies have demonstrated superiority of ranibizumab treatment in improving vision over placebo controls. Phase II READ and Phase III RESOLVE and REVEAL studies have shown that ranibizumab is more effective both as monotherapy and in combination with laser compared with laser monotherapy. The 3-year results from the DRCRnet protocol I study found that ranibizumab with deferred laser resulted in better long-term visual outcome compared with ranibizumab with prompt laser. This review summarizes various important clinical trials on the long-term efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The pharmacological properties of ranibizumab, its cost effectiveness, and impact on quality of life will also be discussed.

  2. Vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II in human hand veins: influence of aging, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Masami; Fujimura, Akio

    2002-09-01

    We examined human hand veins to determine whether venoconstricting response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) was influenced by aging or such diseases as diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). Twenty healthy male subjects (20-73 years), and 8 male patients with non-insulin-dependent DM and 8 male patients with essential HT were included in this study. A constant dose (50 ng/min) of Ang II or increasing dose (2-256 ng/min) of NA was infused into the dorsal hand vein and its diameter was measured using a linear variable differential transformer. The constant infusion of Ang II caused rapid desensitization or tachyphylaxis. The venoconstriction by Ang II in the 8 elderly subjects (58 to 73 years) was significantly (p<0.05) larger than that in the 8 young subjects (20 to 36 years) from 6 to 18 min after the start of the infusion (after 6 min: 63.6+/-11.6 (mean+/-SD)% vs. 39.9+/-20.8%, 12 min: 34.0+/-11.9% vs. 12.0+/-12.0%). However, the venoconstriction by Ang II in the patients with DM or HT was not significantly different from that in the 9 age-matched control subjects. No significant difference in venoconstrictor response to NA was observed between the young and elderly subjects, nor between the control subjects and the patients with DM or HT. These findings indicated that venoconstrictor response to Ang II might be greater in the elderly but might not be influenced by DM nor HT.

  3. [Age and sex variations of HbA(1C) in a French population without known diabetes aged 6 to 79 years].

    PubMed

    Gusto, Gaëlle; Vol, Sylviane; Born, Catherine; Balkau, Beverley; Lamy, Jocelyne; Bourderioux, Christiane; Lantieri, Olivier; Tichet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    HbA(1C) is being used for screening and diagnosing diabetes. We determined mean values of HbA(1C) according to age and sex in a large population without known diabetes, in a wide age range 6-79  years. 5,138 men and women without known diabetes aged 6-79  years participated in a routine health examination provided by their medical insurance. HbA(1C) was assessed on an HPLC analyzer aligned with a DCCT method. HbA(1C) was approximately normally distributed in both men and women. Mean (SD) HbA(1C) were, for men vs women, in percentages 5.3 (0.4) vs 5.2 (0.3), in mmol/mol 34 (5) vs 34 (4) and in estimated blood glucose in mmol/L 5.83 (0.67) vs 5.75 (0.53). HbA(1C) increased with age by 0.08% every 10  years and this was attenuated to a 0.04% increase after adjustment on fasting plasma glucose. Between 15 and 49  years, women had lower values than men (p < 0.0001), but no sex differences were observed before and after this age range. In our population, 0.6% had HbA(1C) greater or equal to 6.5% and 88% (96% of men and 73% of women) of them had fasting plasma glucose greater or equal to 6,1 mmol/L. Threshold of 6.0% selected 2.8% of our population.

  4. Decline of tactile acuity in aging: a study of body site, blood flow, and lifetime habits of smoking and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph C; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Dipietro, Loretta; Mack, Gary W; Green, Barry G

    2003-01-01

    Tactile acuity of 60 older subjects (> or = 65 years) and 19 younger subjects (18-28 years) was assessed by two-point gap thresholds at the upper and lower surfaces of the forefinger, at the upper and lower surfaces of the feet, and at the volar surface of the forearm. The older subjects were assigned to one of four groups of 15 subjects each, depending on reported lifetime habits of physical activity and smoking: (1) active smokers, (2) active nonsmokers, (3) inactive smokers, and (4) inactive nonsmokers. Peripheral blood flow was assessed at the forefinger, foot, and forearm by means of laser-Doppler imaging and skin temperature recordings, under resting conditions and during and after a 5-min exposure to mild cooling (28 degrees C). Consistent with previous studies, tactile acuity thresholds in the foot and finger averaged about 80% higher in the older subjects than in the younger subjects, but only about 22% higher in the forearm. Although the upper surface of the fingertip was more sensitive than the lower surface in both younger and older subjects, the age-related decline in tactile acuity was nearly identical on both sides of the finger and foot. The latter finding refutes the hypothesis that the larger effect of aging in the extremities results from greater physical wear and tear on the contact surfaces of the hands and feet. Self-reported lifetime histories of physical activity and smoking were not significantly associated with measures of cutaneous blood flow or tactile thresholds. Possible reasons for this lack of association are discussed, including the inherent limitations of testing only healthy older subjects, and the concept of "successful aging".

  5. Ultrasonic Measurement of Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ahmad; Roudbari, Ali; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Bani Jamali, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Its vascular complications can be characterized by arteriosclerosis formation in carotid arteries. Due to its delayed diagnosis resulting in more complications in Iran, it seems that screening diabetic patients is mandatory. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional study, which included 80 participants (40 diabetics and 40 non-diabetics). By using ultrasound, bilateral IMTs of the distal carotid were measured and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate regression tests in SPSS 14. Results The mean IMT was 0.97 in diabetic patients and 0.63 in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Age and gender had significant positive effects on the increase of IMT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively for age and gender). Past medical history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in diabetes is associated significantly with an increase in IMT (P =0.019 and 0.027 respectively). Other confounding variables such as smoking, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) in diabetic patients showed no significant relationship with the increase of IMT. Conclusions Although measuring the IMT of the carotid artery by sonography is a useful tool for screening diabetic patients, more studies are needed for determining how to use these measurements in promoting the patients outcomes. PMID:23329968

  6. Diabetes mellitus and risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Rong, Shi Song; Xu, Qihua; Tang, Fang Yao; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Hong; Tam, Pancy O S; Chen, Li Jia; Brelén, Mårten E; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96-1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44-1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11-1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association.

  7. Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Rong, Shi Song; Xu, Qihua; Tang, Fang Yao; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Hong; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Chen, Li Jia; Brelén, Mårten E.; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00–1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44–1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13–1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11–1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96–1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44–1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11–1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association. PMID:25238063

  8. Impact of Age, Obesity and Smoking on Patient Satisfaction with Breast Implant Surgery - A Unicentric Analysis of 318 Implant Reconstructions after Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Kern, P; Zarth, F; Kimmig, R; Rezai, M

    2015-06-01

    Aim: Breast reconstruction has become increasingly important for the body image of women with breast cancer. We conducted a study to investigate how patient characteristics correlate with surgical outcome after breast reconstruction with implant after mastectomy and to identify risk factors which could facilitate patient selection for reconstruction. Patients and Methods: For this case cohort analysis (n = 257 patients with 318 heterologous reconstructions), we analyzed BMI, smoking, pre-existing disease, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, one-stage/two-stage reconstruction, immediate/delayed reconstruction, antibiotic therapy and complications, partner interaction and adherence to the decision for reconstruction using a customized questionnaire. Results: 257 patients with 318 implant reconstructions (196 unilateral, 61 bilateral) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Median follow-up time was 3.1 years (range: 1 month to 10 years). Response rate to the questionnaire was 71.8 %. Median age was 49 years (range 24-79 years), median BMI was 22.44 (range 16.33-40.09). A BMI > 30 was inversely correlated with positive self-image (p = 0.004), and implant loss/rotation was more frequent in this group (p < 0.05). Smoking > 10 cigarettes/day had a negative impact on surgical outcome. A positive self-image had a positive impact on partner interaction (p < 0.001) and was correlated with a lower perception of pain. Aesthetic results did not vary with age (p = 0.054). Titanized polypropylene meshes were used to protect against implant rotation (p = 0.034). Rates of capsular fibrosis were low in our cohort (< 10 %), and implant loss rate was less than 2 %. Conclusions: This study offers a differentiated approach for the pre-surgical counselling of patients and shows that patients up to 80 years of age are highly satisfied with implant reconstruction. A high BMI and smoking > 10 cigarettes/day are unfavorable preconditions for implant

  9. Current smoking is associated with a poor visual acuity improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmoon; Song, Su Jeong; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the third ranibizumab injection. To evaluate the risk factors associated with VA improvement after IVR, patient demographic data and systemic risk factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into a poor VA improvement group and a good VA improvement group, with reference to the median visual improvement in all eyes. Among 125 eyes, 66 eyes (52.8%) were included in the responder group and 59 eyes (47.2%) in the non-responder group. The median VA improvement after 3 monthly ranibizumab injections was -0.05 logMAR. Multivariate analyses revealed that current smoking (adjusted OR, 7.540; 95% CI, 1.732-32.823) was independently associated with poor VA improvement after IVR treatment for exudative AMD. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower VA gains with IVR treatment for exudative AMD.

  10. Smoking and older age associated with mumps in an outbreak in a group of highly-vaccinated individuals attending a youth club party, the Netherlands, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ladbury, G; Ostendorf, S; Waegemaekers, T; van Binnendijk, R; Boot, H; Hahne, S

    2014-04-24

    We describe a mumps outbreak in a highly-vaccinated population attending a party at a youth club. In a retrospective cohort study with 60 of approximately 100 participants responding, vaccination status was verified for 58/59 respondents, of whom 54 were vaccinated twice and four once. The attack rate was 22% (13 cases, all vaccinated), with smoking at the party (risk ratio (RR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–6.0, p=0.001) and age ≥21 years (RR 4.7; 95% CI: 2.1–10.2, p<0.0001) as risk factors for disease in the binominal regression analysis. Mild upper respiratory illness was also highly prevalent in those who did not meet the mumps case definition (n=46) after the party, suggesting that mumps virus infection may cause mild disease in vaccinated individuals. Our investigation adds toevidence that crowded social events and smoking may facilitate spread of mumps virus among vaccinated populations, with waning immunity playing a role. The suggestion that mumps virus infection in vaccinated individuals may manifest as mild upper respiratory illness could have implications for transmission and warrants further investigation.

  11. Emerging therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Emerson, M Vaughn; Lauer, Andreas K

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading causes of vision loss in the industrialized world. The mainstay of treatment for both conditions has been thermal laser photocoagulation, while there have been recent advances in the treatment of CNV using photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. While both of these treatments have prevented further vision loss in a subset of patients, vision improvement is rare. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A therapy has revolutionized the treatment of both conditions. Pegaptanib, an anti-VEGF aptamer, prevents vision loss in CNV, although the performance is similar to that of photodynamic therapy. Ranibizumab, an antibody fragment, and bevacizumab, a full-length humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, have both shown promising results, with improvements in visual acuity in the treatment of both diseases. VEGF trap, a modified soluble VEGF receptor analog, binds VEGF more tightly than all other anti-VEGF therapies, and has also shown promising results in early trials. Other treatment strategies to decrease the effect of VEGF have used small interfering RNA to inhibit VEGF production and VEGF receptor production. Corticosteroids have shown efficacy in controlled trials, including anacortave acetate in the treatment and prevention of CNV, and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and the fluocinolone acetonide implant in the treatment of DME. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vatalanib, inhibit downstream effects of VEGF, and have been effective in the treatment of CNV in early studies. Squalamine lactate inhibits plasma membrane ion channels with downstream effects on VEGF, and has shown promising results with systemic administration. Initial results are also encouraging for other growth factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor administered via an adenoviral vector. Ruboxistaurin, which decreases protein

  12. [Diabetes mellitus and aging as a risk factor for cerebral vascular disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Mimenza-Alvarado, Alberto; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Older patients with diabetes have a high risk of vascular complications. They have an increase of approximately 3 times for developing stroke compared with subjects without diabetes. In addition, up to 75-80% of deaths in diabetic patients are associated with major cardiovascular events including stroke. The risk of stroke is high within 5 years of diagnosis for type 2 diabetes is 9% (mortality 21%), that is more than doubles the rate for the general population. From observational registries in a collaborative stroke study in Mexico, we analyzed clinical data, risk factors, and outcome of 1182 diabetic patients with cerebral ischemia, with focus in elderly subjects. There was a high frequency of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke: the median value was 140 mg/dL and 40% had values higher than 180 mg/dL. Clinical outcome was usually unfavorable in elderly stroke patients with diabetes: case fatality rate was 30% at 30 days and survivors had moderate to severe disability, usually as consequence of the propensity to develop more systemic medical complications during hospital stay. Primary stroke prevention studies in patients with diabetes reveal that tight control of glucose is not associated with reduction in stroke risk. Therefore, proper control of other vascular risk factors is mandatory in patients with diabetes, in particular of arterial hypertension.

  13. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  14. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  15. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-03-31

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.

  16. A clinical correlation of anti-DNA-AGE autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes mellitus with disease duration.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Moinuddin; Alam, Khursheed

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of amino groups of DNA bases by reducing sugars can generate advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Cellular formation of AGEs under normal physiology is continuously scanned and removed by efficient system in the cells. However, excess formation and accumulation of AGEs may be cause or consequence of some human diseases. Mammalian DNA incubated with d-glucose for 28 days at 37°C showed structural changes in DNA as confirmed by UV, fluorescence, CD, melting temperature, S1 nuclease sensitivity and gel electrophoresis. Formation of DNA-AGE was confirmed by HPLC and LC-MS. Enzyme immunoassay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay of autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes patients' sera with disease duration of 5-15 years exhibited significantly high binding with DNA-AGE as compared to patients with 1-5 years of disease duration. Autoantibodies against aberrant DNA-AGE may be important in the assessment of initiation/progression of secondary complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  17. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs): an implicit goal in clinical medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Miyata, Toshio; Dan, Takashi

    2008-11-13

    Several factors are incriminated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To elucidate their interplays, we utilized a diabetic rat model with nephropathy (SHR/NDmcr-cp). This model is characterized by hypertension, obesity with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes with insulin resistance, and intrarenal AGE accumulation. Various therapeutic approaches were used to achieve renoprotection. Caloric restriction corrects metabolic abnormalities and protects the kidney without correcting hypertension. Anti-hypertensive agents, angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and calcium channel blocker, lower blood pressure to the same extent, but only ARBs protect the kidney without changes in metabolic abnormalities. Glycemic control is better with insulin than with pioglitazone. The plasma insulin level is increased by insulin but decreased by pioglitazone which worsens the obesity. Nevertheless, pioglitazone provides renoprotection unlike insulin, perhaps as a result of the up-regulation of TGF-beta by hyperinsulinemia. Cobalt up-regulates the expression of a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and its downstream genes (erythropoietin, VEGF, HO-1). It protects the kidney without correcting hypertension and metabolic abnormalities. Altogether, renoprotection is not necessarily associated with blood pressure or glycemic control. By contrast, it is almost always associated with a decreased AGE formation. AGE reduction may reflect a decreased oxidative stress as it is concomitant with a marked reduction of oxidative stress markers.

  18. Patterns of smoking in Russia

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Bobak, M.; Rose, R.; Shkolnikov, V.; Chenet, L.; Leon, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in Russia but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the prevalence of smoking in Russia and its association with sociodemographic factors.
DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey on patterns of tobacco consumption.
SETTING—Data were collected using the New Russia Barometer, a multi-stage stratified-sample survey of the population of the Russian Federation undertaken in the summer of 1996.
PARTICIPANTS—Data were available on 1587 individuals (response rate 65.7%). Respondents differed little from the overall Russian population in terms of age, sex, education, and voting intention.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of current and past smoking.
RESULTS—Smoking is common among males of all ages and in all areas. Of those aged 18-24 years, 65% smoke, rising to 73% in those aged 25-34 and then falling steadily to reach 41% in those aged 65 and older. Among women, smoking is much more common among the young (27% in those aged 18-34) than among the middle-aged and elderly (5% in those aged 55 and older), and more common among those living in urban areas than in rural areas. Smoking is also more common among men and women suffering material deprivation but there is no independent association with education. Among men, but not women, church attendance is inversely associated with smoking. In both sexes, but especially women, heavy drinking and smoking are associated.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco poses a major threat to the health of future generations in Russia, especially among women. A robust policy response is required.


Keywords: prevalence; Russia; smoking PMID:9706750

  19. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  20. The Geography of Diabetes among the General Adults Aged 35 Years and Older in Bangladesh: Recent Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Gruebner, Oliver; Kraemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas) and region of residence (divided into seven divisions) among general adults (35+ years of age) in Bangladesh. Methods The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L) ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%), followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2%) and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%). Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables). Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity), overweight/obesity and hypertension. Conclusions Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing

  1. Age- and diabetes-induced regulation of oxidative protein modification in rat brain and peripheral tissues: consequences of treatment with antioxidant pyridoindole.

    PubMed

    Sakul, Arzu; Cumaoğlu, Ahmet; Aydin, Elif; Ari, Nuray; Dilsiz, Nihat; Karasu, Cimen

    2013-05-01

    The increased glyco- and lipo-oxidation events are considered one of the major factors in the accumulation of non-functional damaged proteins, and the antioxidants may inhibit extensive protein modification and nitrosylated protein levels, enhancing the oxidative damage at the cellular levels in aging and diabetes. Because of its central role in the pathogenesis of age-dependent and diabetes-mediated functional decline, we compared the levels of oxidatively modified protein markers, namely AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-protein adducts), 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-nonenal-histidine) and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine), in different tissues of young and old rats. Separately, these three oxidative stress parameters were explored in old rats subjected to experimentally induced diabetes and following a long-term treatment with a novel synthetic pyridoindole antioxidant derived from stobadine-SMe1EC2 (2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indolinium dichloride). Diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection in rats aged 13-15 months, and SMe1EC2 treatment was applied during 4months to aged diabetic rats. AGEs and 4-HNE levels were significantly elevated in brain, ventricle and kidney, but not in lens and liver of aged rats when compared with young rats. Diabetes propagated ageing-induced increase in AGEs and 4-HNE in brain, ventricle and kidney, and raised significantly lens and liver AGEs and 4-HNE levels in aged rats. In aged diabetic rats, SMe1EC2 protected only the kidney against increase in AGEs, and inhibited significantly 4-HNE levels in brain, kidney, liver and lens that were observed more pronounced in lens. 3-NT was significantly increased in brain of aged rats and in kidney, lens and ventricle of aged diabetic rats, while SMe1EC2 has no protective effect on 3-NT increase. Results demonstrate that (1) the responsiveness of different tissue proteins to glyco-lipo-oxidative and nitrosative stress in the course of normal aging was miscellaneous. (2

  2. Predicting Diabetes: Clinical, Biological, and Genetic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balkau, Beverley; Lange, Céline; Fezeu, Leopold; Tichet, Jean; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Czernichow, Sebastien; Fumeron, Frederic; Froguel, Philippe; Vaxillaire, Martine; Cauchi, Stephane; Ducimetière, Pierre; Eschwège, Eveline

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide a simple clinical diabetes risk score and to identify characteristics that predict later diabetes using variables available in the clinic setting as well as biological variables and polymorphisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Incident diabetes was studied in 1,863 men and 1,954 women, 30–65 years of age at baseline, with diabetes defined by treatment or by fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l at 3-yearly examinations over 9 years. Sex-specific logistic regression equations were used to select variables for prediction. RESULTS—A total of 140 men and 63 women developed diabetes. The predictive clinical variables were waist circumference and hypertension in both sexes, smoking in men, and diabetes in the family in women. Discrimination, as measured by the area under the receiver operating curves (AROCs), were 0.713 for men and 0.827 for women, a little higher than for the Finish Diabetes Risk (FINDRISC) score, with fewer variables in the score. Combining clinical and biological variables, the predictive equation included fasting glucose, waist circumference, smoking, and γ-glutamyltransferase for men and fasting glucose, BMI, triglycerides, and diabetes in family for women. The number of TCF7L2 and IL6 deleterious alleles was predictive in both sexes, but after including the above clinical and biological variables, this variable was only predictive in women (P < 0.03) and the AROC statistics increased only marginally. CONCLUSIONS—The best clinical predictor of diabetes is adiposity, and baseline glucose is the best biological predictor. Clinical and biological predictors differed marginally between men and women. The genetic polymorphisms added little to the prediction of diabetes. PMID:18689695

  3. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  4. Characteristics of basal insulin requirements by age and gender in Type-1 diabetes patients using insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Gary; Boyer, Bret A

    2005-07-01

    Establishment of appropriate basal insulin levels is an essential component of intensive insulin therapy. While the existence of a "dawn phenomenon" is widely recognized, the present study sought to establish whether diurnal basal insulin patterns exist in Type-1 diabetes, and whether these patterns vary by age and gender. Participant data was drawn from 322 Type-1 insulin pump users treated at a private diabetes education practice in suburban Philadelphia. All participants completed a battery of fasting tests designed to match basal insulin levels to endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity. Analysis of resultant basal patterns revealed significant differences between juvenile (age < or =20) and adult (age >20) basal insulin patterns. The younger group exhibited a more pronounced and sustained night-time peak; the older group exhibiting a briefer and less pronounced early-morning peak. Lower overall basal insulin requirements were found in the youngest (age < or =10) and oldest (age >60) groups. No noteworthy gender differences were found. Results can serve as a guide for clinicians when initiating and fine-tuning patients who utilize basal/bolus insulin therapy.

  5. Age dependence of glucose tolerance in adult KK-Ay mice, a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Thumpayil, Sherin; Lafontant, David-Erick; Woubneh, Wolde; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-11-01

    Yellow KK mice carrying the 'yellow obese' gene Ay are a well established polygenic model for human non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. These animals develop marked adiposity and decreased glucose tolerance relative to their control littermates, KK mice. The authors monitored glucose tolerance in KK-Ay mice over time and observed a significant (Page-dependent improvement (13.3% by 175 d of age and 36.4% by 212 d of age, relative to 85 d of age). During the same time period, body weight and food and water consumption were relatively constant. The authors also measured plasma levels of endocrine hormones that are important in diabetes. Levels of insulin were approximately 8 times higher and levels of amylin 3 times higher in 220-d-old KK-Ay mice than in 180-d-old mice, whereas levels of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon and leptin remained relatively constant. These findings suggest that KK-Ay mice undergo an age-dependent improvement of glucose tolerance when maintained on a normal diet for 25 weeks or longer, due in part to increases in plasma levels of insulin and amylin.

  6. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  7. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stipančić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Požgaj Šepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundžić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). Methods We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100 000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. Results The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100 000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100 000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100 000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.3% in southern Croatia. Conclusion Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors. PMID:22522992

  8. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes.

  9. Barriers to Eye Care Among People Aged 40 Years and Older With Diagnosed Diabetes, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were “no need” and “cost or lack of insurance” (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were “no eye doctor,” “no transportation” or “could not get appointment” (6.4%), and “other” (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40–64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01–3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75–3.14) to report “cost or lack of insurance” as their main reason. However, people aged 40–64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report “no need” (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about “cost or lack of insurance” for adults under 65 years and “no perceived need” among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  10. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  11. The diabetic lung--a new target organ?

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Fuso, Leonello; Conte, Emanuele G; Zaccardi, Francesco; Condoluci, Carola; Scavone, Giuseppe; Incalzi, Raffaele A; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Several abnormalities of the respiratory function have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These abnormalities concern lung volume, pulmonary diffusing capacity, control of ventilation, bronchomotor tone, and neuroadrenergic bronchial innervation. Many hypotheses have emerged, and characteristic histological changes have been described in the "diabetic lung", which could explain this abnormal respiratory function. Given the specific abnormalities in diabetic patients, the lung could thus be considered as a target organ in diabetes. Although the practical implications of these functional changes are mild, the presence of an associated acute or chronic pulmonary and/or cardiac disease could determine severe respiratory derangements in diabetic patients. Another clinical consequence of the pulmonary involvement in diabetes is the accelerated decline in respiratory function. The rate of decline in respiratory function in diabetics has been found to be two-to-three times faster than in normal non-smoking subjects, as reported in longitudinal studies. This finding, together with the presence of anatomical and biological changes similar to those described in the aging lung, indicates that the "diabetic lung" could even be considered a model of accelerated aging. This review describes and analyses the current insight into the relationship of diabetes and lung disease, and suggests intensifying research into the lung as a possible target organ in diabetes.

  12. A Quiet Standing Index for Testing the Postural Sway of Healthy and Diabetic Adults Across a Range of Ages

    PubMed Central

    Bollt, Erik M.; Fulk, George D.; Skufca, Joseph D.; Al-Ajlouni, Ahmad F.; Robinson, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    A quietstanding index is developed for tracking the postural sway of healthy and diabetic adults over a range of ages. Several postural sway features are combined into a single composite feature C that increases with age a. Sway features are ranked based on the r2 -values of their linear regression models, and the composite feature is a weighted sum of selected sway features with optimal weighting coefficients determined using principal component analysis. A performance index based on both reliability and sensitivity is used to determine the optimal number of features. The features used to form C include power and distance metrics. The quiet standing index is a scalar that compares the composite feature C to a linear regression model f (a) using C′ (a) = C/f (a). For a motionless subject, C′ = 0, and when the composite feature exactly matches the healthy control (HC) model, C′ = 1. Values of C′ ≫ 1 represent excessive postural sway and may indicate impaired postural control. Diabetic neurologically intact subjects, nondiabetic peripheral neuropathy subjects (PN), and diabetic PN subjects (DPN) were evaluated. The quiet standing indexes of the PN and DPN groups showed statistically significant increases over the HC group. Changes in the quiet standing index over time may be useful in identifying people with impaired balance who may be at an increased risk of falling. PMID:19342327

  13. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  14. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively. Fructosamine and AGEs formed during diabetes were inhibited in treated groups when compared with the diabetic group. The diabetic group showed 11.5 ± 0.64 μg of AGEs/mg protein in kidney, whereas, in banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P < 0.01. These findings suggest that banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  15. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  16. Screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with diabetes: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Ma, Seung Hyun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Boyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify factors associated with screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Of 24,871 participants, 1,288 patients diagnosed with diabetes at ≥30 years of age were included. 36.3% received screening for diabetic retinopathy, and 40.5% received screening for diabetic nephropathy during the previous year. Patients living in rural areas, those with less education, those who had not received education about diabetes care, and those who did not receive medical care for diabetes were screened less often for retinopathy or nephropathy. Patients with poorer self-reported health status were screened more often. Occupation, smoking status, and diabetes duration were associated with retinopathy screening. Lower family income was associated with decreased nephropathy screening. Receiving education about diabetes care and receiving medical care for diabetes were significant factors in patients with a shorter duration of diabetes (the significant odds ratio [OR] of not receiving education varied between 0.27 and 0.51, and that of not receiving medical care varied between 0.34 and 0.42). Sociodemographic factors and health-related factors as well as education and medical care influenced screening for diabetic complications among those with a longer duration of diabetes (for retinopathy and nephropathy, the significant OR of living in a rural area varied between 0.56 and 0.61; for retinopathy, the significant OR of current smokers was 0.55, and the p-trend of subjective health status was <0.001; for nephropathy, the significant OR of a monthly household income of <3000 dollars was 0.61 and the p-trends of education and subjective health status were 0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Efforts to decrease sociodemographic disparities should be combined with education about diabetes care to increase the screening, especially for those with a

  17. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  18. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Smoking and Asthma How Can I Quit Smoking? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  20. A study of risk factors and foot care behavior among diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Nongmaithem, Mackson; Bawa, Arjinder Pal Singh; Pithwa, Abhilash Kumar; Bhatia, Simran Kaur; Singh, Gurjit; Gooptu, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot results in considerable morbidity and mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase further in the next decades in these countries. Diabetic ulcers are the most common foot injuries leading to lower extremity amputation. Family physicians have a pivotal role in the prevention or early diagnosis of diabetic foot complications. Patient education regarding foot hygiene, nail care and proper footwear is crucial to reducing the risk of an injury that can lead to ulcer formation. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out from July 2013 to September 2015. Fifty patients of Diabetes with foot ulcer and two hundred without foot ulcers were examined. Risk factors and clinical profile of patients were studied which included age, gender, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking, random BSLs history, hypertension, glycated haemoglobin levels, lipid profile, history of loss of sensation and history of amputation. MNSI questionnaire and MNSI practical assessment for neuropathy were administered to diabetic patients along with a pre-structured questionnaire regarding foot care practices. Results: In this study significant risk factors were peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, gender, loss of sensation, duration of diabetes and smoking. MNSI questionnaire and practical assessment scores were higher in foot ulcer patients. Poor foot care practices were observed in patients with diabetic foot ulcer patients. Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcers were more common in elderly males. Peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, Smoking, trauma, duration of diabetes mellitus and high levels of glycated haemoglobin had significant association with occurrence of foot ulcers. MNSI scores had a high predictive value for development of foot ulcers amongst diabetics. Awareness regarding foot care was poor which underlines need to promote practice of foot care amongst diabetic population. PMID

  1. Smoking and Glioma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chuan; Zhao, Wei; Qi, Zhenyu; He, Jiaquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To systematically assess the relationship between smoking and glioma risk. A dose–response meta-analysis of case–control and cohort studies was performed. Pertinent studies were identified by searching database and reference lists. Random-effects model was employed to pool the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 19 case–control and 6 cohort studies were included. Overall, compared with those who never smoked, the pooled RR and 95% CI was 0.98 (0.92–1.05) for ever smoker. The subgroups were not significantly different regarding risk of glioma except the group of age at start smoking (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.93–1.48 for age < 20; RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02–1.52 for age ≥ 20). Dose–response analysis also suggested no significant association between smoking and the risk of glioma, although some evidence for a linear relationship between smoking and glioma risk was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides little support for a causal relationship between smoking and risk of glioma. PMID:26765433

  2. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  3. [Smoking in women in France].

    PubMed

    Hill, C

    1999-10-01

    Surveillance of smoking behavior and study of consequences of smoking on the health of the French population, and particularly the female population, is a public health priority. The amount of tobacco consumed can be determined from sales figures and from surveys. Globally, tobacco sales increased through 1985. According to the available surveys, the proportion of regular smokers has varied little as smoking rate has decreased in men and increased in women. The decrease occurred in all age groups for men and increased only in the 25-49 year age group for women. Smoking is the cause of 60,000 deaths per year in France, 57,000 in the male population and 3,000 in the female population. Despite reinforced legislation (The Veil and Evin laws) which is unfortunately poorly applied, tobacco consumption has not decreased greatly. Funding levels for anti-smoking campaigns are totally insignificant compared with the efforts of the tobacco industry to promote their products. However, the beneficial health effect of stopping smoking is truly great since the risk depends much more on the duration of smoking than on the number of daily cigarettes. In addition, the delay between the cause and consequence is long, the consequences of the increase in tobacco smoking among young women over the last 20 years will not become visible until 20 to 40 years from now. One could wonder why so little effort has been put into anti-smoking campaigns despite the readily available data clearly warranting their promotion.

  4. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ≥ 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries.

  6. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  7. Epidemiology of polyneuropathy in diabetes and prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan; Papanas, Nikolaos; Vinik, Aaron I; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) represents a major health problem, associated with excruciating neuropathic pain, increased morbidity and impaired quality of life. The understanding of its epidemiology is difficult due to methodological issues. Inconsistency in the selection of diagnostic procedures renders comparison between studies problematic. Further problems arise from selection bias due to the inclusion of hospital-based populations. DSPN affects approximately 30% of hospital-based populations, 20% of community-based samples, and 10% of the diabetic population identified by screening. Chronic painful DSPN is present in 13-26% of diabetic patients. Between 25% and 62% of patients with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy have prediabetes. Among pre-diabetic subjects, 11-25% exhibit peripheral neuropathy and 13-26% neuropathic pain. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that there is a gradient in the prevalence of neuropathy. Indeed, the highest frequency is found in patients with manifest diabetes mellitus, followed by individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, then impaired fasting glucose and, finally, those with normoglycemia. The most important etiologic factors are poor glycemic control, age, diabetes duration, visceral obesity, height, hypertension, age, smoking, hypoinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. Clinic-based data suggest that DSPN is associated with increased mortality in diabetes, but confirmatory prospective population-based studies are required.

  8. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... secondhand smoke? a) Exhaled toxic cloud b) Environmental tobacco smoke c) Passive smoke d) Involuntary smoking 6. Which of the following chemicals does secondhand smoke contain? a) Ammonia b) Arsenic c) Cyanide d) Formaldehyde e) All of the above f) ...

  9. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  10. Understanding the links between education and smoking.

    PubMed

    Maralani, Vida

    2014-11-01

    This study extends the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between education and smoking by focusing on the life course links between experiences from adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood. Differences in smoking by completed education are apparent at ages 12-18, long before that education is acquired. I use characteristics from the teenage years, including social networks, future expectations, and school experiences measured before the start of smoking regularly to predict smoking in adulthood. Results show that school policies, peers, and youths' mortality expectations predict smoking in adulthood but that college aspirations and analytical skills do not. I also show that smoking status at age 16 predicts both completed education and adult smoking, controlling for an extensive set of covariates. Overall, educational inequalities in smoking are better understood as a bundling of advantageous statuses that develops in childhood, rather than the effect of education producing better health.

  11. A competing-risk-based score for predicting twenty-year risk of incident diabetes: the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangtong; Chen, Zhenghong; Fine, Jason Peter; Liu, Long; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Sijia; Li, Haibin; Liu, Kuo; Luo, Yanxia; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Few risk tools have been proposed to quantify the long-term risk of diabetes among middle-aged and elderly individuals in China. The present study aimed to develop a risk tool to estimate the 20-year risk of developing diabetes while incorporating competing risks. A three-stage stratification random-clustering sampling procedure was conducted to ensure the representativeness of the Beijing elderly. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents aged 55 years and above who were free of diabetes at baseline examination. Sub-distribution hazards models were used to adjust for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. The cumulative incidence function of twenty-year diabetes event rates was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. Age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, health status, and physical activity were selected to form the score. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.76 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72–0.80), and the optimism-corrected AUC was 0.78 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.69–0.87) after internal validation by bootstrapping. The calibration plot showed that the actual diabetes risk was similar to the predicted risk. The cut-off value of the risk score was 19 points, marking mark the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients, which exhibited a sensitivity of 0.74 and specificity of 0.65. PMID:27849048

  12. Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes among People Aged over 20 Years in Ahvaz: A 5-Year Perspective Study (2009–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Hajieh; Hardani Pasand, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study is the fourth cohort study conducted in the Middle East on the evaluation of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, implemented in Ahvaz, Iran. Methodology. The individuals aged over twenty years who had participated in a study on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 2009 (Phase 1) in Ahvaz were invited again in 2014. The questionnaires were completed via interview, and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard method. The logistic regression and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results. In the median of five-year follow-up, a number of 593 people participated in reexamination from which 396 individuals were nondiabetic in Phase 1. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes was 21.9 and 40.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Among Phase 1 prediabetics, 16.8% were diagnosed with diabetes in a five-year period. The factors affecting the incidence of prediabetes among the people younger than 65 years include age, family history of diabetes, and gender. The age factor plays an important role in the transformation of prediabetes to diabetes. Conclusion. The city of Ahvaz with type 2 diabetes incidence of 13.64 per 1000 person-years is one of the areas with high incidence of diabetes in Iran. PMID:28004008

  13. Differential proteomic and oxidative profiles unveil dysfunctional protein import to adipocyte mitochondria in obesity-associated aging and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; López, Juan A; Rubio, Miguel A; Bretón, Irene; García-Consuegra, Inés; García-Santos, Eva; Lago, Jesús; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2017-04-01

    Human age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), have long been associated to mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in these conditions remains unknown. We have tackled the impact of aging and T2DM on adipocyte mitochondria from obese patients by quantitating not only the corresponding abundance changes of proteins, but also the redox alterations undergone by Cys residues thereof. For that, we have resorted to a high-throughput proteomic approach based on isobaric labeling, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The alterations undergone by the mitochondrial proteome revealed aging- and T2DM-specific hallmarks. Thus, while a global decrease of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits was found in aging, the diabetic patients exhibited a reduction of specific OXPHOS complexes as well as an up-regulation of the anti-oxidant response. Under both conditions, evidence is shown for the first time of a link between increased thiol protein oxidation and decreased protein abundance in adipose tissue mitochondria. This association was stronger in T2DM, where OXPHOS mitochondrial- vs. nuclear-encoded protein modules were found altered, suggesting impaired mitochondrial protein translocation and complex assembly. The marked down-regulation of OXPHOS oxidized proteins and the alteration of oxidized Cys residues related to protein import through the redox-active MIA (Mitochondrial Intermembrane space Assembly) pathway support that defects in protein translocation to the mitochondria may be an important underlying mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction in T2DM and physiological aging. The present draft of redox targets together with the quantification of protein and oxidative changes may help to better understand the role of oxidative stress in both a physiological process like aging and a pathological condition like T2DM.

  14. What Predicts Early Smoking Milestones?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As many cigarette smokers begin experimenting before age 16, prevention efforts require a comprehensive understanding of smoking predictors during adolescence. Research has made many advances in understanding the predictors of smoking initiation, yet more precision is still needed to determine whether the patterns of prediction differ across early smoking milestones. The purpose of this study was to use a sample of young adolescents to examine the predictors of two key milestones in smoking initiation: first puff and first cigarette. Method: Data came from an ongoing, prospective project examining psychosocial factors related to adolescent substance use. At Time 1 (T1), the sample was 1,023 Rhode Island middle school students (ages 10–15 years; M = 12.2). T1 measures included empirically supported risk and protective factors, as well as current smoking. Follow-up surveys assessed smoking behavior over the ensuing year (T2 smoking). Results: Cigarette availability was the most robust predictor of smoking milestones, increasing the likelihood of both first puff and first cigarette in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Multivariable analyses also showed specificity, where some factors were only associated with one time point (e.g., age and T1 puff and cigarette), whereas others were only associated with one milestone (e.g., parental monitoring and whole cigarette at both time points). Conclusions: This study found different patterns of predictors for two early smoking milestones. Such findings are the first to suggest that puff and whole cigarette are distinct smoking milestones and reaffirm arguments that researchers should distinguish the various stages of smoking initiation when examining the broader period of onset/initiation. PMID:25785801

  15. Differential Insulitic Profiles Determine the Extent of β-Cell Destruction and the Age at Onset of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leete, Pia; Willcox, Abby; Krogvold, Lars; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Foulis, Alan K; Richardson, Sarah J; Morgan, Noel G

    2016-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells following the infiltration of leukocytes (including CD8(+), CD4(+), and CD20(+) cells) into and around pancreatic islets (insulitis). Recently, we reported that two distinct patterns of insulitis occur in patients with recent-onset T1D from the U.K. and that these differ principally in the proportion of infiltrating CD20(+) B cells (designated CD20Hi and CD20Lo, respectively). We have now extended this analysis to include patients from the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (U.S.) and Diabetes Virus Detection (DiViD) study (Norway) cohorts and confirm that the two profiles of insulitis occur more widely. Moreover, we show that patients can be directly stratified according to their insulitic profile and that those receiving a diagnosis before the age of 7 years always display the CD20Hi profile. By contrast, individuals who received a diagnosis beyond the age of 13 years are uniformly defined as CD20Lo. This implies that the two forms of insulitis are differentially aggressive and that patients with a CD20Hi profile lose their β-cells at a more rapid rate. In support of this, we also find that the proportion of residual insulin-containing islets (ICIs) increases in parallel with age at the onset of T1D. Importantly, those receiving a diagnosis in, or beyond, their teenage years retain ∼40% ICIs at diagnosis, implying that a functional deficit rather than an absolute β-cell loss may be causal for disease onset in these patients. We conclude that appropriate patient stratification will be critical for correct interpretation of the outcomes of intervention therapies targeted to islet-infiltrating immune cells in T1D.

  16. Characterization of trace organic compounds associated with aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in a controlled atmosphere—volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Jenkins, Roger A.

    In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke (ADSS) were determined in a controlled atmosphere, where ADSS is the sole source of target compounds. The ADSS was generated in a 30 m 3 environmental test chamber using a variety of cigarettes, including the Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarette and eight commercial brands, and a total of 24 experimental runs were conducted. Target analytes were divided into three groups, i.e. vapor and particulate phase markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds (VOC) including carbonyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The VOC samples were collected on triple sorbent traps, and then analyzed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), while the carbonyl compounds were sampled on DNPH cartridges, being analyzed by HPLC. ETS particles in the chamber were collected by high volume sampling, and then used for the determination of PAHs by GC/MS. Among more than 30 target VOCs, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde. The results from the chamber study were further used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP), a vapor phase ETS marker. The ratios appeared to be in generally good agreement with published values in the literature. This suggests that the characteristic ratios may be useful for quantifying the impact of ETS on the VOC concentrations in 'real world' indoor environments, which are affected by a complex mixture of components from multiple sources. The yields of ETS markers from this study are all slightly lower than those estimated by other studies, while VOC yields are in reasonable agreement in many cases with values in the literature. Among 16 target PAHs, chrysene appeared to be most abundant, followed by benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The average contents of BaP and

  17. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2015-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of hypertension and T2D. Between 1993 and 1997, 22 265 ever-pregnant women were included from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-NL study, aged 20 to 70 years at baseline. Details on complications of pregnancy and known hypertension were obtained by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at enrollment. Participants were followed for the occurrence of CVD events. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard (with HDP and GDM as time-dependent variables for T2D and CVD) models. At enrollment, women with a HDP reported diagnosis of hypertension 7.7 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.5) and women with GDM reported diagnosis of T2D 7.7 years earlier (95% CI 5.8-9.6) than women without pregnancy complications. After adjustment for potential confounders, HDP was associated with presence of hypertension at enrollment (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.98-2.28) and onset of CVD later in life (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). After including the intermediates hypertension and T2D in the model, the risk of CVD later in life decreased (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20). GDM was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D later in life (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 2.77-4.90), but not with risk of CVD. HDP and GDM have a substantial impact on the risk of CVD and are potentially important indicators for preventive cardiovascular risk management.

  18. Small Molecule Kaempferol Promotes Insulin Sensitivity and Preserved Pancreatic β -Cell Mass in Middle-Aged Obese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Alkhalidy, Hana; Moore, William; Zhang, Yanling; McMillan, Ryan; Wang, Aihua; Ali, Mostafa; Suh, Kyung-Shin; Zhen, Wei; Cheng, Zhiyong; Jia, Zhenquan; Hulver, Matthew; Liu, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and a progressive decline in functional β-cell mass are hallmarks of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, searching for natural, low-cost compounds to target these two defects could be a promising strategy to prevent the pathogenesis of T2D. Here, we show that dietary intake of flavonol kaempferol (0.05% in the diet) significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and circulating lipid profile, which were associated with the improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in middle-aged obese mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Kaempferol treatment reversed HF diet impaired glucose transport-4 (Glut4) and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) expression in both muscle and adipose tissues from obese mice. In vitro, kaempferol increased lipolysis and prevented high fatty acid-impaired glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, AMPK activity, and Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Using another mouse model of T2D generated by HF diet feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that kaempferol treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet β-cell mass. These results demonstrate that kaempferol may be a naturally occurring anti-diabetic agent by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and protecting against pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

  19. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  20. Increased Serum Insulin Exposure Does Not Affect Age or Stage of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chao, David T.; Shah, Nilesh H.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bahary, Nathan; Whitcomb, David C.; Brand, Randall E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In considering whether medications that increase insulin levels accelerate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) development, we hypothesized that PC patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who used exogenous insulin or insulin-stimulating medications should have an earlier age of diagnosis or present with more advanced disease. Methods Patients enrolled in our PC registry from 6/1/2003 to 5/31/2012 were stratified according to treatment solely with insulin, insulin-stimulating medications, or insulin-independent medications. Age of PC diagnosis, PC stage, and years between DM and PC diagnoses were analyzed among the cohorts. Results Of 122 DM patients (mean age: 67.4 ± 10.2 years), the mean age of PC diagnosis within the insulin-only (n=40), insulin-stimulating (n=11), insulin-independent (n=71), and non-DM (n=321) cohorts were 68.7 ± 10.5 years, 69.6 ± 10.8 years, 66.3 ± 9.7 years, and 65.5 ± 10.5 years, respectively. No significant difference among the age of PC diagnosis was observed based on duration or type of DM treatment. There was no correlation between PC stage and increased insulin exposure. Conclusions Anti-DM medications that increase exposure to insulin do not appear to accelerate PC development using outcomes of mean age of PC diagnosis, PC stage, or duration between DM and PC diagnoses. PMID:26418902

  1. Experimentally induced diabetes worsens neuropathology, but not learning and memory, in middle aged 3xTg mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Park, Emi; Ozment, Bria N; Griffith, Chelsea M; Zhang, Haiying; Patrylo, Peter R; Rose, Gregory M

    2017-03-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia in the elderly. The cause of the disease is still unknown, but amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are thought to play a role. However, transgenic mouse models expressing these neuropathological features do not show severe or consistent cognitive impairments. There is accumulating evidence that diabetes increases the risk for developing AD. We tested the hypothesis that experimentally induced diabetes would exacerbate cognitive symptoms in a mouse model of AD. Diabetes was induced in 12-month old 3xTg mice using streptozotocin (STZ; 90mg/kg, i.p., on two successive days). Hyperglycemia was verified by sampling blood glucose levels. Three months after injection (at 15 months of age), the mice were behaviorally tested in the Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning. Subsequently, the hippocampal region was examined using immunohistochemistry (6E10 antibody for amyloid) and immunoblotting (AT8 antibody for phosphorylated tau). No differences were found in learning or memory between the vehicle-treated control and STZ-treated groups. A significant increase in the number of amyloid-positive plaques was observed in the subiculum of STZ-treated mice; very few plaques were seen in other hippocampal regions in either group. No differences in AT8 load were observed. These results reinforce that amyloid plaques, per se, are not sufficient to cause memory impairments. Further, while diabetes can enhance this aspect of brain pathology, the combination of disrupted glucose metabolism and the transgenes is still not sufficient to cause the severe cognitive impairments associated with clinical AD.

  2. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... where smoking is allowed, such as some restaurants, shopping centers, public transportation, parks, and schools. The Surgeon ... Accessed at www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/prev/handbook13/handbook13-2.pdf on November 10, ...

  3. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... of chemicals — from arsenic and ammonia to hydrogen cyanide — many of which have been proven to be ... who does, it's never healthy to breathe in tobacco smoke. Even occasional or short-term exposure can ...

  4. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  5. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Khader, Yousef S.; Jafal, Sahar; Khawaja, Nahla; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST) in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years) with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients’ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM) questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG), and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST. PMID:24672276

  6. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC) osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes) on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization) and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production) of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase) was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a) decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b) increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c) deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis). Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC. PMID:27840829

  7. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    PubMed

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  8. The AGE-RAGE Axis and Its Relationship to Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Rodríguez, Ma. Etzabel; Uribarri, Jaime; Solorio-Meza, Sergio E.; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha E.; Cai, Weijing; Torres-Graciano, Sofía; Rangel-Salazar, Rubén; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was the simultaneous measurement of all the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis as well as several non-invasive markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Materials and Methods In 80 newly diagnosed diabetic patients we measured serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and peripheral mononuclear (PMNC) RAGE and AGER1 mRNA together with ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also assessed cardiovascular function by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness. Univariant correlation analysis was used to determine correlation between the variables in the study and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between the AGE-RAGE axis components and FMD, IMT and arterial stiffness. Results Serum CML correlated positively with sRAGE, PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MDA, but inversely with PMNC AGER1. sRAGE and RAGE was positively correlated with AGER; IMT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, and sRAGE and arterial stiffness had correlation with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, CML, sRAGE, AGER1 and RAGE. In multivariate analysis we found a significant relationship between CML with PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR; sRAGE with VCAM-1 and MDA; PMNC RAGE with PMNC AGER1and CML; PMNC AGER1 with PMNC RAGE; FMD with sRAGE, CML and HbA1c; IMT with sRAGE, and arterial stiffness with sRAGE, sCML and AGER1 Conclusions We found significant and strong associations between the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis and also found significant association between AGE-RAGE axis markers, especially sRAGE with several noninvasive markers of cardiovascular disease risk. sRAGE, an easily measured parameter in blood, may potentially be used as a surrogate marker of AGEs-RAGE in patients with diabetes. PMID:27434539

  9. Diabetes in Utah among adults: interaction between diabetes and other risk factors for microvascular and macrovascular complications.

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, M C; Smith, K R

    1988-01-01

    From a telephone survey of the health status of a random sample of the general population of Utah, we identified 255 people with adult onset diabetes. We compared them to 622 non-diabetic controls, matched for age, sex, and urban/rural country of residence. We examined diabetes as a risk factor for heart diseases, stroke, and blindness and its interaction with other known risk factors. Diabetes interacted with smoking history so as to increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and blindness. Diabetes also interacted with hypertension in their effect on the prevalence of blindness and, to a small extent, heart disease. Among the diabetics, duration of diabetes was associated with macrovascular and microvascular complications developing after the diagnosis of diabetes. Those with longer duration of disease showed an increase in risk for microvascular (kidney disease, blindness) and macrovascular (heart disease, stroke, amputations) complications. Although the estimates were imprecise, the effect of duration on macrovascular complications was greater among diabetics with a history of hypertension; the effect on microvascular complications was greater among smokers. The findings are compared to previous studies and the utility of diabetes prevalence data is discussed. PMID:3407819

  10. Age at Menarche and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study Among 27,482 Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; He, Chunyan; Zhu, Yeyi; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Yeung, Edwina; Hu, Frank B.; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between age at menarche and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort study of 42,109 eligible pregnancies from 27,482 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. RESULTS The adjusted risk ratios for GDM across the age at menarche categories (≤11, 12, 13, and ≥14 years) were 1.34 (95% CI 1.14–1.58), 1.13 (0.97–1.31), 1.11 (0.95–1.29), and 1.00 (referent; P for trend = 0.0005), respectively. Analysis of the mediating effect indicated that 42.1% (P = 0.0007) of the association was mediated through prepregnancy BMI. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggested that earlier menarche was significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. This association was largely mediated through prepregnancy excessive body adiposity. PMID:26813668

  11. Smoking and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcela Waisman; Serebrisky, Debora; Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio

    2016-08-03

    Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attentional, executive function, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence. Smoking reinforcement could be due to the initial cognitive improvement, that is, individuals can learn that smoking temporarily increases cognitive functioning (improving some components of attention and memory). These acute nicotine effects improve (i) cognitive performance above smokers' normal levels, and (ii) cognitive disruption resulting from nicotine abstinence. Both neurobiological effects act as reinforcers to nicotine use, greatly contributing to the development of nicotine dependence. However, heavy smoking is associated with cognitive impairment and cognitive decline in middle age. Future clinical research should investigate the role of positive and negative cognitive effects of nicotine in smoking cessation treatment. This is clearly an important scientific issue, with insufficient current data from which to draw definitive conclusions.

  12. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment.

  13. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  14. The Effect of Individual and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Status on Diabetes Mellitus Survival in Working Age Patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Hsien; Liu, Chia-Lin; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global pandemic metabolic disorder. In recent years, the amount of medical resources required for the treatment of diabetes has increased as diabetes rates have gradually risen. The combined effects of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES) on DM survival rates are still not clear, especially in patients of working age. In this paper, we aim to analyze the combined effects of neighbourhood and individual SES on DM survival rates in patients of working age in Taiwan. Methods The study of 23,781 people who were diagnosed with DM by using population—based study between 2002 and 2006. Each sample was followed up for 4 years or as a sensor case. We defined Individual SES and neighbourhood SES by each patient’s job category and household income which characterized as advantaged or disadvantaged. Then we compared the survival rates by SES group used Cox proportional hazards model for adjust risk factors. Results The 4-year overall survival rates of diabetic patients were worst for those with low individual SES who living in advantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, DM patients with high individual SES living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods had the same risk of mortality as those patients with high individual SES living in advantaged neighbourhoods (hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–1.51). The study found that DM patients with low individual SES who live in disadvantaged areas had a greater risk of mortality than those with high SES (odds ratio: 2.57; 95% CI: 2.04–3.24). There were significant differences in survival rates between patients with high individual SES and patients with low individual SES. In contrast, the results did not statistically significant differences in survival rates between advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhood SES groups. Conclusion DM patients with low individual SES had the worst survival rate, regardless of whether they were

  15. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  16. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-05-19

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.

  17. Protective effect of mangiferin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of AGE-RAGE/MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Suchal, Kapil; Malik, Salma; Khan, Sana Irfan; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Goyal, Sameer N.; Bhatia, Jagriti; Kumari, Santosh; Ojha, Shreesh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia induced advanced glycation end products-receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE) activation is thought to involve in the development of cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Activation of AGE-RAGE axis results in the oxidative stress and inflammation. Mangiferin is found in the bark of mango tree and is known to treat diseases owing to its various biological activities. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of mangiferin in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats. A single injection of STZ (70 mg/kg; i.p.) was injected to male albino Wistar rats to induce diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes, rats were administered vehicle (2 ml/kg; i.p.) and mangiferin (40 mg/kg; i.p.) for 28 days. On 28th day, left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 45 min and then reperfused for 60 min. Mangiferin treatment significantly improved cardiac function, restored antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, apoptosis and maintained myocardial architecture. Furthermore, mangiferin significantly inhibited the activation of AGE-RAGE axis, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 and increased the expression of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the myocardium. Thus, mangiferin attenuated IR injury in diabetic rats by modulation of AGE-RAGE/MAPK pathways which further prevented oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the myocardium. PMID:28181586

  18. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  19. CTLA-4 gene polymorphism confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) independently from age and from other genetic or immune disease markers. The Belgian Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, B J; Vandewalle, C L; Schuit, F C; Winnock, F; De Leeuw, I H; Van Imschoot, S; Lamberigts, G; Gorus, F K

    1997-10-01

    Apart from genes in the HLA complex (IDDM1) and the variable number of tandem repeats in the 5' region of the insulin gene (INS VNTR, IDDM2), several other loci have been proposed to contribute to IDDM susceptibility. Recently, linkage and association have been shown between the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) gene on chromosome 2q and IDDM. In a registry-based group of 525 recent-onset IDDM patients <40 years old we investigated the possible interactions of a CTLA-4 gene A-to-G transition polymorphism with age at clinical disease onset and with the presence or absence of established genetic (HLA-DQ, INS VNTR) and immune disease markers (autoantibodies against islet cell cytoplasm (ICA); insulin (IAA); glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65-Ab); IA-2 protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2-Ab)) determined within the first week of insulin treatment. In new-onset IDDM patients. G-allele-containing CTLA-4 genotypes (relative risk (RR)= 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.0; P < 0.005) were not preferentially associated with age at clinical presentation or with the presence of other genetic (HLA-DR3 or DR4 alleles; HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 and/or DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 risk haplotypes; INS VNTR I/I risk genotype) or immune (ICA, IAA, IA-2-Ab, GAD65-Ab) markers of diabetes. For 151 patients, thyrogastric autoantibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, anti-parietal cell, anti-intrinsic factor) were determined, but association between CTLA-4 risk genotypes and markers of polyendocrine autoimmunity could not be demonstrated before or after stratification for HLA- or INS-linked risk. In conclusion, the presence of a G-containing CTLA-4 genotype confers a moderate but significant RR for IDDM that is independent of age and genetic or immune disease markers.

  20. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

  1. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  2. Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by age and pre-exposure to nicotine: Implications for teenage smoking

    PubMed Central

    Carcoba, Luis M.; Orfila, James E.; Natividad, Luis A.; Torres, Oscar V.; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Ferree, Patrick L.; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E.; O’Dell, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    the NAcc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine exposure increased AChE activity in the NAcc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine exposure during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAcc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not likely related to age differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that exposure to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence. PMID:24854235

  3. Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by age and pre-exposure to nicotine: implications for teenage smoking.

    PubMed

    Carcoba, Luis M; Orfila, James E; Natividad, Luis A; Torres, Oscar V; Pipkin, Joseph A; Ferree, Patrick L; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E; O'Dell, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    nicotine withdrawal, ACh levels in the NAc were increased in a similar manner in adolescent versus adult rats. However, the increase in ACh that was observed in adult rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal was blunted in pre-exposed adults. These neurochemical effects do not appear to be related to nicotine metabolism, as plasma cotinine levels were similar across all groups. The second study revealed that nicotine exposure increased AChE activity in the NAc to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. There was no difference in AChE activity in pre-exposed versus naïve adult rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that nicotine exposure during adolescence enhances baseline ACh in the NAc. However, the finding that ACh levels were similar during withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats suggests that the enhanced vulnerability to tobacco use during adolescence is not related to age differences in withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic transmission. Our results also suggest that exposure to nicotine during adolescence suppresses withdrawal-induced increases in cholinergic responses during withdrawal. Taken together, this report illustrates important short- and long-term changes within cholinergic systems that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to tobacco use during adolescence.

  4. Crosstalk between advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE axis and dipeptidyl peptidase-4-incretin system in diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Fukami, Kei; Matsui, Takanori

    2015-01-13

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) consist of heterogenous group of macroprotein derivatives, which are formed by non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and whose process has progressed at an accelerated rate under diabetes. Non-enzymatic glycation and cross-linking of protein alter its structural integrity and function, contributing to the aging of macromolecules. Furthermore, engagement of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) with AGEs elicits oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes proliferative, inflammatory, and fibrotic reactions in a variety of cells. Indeed, accumulating evidence has suggested the active involvement of accumulation of AGEs in diabetes-associated disorders such as diabetic microangiopathy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretins, gut hormones secreted from the intestine in response to food intake, both of which augment glucose-induced insulin release, suppress glucagon secretion, and slow gastric emptying. Since GLP-1 and GIP are rapidly degraded and inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), inhibition of DPP-4 and/or DPP-4-resistant GLP-1 analogues have been proposed as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. Recently, DPP-4 has been shown to cleave multiple peptides, and blockade of DPP-4 could exert diverse biological actions in GLP-1- or GIP-independent manner. This article summarizes the crosstalk between AGEs-RAGE axis and DPP-4-incretin system in the development and progression of diabetes-associated disorders and its therapeutic intervention, especially focusing on diabetic vascular complications.

  5. Inhibition of inflammation by pentosan polysulfate impedes the development and progression of severe diabetic nephropathy in aging C57B6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Guan, Tian-jun; Zheng, Shirong; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Liu, Weicheng; Xiong, Huabao; Gordon, Ronald; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Zheng, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Inflammation has a key role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) has been shown to decreases interstitial inflammation and glomerulosclerosis in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Since PPS has an excellent long-term safety profile in interstitial cystitis treatment, and we recently found that old diabetic C57B6 mice develop DN characterized by extensive tubulointerstitial inflammatory lesions that mimics human DN, we examined the effect of PPS on old diabetic mice. We also examined the anti-inflammatory properties of PPS in renal cells in vitro. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in 18 months female (early aging) C57B6 mice. Mice were then randomized to receive oral PPS (25 mg/kg/day) or water for 4 months. The effect of PPS on NF-κB activation and on TNFα, high glucose or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulated proinflammatory gene expression in renal cells was examined. We found that PPS treatment preserved renal function, significantly reduced albuminuria, and markedly decreased the severity of renal lesions, including tubulointerstitial inflammation. PPS also reduced upregulation of TNFα and proinflammatory genes in aging diabetic kidneys. Furthermore, PPS suppressed NF-κB, decreased the proinflammatory actions of TNFα, and decreased high glucose and AGEs stimulated MCP-1 production in vitro. Finally, PPS decreased TNFα-induced increase in albumin permeability in podocyte monolayers. In conclusion, PPS treatment largely prevents the development/progression of nephropathy in aging diabetic mice. As this may be mediated by suppression of TNFα, high glucose, and AGE-stimulated NF-κB activation and inflammation in vitro, the in vivo blockade of DN may be due to the anti-inflammatory properties of PPS.

  6. Effect of age and Blood Pressure on Surrogate Markers of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Namrata Bindurao; Ganu, Meghana Ulhas; Godbole, Sanjay Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased arterial stiffness may be an important path- way linking diabetes mellitus to increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the surrogate markers of arterial stiffness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and compare with age-matched hypertensive and healthy controls. Also the effect of age and blood pressure on these markers was evaluated. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in West India. Methods: After a detailed medical history and anthropometric evaluation, all the participants were subjected to measurements of Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI), Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), and Augmentation Index (AIx) using a non-invasive oscillometric method. The four study groups consisted of patients with T2DM (>5 years) along with hypertension, newly diagnosed patients with T2DM (<2years) without hypertension, hypertensive controls, and healthy controls. Results: PWV, ASI, AIx were elevated in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Patients with T2DM above 60 years had higher carotid-femoral PWV, ASI and AIx than those below 60 years (p<0.05). ASI and AIx were significantly increased in patients with T2DM with hypertension having systolic BP > 140 mmHg compared to those with systolic BP < 140 mmHg. A very strong correlation between PWV and AIx in patients with T2DM and hypertensive controls was observed. Conclusion: This study reveals that markers of arterial stiffness (PWV, ASI, AIx) were increased significantly in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls. Age and systolic blood pressure had significant influence on these markers. Thus, oscillometric markers have potential utility in identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. PMID:25120969

  7. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  8. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-aged Japanese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yoshiharu; Maejima, Yuko; Shimomura, Kenju; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Ishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Akuzawa, Masako; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging studies have focused on the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate whether NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography could predict the risk of future T2DM in a Japanese middle-aged health check population. Methods We conducted a 10-year observational study in a health checkup population of middle-aged Japanese men and women at Hidaka Hospital from 2004 to 2013. We excluded cases with an alcohol intake exceeding 20 g/day and those with impaired glucose tolerance. The remaining 1,544 men and 864 women were classified into fatty liver and non-fatty liver groups based on the findings of abdominal ultrasonography. Both groups were followed for the development of diabetes. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each variable to predict the risk of future diabetes. Results The median age of the participants was 46.0 years at the entry, and the follow-up period was 10 years. The incidence of diabetes in the fatty liver group was 12.5% (29/232) in men and 26.3% (10/38) in women, whereas the incidence of diabetes in the non-fatty liver group was 2.5% (34/1,312) in men and 1.8% (15/826) in women. The relative risk of diabetes associated with fatty liver was 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-7.8, p<0.0001] in men and 14.5 (95% CI 7.0-30.1, p<0.0001) in women. Conclusion NAFLD was a significant predictor for future diabetes in a Japanese middle-aged health check population, especially in women.

  9. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  10. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  11. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  12. Glutathione-s-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and associations with type 1 diabetes age-at-onset.

    PubMed

    Bekris, Lynn M; Shephard, Cindy; Peterson, Morgan; Hoehna, Jana; Van Yserloo, Brian; Rutledge, Elizabeth; Farin, Federico; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lernmark, Ake

    2005-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic beta cell destruction involving auto-reactive T-cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of insulin. Monozygotic twin studies show a 20-60% concordance with T1D indicating there may be an environmental component to the disease. Glutathione (GSH) is the major endogenous antioxidant produced by the cell. GSH participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals and plays a role in the immune response. Glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) conjugate GSH to free-radicals or xenobiotics. GST activity depletes GSH levels and may either detoxify or enhance the toxicity of a compound. Glutathione-s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione-s-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) have polymorphic homozygous deletion (null) genotypes resulting in complete absence of enzyme activity. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in Caucasian populations have frequencies of approximately 40-60% and 15-20%, respectively. GST null genotypes have been associated with susceptibility to cancer and protection against chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate associations with GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in a group T1D patients and control subjects 0-35 years old who participated in the Combined Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry and Diabetes Incidence Study (1986-1988). Results show that the presence of the GSTM1 and not the null genotype (OR, 2.13 95% CI, 1.23-3.70, p-value, 0.007, Bonferroni corrected p-value, 0.035) may be a susceptibility factor in T1D 14-20 years old. These results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with T1D protection and T1D age-at-onset and that susceptibility to T1D may involve GST conjugation.

  13. Centenarians as super-controls to assess the biological relevance of genetic risk factors for common age-related diseases: a proof of principle on type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Garagnani, Paolo; Giuliani, Cristina; Pirazzini, Chiara; Olivieri, Fabiola; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Ostan, Rita; Mari, Daniela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Monti, Daniela; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Boemi, Massimo; Ceriello, Antonio; Genovese, Stefano; Sevini, Federica; Luiselli, Donata; Tieri, Paolo; Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Delledonne, Massimo; Testa, Roberto; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-05-01

    Genetic association studies of age-related, chronic human diseases often suffer from a lack of power to detect modest effects. Here we propose an alternative approach of including healthy centenarians as a more homogeneous and extreme control group. As a proof of principle we focused on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assessed /genotypic associations of 31 SNPs associated with T2D, diabetes complications and metabolic diseases and SNPs of genes relevant for telomere stability and age-related diseases. We hypothesized that the frequencies of risk variants are inversely correlated with decreasing health and longevity. We performed association analyses comparing diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls followed by association analyses with extreme phenotypic groups (T2D patients with complications and centenarians). Results drew attention to rs7903146 (TCF7L2 gene) that showed a constant increase in the frequencies of risk genotype (TT) from centenarians to diabetic patients who developed macro-complications and the strongest genotypic association was detected when diabetic patients were compared to centenarians (p_value = 9.066*10⁻⁷). We conclude that robust and biologically relevant associations can be obtained when extreme phenotypes, even with a small sample size, are compared.

  14. Recommendations for age-appropriate education of children and adolescents with diabetes and their parents in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Martin, Delphine; Lange, Karin; Sima, Alexandra; Kownatka, Dagmar; Skovlund, Søren; Danne, Thomas; Robert, Jean-Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of education and offer general and organizational principles of education, detailed curricula at different ages and stages of diabetes, and recommendations on models, methods, and tools to attain educative objectives. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines give the most elaborate and detailed descriptions and recommendations on the practice of education, which other national guidelines address on specific aspects of education and care. The aim of the work package on education developed by Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in the European Union: Working to Create Centers of Reference (SWEET) project was not to generate new guidelines but to evaluate how the existing guidelines were implemented in some pediatric diabetes reference centers. The SWEET members have completed a questionnaire that elaborates on the many aspects of delivery of education. This survey highlights a profound diversity of practices across centers in Europe, in terms of organization as well as the practices and the content of initial and continuing education. A toolbox is being developed within SWEET to facilitate exchanges on all aspects of education and to establish a process of validation of materials, tools, written structured age-adjusted programs, and evaluation procedures for the education of children and adolescents with diabetes.

  15. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  16. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the "normal-weight metabolically obese" phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority.

  17. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  18. Aging and a long-term diabetes mellitus increase expression of 1 α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptors in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Vuica, Ana; Ferhatović Hamzić, Lejla; Vukojević, Katarina; Jerić, Milka; Puljak, Livia; Grković, Ivica; Filipović, Natalija

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with serious liver complications. As a metabolic chronic disease, DM is very common in the elderly. Recent studies suggest ameliorating effects of vitamin D on metabolic and oxidative stress in the liver tissue in an experimental model of DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and 1α-hydroxylase, the key enzyme for the production of active vitamin D form (calcitriol) in the liver during long-term diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) in aging rats. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of liver expression of 1α-hydroxylase and VDRs during aging in long-term streptozotocin-induced DM1. 1α-Hydroxylase was identified in the monocyte/macrophage system of the liver. In addition to the nuclear expression, we also observed the expression of VDR in membranes of lipid droplets within hepatocytes. Aging and long-term DM1 resulted in significant increases in the number of 1α-hydroxylase immunoreactive cells, as well as the percentage of strongly positive VDR hepatocytes. In conclusion, the liver has the capacity for active vitamin D synthesis in its monocyte/macrophage system that is substantially increased in aging and long-term diabetes mellitus. These conditions are also characterized by significant increases in vitamin D receptor expression in hepatocytes. The present study suggests that VDR signaling system could be a potential target in prevention of liver complications caused by diabetes and aging.

  19. Improved prognosis of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Jensen, Majken L; Carstensen, Bendix; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Hovind, Peter; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The natural history of diabetic nephropathy offered an average survival of only 5-7 years. During the past decades, multiple changes in therapy and lifestyle have occurred. The prognosis of diabetic nephropathy after implementing stricter control of blood pressure (including increased use of long-term renin-angiotensin system inhibition), lipids, and glycemia, along with less smoking and other lifestyle and treatment advancements, is inadequately analyzed. To clarify this, we studied 497 patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy at the Steno Diabetes Center and compared them with previous data, obtained using identical criteria at our hospital. The glomerular filtration rate, measured yearly by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, was a mean of 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. The mean glomerular filtration rate decline was significantly reduced by 19% (95% confidence interval 5-34) from previously 4.0 to 3.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2/year. During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 29% of participants doubled their plasma creatinine or developed end-stage renal disease. Mortality risk was similar to our prior study (hazard ratio 1.05 (0.76-1.43). However, after age adjustment, as both diabetes and nephropathy onset occurred later in life, mortality was reduced by 30%. Risk factors for decline in glomerular filtration rate, death, and other renal end points were generally in agreement with prior studies. Thus, with current treatment of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, the prognosis and loss of renal function has improved along with better control of modifiable risk factors.

  20. Transfer learning based classification of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Karri, S. P. K.; Chakraborty, Debjani; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm for identifying retinal pathologies given retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our approach fine-tunes a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN), GoogLeNet, to improve its prediction capability (compared to random initialization training) and identifies salient responses during prediction to understand learned filter characteristics. We considered a data set containing subjects with diabetic macular edema, or dry age-related macular degeneration, or no pathology. The fine-tuned CNN could effectively identify pathologies in comparison to classical learning. Our algorithm aims to demonstrate that models trained on non-medical images can be fine-tuned for classifying OCT images with limited training data. PMID:28270969

  1. Genome-wide association studies in aging-related processes such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments allow to genotype several hundreds of thousands of genetic variants in a single person in one step. This enables genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by genotyping a large number of patients with diseases of interest and controls at reasonable costs. Compared to a hypothesis-driven candidate gene approach the hypothesis-free GWAS can identify new susceptibility genes without making any a priori biological assumptions. They permit to identify genes involved in pathways which until now were unknown to be involved in a certain phenotype. GWAS are therefore a new and very powerful tool to identify genetic contributors to aging-related phenotypes. This paper provides a short overview about design and methods of GWAS and reviews recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and cancer using GWAS.

  2. Metabolic predictors of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular attack in elderly diabetic individuals: difference in risk by age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose levels are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in middle-aged diabetic individuals; however, the risk among the elderly, especially the very elderly, is not well known. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict IHD and cerebrovascular attack (CVA) in the elderly and to investigate their differences by age. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) with 5.5 years of follow-up. A total of 4,014 patients with type 2 diabetes and without previous IHD or CVA (1,936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years, median 70 years; <65 years old, n = 1,261; 65 to 74 years old, n = 1,731; and ≥ 75 years old, n = 1,016) were recruited on a consecutive outpatient basis from 40 hospitals throughout Japan. Lipids, glucose, and other factors related to IHD or CVA risk, such as blood pressure (BP), were investigated using the multivariate Cox hazard model. Results One hundred fifty-three cases of IHD and 104 CVAs (7.8 and 5.7/1,000 people per year, respectively) occurred over 5.5 years. Lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and female gender were correlated with IHD in patients ≥75 years old (hazard ratio (HR):0.629, P < 0.01 and 1.132, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, systolic BP (SBP), HbA1C, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were correlated with IHD in subjects <65 years old (P < 0.05), and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was correlated with IHD in all subjects. HDL-C was correlated with CVA in patients ≥75 years old (HR: 0.536, P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier estimator curves showed that IHD occurred more frequently in patients <65 years old in the highest quartile of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. In patients ≥75 years old, IHD and CVA were both the most frequent among those with the lowest HDL-C levels. Conclusions IHD and CVA in late elderly diabetic patients were predicted by HDL-C. LDL-C, HbA1C, SBP and non-HDL-C are risk factors for

  3. Chrysin, a PPAR-γ agonist improves myocardial injury in diabetic rats through inhibiting AGE-RAGE mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rani, Neha; Bharti, Saurabh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Nag, T C; Ray, Ruma; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2016-04-25

    AGE-RAGE interaction mediated oxidative stress and inflammation is the key mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Inhibition of AGE-RAGE axis by several PPAR-γ agonists has shown positive results in ameliorating cardio-metabolic disease conditions. Chrysin, a natural flavonoid has shown to possess PPAR-γ agonist activity along with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chrysin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats. In male albino Wistar rats, diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg, i.p.). After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were treated with vehicle (1.5 mL/kg, p.o.), chrysin (60 mg/kg, p.o.) or PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days. Simultaneously, on 27th and 28th day myocardial injury was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c.). Chrysin significantly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction as reflected by improved MAP, ±LVdP/dtmax and LVEDP in diabetic rats. This improvement was associated with increased PPAR-γ expression and reduced RAGE expression in diabetic rats. Chrysin significantly decreased inflammation through inhibiting NF-κBp65/IKK-β expression and TNF-α level. Additionally, chrysin significantly reduced apoptosis as indicated by augmented Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Furthermore, chrysin inhibited nitro-oxidative stress by normalizing the alteration in 8-OHdG, GSH, TBARS, NO and CAT levels and Nox4, MnSOD, eNOS and NT expressions. Co-administration of GW9662 significantly blunted the chrysin mediated cardioprotective effect as there was increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis markers. Chrysin significantly ameliorated isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats via PPAR-γ activation and inhibition of AGE-RAGE mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.

  4. Age- and Sex-related Prevalence and Drug Utilization Pattern in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Comorbidity with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Haroled Peter, P L; Bhavani, M Lakshmi; Naresh, P; Ramana, M V

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 250 cases of type 2 diabetes management was conducted in a governmental tertiary care hospital of urban south India to determine the comparative prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases in diabetic population, core drug use indicators and drug utilization pattern in the management of diabetics entirely and with cardiovascular diseases. Highest prevalent age group for type 2 diabetes/cardiovascular diseases (greater incidence in female than male) was 51-60 years. The 62.8% prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population ascertained in the study could provide an evidence-based rationale for the World Health Organization guidelines for the management of hypertension in type 2 diabetics. Incidence of polypharmacy (6.06, the mean number of total drug products prescribed); 59.26% of encounters prescribed antibiotics; 17.6 and 18.5 min of average consultation and dispensing time, respectively; 100% of drugs actually dispensed and adequately labeled; 81.26% of patients having knowledge of correct dosage and average drug cost of Indian Rupees 145.54 per prescription were the core drug use indicators found mainly. Moreover, drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List were more than 90% and thereby indicated the drug use in this set-up quite rational. Around 71.09% of cardiovascular agents prescribed by generic name revealed the cost effective medical care. Among the agents in type 2 diabetes management, Actrapid(®) (35.43%) was the highest. Among the cardiovascular agents prescribed, lasix (19.37%) was the highest. Cardiovascular agents prescribed orally by 76.48% signified the good prescription habit indicating the improved patients' adherence to the treatment. The present study emphasizes the need of early detection of hypertension as a preliminary diagnostic parameter of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics and appropriate management through concomitant therapy of cardiovascular drugs to

  5. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses.

  6. Hardcore smoking among Italian men and women.

    PubMed

    Ferketich, Amy K; Gallus, Silvano; Colombo, Paolo; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    Hardcore smokers are described as heavy smokers who have not attempted to quit and have no future intentions to quit. The objectives of this study were to characterize hardcore and nonhardcore smokers in Italy. The data for this analysis were collected from 3057 Italians aged 15 years and older in March and April 2007 who were randomly selected to be representative of the population. Hardcore smoking, defined as consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no earlier quit attempts and no future intention to quit, was examined in individuals who were aged 26 years and older. Hardcore smokers were compared with their nonhardcore counterparts with respect to sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, perceived stress, and attitudes and beliefs about smoking. The smoking prevalence overall was 23.5% (27.9% among males and 19.3% among females). An estimated 7.8% of individuals were hardcore smokers (9.7% among males and 6% among females), which translates into 33.1% of all smokers in Italy. Age at smoking initiation, occupation (among males), home smoking rules, and perceived stress (among females) distinguished hardcore from nonhardcore smokers. This is the highest prevalence of hardcore smoking that has been reported in the literature to date. This reflects the general attitude toward smoking cessation in Italy. Although the indoor smoking ban has helped to reduce the rate of smoking, it is clearly not enough. Stronger tobacco control measures are warranted.

  7. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  8. Lung cancer and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P; Maisonneuve, P

    1995-06-01

    The dominant role of tobacco smoking in the causation of lung cancer has been repeatedly demonstrated over the past 50 years. Current lung cancer rates reflect cigarette smoking habits of men and women in the past decades, but not necessarily current smoking patterns, since there is an interval of several decades between the change in smoking habits in a population and its consequences on lung cancer rates. Over 90% of lung cancer may be avoidable simply through avoidance of cigarette smoking. There is at present a huge premature loss of life world-wide caused by smoking. Rates of lung cancer present in central and eastern Europe at the present time are higher than those ever before recorded elsewhere; lung cancer has increased 10-fold in men and eightfold in women in Japan since 1950. There is a world-wide epidemic of smoking among young women which will be translated into increasing rates of tobacco-related disease, including cancer, in the coming decades. There is another epidemic of lung cancer and tobacco-related deaths building up in China as the cohorts of men in whom tobacco smoking became popular reach ages where cancer is an important hazard. Many solutions have been attempted to reduce cigarette smoking and increasingly many countries are enacting legislation to curb this habit. Cigarette smoking remains the number one target for Public Health action aimed at reducing cancer risk in the general population. General practitioners, hospital physicians and everyone working in oncology have a particularly important exemplary role to play in this process.

  9. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  10. [Correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus in aged ≥18 years adults in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, Z X; Yang, Y; Wang, C X; Wang, L M; Wang, L H

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand the correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults in China. Methods: The database of China' s 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among people aged ≥18 years was used to analyze the demographic characteristics of subjects with self-reporting gingival bleeding and the prevalence of major chronic diseases among adults. Correlation and interaction analyses were conducted on the relationships between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and interaction of age and gingival bleeding, age and hypertension, age and dyslipidemia, age and gender on the prevalence of T2DM. Results: Among 93 647 adults surveyed, 87.4% were in Han ethnic group. The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was higher in females (63.6%) than in males (36.4%). The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was highest (30.1%) in adults with middle school education level. Among the adults aged 45-60 years, 12.8%(2 839/22 179) had T2MD but no gingival bleeding, 15.6% (163/1 044) had both frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.08-1.54) and the interaction with age had influence on T2DM (P<0.005). In males, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.08-1.56, P=0.005). In hypertension group, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.46), and interaction of hypertension and gingival bleeding had influence on T2DM (P<0.05). Conclusions: The positive correlation between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM was observed in adults surveyed, and the interaction of age and hypertension had influence on prevalence of T2DM. Frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM in males either.

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  12. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  13. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  14. Lycopene powers the inhibition of glycation-induced diabetic nephropathy: a novel approach to halt the AGE-RAGE axis menace.

    PubMed

    Tabrez, Shams; Al-Shali, Khalid Zaki; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-01-01

    There are accumulating evidences suggesting that interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors (RAGEs) induces oxidative stress and subsequently encourages inflammatory reactions, thereby resulting in progressive alteration in renal architecture and function. Interventions that reduce the tissue burden of AGEs have yielded significant positive results in inhibiting the progression of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Lycopene, a carotenoid, plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress and hence might prove an efficient antiglycating agent. Current study investigates the effect of lycopene in downregulating the menace caused by ribose-induced glycation both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that treatment with lycopene decelerated the ribose induced AGE formation in HK-2 cells and in rat kidneys thereby downregulating the expression RAGE. HK-2 cells with decreased levels of RAGE showed a decline in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) expressions. Administration of ribose not only induced hyperglycemia in Wistar rats but also developed diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, lycopene was found effective in relieving the biochemical symptoms of DN. Thus lycopene provides protection against development of diabetic nephropathy and ameliorates renal function by halting AGE-RAGE axis.

  15. Development and evaluation of a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Chinese rural population based on the RuralDiab Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984

  16. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Brüske, Irene; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Meisinger, Christa; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 470 children participating in two prospective birth cohorts. Of those 276 were selected population based and enriched with 194 children exceeding the 85th percentile of body mass index in this age group. Children already having diabetes type 1 or 2 at the age of 10 years were excluded. Fasting blood insulin and glucose levels and calculated HOMA index for insulin resistance assessment were analysed using generalised additive models. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Insulin resistance was increased by 24% in children frequently exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood (MR(adj) = 1.24, p = 0.001), while glucose levels were not. Exclusion of prenatally exposed children did not attenuate the association (MR(adj) = 1.25, p = 0.006). After stratification, the effect sizes were identical within overweight children and the population based sample of children. Insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels were increasing with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked in children's home. Maternal smoking during the third trimester of pregnancy increased children's insulin levels (MR(adj) = 1.19, p = 0.037), and even more so, if children were exclusively breastfed after birth (MR(adj) = 1.31, p = 0.016). Increased mean ratios were found for smoking of a third person in addition to maternal smoking. Positive dose-dependent associations and independent effects of postnatal exposure suggest involvement of environmental tobacco smoke in the risk for development of insulin resistance in children.

  17. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In