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Sample records for age smoking diabetes

  1. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts. PMID:25665487

  2. Smoking and Diabetes: Does the Increased Risk Ever Go Away?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juhua; Rossouw, Jacques; Tong, Elisa; Giovino, Gary A.; Lee, Cathy C.; Chen, Chu; Ockene, Judith K.; Qi, Lihong; Margolis, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies reported that smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk of type 2 diabetes than continuing to smoke. However, the duration of increased diabetes risk following smoking cessation needs further investigation. We followed 135,906 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, over an average of 11 years to examine the association between smoking cessation and risk of diabetes using Cox proportional hazard multivariable-adjusted regression models. Compared with that for never smokers, the risk for diabetes was significantly elevated in current smokers (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.36) but was even higher in women who quit smoking during the first 3 years of follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.63). Among former smokers, the risk of diabetes decreased significantly as the time since quitting increased and was equal to that of never smokers following a cessation period of 10 years. In new quitters with low cumulative exposure (<20 pack-years), diabetes risk was not elevated following smoking cessation. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes in former smokers returns to that in never smokers 10 years after quitting, and even more quickly in lighter smokers. PMID:23817918

  3. Diabetes in the Aged

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, Wulf

    1970-01-01

    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  4. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Shamima; Okazaki, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Pham, Ngoc M.; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a large database. Methods The present study included 53,930 Japanese employees, aged 15 to 83 years, who received health check-up and did not have diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol), or receiving medication for diabetes. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of diabetes. Results During 3.9 years of median follow-up, 2,441 (4.5%) individuals developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for diabetes were 1 (reference), 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30) and 1.34 (1.22 to 1.48) for never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Diabetes risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarette consumption among current smokers (P for trend <0.001). Although the relative risk of diabetes was greater among subjects with lower BMIs (< 23 kg/m2), attributable risk was greater in subjects with higher BMIs (≥ 23 kg/m2). Compared with individuals who had never smoked, former smokers who quit less than 5 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 years or more exhibited hazards ratios for diabetes of 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62), 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51), and 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23), respectively. Conclusions Results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of T2D, which may decrease to the level of a never smoker after 10 years of smoking cessation. PMID:26200457

  5. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  6. The Relationship of Diabetes and Smoking Status to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Hsieh; Lu, Chia-Wen; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship of diabetes and smoking status to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation relative to diabetes status with subsequent deaths from HCC. We followed up 51,164 participants (aged 44–94 years) without chronic hepatitis B or C from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008 enrolled from nationwide health screening units in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcomes were deaths from HCC. During the study period, there were 253 deaths from HCC. History of diabetes was associated with deaths from HCC for both total participants (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–4.23) and ever smokers with current or past smoking habits (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10–3.34). Both never smokers (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.65) and quitters (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39–0.97) had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths compared with current smokers. Among all ever smokers with current or past smoking habits, as compared with diabetic smokers, only quitters without diabetes had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18–0.78). However, quitters with diabetes were observed to have a similar risk of deaths from HCC when compared with smokers with diabetes. Regarding the interaction between diabetes and smoking status on adjusted HCC-related deaths, with the exception of quitters without history of diabetes, all groups had significantly higher HRs than nondiabetic never smokers. There was also a significant multiplicative interaction between diabetes and smoking status on risk of dying from HCC (P = 0.033). We suggest clinicians should promote diabetes prevention and never smoking to associate with reduced subsequent HCC mortality even in adults without chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:26871803

  7. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98) for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48) for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16) for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54) for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09). No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females. PMID:22938088

  8. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  9. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843

  10. Most Americans Support Rise in Legal Smoking Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159148.html Most Americans Support Rise in Legal Smoking Age Survey finds wide support in all regions ... survey finds most Americans support pushing the legal smoking age even higher. Across all regions of the ...

  11. The Influence of Smoking on Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Kuan-Jen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Chien, Shun-Tien; Suk, Chi-Won; Chiang, Chen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Both smoking and diabetes can increase the risk and influence the manifestations and outcomes of tuberculosis (TB). It is not clear whether the influence of smoking on pulmonary TB differs between non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Herein, we assessed the manifestations and outcomes of TB in relation to smoking in both diabetic and non-diabetic TB patients. Methodology/Principal Findings All diabetic culture-positive pulmonary TB patients notified from 2005–2010 at three teaching hospitals in Taiwan were enrolled. A culture-positive pulmonary TB patient without DM who was notified to the health authority immediately prior to each diabetic TB patient was selected for comparison. The 972 patients in this study cohort included 365 (37.6%) non-diabetic non-smokers, 149 (15.3%) non-diabetic smokers, 284 (29.2%) diabetic non-smokers, and 174 (17.9%) diabetic smokers. The adjusted relative risk of a pretreatment positive smear for a smoker compared with a non-smoker was 2.19 (95% CI 1.38–3.47) in non-diabetic patients and 2.23 (95% CI 1.29–3.87) in diabetic culture-positive pulmonary TB patients. The adjusted relative risk for a positive smear among diabetic smokers was 5.61 (95% CI 3.35–9.41) compared with non-diabetic non-smokers. Smoking was significantly associated with an increased frequency of bilateral lung parenchyma involvement (AdjOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.16–2.93), far-advanced pulmonary TB (AdjOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04–3.50), cavitary lesions (AdjOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.29–3.20), and unfavorable outcomes of TB (AdjOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) in non-diabetic patients. However, smoking was not associated with cavitary lung parenchyma lesions regarding the location, number or size of the cavity in diabetic TB patients. Conclusions/Significance Smoking and diabetes have joint effects on a pretreatment positive smear. Diabetic smokers had more than a 5-fold increased risk of a pretreatment positive smear than did non-diabetic non-smokers, indicating

  12. [Skin graft, smoking and diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Fidalgo-Rodríguez, Félix T; Gaston, Kate L; Rioja, Luis F; Thomas, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and hyperglycemia decrease the success of skin graft survival in specific circumstances. It is well known that smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 increase the oxidative and impair the endothelial function. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if smoking and DM type 2 are factors associated with lower skin graft survival, in different etiologies of the injury associated to the skin loss. It was a bicentric, retrospective, cross sectional case control study, carried out on 2457 medical patients who met the inclusion criteria. It was carried out over a 10 years period between January 2000-December 2009, at Reina Sofía University Hospital (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA). The percentage of successful graft for each group and its control were analyzed by Chi-square test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Smoking and DM type 2 decreased the percentage of skin graft survival when compared with their control groups. DM type 2 was associated with greater negative success on skin graft survival than smoking when compared with their control groups. There was a statistically significant drop in skin graft of 18% in smoking group (range: 68-86%) and 25% in DM type 2 group (53-78%). The OR showed a clear association between the risk factors studied and the lower skin graft success, being stronger for DM type 2. In conclusion, DM type 2 and smoking are factors associated to lower skin graft take. PMID:23241288

  13. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  14. Diabetes and ageing-induced vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Assar, Mariam El; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-04-15

    Diabetes and the ageing process independently increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since incidence of diabetes increases as people get older, the diabetic older adults represent the largest population of diabetic subjects. This group of patients would potentially be threatened by the development of CVD related to both ageing and diabetes. The relationship between CVD, ageing and diabetes is explained by the negative impact of these conditions on vascular function. Functional and clinical evidence supports the role of vascular inflammation induced by the ageing process and by diabetes in vascular impairment and CVD. Inflammatory mechanisms in both aged and diabetic vasculature include pro-inflammatory cytokines, vascular hyperactivation of nuclear factor-кB, increased expression of cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, imbalanced expression of pro/anti-inflammatory microRNAs, and dysfunctional stress-response systems (sirtuins, Nrf2). In contrast, there are scarce data regarding the interaction of these mechanisms when ageing and diabetes co-exist and its impact on vascular function. Older diabetic animals and humans display higher vascular impairment and CVD risk than those either aged or diabetic, suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation in ageing creates a vascular environment favouring the mechanisms of vascular damage driven by diabetes. Further research is needed to determine the specific inflammatory mechanisms responsible for exacerbated vascular impairment in older diabetic subjects in order to design effective therapeutic interventions to minimize the impact of vascular inflammation. This would help to prevent or delay CVD and the specific clinical manifestations (cognitive decline, frailty and disability) promoted by diabetes-induced vascular impairment in the elderly. PMID:26435167

  15. Smoking, Radiotherapy, Diabetes and Osteoporosis as Risk Factors for Dental Implant Failure: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Nizhou; Xu, Xinchen; Qu, Xinhua; Lu, Eryi

    2013-01-01

    Background There are conflicting reports as to the association between smoking, radiotherapy, diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of dental implant failure. We undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between smoking, radiotherapy, diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of dental implant failure. Methods A comprehensive research on MEDLINE and EMBASE, up to January 2013, was conducted to identify potential studies. References of relevant studies were also searched. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool estimates of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 51 studies were identified in this meta-analysis, with more than 40,000 dental implants placed under risk-threatening conditions. The pooled RRs showed a direct association between smoking (n = 33; RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.67–2.21) and radiotherapy (n = 16; RR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.49–3.51) and the risk of dental implant failure, whereas no inverse impact of diabetes (n = 5; RR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.62–1.32) on the risk of dental implant failure was found. The influence of osteoporosis on the risk of dental implant failure was direct but not significant (n = 4; RR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.79–1.52). The subgroup analysis indicated no influence of study design, geographical location, length of follow-up, sample size, or mean age of recruited patients. Conclusions Smoking and radiotherapy were associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure. The relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of implant failure warrant further study. PMID:23940794

  16. Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046

  17. Aging, Resistance Training, and Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Kevin P.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Winett, Richard A.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2011-01-01

    With the aging of the baby-boom generation and increases in life expectancy, the American population is growing older. Aging is associated with adverse changes in glucose tolerance and increased risk of diabetes; the increasing prevalence of diabetes among older adults suggests a clear need for effective diabetes prevention approaches for this population. The purpose of paper is to review what is known about changes in glucose tolerance with advancing age and the potential utility of resistance training (RT) as an intervention to prevent diabetes among middle-aged and older adults. Age-related factors contributing to glucose intolerance, which may be improved with RT, include improvements in insulin signaling defects, reductions in tumor necrosis factor-α, increases in adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, and reductions in total and abdominal visceral fat. Current RT recommendations and future areas for investigation are presented. PMID:21197110

  18. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group): nondiabetic (ND) and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D), diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS) and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP). At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development. PMID:21851636

  19. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  20. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  1. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care. ITADI Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies about smoking cessation in diabetics in primary care, a level of healthcare that plays an essential role in these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in diabetic patients in primary care. Methods/Design Cluster randomized trial, controlled and multicentric. Randomization unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 546 diabetic smokers older than 14 years of age whose disease is controlled by one of the primary care teams in the study. Outcome Measures: Continuous tobacco abstinence (a person who has not smoked for at least six months and with a CO level of less than 6 ppm measured by a cooximeter) , evolution in the Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change, number of cigarettes/day, length of the visit. Point of assessment: one- year post- inclusion in the study. Intervention: Brief motivational interview for diabetic smokers at the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage, intensive motivational interview with pharmacotherapy for diabetic smokers in the preparation-action stage and reinforcing intevention in the maintenance stage. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive analysis of all variables will be done, as well as a multilevel logistic regression and a Poisson regression. All analyses will be done with an intention to treatment basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Statistical packages: SPSS15, STATA10 y HLM6

  2. Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring's Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, David J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Beyer, Jennifer; Hillier, Teresa A.; Liese, Angela D.; Mayer-Davis, Beth; Loots, Beth; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Liu, Lenna; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Linder, Barbara; Dabelea, Dana

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent's diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth's birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS—Youth with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a parent with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (mother 39.3%; father 21.2%) than youth with type 1 diabetes (5.3 and 6.7%, respectively, P < 0.001 for each). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed 1.68 years earlier among those exposed to diabetes in utero (n = 174) than among those whose mothers’ diabetes was diagnosed later (P = 0.018, controlled for maternal diagnosis age, paternal diabetes, sex, and race/ethnicity). Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for 269 youth with and without in utero exposure did not differ significantly (difference 0.96 year, P = 0.403 after adjustment). Controlled for the father's age of diagnosis, father's diabetes before the child's birth was not associated with age at diagnosis (P = 0.078 for type 1 diabetes; P = 0.140 for type 2 diabetes). CONCLUSIONS—Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed at younger ages among those exposed to hyperglycemia in utero. Among youth with type 1 diabetes, the effect of the intrauterine exposure was not significant when controlled for mother's age of diagnosis. This study helps explain why other studies have found higher age-specific rates of type 2 diabetes among offspring of women with diabetes. PMID:18694977

  3. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Screened by OGTT than Non-Smoking in Chinese Men with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peizhu; Lu, Jun; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Different studies have produced conflicting results regarding the association between smoking and diabetes mellitus, and detailed analysis of this issue in Chinese males based on nationwide samples is lacking. We explored the association between cigarette smoking and newly-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) in Chinese males using a population-based case-control analysis; 16,286 male participants without previously diagnosed diabetes were included. Prediabetes and NDM were diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test. The cohort included 6,913 non-smokers (42.4%), 1,479 ex-smokers (9.1%) and 7,894 current smokers (48.5%). Age-adjusted glucose concentrations (mmol/L) were significantly lower at fasting and 120 min in current smokers than non-smokers (5.25 vs. 5.30, 6.46 vs. 6.55, respectively, both P < 0.01). After adjustment for demographic and behavioral variables (age, region, alcohol consumption status, physical activity, education, and family history of diabetes), logistic regression revealed significant negative associations between smoking and NDM in males of a normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.75, P = 0.007; waist circumference < 90 cm: AOR = 0.71, P = 0.001) and males living in southern China (AOR = 0.75, P = 0.009), but not in males who were overweight/obese, males with central obesity, or males living in northern China. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers were less likely to be centrally obese or have elevated BP (AOR: 0.82 and 0.74, both P < 0.05), and heavy smokers (≥ 20 pack-years) were less likely to have elevated TG (AOR = 0.84, P = 0.012) among males of a normal weight. There were no significant associations between quitting smoking and metabolic disorders either among males of a normal weight or males who were overweight/obese. In conclusion, smokers have a lower likelihood of NDM than non-smokers among Chinese males with a lower BMI/smaller waist. PMID:26954355

  4. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  6. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: biochemical mechanisms and patient support.

    PubMed

    Willeford, Kevin T; Rapp, Jerry

    2012-11-01

    A small percentage of the population associates smoking with ocular disease. Most optometrists do not stress the importance of smoking cessation to their patients, and the centrality of smoking regarding the risk for ocular disease is not emphasized in optometric education. Age-related macular degeneration has strong epidemiological associations with smoking, and so serves as an appropriate model for the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the eye. This article aims to provide basic scientific information to optometrists and optometry students so that they can better understand the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and provide education and support to their patients wishing to stop smoking. PMID:23034338

  7. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial

    PubMed Central

    Blomster, Juuso I; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Hillis, Graham S; Harrap, Stephen; Neal, Bruce; Poulter, Neil; Mancia, Giuseppe; Chalmers, John; Huxley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In general populations, the adverse effects of smoking on coronary risk have been demonstrated to be greater in women than in men; whether this is true for individuals with diabetes is unclear. Design Cohort study. Setting 20 countries worldwide participating in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. Participants 11 140 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥55 years and in cardiovascular risk at the time of randomisation. Primary and secondary outcome measures Major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)), all cardiovascular events (major cardiovascular event or peripheral arterial disease or transient ischaemic attack), and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures were major coronary events (fatal and non-fatal MI), major cerebrovascular events (fatal and non-fatal stroke), nephropathy (new or worsening renal disease), and all cancer. Results At baseline, 6466 (56% women) participants were never-smokers, 1550 (28% women) were daily smokers and 3124 (21% women) were former smokers. Median follow-up time was 5 years. In Cox regression models after multiple adjustments, compared with never smoking, daily smoking was associated with increased risk of all primary and secondary outcomes with the exception of major cerebrovascular disease. Only for major coronary events was there any evidence of a stronger effect in women than in men (ratio of the adjusted HRs women:men; 1.64 (0.83 to 3.26) p=0.08). For all other outcomes considered, the hazards of smoking were similar in men and women. Quitting smoking was associated with a 30% reduction in all-cause mortality (p=0.001) in both sexes. Conclusions In individuals with diabetes, the effects of smoking on all major forms of cardiovascular disease are equally as hazardous in women and men with the possible exception of major coronary events

  8. General and Gender Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among the Younger and Older Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mukhtar, Samir Burhanaldin; Fadhil, Nabeel Najib; Hanna, Bassam Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the characteristics of cardiovascular risk factors in regard to age (before and after 60) and gender. Many reports refer to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the younger type 2 diabetics in comparison with the older population. Methods The study included 462 randomly recruited type 2 diabetic subjects (above and below 60 years) attending Al-Zahrawi Private Hospital in Mosul City-Iraq, during the period from June to August 2011. They were analyzed in regard to age, duration of diabetes, smoking, socioeconomic status, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c and serum lipids. Data were analyzed using chi-square and unpaired Z test. Results Duration of diabetes, diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, number of hypercholesterolemic patients, number of patients having unfavorable total cholesterol/HDL ratio (≥5) and positive family history of coronary heart disease were all significantly higher in the younger diabetics. In addition, younger diabetic females were distinguished by a larger number of hypertensive patients, higher level of systolic blood pressure, higher means of body mass index, total cholesterol and LDL, and larger number of patients having low HDL-C (<1 mmol/L). The younger diabetic males were distinct by a larger number of smokers, number of smoked cigarettes/day, and longer duration of smoking. All parameters ranged between p<0.05 and p<0.005. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly higher among younger type 2 diabetics (<60 years), particularly females. PMID:23074547

  9. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  10. The effect of occupational exposure on pro/antioxidant balance in the blood of non-smoking and smoking smelters with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bizoń, A; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, J; Milnerowicz, M; Śliwińska-Mossoń, M; Milnerowicz, H

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic, lead and cadmium, potent environmental toxicants have been reported to induce diabetes mellitus, but their potential biological mechanism(s) have not been much investigated. The present study was designed to correlate parameters of pro/antioxidant balance with occupational exposure on heavy metals and smoking in smelters with diabetes compared on control group. The results showed a significant increase in the concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead in the blood and urine of smelters, while smoking caused a further increase in the concentration of these metals. Increasing γ-glutamyltransferase activity and lead concentration due to occupational exposure in copper foundry, tobacco smoke and co-existing diabetes were observed. Also these factors have synergistic effects on metallothionein and glutathione concentrations as well as glutathione dependent enzymes activities. Our data suggests that sub-chronic arsenic, lead and cadmium exposure induces diabetic condition which may be mediated due to increased oxidative stress in blood. PMID:27137107

  11. Pancreatic cancer: associations of inflammatory potential of diet, cigarette smoking and long-standing diabetes.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Samuel O; Oberg, Ann L; Shivappa, Nitin; Bamlet, William R; Chaffee, Kari G; Steck, Susan E; Hébert, James R; Petersen, Gloria M

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies show strong associations between pancreatic cancer (PC) and inflammatory stimuli or conditions such as cigarette smoking and diabetes, suggesting that inflammation may play a key role in PC. Studies of dietary patterns and cancer outcomes also suggest that diet might influence an individual's risk of PC by modulating inflammation. We therefore examined independent and joint associations between inflammatory potential of diet, cigarette smoking and long-standing (≥5 years) type II diabetes in relation to risk of PC. Analyses included data from 817 cases and 1756 controls. Inflammatory potential of diet was measured using the dietary inflammatory index (DII), calculated from dietary intake assessed via a 144-item food frequency questionnaire, and adjusted for energy intake. Information on smoking and diabetes were obtained via risk factor questionnaires. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher DII scores, reflecting a more proinflammatory diet, were associated with increased risk of PC [odds ratio (OR)Quintile 5 versus 1 = 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.87-3.46, P trend < 0.0001]. Excess risk of PC also was observed among former (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07-1.54) and current (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 2.28-5.07) smokers compared with never smokers, and among participants with long-standing diabetes (OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 2.02-4.72) compared with nondiabetics. Joint associations were observed for the combined effects of having greater than median DII score, and being a current smoker (OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 3.00-7.65) or having long-standing diabetes (OR = 6.03, 95% CI = 3.41-10.85). These findings suggest that a proinflammatory diet may act as cofactor with cigarette smoking and diabetes to increase risk of PC beyond the risk of any of these factors alone. PMID:26905587

  12. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  13. Effects of age and diabetes on scleral stiffness.

    PubMed

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Pijanka, Jacek; Jefferys, Joan; Sorensen, Thomas; Quigley, Harry A; Boote, Craig; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-07-01

    The effects of diabetes on the collagen structure and material properties of the sclera are unknown but may be important to elucidate whether diabetes is a risk factor for major ocular diseases such as glaucoma. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the changes in scleral stiffness and collagen fiber alignment associated with diabetes. Posterior scleral shells from five diabetic donors and seven non-diabetic donors were pressurized to 30 mm Hg. Three-dimensional surface displacements were calculated during inflation testing using digital image correlation (DIC). After testing, each specimen was subjected to wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements of its collagen organization. Specimen-specific finite element models of the posterior scleras were generated from the experimentally measured geometry. An inverse finite element analysis was developed to determine the material properties of the specimens, i.e., matrix and fiber stiffness, by matching DIC-measured and finite element predicted displacement fields. Effects of age and diabetes on the degree of fiber alignment, matrix and collagen fiber stiffness, and mechanical anisotropy were estimated using mixed effects models accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Older age was associated with a lower degree of fiber alignment and larger matrix stiffness for both diabetic and non-diabetic scleras. However, the age-related increase in matrix stiffness was 87% larger in diabetic specimens compared to non-diabetic controls and diabetic scleras had a significantly larger matrix stiffness (p = 0.01). Older age was associated with a nearly significant increase in collagen fiber stiffness for diabetic specimens only (p = 0.06), as well as a decrease in mechanical anisotropy for non-diabetic scleras only (p = 0.04). The interaction between age and diabetes was not significant for all outcomes. This study suggests that the age-related increase in scleral stiffness is accelerated in eyes with

  14. Does smoking increase the risk of progression of nephropathy and/or cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and those without albuminuria?

    PubMed Central

    Bentata, Yassamine; Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Alaoui, Fatiha El; Haddiya, Intissar; Abouqal, Redouane

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cigarette smoking is probably the most complex and the least understood among the risk factors for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of smoking on progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and those without albuminuria. Methods: This is a prospective study. The Ethics Committee of Morocco’s Mohammed V University in Rabat approved the study protocol. Inclusion criteria targeted patients who were type 2 diabetics and who had nephrology follow up for at least 36 months. Results: A total of 671 cases of T2D were included. Mean age of all patients was 65 ± 11 years and 12.1% were smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between T2D patients with albuminuria according to absence of presence of smoking at the time of enrollment, at 1 year and 3 years of follow-up, concerning the median albumin excretion rate (mg/day): 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.59); 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.15) and 98 [56-281] vs. 124 [56-323] (p=0.52) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between T2D patients with albuminuria according to absence or presence of smoking at the time of enrollment and the end of follow-up, concerning cardiovascular events: 56 (12.3%) vs. 19 (28.4%) (p<0.001) and 66 (14.5%) vs. 19 (28.4%) (p=0.004) respectively. Conclusion: Smoking remains one of the most important modifiable risk factors for progression of renal and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients, thus adding to the burden of morbimortality. PMID:27335692

  15. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  16. The effect of aging on smoke optical properties and scavenging characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Aging of smoke in dense smoke plumes is known to alter its size distribution and scavenging characteristics. In this paper, I review data pertaining to these processes and compare them to model simulations of the coagulation of smoke. Model simulations of the degree of smoke coagulation in the first few days after a nuclear war are summarized. The predicted size of smoke particles after several days of coagulation is found to be larger than that of any data pertaining to the absorption properties of smoke. Thus, it is suggested that more relevant data on the absorption properties of smoke is needed. I also review aging experiments pertaining to the number of cloud condensation nuclei in a smoke sample. I show that the fraction of smoke particles which act as CCN after aging depends on the number of particles initially present in the aging chamber. Smoke from an acetylene flame can quickly coagulate to sizes wherein nearly all of the particles act as CCN. On the other hand, only 10% of the smoke particles from an outdoor fire of gasoline and diesel fuel became CCN after 30 hours of aging. The development of CCN concentrations in this experiment may have been quenched by low initial concentrations in the aging chamber. Both experiments are consistent with particles as small as 0.08 micron in radius (and perhaps even smaller) acting as CCN. Model simulations of the coagulation of smoke particles above a large, intense fire show that coagulation would allow approximately 50% of the particles to become larger than 0.08 micron before the plume reaches cloud base. Furthermore, aging over several days time would transform nearly all the particles into the scavengable size range.

  17. A look inside the diabetic brain: Contributors to diabetes-induced brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Wrighten, Shayna A.; Piroli, Gerardo G.; Grillo, Claudia A.; Reagan, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from diabetes is a problem that is gaining more acceptance and attention. Recent evidence suggests morphological, electrophysiological and cognitive changes, often observed in the hippocampus, in diabetic individuals. Many of the CNS changes observed in diabetic patients and animal models of diabetes are reminiscent of the changes seen in normal aging. The central commonalities between diabetes-induced and age-related CNS changes have led to the theory of advanced brain aging in diabetic patients. This review summarizes the findings of the literature as they relate to the relationship between diabetes and dementia and discusses some of the potential contributors to diabetes-induced CNS impairments. PMID:19022375

  18. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  19. Surgical treatment of Dupuytren’s disease – outcome and health economy in relation to smoking and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conventional treatment for Dupuytren’s disease is surgery. The introduction of alternative treatment strategies creates a need to track outcomes and costs relating to surgical treatment and risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes. This was the aim of the present study. Methods In a prospective study, the outcome of open surgical treatment for finger flexion contracture in Dupuytren’s disease (175 patients; 182 surgical procedures) was studied by evaluating valid QuickDASH forms answered by subjects before surgery and one year postoperatively. Data were also obtained from medical records, and preoperative declarations concerning health. Results In all subjects (median [25% - 75% percentiles] age 68 [62-73]), the QuickDASH score improved from 22 [9-36] to 5 [0-18]. Smokers (27/179 procedures) were younger and had a more severe degree of disease and dysfunction preoperatively than non-smokers, but the outcome of surgery did not differ between the groups. Subjects with diabetes (20/181 procedures) were younger than those without diabetes, but their disease severity or outcome did not differ. Hand specialists operated faster than residents, but the surgical outcome did not differ. Healthcare costs for surgery for Dupuytren’s contracture were $ 2392 (€ 1859), which were not higher among smokers or subjects with diabetes. Only 22 patients remained in hospital (2 [1-2.3] days) and 28 patients needed sick leave (28 [21-31] days). The occurrence of necrosis of skin flaps (12%) or infections (6%) was no more frequent among smokers or those with diabetes. Conclusions There is no difference in surgical outcome for finger flexion contracture in Dupuytren’s disease between smokers and non-smokers or between subjects with or without diabetes, although smokers had more severe preoperative contracture. The costs for surgical treatment for finger flexion contracture in Dupuytren’s disease should be viewed in relation to that for other treatment

  20. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  1. Association of relative telomere length with progression of chronic kidney disease in two cohorts: effect modification by smoking and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Ritchie, James; Lane, Beverley; Kalra, Philip A.; Ritz, Eberhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n = 166) and the CRISIS-Study (n = 889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage renal disease (both studies). 59 and 105 of the patients from MMKD and CRISIS experienced a progression of CKD. Mean standardized pooled RTL was 0.74 ± 0.29. In the meta-analysis shorter RTL at baseline showed a borderline association with CKD progression (HR = 1.07 [95%CI 1.00–1.15]; p = 0.06). We observed an effect modification of RTL and CKD progression by smoking and diabetes (p-values of interaction p = 0.02 and p = 0.09, respectively). Each 0.1 unit shorter RTL was significantly associated with an increased hazard for CKD progression in active-smokers by 44% (HR = 1.44 [1.16–1.81]; p = 0.001) and in patients with diabetes mellitus by 16% (HR = 1.16 [1.01–1.34]; p = 0.03). Estimates were adjusted for baseline age, sex, proteinuria and GFR. This study in two independent cohorts reinforces that RTL is a marker and potentially a pathogenetic factor for CKD progression. PMID:26149682

  2. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forga, Luis; Goñi, María José; Cambra, Koldo; García-Mouriz, Marta; Iriarte, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8) years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7%) developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age <10 years, the risk of retinopathy increased 2.5-, 3-, 3.3-, and 3.7-fold in the groups with onset at 10–14, 15–29, 30–44, and >44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy. PMID:27213158

  3. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  4. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Among various metabolic derangements implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication, advanced glycation end product (AGE) hypothesis is most compatible with the theory of 'hyperglycemic memory'. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complication, specially focusing on AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in this devastating disorder are also discussed here. PMID:18220586

  5. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... you quit, the greater the benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  6. Does passive smoking in early pregnancy increase the risk of small-for-gestational-age infants?

    PubMed Central

    Dejin-Karlsson, E; Hanson, B S; Ostergren, P O; Sjöberg, N O; Marsal, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants are more often exposed to passive smoking at home or at work. METHODS: Among a 1-year cohort of nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first prenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n = 826), 6.7% of infants were classified as small for their gestational age. RESULTS: Passive smoking in early pregnancy was shown to double a woman's risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant, independent of potential confounding factors such as age, height, weight, nationality, educational level, and the mother's own active smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7). A stratified analysis indicated interactional effects of maternal smoking and passive smoking on relative small-for-gestational-age risk. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an attributable risk estimate, a considerable reduction in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births could be reached if pregnant women were not exposed to passive smoking. PMID:9772856

  7. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  8. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  9. Correlation of Smoking and Myocardial Infarction Among Sudanese Male Patients Above 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418

  10. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364

  11. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  12. Rates of Complications and Mortality in Older Diabetes Patients: The Diabetes and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Elbert S.; Laiteerapong, Neda; Liu, Jennifer Y.; John, Priya M.; Moffet, Howard H.; Karter, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance In the coming decades, the population of older adults with diabetes is expected to grow substantially. Understanding the clinical course of diabetes in this population is critical for establishing evidence-based clinical practice recommendations, research priorities, allocating resources, and setting health policies. Objective Contrast rates of diabetes complications and mortality across age and diabetes duration categories. Design, Setting, Participants This cohort study (2004–2010) included 72,310 older (≥60 years of age) patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a large, integrated healthcare delivery system. Incidence densities (events per 1000 person-years (pys)) were calculated for each age category (60s, 70s, 80+ years) and duration of diabetes (shorter: 0–9 years vs. longer: 10+ years). Main Outcome Measures Incident acute hyperglycemic events, acute hypoglycemic events (hypoglycemia), microvascular complications [end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peripheral vascular disease, lower extremity amputation, advanced eye disease], cardiovascular complications [coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), congestive heart failure (CHF)], and all-cause mortality. Results Among older adults with diabetes of short duration, cardiovascular complications followed by hypoglycemia were the most common non-fatal complications. For example, among 70–79 year olds with short duration of diabetes, CAD and hypoglycemia rates were higher (11.5 and 5.0/1000 pys respectively), compared to ESRD (2.6/1000), amputation (1.3/1000), and acute hyperglycemic events (0.8/1000). We observed a similar pattern among subjects in the same age group with long diabetes duration where CAD and hypoglycemia had some of the highest incidence rates (19.0 and 15.9 /1000 pys respectively), compared to ESRD (7.6/1000), amputation (4.3/1000), and acute hyperglycemic events (1.8/1000). For a given age group, rates of each outcome, particularly hypoglycemia and

  13. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

  14. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  15. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  16. The Association of Smoking and Surgery in Inflammatory Bowel Disease is Modified by Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Frolkis, Alexandra D; de Bruyn, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Lowerison, Mark; Engbers, Jordan; Ghali, William; Lewis, James D; Vallerand, Isabelle; Patten, Scott; Eksteen, Bertus; Barnabe, Cheryl; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed the association of smoking at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the need for an intestinal resection. Methods: The Health Improvement Network was used to identify an inception cohort of Crohn's disease (n=1519) and ulcerative colitis (n=3600) patients from 1999–2009. Poisson regression explored temporal trends for the proportion of newly diagnosed IBD patients who never smoked before their diagnosis and the risk of surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between smoking and surgery, and effect modification was explored for age at diagnosis. Results: The rate of never smokers increased by 3% per year for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease patients (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.05), but not for ulcerative colitis. The rate of surgery decreased among Crohn's disease patients aged 17–40 years (IRR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.98), but not for ulcerative colitis. Smoking at diagnosis increased the risk of surgery for Crohn's disease patients diagnosed after the age of 40 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99; 95% CI: 1.52–5.92), but not for those diagnosed before age 40. Ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between the ages of 17 and 40 years and who quit smoking before their diagnosis were more likely to undergo a colectomy (ex-smoker vs. never smoker: HR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04–2.66). The age-specific findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses for Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: In this study, the association of smoking and surgical resection was dependent on the age at diagnosis of IBD. PMID:27101004

  17. Cigarette Smoking and the Natural History of Age-related Macular Degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Gangnon, Ronald; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked to the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with Complement Factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype. Design A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. Participants 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods AMD status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 to the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range. Main Outcome Measures Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype. Results The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4% and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype. Conclusions Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior. PMID:24953792

  18. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  19. Interaction of asbestos, age, and cigarette smoking in producing radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Miller, A.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    The study of 3,472 chest x-rays from four populations with different levels of exposure to asbestos and with different cigarette smoking histories shows that smoking in the general population does not produce pulmonary fibrosis recognizable on chest radiography. In the general population of Michigan, the prevalence of a radiographic pattern of fibrosis was 0.5 percent in men and 0.0 percent in women. In a Long Beach, California census tract population, the prevalences were 3.7 percent for men and 0.6 percent for women. Similarly, cigarette smoking does not enhance fibrosis when the exposure to asbestos has been as light as that in households of shipyard workers. Asbestosis was recognized in 6.6 percent of 137 shipyard workers' wives who have never smoked and 7.6 percent of 132 who had ever smoked. Cigarette smoking and asbestos appear to be synergistic in those occupationally exposed to asbestos (as insulators), since 7.2 percent of 97 nonsmokers and 20.5 percent of 316 ever-smokers showed fibrosis. This apparent synergy was also found in shipyard workers up to age 70 with 31 percent of nonsmokers and 43.3 percent of ever-smokers having fibrosis. There were increases of approximately 10 percent in the prevalence of fibrosis in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers for each decade after age 40.

  20. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health.

  1. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  2. The role of AGEs and AGE inhibitors in diabetic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M C; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R; Cooper, M E

    2005-06-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in diabetes result in the production and accumulation of AGEs. It is now clear that AGEs contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetes, as well as other complications. AGEs are thought to act through receptor-independent and dependent mechanisms to promote vascular damage, fibrosis and inflammation associated with accelerated atherogenesis. As a result, novel therapeutic agents to reduce the accumulation of AGEs in diabetes have gained interest as potential cardioprotective approaches. A variety of agents have been developed which are examined in detail in this review. These include aminoguanidine, ALT-946, pyridoxamine, benfotiamine, OPB-9195, alagebrium chloride, N-phenacylthiazolium bromide and LR-90. In addition, it has been demonstrated that a number of established therapies have the ability to reduce the accumulation of AGEs in diabetes including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, metformin, peroxisome proliferators receptor agonists, metal chelators and some antioxidants. The fact that many of these inhibitors of AGEs are effective in experimental models, despite their disparate mechanisms of action, supports the keystone role of AGEs in diabetic vascular damage. Nonetheless, the clinical utility of AGE inhibition remains to be firmly established. Optimal metabolic and blood pressure control, that is achieved early and sustained indefinitely, remains the best recourse for inhibition of AGEs until more specific interventions become a clinical reality. PMID:16026265

  3. Sex-Specific Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged Population of China: A Subgroup Analysis of the 2007–2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaojun; Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Wenhui; Wang, Na; Xie, Lingding; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    The sex difference in the prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the middle-aged population in China remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed differences in the prevalence of diabetes, self-reported CVDs, and some CVD risk factors among men and women in the middle-aged population (30–49 years) and in individuals aged 50 years and older using data from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study of 2007–2008. Middle-aged men appeared to have significantly a higher prevalence of diabetes and self-reported CVDs than middle-aged women (8.07% vs 5.06% for diabetes, P < 0.001; 0.64% vs 0.22% for CVDs, P < 0.001). Men also showed higher rates of central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia than women (all P < 0.01). Compared with women, men were more likely to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes but less likely to be under diet control. The sex-specific differences in prediabetes, CVD, and CVD risk factors between men and women were diminished or even reversed in the population aged 50 years and older. No sex-specific differences were found in the prevalences of a family history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (P > 0.05) in middle-aged population. Specific strategies to reduce modifiable risk factors for the prevention and control of diabetes and CVD may be warranted in this population. PMID:26406982

  4. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  5. Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between age at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether exposure to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with age at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS exposure and age at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS exposure (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later age at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later age at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later age at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that exposure to PTS and ETS is associated with later age at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth. PMID:20955229

  6. Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-05-25

    Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587

  7. Attitudes and practices for smoking cessation counseling by provider type and patient age.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J; Clark, M A; Prohaska, T R; Slezak, J A; Crittenden, K S; Freels, S; Campbell, R T

    1995-03-01

    Attitudes and self-reported practices for smoking cessation counseling among 145 providers at a health maintenance organization were compared among two provider groups, physicians/nurse practitioners and registered/licensed practical nurses, and across three patient age groups, < 50, 50-64, and > or = 65. Smoking cessation attitudes did not differ by provider type but they did differ by patient age, especially among the registered/licensed practical nurses, whose attitudes were least favorable for the oldest smokers (> or = 65). While smoking cessation practices did not differ by patient age, they did differ by provider type. Self-reported performance of the 4 As of smoking cessation practice (Ask, Advise, Assist, Arrange) was more frequent among the physicians/nurse practitioners than among the registered/licensed practical nurses. However, among both groups, asking and advising practices were reported more often than were assisting and arranging. In all cases, different attitudes were correlated with different practice behaviors for the two provider groups. Also, there were more significant correlations between age-specific attitudes and practices among the registered/licensed practical nurses than among the physicians/nurse practitioners. This was true especially regarding the oldest patients. The findings suggest a need for provider education, especially among registered/licensed practical nurses, about the benefits of smoking cessation for patients of all ages and the potential effectiveness of provider-based intervention strategies that are targeted toward specific age groups. The findings also suggest that assisting and arranging practices in particular need improvement among all types of providers. PMID:7597023

  8. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Sheena M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Buckley, Claire M.; Canavan, Ronan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009–2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland. PMID:27294152

  9. Observations of Smoke Aerosol from Biomass Burning in Mexico: Effect of Particle Aging on Radiative Forcing and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Bruintjes, Roelof; Holben, Brent N.; Christopher, Sundar

    1999-01-01

    We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.

  10. Thirty minute-exposure to aged cigarette smoke increases nasal congestion in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Schick, Suzaynn F; van den Vossenberg, Glenn; Luo, Andy; Whitlatch, Aaron; Jacob, Peyton; Balmes, John; Shusterman, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of short exposures to experimentally aged cigarette smoke on the nose and upper airways. This crossover study compared the effects of 30-min exposures to (1) experimentally aged cigarette smoke at 1 mg/m³ particulate matter (PM)/14 ppm carbon monoxide (CO) and (2) conditioned filtered air on urinary metabolites of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Subjective nasal symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, objective nasal congestion was assessed by anterior rhinomanometry and nasal nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Experimentally aged cigarette smoke is a validated model for secondhand smoke (SHS). Twenty-six healthy nonsmokers (10 normal, 7 atopic/nonrhinitic, 7 atopic rhinitic, 2 nonatopic/rhinitic) were studied. A 30-min exposure to SHS increased nasal resistance in healthy nonsmokers. The rise in nasal resistance was most pronounced in rhinitic subjects. Significant increases were not noted when atopic subjects were considered independent of rhinitis status. Secondhand smoke exposure also elevated subjective nasal symptoms and urinary concentrations of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and trans-3´-hydroxycotinine) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines [(4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)] in all subgroups of subjects. Exposure-related, subjective nasal symptoms were significantly higher in rhinitic than in normal subjects. Significant changes in nasal NO concentrations were not detected. Data indicate a 30-min exposure to secondhand smoke at 1 mg/m³ PM increases subjective upper respiratory symptoms, increases urinary cotinine and NNAL, and produces objective nasal airflow obstruction in human subjects. PMID:23859154

  11. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

  12. All about Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care provider about whether counseling, acupuncture, or hypnosis would be helpful. J Take a quit-smoking class or join a support group. E-cigarettes should not replace smoking or be used to help quit smoking. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  13. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, p<0.01); however, spirometric lung ages significantly deteriorated in the failure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, p<0.01). The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  14. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  15. Smoking Cessation Carries a Short-Term Rising Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Independently of Weight Gain: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Chang, I-Jen; Lin, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effects of smoking on human metabolism are complex. Although smoking increases risk for diabetes mellitus, smoking cessation was also reported to be associated with weight gain and incident diabetes mellitus. We therefore conducted this study to clarify the association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods. An analysis was done using the data of a mass health examination performed annually in an industrial park from 2007 to 2013. The association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was analyzed with adjustment for weight gain and other potential confounders. Results. Compared with never-smokers, not only current smokers but also ex-smokers in their first two years of abstinence had higher odds ratios (ORs) for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (never-smokers 3.6%, OR as 1; current smokers 5.5%, OR = 1.499, 95% CI = 1.147–1.960, and p = 0.003; ex-smokers in their first year of abstinence 7.5%, OR = 1.829, 95% CI = 0.906–3.694, and p = 0.092; and ex-smokers in their second year of abstinence 9.0%, OR = 2.020, 95% CI = 1.031–3.955, and p = 0.040). Conclusion. Smoking cessation generally decreased risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. However, increased odds were seen within the first 2 years of abstinence independently of weight gain. PMID:27478846

  16. Age distribution types of bladder cancers and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Aliramaji, Arsalan; Kaseean, Aliakbar; Yousefnia Pasha, Yousef Reza; Shafi, Hamid; Kamali, Sekineh; Safari, Mohsen; Moudi, Emaduddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of the predisposing factors of bladder cancer is very important and provides possible prevention measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, distribution of bladder tumors and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking in patients who referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, all patients diagnosed with bladder cancer who underwent surgery during 2001-2012 were enrolled. The subjects of the control group were selected among the patients who underwent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) for gallstone and had no tumors and genitourinary problems. Data regarding demographic, pathology reports and tumor type, smoking status, history of opium consumption and its duration were collected. Patients and controls were compared using t-test and chi-square test. SPSS software Version 20 was used for analysis. Results: In this study, 175 patients with an average age of 63.30±15.29 years and 175 age- matched controls were studied. A significant association was observed between smoking and opium consumption with bladder cancer (P=0.001 for both). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that opium consumption and smoking are associated with bladder cancer PMID:26221505

  17. Current Smoking Dose-Dependently Associated with Decreased β-Cell Function in Chinese Men without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Wang, Yijun; Wu, Junxia; Liu, Suyi; Zhu, Ying; Lv, Shurong; Lin, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke; Xu, Yan; Yu, Shali; Chen, Gang; Xiang, Quanyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic smoking and insulin resistance and β-cell function in Chinese men without diabetes. A total of 1,568 participants were recruited by multistage sampling. Using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), geometric means of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by general linear model. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were estimated to evaluate the associations between smoking status and insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency under a logistic regression model. Current smokers had higher levels of 2 h glucose (6.66 versus 6.48 mmol/L) for oral glucose tolerance test and lower levels of fasting insulin (5.68 versus 6.03 mU/L) than never smokers. The adjusted means for HOMA-β (%) were 54.86 in current smokers and 58.81 in never smokers (P = 0.0257). Current smoking was associated with β-cell deficiency (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.64) compared to never smoking. The β-cell function gradually decreased with increasing smoking intensity (Ptrend = 0.0026), and the differences were statistically significant when the pack-year of smoking was 20 or above. No association was observed between smoking status and HOMA-IR. Our study suggested that chronic smoking may dose-dependently suppress insulin secretion in Chinese men. PMID:26236748

  18. The role of childhood social position in adult type 2 diabetes: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic circumstances in childhood and early adulthood may influence the later onset of chronic disease, although such research is limited for type 2 diabetes and its risk factors at the different stages of life. The main aim of the present study is to examine the role of childhood social position and later inflammatory markers and health behaviours in developing type 2 diabetes at older ages using a pathway analytic approach. Methods Data on childhood and adult life circumstances of 2,994 men and 4,021 women from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were used to evaluate their association with diabetes at age 50 years and more. The cases of diabetes were based on having increased blood levels of glycated haemoglobin and/or self-reported medication for diabetes and/or being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Father’s job when ELSA participants were aged 14 years was used as the measure of childhood social position. Current social characteristics, health behaviours and inflammatory biomarkers were used as potential mediators in the statistical analysis to assess direct and indirect effects of childhood circumstances on diabetes in later life. Results 12.6 per cent of participants were classified as having diabetes. A disadvantaged social position in childhood, as measured by father’s manual occupation, was associated at conventional levels of statistical significance with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood, both directly and indirectly through inflammation, adulthood social position and a risk score constructed from adult health behaviours including tobacco smoking and limited physical activity. The direct effect of childhood social position was reduced by mediation analysis (standardised coefficient decreased from 0.089 to 0.043) but remained statistically significant (p = 0.035). All three indirect pathways made a statistically significantly contribution to the overall effect of childhood social position on adulthood

  19. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  20. Long term smoking with age builds up excessive oxidative stress in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, K; Betsuyaku, T; Kondo, T; Nasuhara, Y; Nishimura, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial lining fluid plays a critical role in protecting the lung from oxidative stress, in which the oxidised status may change by ageing, smoking history, and pulmonary emphysema. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 109 young and older subjects with various smoking histories. The protein carbonyls, total and oxidised glutathione were examined in BAL fluid. Results By Western blot analysis, the major carbonylated protein in the BAL fluid was sized at 68 kDa, corresponding to albumin. The amount of carbonylated albumin per mg total albumin in BAL fluid was four times higher in older current smokers and three times higher in older former smokers than in age matched non‐smokers (p<0.0001, p = 0.0003, respectively), but not in young smokers. Total glutathione in BAL fluid was significantly increased both in young (p = 0.006) and older current smokers (p = 0.0003) compared with age matched non‐smokers. In contrast, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione was significantly raised (72%) only in older current smokers compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in these parameters between older smokers with and without mild emphysema. Conclusions Oxidised glutathione associated with excessive protein carbonylation accumulates in the lung of older smokers with long term smoking histories even in the absence of lung diseases, but they are not significantly enhanced in smokers with mild emphysema. PMID:16537669

  1. Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11–17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004–2005 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  2. Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  3. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  4. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  5. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  6. Is age-related decline in lean mass and physical function accelerated by Obstructive Lung Disease or smoking?

    PubMed Central

    van den Borst, Bram; Koster, Annemarie; Yu, Binbing; Gosker, Harry R.; Meibohm, Bernd; Bauer, Douglas C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that Obstructive Lung Disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. We aimed to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate aging-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning. Methods 260 persons with OLD (FEV1 63±18 %predicted), 157 smoking controls (FEV1 95±16 %predicted), 866 formerly smoking controls (FEV1 100±16 %predicted) and 891 never-smoking controls (FEV1 104±17 %predicted) participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) Study were studied. At baseline, the mean age was 74±3 y and participants reported no functional limitations. Baseline and seven-year longitudinal data were investigated of body composition (by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (by hand and leg dynamometry) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results Compared to never-smoking controls, OLD persons and smoking controls had a significantly lower weight, fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) at baseline (p<0.05). While the loss of weight, fat mass, lean mass and strength was comparable between OLD persons and never-smoking controls, the SPPB declined 0.12 points/yr faster in OLD men (p=0.01) and BMC 4 g/yr faster in OLD women (p=0.02). In smoking controls, only lean mass declined 0.1 kg/yr faster in women (p=0.03) and BMC 8 g/yr faster in men (p=0.02) compared to never-smoking controls. Conclusions Initially well-functioning older adults with mild-to-moderate OLD and smokers without OLD have a comparable compromised baseline profile of body composition and physical functioning, while seven-year longitudinal trajectories are to a large extent comparable to those observed in never-smokers without OLD. This suggests a common insult earlier in life related to smoking. 3 PMID:21724748

  7. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  8. Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Impaired Muscle Quality in Older Men with Diabetes: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Won; Ha, Yong-Chan; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Lim, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on muscle quality in older men with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a subsidiary study of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging. Among 326 older men consenting to tests of body composition and muscle strength, 269 men were ultimately analyzed after the exclusion because of stroke (n=30) and uncertainty about the diagnosis of diabetes (n=27). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Muscle strength for knee extension was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle quality was assessed from the ratio of leg strength to the entire corresponding leg muscle mass. Results The muscle mass, strength, and quality in patients with type 2 diabetes did not differ significantly from controls. However, when patients with diabetes were subdivided according to their glycemic control status, patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥8.5% showed significantly decreased leg muscle quality by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 4.510; P=0.045) after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking amount, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and duration of diabetes. Physical performance status was also impaired in subjects with an HbA1c of ≥8.5%. Conclusion Poor glycemic control in these older patients with diabetes was associated with significant risk of decreased muscle quality and performance status. Glycemic control with an HbA1c of <8.5% might be needed to reduce the risk of adverse skeletal and functional outcomes in this population. PMID:27126884

  9. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  10. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677

  11. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis in a never-smoking, normotensive, non-obese, normal-glucose-tolerant middle-aged woman.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Oda, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Higashi, Keishi; Katsurada, Yuka; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tamai, Seiichi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2012-10-01

    A 53-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia presented with medium-grade proteinuria and several years of progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed diffuse and global Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule like nodular mesangial sclerosis, but she had no history of diabetes mellitus, no diabetic retinopathy and normal oral glucose tolerance. Congo red staining was negative, and immunofluorescence staining showed no immunoglobulin deposition including kappa or lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed no electron dense deposits or organized deposits. Thus, we diagnosed idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING). ING is a recently established clinicopathologic disease entity linked to longstanding cigarette smoking and hypertension. Obesity is also listed as a contributing factor. However, none of these factors was documented in this case. This is a valuable case of ING that suggests the existence of as-yet unknown causative factors of ING other than smoking, hypertention or obesity. PMID:26019825

  12. Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

  13. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  14. Chronic illness and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, David; Larson, Celia; Wang, Hong; Brown, Anne; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is among the leading causes of premature mortality and preventable death in the United States. Although smoking contributes to the probability of developing chronic illness, little is known about the relationship between quitting smoking and the presence of chronic illness. The present study investigated the association between diagnoses of one or more chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol) and smoking status (former or current smoker). Methods The data analyzed were a subset of questions from a 155-item telephone-administered community survey that assessed smoking status, demographic characteristics, and presence of chronic disease. The study sample consisted of 3,802 randomly selected participants. Results Participants with diabetes were more likely to report being former smokers, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, whereas having hypertension or high cholesterol was not associated significantly with smoking status. The likelihood of being a former smoker did not increase as number of diagnosed chronic diseases increased. Participants who were women, older (aged 65+), or single were significantly less likely to be former smokers. Participants with at least a college degree, those with incomes of US$50,000+, and those who were underweight or obese were more likely to be former smokers. Discussion These findings were inconsistent with research that has suggested that having a chronic illness or experiencing a serious medical event increases the odds of smoking cessation. Supporting prior research, we found that being male, having a higher income, and being obese were associated with greater likelihood of being a former smoker. PMID:19516050

  15. Ocular Inflammation in Uveal Tract in Aged Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats)

    PubMed Central

    Kemmochi, Yusuke; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Ohta, Takeshi; Yasui, Yuzo; Toyoda, Kaoru; Kakimoto, Kochi; Shoda, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We report uveitis observed in an obese type 2 diabetes rat model, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rats aged over 50 weeks. The eyes of SDT fatty rats (16 animals: 7 males and 9 females with 50 or 60 weeks of age) were examined histopathologically. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the uveal tract was observed in 13 of 16 animals. One female showed severe inflammation affecting the entire uveal tract including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid with a variety of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages). Those changes clinically mimic the findings of diabetic iridocyclitis in diabetic patients. Uveitis associated with diabetes can occur in diabetic patients but the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Since increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and abscess in the genital and lower urinary tracts were observed in some SDT fatty rats, increased susceptibility to infection, prolongation of inflammatory states, and disorders of the immune system were considered to be possible factors of the uveitis in aged SDT fatty rats. There have been few reports on how diabetes has influence on the development of uveitis associated with bacterial infection. The SDT fatty rat can be an animal model to investigate diabetes-associated uveitis. PMID:25295283

  16. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in diabetic polyneuropathy is impaired with aging or diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Masaki; Kamiya, Hideki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Naruse, Keiko; Nakashima, Eitaro; Watarai, Atsuko; Shibata, Taiga; Tosaki, Takahiro; Kato, Jiro; Okawa, Tetsuji; Hamada, Yoji; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Recent studies have shown that cell transplantation therapies, such as endothelial precursor cells, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and mesenchymal stem cells, are effective on diabetic polyneuropathy through ameliorating impaired nerve blood flow in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the effects of BM-MNCs transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy using BM-MNCs derived from adult (16-week-old) diabetic (AD), adult non-diabetic (AN) or young (8-week-old) non-diabetic (YN) rats. Materials and Methods BM-MNCs of AD and AN were isolated after an 8-week diabetes duration. The BM-MNCs were characterized using flow cytometry analysis of cell surface markers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of several cytokines. BM-MNCs or saline were injected into hind limb muscles. Four weeks later, the thermal plantar test, nerve conduction velocity, blood flow of the sciatic nerve and capillary-to-muscle fiber ratio were evaluated. Results The number of CD29+/CD90+ cells that host mesenchymal stem cells in BM-MNCs decreased in AD compared with AN or YN, and transcript expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor in BM-MNCs decreased in AD compared with AN or YN. Impaired thermal sensation, decreased blood flow of the sciatic nerve and delayed nerve conduction velocity in 8-week-diabetic rats were significantly ameliorated by BM-MNCs derived from YN, whereas BM-MNCs from AD or AN rats did not show any beneficial effect in these functional tests. Conclusions These results show that cytokine production abilities and the mesenchymal stem cell population of BM-MNCs would be modified by aging and metabolic changes in diabetes, and that these differences could explain the disparity of the therapeutic efficacy of BM-MNCs between young and adult or diabetic and non-diabetic patients in diabetic polyneuropathy. PMID:25802721

  18. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  19. The Role of AGE/RAGE Signaling in Diabetes-Mediated Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AGE/RAGE signaling has been a well-studied cascade in many different disease states, particularly diabetes. Due to the complex nature of the receptor and multiple intersecting pathways, the AGE/RAGE signaling mechanism is still not well understood. The purpose of this review is to highlight key areas of AGE/RAGE mediated vascular calcification as a complication of diabetes. AGE/RAGE signaling heavily influences both cellular and systemic responses to increase bone matrix proteins through PKC, p38 MAPK, fetuin-A, TGF-β, NFκB, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in both hyperglycemic and calcification conditions. AGE/RAGE signaling has been shown to increase oxidative stress to promote diabetes-mediated vascular calcification through activation of Nox-1 and decreased expression of SOD-1. AGE/RAGE signaling in diabetes-mediated vascular calcification was also attributed to increased oxidative stress resulting in the phenotypic switch of VSMCs to osteoblast-like cells in AGEs-induced calcification. Researchers found that pharmacological agents and certain antioxidants decreased the level of calcium deposition in AGEs-induced diabetes-mediated vascular calcification. By understanding the role the AGE/RAGE signaling cascade plays diabetes-mediated vascular calcification will allow for pharmacological intervention to decrease the severity of this diabetic complication. PMID:27547766

  20. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  1. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286

  2. Simulation of the Intercontinental Transport, Aging, and Removal of a Boreal Fire Smoke Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghan, S. J.; Chapman, E. G.; Easter, R. C.; Reid, J. S.; Justice, C.

    2003-12-01

    Back trajectories suggest that an elevated absorbing aerosol plume observed over Oklahoma in May 2003 can be traced to intense forest fires in Siberia two weeks earlier. The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) product is used to estimate smoke emissions from those fires. The Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Model Exchanges (MIRAGE) is used to simulate the transport, aging, radiative properties, and removal of the aerosol. The simulated aerosol optical depth is compared with satellite retrievals, and the vertical structure of the plume is compared with in situ measurements. Sensitivity experiments are performed to determine the sensitivity of the simulated plume to uncertainty in the emissions vertical profile, mass flux, size distribution, and composition.

  3. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  4. Smoking and choroidal thickness in patients over 65 with early-atrophic age-related macular degeneration and normals

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, E J; Randolph, J C; Calzada, J I; Charles, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare macular choroidal thickness between cigarette smokers, those with a history of smoking, and nonsmokers in patients over 65 years of age with early-atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and normals. Methods Prospective, consecutive, observational case series. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography 12-line radial scans were performed and choroidal thickness manually quantified at 84 points in the central 3 mm of the macula. Data of normals, soft drusen alone, and soft drusen with additional features of early AMD were compared. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model, controlling for age, was constructed to evaluate the effect of smoking history and AMD features on choroidal thickness. Results A history of smoking was significantly associated with a thinner choroid across all patients via logistic regression (P=0.004; O.R.=12.4). Mean macular choroidal thickness was thinner for smokers (148±63 μm) than for nonsmokers (181±65 μm) among all diagnosis categories (P=0.003). Subgroup analysis of patients with AMD features revealed a similar decreased choroidal thickness in smokers (121±41 μm) compared with nonsmokers (146±46 μm, P=0.006). Bivariate analysis revealed an association between increased pack-years of smoking and a thin choroid across all patients (P<0.001) and among patients with features of early AMD (P<0.001). Both the presence of features of macular degeneration (P<0.001) and a history of smoking (P=0.024) were associated with decreased choroidal thickness in a MANOVA model. Conclusion Chronic cigarette smoke exposure may be associated with decreased choroidal thickness. There may be an anatomic sequelae to chronic tobacco smoke exposure that underlies previously reported AMD risk. PMID:24833184

  5. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…

  6. Smoking and Youth

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  7. Smoking and intermediate alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and lung function in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, C; Eriksson, S; Dirksen, H

    1977-01-01

    Lung function was evaluated in a representative population sample of 50-year-0ld men living in one Swedish city. Twenty-four smoking and 15 non-smoking men heterozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency--that is, with the protease-inhibitor (Pi1 phenotype MZ--were carefully matched for weight and smoking habit with Pi M controls. The pulmonary function of non-smoking Pi MZ subjects did not differ from that of non-smoking Pi M controls. In contrast, smoking heterozygotes showed a significant loss of elastic recoil, enlarged residual volumes, and increased closing capacity but no signs of obstructive ventilatory impairment. Most smoking Pi MZ individuals reported mild exertional dyspnoea. PMID:303135

  8. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) co-localize with AGE receptors in the retinal vasculature of diabetic and of AGE-infused rats.

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, A. W.; Li, Y. M.; Gardiner, T. A.; Bucala, R.; Archer, D. B.; Vlassara, H.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and lipids with reducing sugars, have been implicated in many diabetic complications; however, their role in diabetic retinopathy remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that the cellular actions of AGEs may be mediated by AGE-specific receptors (AGE-R). We have examined the immunolocalization of AGEs and AGE-R components R1 and R2 in the retinal vasculature at 2, 4, and 8 months after STZ-induced diabetes as well as in nondiabetic rats infused with AGE bovine serum albumin for 2 weeks. Using polyclonal or monoclonal anti-AGE antibodies and polyclonal antibodies to recombinant AGE-R1 and AGE-R2, immunoreactivity (IR) was examined in the complete retinal vascular tree after isolation by trypsin digestion. After 2, 4, and 8 months of diabetes, there was a gradual increase in AGE IR in basement membrane. At 8 months, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells of the retinal vessels showed dense intracellular AGE IR. AGE epitopes stained most intensely within pericytes and smooth muscle cells but less in basement membrane of AGE-infused rats compared with the diabetic group. Retinas from normal or bovine-serum-albumin-infused rats were largely negative for AGE IR. AGE-R1 and -R2 co-localized strongly with AGEs of vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells of either normal, diabetic, or AGE-infused rat retinas, and this distribution did not vary with each condition. The data indicate that AGEs accumulate as a function of diabetes duration first within the basement membrane and then intracellularly, co-localizing with cellular AGE-Rs. Significant AGE deposits appear within the pericytes after long-term diabetes or acute challenge with AGE infusion conditions associated with pericyte damage. Co-localization of AGEs and AGE-Rs in retinal cells points to possible interactions of pathogenic significance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID

  9. Schooling and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1995-01-01

    Estimates schooling's effect on the odds that men and women smoke for five age cohorts, using 1989 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services data. Schooling reduces the odds that men (ages 25 to 54) and women (ages 25 to 44) smoke. Schooling does not affect whether men (ages 55 to 64) or women (ages 45 to 64) smoke. (MLH)

  10. Type 2 diabetes model TSOD mouse is exposed to oxidative stress at young age

    PubMed Central

    Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Umeno, Aya; Yasunaga, Mayu; Shichiri, Mototada; Ishida, Noriko; Abe, Hiroko; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mouse, a model of obese type 2 diabetes, older than around 11 weeks of age develops diabetic phenotypes. Previous studies have indicated that the development of diabetes is partly due to three loci associated with body weight and glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about the initial events triggering the development of the diabetic phenotypes in TSOD mouse. Here, we investigated the alteration of diabetes-related parameters, including the levels of blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines, and the oxidative stress status, in young TSOD mice. TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age showed increases in body weight and plasma total cholesterol level, but not hyperglycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, compared with age-matched control Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obese (TSNO) mice. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were not detected in TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age. However, plasma total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was increased in TSOD mice relative to TSNO mice at same age. The results demonstrated that young TSOD mice are exposed to oxidative stress before developing the diabetic phenotypes, and suggested that oxidative stress is an initial event triggering the development of diabetes in TSOD mice. PMID:25411529

  11. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  12. Roles of the AGE-RAGE system in vascular injury in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamagishi, S; Yonekura, H; Doi, T; Tsuji, H; Kato, I; Takasawa, S; Okamoto, H; Abedin, J; Tanaka, N; Sakurai, S; Migita, H; Unoki, H; Wang, H; Zenda, T; Wu, P S; Segawa, Y; Higashide, T; Kawasaki, K; Yamamoto, H

    2000-05-01

    This study concerns whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are related to microvascular derangement in diabetes, exemplified by pericyte loss and angiogenesis in retinopathy and by mesangial expansion in nephropathy. AGE caused a decrease in viable pericytes cultivated from bovine retina. On the other hand, AGE stimulated the growth and tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (EC), this being mediated by autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor. In AGE-exposed rat mesangial cells, type IV collagen synthesis was induced. Those AGE actions were dependent on a cell surface receptor for AGE (RAGE), because they were abolished by RAGE antisense or ribozyme. The AGE-RAGE system may thus participate in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. This proposition was supported by experiments with animal models; several indices characteristic of retinopathy were correlated with circulating AGE levels in OLETF rats. The predisposition to nephropathy was augmented in RAGE transgenic mice when they became diabetic. PMID:10865836

  13. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Prolongation of the QTc Interval Duration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Thomakos, Petros; Liatis, Stavros; Kalopita, Stavroula; Vlahodimitris, Ioannis; Stathi, Chryssoula; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Makrilakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and QTc interval duration in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A total of 70 patients with T2DM (35 chronic smokers, 35 nonsmokers) treated with oral antidiabetic medications underwent continuous ECG Holter monitoring for 24 hours and analysis of time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV). HRV over short time was also assessed using the deep breathing test. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated using the spontaneous sequence method. The mean QTc interval was measured from the 24-hour ECG recordings. Results. Smokers had lower body mass index (BMI) and exhibited higher 24-hour mean heart rate. There was no difference regarding all measures of ANS activity between the two groups. Smokers showed increased mean QTc duration during the 24 hours (439.25 ± 26.95 versus 425.05 ± 23.03 ms, P = 0.021) as well as in both day (439.14 ± 24.31 ms, P = 0.042) and night periods (440.91 ± 32.30 versus 425.51 ± 24.98 ms, P = 0.033). The association between smoking status and mean QTc interval persisted after adjusting for BMI. Conclusions. Cigarette smoking is associated with prolongation of the QTc interval in patients with T2DM by a mechanism independent of ANS dysfunction. PMID:23710173

  14. Smoking in pregnancy and children's mental and motor development at age 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Trasti, N; Vik, T; Jacobsen, G; Bakketeig, L S

    1999-06-01

    We used data from a Scandinavian prospective multicenter study to investigate if smoking in pregnancy may have an adverse effect on the child's mental and motor abilities. Eligible for enrolment were para I and 2 women with a singleton pregnancy, who resided in one of the study areas and could be registered before the 20th gestational week. Women were classified as 'smokers' or 'non-smokers' at study start. At 13 months, 376 children (124 children of smokers) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. At this age, children of smokers and non-smokers performed equally well. At 5 years, 369 children (132 children of smokers) were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-R), and 362 children with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a WPPSI-R score below the median value of the population (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), but the risk was reduced when we adjusted for maternal education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.7). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a test score below the median population value on the subscale 'balance' from PDMS (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). Thus, we found that smoking in pregnancy was associated with a small, but demonstrable adverse effect on the child's balance at 5 years, whereas the negative effect on cognitive function did not reach statistical significance, when we adjusted for the mother's level of education. PMID:10390089

  15. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. PMID:24889798

  16. Alterations of Dermal Connective Tissue Collagen in Diabetes: Molecular Basis of Aged-Appearing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Angela J.; Robichaud, Patrick; Balimunkwe, Rebecca Mutesi; Fisher, Gary J.; Hammerberg, Craig; Yan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the collagen, the major structural protein in skin, contribute significantly to human skin connective tissue aging. As aged-appearing skin is more common in diabetes, here we investigated the molecular basis of aged-appearing skin in diabetes. Among all known human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), diabetic skin shows elevated levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled real-time PCR indicated that elevated MMPs in diabetic skin were primarily expressed in the dermis. Furthermore, diabetic skin shows increased lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and higher cross-linked collagens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further indicated that collagen fibrils were fragmented/disorganized, and key mechanical properties of traction force and tensile strength were increased in diabetic skin, compared to intact/well-organized collagen fibrils in non-diabetic skin. In in vitro tissue culture system, multiple MMPs including MMP-1 and MM-2 were induced by high glucose (25 mM) exposure to isolated primary human skin dermal fibroblasts, the major cells responsible for collagen homeostasis in skin. The elevation of MMPs and LOX over the years is thought to result in the accumulation of fragmented and cross-linked collagen, and thus impairs dermal collagen structural integrity and mechanical properties in diabetes. Our data partially explain why old-looking skin is more common in diabetic patients. PMID:27104752

  17. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  18. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  19. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  20. Self-Esteem in Diabetic Adolescents: Relationship Between Age at Onset and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Christopher M.; Morrow, Lisa A.

    1986-01-01

    The self-esteem of 125 diabetic and 82 nondiabetic adolescents was examined with the Piers-Harris scale. Girls who developed diabetes before five years of age had poorer self-concept scores than early onset boys, whereas boys and girls in the later onset or control groups had equivalent scores. This interaction was restricted to Physical…

  1. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p < 0.05). There was suggestive evidence of higher sperm motility and percent of sperm with normal morphology in the spring than in the other seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from Northeastern Brazil: association with disease activity, nephritis, smoking, and age.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marta Maria das Chagas; Xavier de Oliveira, Ídila Mont'Alverne; Ribeiro, Ádilla Thaysa Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune inflammatory disease, is associated with an increased prevalence of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients, which may lead to a proinflammatory condition and increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS in a cohort of SLE patients versus healthy controls, and to analyze the association of clinical and demographic factors. SLE patients (n = 146) treated at a Northeast Brazilian university hospital were evaluated with regard to demographic, clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric parameters and compared to controls (n = 101). MetS was diagnosed according to the definition of 2005 NCEP/ATP III. The average age of SLE patients was 41.7 ± 12.5 years, and 91.8 % were female. MetS was significantly more prevalent in SLE patients (45.2 %) than in controls (32.7 %; p = 0.04). The MetS components such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly more prevalent in SLE. In the univariate analysis, MetS in SLE patients was associated with age, disease duration, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index, smoking, menopause, nephritis, cyclophosphamide use, prednisone dose, and chloroquine use, which appeared to have a protective effect. In the logistic regression analysis, age, disease activity, nephritis, and smoking were statistically significant. The prevalence of MetS observed in our cohort of SLE patients from Northeastern Brazil is higher than controls. MetS components should be routinely investigated to minimize the occurrence of MetS and associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26149124

  3. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed Naguib; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. PMID:26491434

  4. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohamed Naguib; El-Bassossy, Hany M.; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. PMID:26491434

  5. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  6. [Age-related features of immunocompetent cells of human placenta associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Durnova, A O; Poliakova, V O; Pal'chenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    The immune-competent cells of placenta play the important role in protection of developing fetus against infectious agents; but their dysfunction can lead to development of placental insufficiency that affects health both fetus and mother. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of presence of immune competent cells in villous chorion of mature placenta, taken from women with diabetes of different age groups. In our study we found three subpopulations of immune cells in villous chorion of mature placenta: natural killer cells (NK), B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Prevailing subpopulation are macrophages, they are detected 1,8 times more often than B-lymphocytes, and 2,3 times more often than NK. The quantity of immune competent cells in groups with diabetes of various types is different. Thus, the greatest number of macrophages was detected in group with diabetes type II of middle age (29-35 years)-- 4.62 +/- 0.93%, B-lymphocytes in group of women with diabetes type I of younger age (18-28 years)--2.50 +/- 0.30%, NK-cells in group with diabetes type I of younger age--1.98 +/- 0,42%. Analysis of received data showed the differences in expression of markers of immune cells in women of different age groups, which brings about the conclusion of various reactance of immune system of women with diabetes depending on age. PMID:21033374

  7. Dose-response relations between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Li, LiXia; Gao, Yanhui; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Sidong

    2015-09-30

    A growing body of evidence indicates a strong association between smoking and depression. However, little is known about the possible effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on depression. This study aimed to examine the potential dose-response relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among non-smoking middle-aged women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified three-stage sampling method. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a cut-off point of 16. Self-reported SHS exposure was defined as non-smokers׳ inhalation of the smoke exhaled from smokers on at least one day a week. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 1280 middle-aged women, 19.4% were classified as having depressive symptoms. There was a 104% increased odds of depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in general (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.79) using no exposure as reference. There were significant positive relations between SHS exposure in general and depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. These significant trends were observed consistently whether SHS exposure occurred in homes or workplaces. Our findings suggest that long-term and regular SHS exposure is associated with a significant, dose-dependent increase in risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:26231582

  8. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  9. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Diabetic retinopathy affects men and ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Diabetic Retinopathy (2010- ...

  11. Age as an independent factor for the development of neuropathy in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Simona; Timar, Bogdan; Baderca, Flavia; Simu, Mihaela; Diaconu, Laura; Velea, Iulian; Timar, Romulus

    2016-01-01

    Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in the history of humanity. As type 2 diabetes mellitus is predominantly more prevalent in aging populations, this creates a major public health burden. Older adults with diabetes have the highest rates of major lower-extremity amputation, myocardial infarction, visual impairment, and end-stage renal disease of any age group. The aims of our study were to assess whether age is an independent factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy (DN), and to evaluate the relationship between the presence and the severity of DN and the diabetes duration and blood glucose level. In this study, we enrolled 198 patients, previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For all patients, we measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and body mass index and we assessed the presence and severity of DN using the evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms. Patients had a median age of 62 years, with a median of diabetes duration of 7 years; 55.1% of the patients were men and the average HbA1c in the cohort was 8.2%. The prevalence of DN according to Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was 28.8%, being significantly and positively correlated with higher age (65 vs 59 years; P=0.001) and HbA1c (8.6% vs 8.0%; P=0.027). No significant correlations were observed between the severity of DN and diabetes duration, body mass index (31.9 vs 29.9 kg/m2), or the number of centimeters exceeding the normal waist circumference (25.2 vs 17.3 cm; P=0.003). In conclusion, age influences the presence of DN, independent on other risk factors. This influence persists even after adjusting for other, very important risk factors, like blood glucose level or diabetes duration. PMID:27042031

  12. Disparities in Age at Diabetes Diagnosis Among Asian Americans: Implications for Early Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Becerra, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between Asian American ethnicity and age at diagnosis for type 2 diabetes using data from the California Health Interview Survey. Survey-weighted unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions were used to obtain mean estimates of age at diagnosis. In the adjusted regression model, ages at diagnosis were 10.5, 8.7, 8.4, and 4.2 years earlier among South Asian, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean populations, respectively, as compared to non-Hispanic whites; no significant difference in age at diagnosis was noted for Chinese and Japanese populations. Recommendations for diabetes screening and preventive measures specific to Asian American populations are warranted. PMID:26355827

  13. Disparities in Age at Diabetes Diagnosis Among Asian Americans: Implications for Early Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between Asian American ethnicity and age at diagnosis for type 2 diabetes using data from the California Health Interview Survey. Survey-weighted unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions were used to obtain mean estimates of age at diagnosis. In the adjusted regression model, ages at diagnosis were 10.5, 8.7, 8.4, and 4.2 years earlier among South Asian, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean populations, respectively, as compared to non-Hispanic whites; no significant difference in age at diagnosis was noted for Chinese and Japanese populations. Recommendations for diabetes screening and preventive measures specific to Asian American populations are warranted. PMID:26355827

  14. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  15. Body weight: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A. G.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the body mass index associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study of a male cohort. SETTING: One general practice in each of 24 British towns. SUBJECTS: 7735 men aged 40-59 years at screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause death rate, heart attacks, and stroke (fatal and non-fatal) and development of diabetes, or any of these outcomes (combined end point) over an average follow up of 14.8 years. RESULTS: There were 1271 deaths from all causes, 974 heart attacks, 290 strokes, and 245 new cases of diabetes mellitus. All cause mortality was increased only in men with a body mass index (kg/m2) < 20 and in men with an index > or = 30. However, risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and diabetes increased progressively from an index of < 20 even after age, smoking, social class, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were adjusted for. For the combined end point the lowest risks were seen for an index of 20.0-23.9. In never smokers and former smokers, deaths from any cause rose progressively from an index of 20.0-21.9 and for the combined end point, from 20.0-23.9. Age adjusted levels of a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors rose or fell progressively from an index < 20. CONCLUSION: A healthy body mass index in these middle aged British men seems to be about 22. PMID:9158466

  16. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  17. Short telomere length is associated with arterial aging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dudinskaya, E N; Tkacheva, O N; Shestakova, M V; Brailova, N V; Strazhesko, I D; Akasheva, D U; Isaykina, O Y; Sharashkina, N V; Kashtanova, D A; Boytsov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease and 49 control group participants. Glucose metabolism assessment tests, measuring intima–media complex thickness and determining the presence of atherosclerotic plaques, pulse wave velocity measurement, and telomere length measurement were administered to all participants. Vascular changes were more dramatic in patients with diabetes than in the control group, and the telomeres were shorter in patients with diabetes. Significant differences were found in the vascular wall condition among diabetes patients, and there were no substantial differences in the arterial structure between patients with ‘long’ telomeres; however, there were statistically significant differences in the vascular wall condition between patients with ‘short’ telomeres. Vascular ageing signs were more prominent in patients with diabetes. However, despite diabetes, vascular changes in patients with long telomeres were very modest and were similar to the vascular walls in healthy individuals. Thus, long lymphocyte telomeres may have a protective effect on the vascular wall and may prevent vascular wall deterioration caused by glucose metabolism disorders. PMID:26034119

  18. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  19. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were 13.3 ± 0.5 and 59.2 ± 0.8 µmol/g wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:20016716

  20. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  1. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  2. Age and diabetes related changes of the retinal capillaries: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Enrica; Ripandelli, Guido; Taurone, Samanta; Feher, Janos; Plateroti, Rocco; Kovacs, Illes; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Micera, Alessandra; Battaglione, Ezio; Artico, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Normal human aging and diabetes are associated with a gradual decrease of cerebral flow in the brain with changes in vascular architecture. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane and microvascular fibrosis are evident in the central nervous system of elderly and diabetic patients. Current findings assign a primary role to endothelial dysfunction as a cause of basement membrane (BM) thickening, while retinal alterations are considered to be a secondary cause of either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal any initial retinal alterations and variations in the BM of retinal capillaries during diabetes and aging as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retina.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on 46 enucleated human eyes with particular attention to alterations of the retinal capillary wall and Müller glial cells. Inflammatory cytokines expression in the retina was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that thickening of the BM begins primarily at the level of the glial side of the retina during aging and diabetes. The Müller cells showed numerous cytoplasmic endosomes and highly electron-dense lysosomes which surrounded the retinal capillaries. Our study is the first to present morphological evidence that Müller cells start to deposit excessive BM material in retinal capillaries during aging and diabetes. Our results confirm the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β within the retina as a result of diabetes.These observations strongly suggest that inflammatory cytokines and changes in the metabolism of Müller glial cells rather than changes in of endothelial cells may play a primary role in the alteration of retinal capillaries BM during aging and diabetes. PMID:26604209

  3. Social influences approach to smoking prevention: the effects of videotape delivery with and without same-age peer leader participation.

    PubMed

    Telch, M J; Miller, L M; Killen, J D; Cooke, S; Maccoby, N

    1990-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking adoption among adolescents could be suppressed by providing school-based videotape instruction for resisting social influences to smoke. The utilization of same-age peer leaders was also varied to test whether their participation in the classroom would enhance program effects. Seventh grade students (N = 540) from one junior high school in Southern California were randomly assigned by classrooms (N = 15) to: (a) videotape instruction, (b) videotape instruction plus peer leader involvement, or (c) survey-only. Seventh grade students (N = 234) in a second junior high school served as a measurement-only control. Assessments were conducted at the beginning and end of the academic year. Results revealed a marked suppression in the onset of both experimental and regular smoking among those students exposed to the pressure resistance training with peer leader involvement. Pressure resistance training without peer leader involvement produced a more variable and less powerful effect on students' smoking behavior. Data collected on students' use of alcohol and marijuana revealed a generalized suppression effect, albeit weaker than for tobacco, among those students exposed to the social resistance training with peer leader involvement. Results provide further encouraging support for the use of peer-led pressure resistance training in preventing adolescent drug use. PMID:2316409

  4. Advanced glycation end-products: a common pathway in diabetes and age-related erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Neves, D

    2013-08-01

    Reactive derivatives of non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions integrate a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Numerous studies have investigated the role of the AGEs in cardiovascular system; however, its contribution to erectile dysfunction (ED) that is an early manifestation of cardiovascular disease has been less intensively investigated. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning AGEs effects in the cavernous tissue of the penis and in ED onset, particularly on diabetes and aging, conditions that not only favor AGEs formation, but also increase risk of developing ED. The specific contribution of AGE on intra- and extracellular deposition of insoluble complexes, interference in activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, NO bioavailability, endothelial-dependent vasodilatation, as well as molecular pathways activated by receptor of AGEs are presented. Finally, the interventional actions that prevent AGEs formation, accumulation or activity in the cavernous tissue and that include nutritional pattern modulation, nutraceuticals, exercise, therapeutic strategies (statins, anti-diabetics, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-5, anti-hypertensive drugs) and inhibitors of AGEs formation and crosslink breakers, are discussed. From this review, we conclude that despite the experiments conducted in animal models pointing to the AGE/RAGE axis as a potential interventional target with respect to ED associated with diabetes and aging, the clinical data have been very disappointing and, until now, did not provide evidence of benefits of treatments directed to AGE inactivation. PMID:23822116

  5. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  6. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged 10–11 years in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. Setting State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Participants Children aged 10–11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Primary outcome variable Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. Results The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Conclusions Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. PMID:25636793

  7. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  8. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  9. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  10. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  11. RAGE and AGEs in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs; RAGE) binds to both AGEs and amyloid-beta peptides. RAGE is involved in chronic complications of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to investigate the roles of RAGE, AGEs and the Gly82Ser polymorphism of RAGE in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Of the 167 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients recruited, 82 satisfied the diagnostic criteria for MCI, and 85 matched control individuals were classified as non-MCI. Demographic data were collected, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations, serum AGE-peptide (AGE-P) levels, RAGE Gly82Ser genotype and neuropsychological test results were examined. Results The MCI group exhibited a decreased sRAGE level (0.87±0.35 vs. 1.05±0.52 ng/ml, p<0.01) and an increased serum AGE-P level (3.54±1.27 vs. 2.71±1.18 U/ml, p<0.01) compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each unit reduction in the sRAGE concentration increased the MCI risk by 54% (OR 0.46[95% CI 0.22–0.96], p = 0.04) and that each unit increase in the AGE-P level increased the MCI risk by 72% in the type 2 diabetes patients (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.31–2.28], p<0.01). The serum sRAGE level was negatively correlated with the score on the trail making test-B (TMT-B) (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), which indicates early cognitive deficits related to diabetes. Moreover, the AGE-P level was positively correlated with multiple cognitive domains (all p<0.05). No significant differences in the neuropsychological test results or serum RAGE concentrations between the different RAGE genotypes or in the RAGE genotype frequencies between the MCI and control groups were identified (all p>0.05). Conclusions The RAGE pathway partially mediates AGE-induced MCI in diabetic patients. The serum AGE-P level may serve as a serum biomarker of MCI in these individuals, and sRAGE represents a predictor and even a potential intervention target of

  12. Increased Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Accelerates Aging of the Retinal Vasculature in the Diabetic Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lamoke, Folami; Shaw, Sean; Yuan, Jianghe; Ananth, Sudha; Duncan, Michael; Martin, Pamela; Bartoli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced retinal oxidative and nitrative stress can accelerate vascular cell aging, which may lead to vascular dysfunction as seen in diabetes. There is no information on whether this may contribute to the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we have assessed the occurrence of senescence-associated markers in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 8 and 12 weeks of hyperglycemia as compared to normoglycemic aging (12 and 14 months) and adult (4.5 months) rat retinas. We have found that in the diabetic retinas there was an up-regulation of senescence-associated markers SA-β-Gal, p16INK4a and miR34a, which correlated with decreased expression of SIRT1, a target of miR34a. Expression of senescence-associated factors primarily found in retinal microvasculature of diabetic rats exceeded levels measured in adult and aging rat retinas. In aging rats, retinal expression of senescence associated-factors was mainly localized at the level of the retinal pigmented epithelium and only minimally in the retinal microvasculature. The expression of oxidative/nitrative stress markers such as 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine was more pronounced in the retinal vasculature of diabetic rats as compared to normoglycemic aging and adult rat retinas. Treatments of STZ-rats with the anti-nitrating drug FeTPPS (10mg/Kg/day) significantly reduced the appearance of senescence markers in the retinal microvasculature. Our results demonstrate that hyperglycemia accelerates retinal microvascular cell aging whereas physiological aging affects primarily cells of the retinal pigmented epithelium. In conclusion, hyperglycemia-induced retinal vessel dysfunction and DR progression involve vascular cell senescence due to increased oxidative/nitrative stress. PMID:26466127

  13. Maternal Age at Birth and Childhood Type 1 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 30 Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Chris R.; Stene, Lars C.; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K.; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Jané, Mireia; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J.; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Gimeno, Suely G.A.; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C.; Wadsworth, Emma J.K.; Chetwynd, Amanda; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaitė, Brone; Šipetić, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E.; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Patterson, Chris C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim if the study was to investigate whether children born to older mothers have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies using individual patient data to adjust for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies published before June 2009 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of studies were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct prespecified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by maternal age were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios and to investigate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Data were available for 5 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 14,724 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was, on average, a 5% (95% CI 2–9) increase in childhood type 1 diabetes odds per 5-year increase in maternal age (P = 0.006), but there was heterogeneity among studies (heterogeneity I2 = 70%). In studies with a low risk of bias, there was a more marked increase in diabetes odds of 10% per 5-year increase in maternal age. Adjustments for potential confounders little altered these estimates. CONCLUSIONS There was evidence of a weak but significant linear increase in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes across the range of maternal ages, but the magnitude of association varied between studies. A very small percentage of the increase in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in recent years could be explained by increases in maternal age. PMID:19875616

  14. The Synergistic Effects of HIV, Diabetes, and Aging on Cognition: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Dodson, Joan E.; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the obvious health problems and/or physical limitations associated with HIV, diabetes, and aging, each of these are known to independently affect cognitive functioning. While this relationship to cognition does not necessarily mean frank cognitive impairments are inevitable with HIV, diabetes, and aging, it does entail that each of these conditions may lead to poorer cognitive performance compared to younger adults and individuals without HIV and diabetes. Many individuals may be aware of the physical symptoms associated with these diseases, but may be unaware of the cognitive outcomes associated with HIV and diabetes, especially if not controlled by medication and a healthy lifestyle. Additionally, individuals may be unaware of the significance of maintaining optimal cognitive functioning in order to maintain optimal everyday functioning abilities such as driving, cooking, managing medication regimens, and negotiating finances. Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed individuals with HIV to live to reach older adulthood, and that dysglycemia and/or type 2 diabetes can be a metabolic side effect of these medications (Biron et al., 2012; Norbiato, 2012; Raper, 2010), it is reasonable to assume that there is a subset of individuals aging with HIV and diabetes, which may become more prevalent as individuals continue to age with HIV in the coming decades. Thus, the purpose of this article is to inform healthcare providers and researchers about the cognitive outcomes associated with HIV, diabetes, and aging independently within the context of cognitive reserve, and then to examine the potential synergistic effects of these conditions in individuals living with all three (Figure 1). This article also incorporates potential intervention strategies to protect and possibly improve cognitive functioning, or at the very least mitigate cognitive loss, in this population. PMID:25099061

  15. Coming of age: the artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The artificial pancreas (closed-loop system) addresses the unmet clinical need for improved glucose control whilst reducing the burden of diabetes self-care in type 1 diabetes. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery above and below a preset insulin amount informed by sensor glucose readings differentiates closed-loop systems from conventional, threshold-suspend and predictive-suspend insulin pump therapy. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes can vary between one-third-threefold on a daily basis. Closed-loop systems accommodate these variations and mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with tight glucose control. In this review we focus on the progress being made in the development and evaluation of closed-loop systems in outpatient settings. Randomised transitional studies have shown feasibility and efficacy of closed-loop systems under supervision or remote monitoring. Closed-loop application during free-living, unsupervised conditions by children, adolescents and adults compared with sensor-augmented pumps have shown improved glucose outcomes, reduced hypoglycaemia and positive user acceptance. Innovative approaches to enhance closed-loop performance are discussed and we also present the outlook and strategies used to ease clinical adoption of closed-loop systems. PMID:27364997

  16. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time. PMID:25131273

  17. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  18. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Michael; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2008-01-01

    The number of patients with type 2 diabetes continues to rise; an anticipated 300 million people will be affected by 2025. The immense social and economic burden of the condition is exacerbated by the initial asymptomatic nature of type 2 diabetes, resulting in a high prevalence of micro-and macrovascular complications at presentation. Diabetic retinopathy, one of the potential microvascular complications associated with diabetes, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the two most frequent retinal degenerative diseases, and are responsible for the majority of blindness due to retinal disease. Both conditions predominantly affect the central macula, and are associated with the presence of retinal edema and an aggressive inflammatory repair process that accelerates disease progression. The associated retinal edema and the inflammatory repair process are directly involved in the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Yet, the underlying alterations to the BRB caused by the diseases are very different. The coexistence of the two conditions appears to be relatively uncommon, suggesting that diabetes may even protect patients from developing neovascular AMD. However, it is thought that the inflammatory repair responses associated with diabetic retinopathy and neovascular AMD may be cumulative and, in patients affected by both, could result in chronic diffuse cystoid edema. Treatment considerations in such patients should, therefore, include the role of retinal edema and the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to potential systemic side effects associated with agents administered repeatedly for neovascular AMD treatment. PMID:19668728

  19. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  20. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  1. Advanced glycation end products overload might explain intracellular cobalamin deficiency in renal dysfunction, diabetes and aging.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Shannan, Batool; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to aging. Cobalamin (Cbl) is required for cell growth and functions, and its deficiency causes serious complications. Diabetics and renal patients show high concentrations of Cbl, but metabolic evidence of Cbl deficiency that is reversible after Cbl treatment. Cbl might be sequestered in blood and cannot be delivered to the cell. Megalin mediates the uptake of transcobalamin-Cbl complex into the proximal tubule cells. Megalin is involved in the uptake and degradation of AGEs. In aging, diabetes or renal dysfunction, AGEs might overload megalin thus lowering Cbl uptake. Transcobalamin-Cbl might retain in blood. Shedding of megalin and transcobalamin receptor under glycation conditions is also a possible mechanism of this phenomenon. PMID:21880434

  2. The synergistic effects of HIV, diabetes, and aging on cognition: implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Dodson, Joan E; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Thanks to highly active antiretroviral therapy, many people infected with HIV will likely live into old age. Although this is a welcome prognosis, new issues are emerging that may complicate the ability to successfully age in this clinical population. HIV and aging independently are related to cognitive impairments, so there are concerns that those aging with HIV may be more at risk of such cognitive impairments. Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy itself can create metabolic disorders, such as prediabetes and/or frank type 2 diabetes, which have also been linked to poorer cognitive functioning. Thus, concerns increase that, as people age with HIV and develop comorbid metabolic disorders that may lead to type 2 diabetes, they will be at triple risk of developing cognitive impairments that can impair everyday functioning and reduce quality of life. This article explores these issues and provides implications for practice and research. PMID:25099061

  3. Investigating health and diabetes perceptions among Hmong American children, 9-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2011-06-01

    After immigrating to the United States (US), obesity and diabetes have increased among the Hmong. Therefore, this study investigated how Hmong children perceive health and diabetes risk so that appropriate interventions may be planned. Hmong children (N = 335), ages 9-18 years participated in this study. A survey used Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) as the theoretical framework and silhouette drawing instrument. Heights and weights were measured and body mass indexes (BMIs) were calculated. About half of the children were either overweight (BMI ≥ 85th < 95th percentile) or obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). About 75% chose average sized silhouettes as healthiest and heaviest silhouettes as diabetic shape. Environmental influences including food availability, parents, and media influenced children's health perceptions. Results suggest a need for culturally appropriate interventions, aiming towards a child's environment and educating them about risks associated with obesity and diabetes. PMID:20686849

  4. Urinary cadmium levels and tobacco smoke exposure in women age 20-69 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J A; Shafer, M M; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Newcomb, P A

    2007-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine specimens were also obtained. Urine collection kits were carefully designed to minimize trace element contamination during specimen collection and handling in each participant's home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and creatinine levels and specific gravity were also determined. Statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status (never, former, and current respectively) were observed. A difference in mean cadmium levels for nonsmokers who reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood or the recent past (approximately 2 yr prior to the interview) for exposure at home, at work, or in social settings compared to those who reported no exposure was not found. PMID:17885936

  5. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Yong; Huang, Xun; Ma, Shuyuan; Ye, Hongyan; Cai, Jiye

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  6. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  8. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical

  9. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic retinopathy Islets of Langerhans Pancreas Insulin pump Type I diabetes Diabetic blood circulation in foot Food and insulin release ... Saunders; 2015:chap 39. Dungan KM. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de ... hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome Gestational diabetes Hardening of the ...

  10. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Diseases of Aging: Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Christopher M.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Rickett, Edith M.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and several chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, have been documented in recent years. Although most evidence suggests reduced RSA is the result of chronic disease rather than the cause, some studies have documented reduced RSA among at-risk individuals prior to disease onset. These results raise the possibility that decreased vagal tone may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain chronic diseases. Presented here is a brief overview of studies which examine the relationship between vagal tone, as measured by RSA and baroreflex gain, and diseases of aging, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Mechanisms by which vagal tone may be related to disease processes are discussed. In addition, we present results from a population-based study of RSA and hypertension in older adults. Consistent with previous studies, we found an inverse relationship between RSA and age, cigarette use, and diabetes. In logistic regression models which control for age, cigarette use, and diabetes, we found RSA was a significant negative predictor of hypertension. We conclude that the relationship between RSA and hypertension is somewhat independent of the age-related decline in parasympathetic activity. PMID:17034928

  11. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not

  12. Effects of Disease Detection on Changes in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Jeon, Wooman; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Minjee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the effect that detection of chronic disease via health screening programs has on health behaviors, particularly smoking. Materials and Methods We analyzed national health insurance data from 2007 and 2009. Subjects who were 40 years of age in 2007 and eligible for the life cycle-based national health screening program were included. The total study population comprised 153518 individuals who participated in the screening program in 2007 and follow-up screening in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted by sex, with adjustment for health insurance type, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular and/or neurovascular disease. Results Among men with smoking behavior changes, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to show a positive health behavior change, such as smoking cessation, and were less likely to have a negative behavior change (e.g., smoking initiation). Additionally, men newly diagnosed with diabetes showed lower rates of negative health behavior changes compared to those without disease. Body mass index (BMI)≥25, compared to BMI<23, showed higher rates of positive health behavior changes and lower rates of negative health behavior changes. Newly diagnosed chronic disease did not influence smoking behavior in women. Conclusion Smoking behavior changes were only detected in men who participated in health screening programs. In particular, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to stop smoking and less likely to start smoking. PMID:26069141

  13. Differential proteomics analysis of proteins from human diabetic and age-related cataractous lenses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Shao, Jun; Yao, Yong; Chu, Zhao Dong; Yu, Qian Qian; Zhao, Wei; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Zi Yin

    2013-01-01

    Backgound: To investigate the differential lens proteomics between diabetic cataract, age-related cataract, and natural subjects. Materials and Methods: Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed. Total soluble proteins in lenses of type I diabetic cataract, age-related cataract (nondiabetic) patients, and normal control were extracted and subjected to 2-DE. The differential protein spots were recovered, digested with trypsin, and further applied to MALDI-TOF-MS. ELISA analysis was used to determine the levels of differential proteins in lenses of three groups. Results: 2-DE analysis reflected that lens proteins of normal control, diabetic, and age-related cataract subjects were in the section of pH 5-9 and the relative molecular weights were 14-97 kDa, while relative molecular weight of more abundant crystallines was localized at 20-31 kDa. five differential protein spots were detected and identified using MALDI-TOF-MS, including beta-crystallin A3, alpha-crystallin B chain, chain A of crystal structure of truncated human beta-B1-crystallin, beta-crystallin B1, and an interesting unnamed protein product highly similar to alpha-crystallin B chain, respectively. ELISA analysis revealed that lenses of diabetic cataract patients should contain significantly more concentrations of beta-crystallin A3, alpha-crystallin B chain, and beta-crystallin B1 than those of age-related cataract patients and normal control. Conclusion: This study clearly reflected the differential proteins of diabetic cataract, age-related cataract lenses compared with natural subjects, and it is helpful for the further research on the principles and mechanisms of different types of cataract. PMID:24520233

  14. Secondhand smoke exposure-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin aging model.

    PubMed

    Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process. PMID:25446104

  15. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  16. Association of Smoking and Other Risk Factors With Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy Severity and Corneal Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Igo, Robert P.; Fondran, Jeremy; Mootha, V. Vinod; Oliva, Matt; Hammersmith, Kristin; Sugar, Alan; Lass, Jonathan H.; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated effects of smoking and other risk factors on the development of advanced Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and on central corneal thickness (CCT). Methods. Eyes from Caucasian probands, affected and unaffected family members, and unrelated controls matched for age from the FECD Genetics Multi-Center Study (n = 2044 subjects) were examined. Univariate and multivariate models, adjusted for family correlations, were used to determine the effect of smoking, sex, diabetes, and age on FECD case/control status and CCT. Results. In a multivariate model, sex and smoking were associated significantly with advanced FECD (grades 4–6) development (P = 0.016 and P = 0.047, respectively). Female sex increased odds by 34%. Smoking increased odds by 30%. In a multivariate model, diabetes was associated with an increase of 9.1 μm in average CCT (P = 0.021). Female sex was associated significantly with a decrease in average CCT by 6.9 μm (P = 0.015). Smoking had no significant effect on CCT in any model. As shown previously, advanced FECD was associated with large increases in CCT (31.4–94.2 μm). Conclusions. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of advanced FECD and self-reported diabetes was associated with increased CCT. Further study of the impact of smoking and diabetes on FECD development and changes in corneal thickness is warranted. PMID:23882692

  17. Acceptance Factors of Mobile Apps for Diabetes by Patients Aged 50 or Older: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Julius; Bellmann, Maike; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile apps for people with diabetes offer great potential to support therapy management, increase therapy adherence, and reduce the probability of the occurrence of accompanying and secondary diseases. However, they are rarely used by elderly patients due to a lack of acceptance. Objective We investigated the question “Which factors influence the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older?” Particular emphasis was placed on the current use of mobile devices/apps, acceptance-promoting/-inhibiting factors, features of a helpful diabetes app, and contact persons for technical questions. This qualitative study was the third of three substudies investigating factors influencing acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Methods Guided interviews were chosen in order to get a comprehensive insight into the subjective perspective of elderly diabetes patients. At the end of each interview, the patients tested two existing diabetes apps to reveal obstacles in (first) use. Results Altogether, 32 patients with diabetes were interviewed. The mean age was 68.8 years (SD 8.2). Of 32 participants, 15 (47%) knew apps, however only 2 (6%) had already used a diabetes app within their therapy. The reasons reported for being against the use of apps were a lack of additional benefits (4/8, 50%) compared to current therapy management, a lack of interoperability with other devices/apps (1/8, 12%), and no joy of use (1/8, 12%). The app test revealed the following main difficulties in use: nonintuitive understanding of the functionality of the apps (26/29, 90%), nonintuitive understanding of the menu navigation/labeling (19/29, 66%), font sizes and representations that were too small (14/29, 48%), and difficulties in recognizing and pressing touch-sensitive areas (14/29, 48%). Furthermore, the patients felt the apps lacked individually important functions (11/29, 38%), or felt the functions that were offered were unnecessary for their own

  18. Self-Management in Early Adolescence and Differences by Age at Diagnosis and Duration of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ariana; Whittemore, Robin; Minges, Karl E.; Murphy, Kathryn M.; Grey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to describe the frequency of diabetes self-management activities, processes, and goals among early adolescents. In addition, differences in self-management by age at diagnosis and duration of diabetes were explored. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to analyze baseline data from 320 adolescents with T1DM enrolled in a multisite clinical trial. Participants completed questionnaires on demographic/clinical characteristics and self-management. Results There was a transitional pattern of self-management with a high frequency of diabetes care activities, problem solving, and goals and variable amounts of collaboration with parents. After controlling for therapy type and age, youth with short diabetes duration reported performing significantly more diabetes care activities than individuals with a longer duration. Individuals with short diabetes duration had more frequent communication than individuals with a longer duration, which was associated with diagnosis in adolescence. Among those diagnosed as school age children, those with short diabetes duration reported significantly more diabetes goals than those with a longer duration. Conclusions A more specific understanding of self-management may help clinicians provide more targeted education and support. Adolescents with a long duration of diabetes need additional self-management support, particularly for diabetes care activities and communication. PMID:24470042

  19. Hypoglycemia-Related Electroencephalogram Changes Are Independent of Gender, Age, Duration of Diabetes, and Awareness Status in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Remvig, Line Sofie; Elsborg, Rasmus; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Sønder Snogdal, Lena; Folkestad, Lars; Juhl, Claus B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuroglycopenia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in reduced cognition, unconsciousness, seizures, and possible death. Characteristic changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be detected even in the initial stages. This may constitute a basis for a hypoglycemia alarm device. The aim of the present study was to explore the characteristics of the EEG differentiating normoglycemia and hypoglycemia and to elucidate potential group differences. Methods We pooled data from experiments in T1DM where EEG was available during both normoglycemia and hypo-glycemia for each subject. Temporal EEG was analyzed by quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) analysis with respect to absolute amplitude and centroid frequency of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands, and the peak frequency of the unified theta–alpha band. To elucidate possible group differences, data were subsequently stratified by age group (± 50 years), gender, duration of diabetes (± 20 years), and hypoglycemia awareness status (normal/impaired awareness of hypoglycemia). Results An increase in the log amplitude of the delta, theta, and alpha band and a decrease in the alpha band centroid frequency and the peak frequency of the unified theta–alpha band constituted the most significant hypoglycemia indicators (all p < .0001). The size of these qEEG changes remained stable across all strata. Conclusions Hypoglycemia-associated EEG changes remain stable across age group, gender, duration of diabetes, and hypoglycemia awareness status. This indicates that it may be possible to establish a general algorithm for hypoglycemia detection based on EEG measures. PMID:23294778

  20. Hippocampal calcium dysregulation at the nexus of diabetes and brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Olivier; Anderson, Katie L.; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Landfield, Philip W.; Porter, Nada M.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence is associating disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, including the overlapping conditions of insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes, with moderate cognitive impairment in normal aging and elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease. It appears that a common feature of these conditions is deficient insulin signaling, likely affecting the brain as well as canonical peripheral target tissues. A number of studies have documented that insulin directly affects brain processes and that reduced insulin signaling results in impaired learning and memory. Several studies have also shown that deficient insulin signaling induces Ca2+ dysregulation in neurons. Because brain aging is associated with substantial Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, it has been proposed that deficient insulin signaling exacerbates or accelerates aging-related Ca2+ dyshomeostasis. However, there have been few studies examining insulin interactions with Ca2+ regulation in aging animals. We have been testing predictions of the Ca2+ dysregulation/diabetes/brain aging hypothesis and have found that insulin and insulin sensitizers (thiazolidinediones) target several hippocampal Ca2+-related processes affected by aging, including larger Ca2+ transients and Ca2+-dependent afterhyperpolarizations, and counteract the effects of aging on those processes. Thus, while additional testing is needed, the results to date are consistent with the view that effects of deficient insulin signaling on brain aging are mediated in part by neuronal Ca2+ dyshomeostasis. PMID:23872402

  1. Proteome wide reduction in AGE modification in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice by hydralazine mediated transglycation

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Suresh K.; Bhat, Shweta; Golegaonkar, Sandeep B.; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Deshmukh, Arati B.; Patil, Harshal S.; Bhosale, Santosh D.; Shaikh, Mahemud L.; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2013-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between glucose and protein can be chemically reversed by transglycation. Here we report the transglycation activity of hydralazine using a newly developed MALDI-TOF-MS based assay. Hydralazine mediated transglycation of HbA1c, plasma proteins and kidney proteins was demonstrated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, as evidenced by decrease in protein glycation, as well as presence of hydralazine-glucose conjugate in urine of diabetic mice treated with hydralazine. Hydralazine down regulated the expression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE), NADPH oxidase (NOX), and super oxide dismutase (SOD). These findings will provide a new dimension for developing intervention strategies for the treatment of glycation associated diseases such as diabetes complications, atherosclerosis, and aging. PMID:24126953

  2. Diabetes and Age-Related Demographic Differences in Risk Factor Control

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Brent M.; Li, Jiexiang; Wolfman, Tamara E.; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race/ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Methods Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin <7%, non-HDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL, and blood pressure <140/<90 mmHg in white, black, and Hispanic diabetics <65 (younger) and ≥65 (older) years. NHANES 1999–2010 data were analyzed on diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetics ≥18 years. Results Concurrent target attainment was higher in whites (18.7%) than blacks (13.4% [p=0.02] and Hispanics (10.3%, p<0.001) <65 but not ≥65 years (20.0% vs. 15.9% [p=0.13], 19.5% [p=0.88]). Disparities in healthcare insurance among younger whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively, (87.4% vs. 81.1% (p<0.01), 68.0% (p<0.001) and infrequent healthcare (0–1 visits/year; 14.3% vs. 15.0% (p=NS), 32.0% (p<0.001) declined with age. Cholesterol treatment predicted concurrent control in both age groups (multivariable odds ratio >2, p<0.001). Risk factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Conclusions Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control. PMID:24952652

  3. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  4. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  5. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  6. Joint Effects of Smoking and Gene Variants Involved in Sex Steroid Metabolism on Hot Flashes in Late Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex

  7. Adverse Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on the Skeleton of Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Ardura, Juan Antonio; Lozano, Daniel; Bolívar, Oskarina Hernández; López-Herradón, Ana; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Irene; Proctor, Alexander; van der Eerden, Bram; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; van Leeuwen, Johannes; Alcaraz, María José; Mulero, Francisca; de la Fuente, Mónica; Esbrit, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the possibility that a diabetic (DM) status might worsen age-related bone deterioration was explored in mice. Male CD-1 mice aged 2 (young control group) or 16 months, nondiabetic or made diabetic by streptozotocin injections, were used. DM induced a decrease in bone volume, trabecular number, and eroded surface, and in mineral apposition and bone formation rates, but an increased trabecular separation, in L1-L3 vertebrae of aged mice. Three-point bending and reference point indentation tests showed slight changes pointing to increased frailty and brittleness in the mouse tibia of diabetic old mice. DM was related to a decreased expression of both vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor 2, which paralleled that of femoral vasculature, and increased expression of the pro-adipogenic gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and adipocyte number, without affecting β-catenin pathway in old mouse bone. Concomitant DM in old mice failed to affect total glutathione levels or activity of main anti-oxidative stress enzymes, although xanthine oxidase was slightly increased, in the bone marrow, but increased the senescence marker caveolin-1 gene. In conclusion, DM worsens bone alterations of aged mice, related to decreased bone turnover and bone vasculature and increased senescence, independently of the anti-oxidative stress machinery. PMID:26386012

  8. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  9. Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Brian W.; Carmody, David; Tadie, Elizabeth C.; Pastore, Ashley N.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.; Greeley, Siri Atma W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Individuals with heterozygous activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene encoding a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can usually be treated with oral sulfonylurea (SU) pills in lieu of insulin injections. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that younger age at the time of initiation of SU therapy is correlated with lower required doses of SU therapy, shorter transition time and decreased likelihood of requiring additional diabetes medications. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using data on 58 individuals with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11mutations identified through the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry (http://monogenicdiabetes.uchicago.edu/registry). We assessed the influence of age at initiation of SU therapy on treatment outcomes. Results HbA1c fell from an average of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) before transition to 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) after SU therapy (p < 0.001). Age of initiation of SU correlated with the dose (mg kg−1 day−1) of SU required at follow-up (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed across mutation subtypes. Ten participants required additional glucose-lowering medications and all had initiated SU at age 13 years or older. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions/interpretation Earlier age at initiation of SU treatment is associated with improved response to SU therapy. Declining sensitivity to SU may be due to loss of beta cell mass over time in those treated with insulin. Our data support the need for early genetic diagnosis and appropriate personalised treatment in all cases of neonatal diabetes. PMID:25877689

  10. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  11. Peripheral Levels of AGEs and Astrocyte Alterations in the Hippocampus of STZ-Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Patrícia; Zanotto, Caroline; Hansen, Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Gasparin, Manuela Sangalli; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) models exhibit signals of brain dysfunction, evidenced by neuronal damage and memory impairment. Astrocytes surrounding capillaries and synapses modulate many brain activities that are connected to neuronal function, such as nutrient flux and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As such, cognitive changes observed in diabetic patients and experimental models could be related to astroglial alterations. Herein, we investigate specific astrocyte changes in the rat hippocampus in a model of DM induced by STZ, particularly looking at glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B protein and glutamate uptake, as well as the content of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a consequence of elevated hyperglycemia and the content of receptor for AGEs in the hippocampus. We found clear peripheral alterations, including hyperglycemia, low levels of proinsulin C-peptide, elevated levels of AGEs in serum and CSF, as well as an increase in RAGE in hippocampal tissue. We found specific astroglial abnormalities in this brain region, such as reduced S100B content, reduced glutamate uptake and increased S100B secretion, which were not accompanied by changes in GFAP. We also observed an increase in the glucose transporter, GLUT-1. All these changes may result from RAGE-induced inflammation; these astroglial alterations together with the reduced content of GluN1, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, in the hippocampus may be associated with the impairment of glutamatergic communication in diabetic rats. These findings contribute to understanding the cognitive deficits in diabetic patients and experimental models. PMID:27084774

  12. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  13. Correlation of liver enzymes with diabetes and pre-diabetes in middle-aged rural population in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-hui; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe-long; Hu, Shu-hong; Zhou, Xin-rong; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Mu-xun; Tao, Jing; Yu, Xue-feng

    2016-02-01

    The survey aimed to explore the association of liver transaminases with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) in the middle-aged rural population in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 800 middle-aged subjects who lived in rural area of central China. The 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Participants were asked to complete physical examination and standard questionnaire. The serum liver transaminases (ALT and GGT), HbA1C and serum lipids were measured. In middle-aged rural population, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT) and DM was 4.0%, 11.8%, 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Some measurements were higher in males than in females, such as waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and liver enzymes (ALT and GGT). Further, we found that elevated serum GGT and ALT levels were significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of DM, independent of central obesity, serum lipid and insulin resistance (IR) in both genders. However, the correlation of GGT and ALT with pre-DM was determined by genders and characteristics of liver enzymes. Higher serum GGT was indicative of IGT in both genders. The association of serum ALT with pre-DM was significant only in female IGT group. In conclusion, our present survey shows both serum GGT and ALT are positively associated with DM, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. PMID:26838740

  14. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Eun; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  15. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Benjamin; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). Design and Methods PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City (NYC) using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. Findings After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in United States, marital status, health insurance and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans age 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. Conclusions PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical Relevance Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. PMID:26641597

  16. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  17. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI. PMID:27119311

  18. A discrete-time analysis of the effects of more prolonged exposure to neighborhood poverty on the risk of smoking initiation by age 25.

    PubMed

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults. PMID:26685707

  19. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  20. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  1. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M; Narendran, Parth

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population - the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  2. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  3. Confocal Raman study of aging process in diabetes mellitus human voluntaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Liliane; Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; dos Santos, Laurita; Ali, Syed Mohammed; Fávero, Priscila Pereira; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of AGEs [Advanced Glycation End - products] occurs slowly during the human aging process. However, its formation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we perform a noninvasive analysis of glycation effect on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. This technique uses a laser of 785 nm as excitation source and, by the inelastic scattering of light, it is possible to obtain information about the biochemical composition of the skin. Our aim in this work was to characterize the aging process resulting from the glycation process in a group of 10 Health Elderly Women (HEW) and 10 Diabetic Elderly Women (DEW). The Raman data were collected from the dermis at a depth of 70-130 microns. Through the theory of functional density (DFT) the bands positions of hydroxyproline, proline and AGEs (pentosidine and glucosepane) were calculated by using Gaussian 0.9 software. A molecular interpretation of changes in type I collagen was performed by the changes in the vibrational modes of the proline (P) and hydroxyproline (HP). The data analysis shows that the aging effects caused by glycation of proteins degrades type I collagen differently and leads to accelerated aging process.

  4. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  5. Renal function in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Dabla, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-05-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. Cardiovascular and renal complications share common risk factors such as blood pressure, blood lipids, and glycemic control. Thus, chronic kidney disease may predict cardiovascular disease in the general population. The impact of diabetes on renal impairment changes with increasing age. Serum markers of glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria identify renal impairment in different segments of the diabetic population, indicating that serum markers as well as microalbuminuria tests should be used in screening for nephropathy in diabetic older people. The American Diabetes Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from serum creatinine at least once a year in all people with diabetes for detection of kidney dysfunction. eGFR remains an independent and significant predictor after adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, obesity, blood pressure, and glycemic and lipid control, as well as presence of diabetic retinopathy. Cystatin-C (Cys C) may in future be the preferred marker of diabetic nephropathy due differences in measurements of serum creatinine by various methods. The appropriate reference limit for Cys C in geriatric clinical practice must be defined by further research. Various studies have shown the importance of measurement of albuminuria, eGFR, serum creatinine and hemoglobin level to further enhance the prediction of end stage renal disease. PMID:21537427

  6. Which individuals are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease and why? Impact of COPD, asthma, smoking, diabetes, and/or chronic heart disease on community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Antoni; Blasi, Francesco; Dartois, Nathalie; Akova, Murat

    2015-10-01

    Pneumococcal disease (including community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease) poses a burden to the community all year round, especially in those with chronic underlying conditions. Individuals with COPD, asthma or who smoke, and those with chronic heart disease or diabetes mellitus have been shown to be at increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with those without these risk factors. These conditions, and smoking, can also adversely affect patient outcomes, including short-term and long-term mortality rates, following pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia, and in particular pneumococcal pneumonia, is associated with a significant economic burden, especially in those who are hospitalised, and also has an impact on a patient's quality of life. Therefore, physicians should target individuals with COPD, asthma, heart disease or diabetes mellitus, and those who smoke, for pneumococcal vaccination at the earliest opportunity at any time of the year. PMID:26219979

  7. Which individuals are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease and why? Impact of COPD, asthma, smoking, diabetes, and/or chronic heart disease on community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Antoni; Blasi, Francesco; Dartois, Nathalie; Akova, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease (including community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease) poses a burden to the community all year round, especially in those with chronic underlying conditions. Individuals with COPD, asthma or who smoke, and those with chronic heart disease or diabetes mellitus have been shown to be at increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with those without these risk factors. These conditions, and smoking, can also adversely affect patient outcomes, including short-term and long-term mortality rates, following pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia, and in particular pneumococcal pneumonia, is associated with a significant economic burden, especially in those who are hospitalised, and also has an impact on a patient's quality of life. Therefore, physicians should target individuals with COPD, asthma, heart disease or diabetes mellitus, and those who smoke, for pneumococcal vaccination at the earliest opportunity at any time of the year. PMID:26219979

  8. Influence of cigarette smoking on the overall perception of dental health among adults aged 20-79 years, United States, 1988-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Nathalie M.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hooper, Tomoko I.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigation into the relationship between lifestyle factors (particularly cigarette smoking) and perceived oral health has been limited. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988-1994, were used to explore this relationship in a large sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data on 13,357 dentate participants in NHANES III aged 20-79 years. In NHANES III, information on perceived dental health, sociodemographic attributes, smoking status, frequency of dental visits, dental insurance, and general health perception were collected during a home interview, and oral health status was assessed at a mobile examination center. RESULTS: Overall, 34.4% of individuals in the study sample reported having an unfavorable perception of their dental health by qualifying it as "fair" or "poor." Furthermore, 46.6% of smokers had an unfavorable dental health perception, compared to 28.3% of non-smokers. An interaction between smoking and race/ethnicity was found in logistic regression modeling. Stratified results show that cigarette smoking was not a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among individuals who self-identified as Mexican American, but smoking was a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among those who identified as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the effects of smoking on dental health perception while controlling for examined oral health status. Because perceived dental health is a potential indicator for dental care utilization, a better knowledge of the factors that influence dental health perception is not only important for dental services planning, but also for understanding oral health-related quality of life issues. Additionally, given that smoking may negatively affect dental health perception, these findings have potential implications for smoking cessation activities conducted by

  9. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  10. Brain nitric oxides synthase in major pelvic ganglia of aged (LETO) and diabetic (OLETF) rats.

    PubMed

    Salama, N; Tamura, M; Tsuruo, Y; Ishimura, K; Kagawa, S

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) on brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) expression in major pelvic ganglia (MPG) of rats. Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (12, 30, and 70 weeks old), which are genetic models with non-insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM), and age-matched nondiabetic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka controls were used. The MPG of all rats in this study were subjected to cryo-sectioning and staining with bNOS polyclonal AB and rhodamine-conjugated rabbit IgG. Fluorescence intensities of the stained neurons were assessed in randomly selected fields per each specimen. Animals of both groups revealed significant decline in the staining intensity of their neurons with aging and the progress of DM, but diabetic rats showed more decline than controls. In conclusion, both aging and NIDDM could decrease bNOS expression in rat MPG. However, NIDDM has a more evident effect than aging on that expression. The decrease in bNOS may cause a disturbance in functions of the target pelvic structures of these ganglia under both conditions. PMID:12230824

  11. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  12. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  13. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... glucose or pre-diabetes. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test: Normal is less than 5.7%; prediabetes is 5.7 to 6.4%; and diabetes is 6.5% or higher. Oral ...

  14. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  16. Site-specific AGE modifications in the ECM: a role for glyoxal in protein damage in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Voziyan, Paul; Brown, Kyle L.; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major proposed mechanism of diabetic complications. Specifically, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from hyperglycemia-induced reactive carbonyl species (RCS) can have pathogenic consequences when they target functionally critical protein residues. Modification of a small number of these critical residues, often undetectable by the methodologies relying on measurements of total AGE levels, can cause significant functional damage. Therefore, detection of specific sites of protein damage in diabetes is central to understanding molecular basis of diabetic complications and for identification of biomarkers which are mechanistically linked to the disease. The current paradigm of RCS-derived protein damage places the major focus on methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate of cellular glycolysis. We propose that glyoxal (GO) is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in diabetes. Here, we review the current knowledge and provide new data about GO-derived site-specific ECM modification in experimental diabetes. PMID:23492568

  17. Technology Use in Transition-Age Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: Reality and Promises.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Ulrich, Jenae; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2016-05-01

    Youth with chronic illnesses have the greatest risk for a decline in their health management during transition-age. Because of this demonstrated and well-known issue, research has focused on how to improve the transition of care process. Despite the increasing number of technological devices on the market and the advances in telemedicine modalities available to patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the utilization of technology is still suboptimal among patients of transition-age (ages 13-25). This article reviews the available resources, patterns of use in transition-age youth, and explores opportunities to advance technology use in transitioning patients with T1D from pediatric to adult care. PMID:26892506

  18. Experimental induction of type 2 diabetes in aging-accelerated mice triggered Alzheimer-like pathology and memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Jogender; Chauhan, Balwantsinh C; Chauhan, Neelima B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease constituting ~95% of late-onset non-familial/sporadic AD, and only ~5% accounting for early-onset familial AD. Availability of a pertinent model representing sporadic AD is essential for testing candidate therapies. Emerging evidence indicates a causal link between diabetes and AD. People with diabetes are >1.5-fold more likely to develop AD. Senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of accelerated aging displays many features occurring early in AD. Given the role played by diabetes in the pre-disposition of AD, and the utility of SAMP8 non-transgenic mouse model of accelerated aging, we examined if high fat diet-induced experimental type 2 diabetes in SAMP8 mice will trigger pathological aging of the brain. Results showed that compared to non-diabetic SAMP8 mice, diabetic SAMP8 mice exhibited increased cerebral amyloid-β, dysregulated tau-phosphorylating glycogen synthase kinase 3β, reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and displayed memory deficits, indicating Alzheimer-like changes. High fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic SAMP8 mice may represent the metabolic model of AD. PMID:24121970

  19. Experimental Induction of Type 2 Diabetes in Aging-Accelerated Mice Triggered Alzheimer-Like Pathology and Memory Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Jogender; Chauhan, Balwantsinh C.; Chauhan, Neelima B.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease constituting ~95% of late-onset non-familial/sporadic AD, and only ~5% accounting for early-onset familial AD. Availability of a pertinent model representing sporadic AD is essential for testing candidate therapies. Emerging evidence indicates a causal link between diabetes and AD. People with diabetes are >1.5-fold more likely to develop AD. Senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of accelerated aging displays many features occurring early in AD. Given the role played by diabetes in the pre-disposition of AD, and the utility of SAMP8 non-transgenic mouse model of accelerated aging, we examined if high fat diet-induced experimental type 2 diabetes in SAMP8 mice will trigger pathological aging of the brain. Results showed that compared to non-diabetic SAMP8 mice, diabetic SAMP8 mice exhibited increased cerebral amyloid-β, dysregulated tau-phosphorylating glycogen synthase kinase 3β, reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and displayed memory deficits, indicating Alzheimer-like changes. High fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic SAMP8 mice may represent the metabolic model of AD. PMID:24121970

  20. Impaired musculoskeletal response to age and exercise in PPARβ(-/-) diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, He; Desvergne, Beatrice; Ferrari, Serge; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Fragility fractures are recognized complication of diabetes, but yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This is particularly pronounced in type 2 diabetes in which the propensity to fall is increased but bone mass is not necessarily low. Thus, whether factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes directly impact on the musculoskeletal system remains to be investigated. PPARβ(-/-) mice have reduced metabolic activity and are glucose intolerant. We examined changes in bone and muscle in PPARβ(-/-) mice and investigated both the mechanism behind those changes with age as well as their response to exercise. Compared with their wild type, PPARβ(-/-) mice had an accelerated and parallel decline in both muscle and bone strength with age. These changes were accompanied by increased myostatin expression, low bone formation, and increased resorption. In addition, mesenchymal cells from PPARβ(-/-) had a reduced proliferation capacity and appeared to differentiate into more of an adipogenic phenotype. Concomitantly we observed an increased expression of PPARγ, characteristic of adipocytes. The anabolic responses of muscle and bone to exercise were also diminished in PPARβ(-/-) mice. The periosteal bone formation response to direct bone compression was, however, maintained, indicating that PPARβ controls periosteal bone formation through muscle contraction and/or metabolism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPARβ deficiency leads to glucose intolerance, decreased muscle function, and reduced bone strength. On a molecular level, PPARβ appears to regulate myostatin and PPARγ expression in muscle and bone, thereby providing potential new targets to reverse bone fragility in patients with metabolic disturbances. PMID:25279796

  1. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) = -0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.

  2. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and lab studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) =-0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.

  3. Neurocognitive Functioning in Preschool-age Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Delamater, Alan M.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Brady, Erika; Eidson, Margaret; Nemery, Robin; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Luis; Richton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Neurocognitive functioning may be compromised in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The factor most consistently implicated in the long-term neurocognitive functioning of children with T1DM is age of onset. The pediatric literature suggests that glycemic extremes may have an effect on the neurocognitive functioning of children, but findings are mixed. The purpose of this study was to compare the neurocognitive functioning of young children with T1DM diagnosed before six years of age and healthy children (i.e., without chronic illness). Additionally, in the children with T1DM, we examined the relationship between their neurocognitive functioning and glycemic control. Sixty eight (36 with T1DM and 32 without chronic illness) preschool-age children (M age = 4.4yrs) were recruited and administered a battery of instruments to measure cognitive, language, and fine motor skills. Children with T1DM performed similarly to the healthy controls and both groups' skills fell in the average range. Among children with diabetes, poor glycemic control (higher HbA1c) was related to lower general cognitive abilities (r = -.44, p < .04), slower fine motor speed (r = -.64, p < .02), and lower receptive language scores (r = -.39, p < .04). Such findings indicate that young children with T1DM already demonstrate some negative neurocognitive effects in association with chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:20456084

  4. Glycation-altered proteolysis as a pathobiologic mechanism that links dietary glycemic index, aging, and age-related disease in non diabetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the risks for major age-related debilities including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are diminished in people who consume lower glycemic index (GI) diets, but lack of a unifying physiobiochemical mechanism that explains...

  5. Aging and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes: 8 Years of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Clark, Jeanne M.; Evans, Mary; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and education (DSE). Although the current study compared treatment differences between ILI and DSE on PF, the primary goal was to examine whether this effect was moderated by age and history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Methods. Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to either ILI or DSE. The mean (±SD) age and % females in ILI was 58.9 years (±6.9) and 59.8%; it was 58.6 years (6.8) and 59.5% in DSE. Analysis in 4,998 participants assessed the differential rates of decline in PF across a period of 8 years for the ILI and DSE groups. Results. ILI resulted in improved PF compared with DSE after 1 year (p < .0001) and was maintained across time. Within the ILI, older adults experienced greater improvements than younger adults (p < .0001). By year 2, persons in ILI with preexisting cardiovascular disease were no different in PF than in DSE participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. With the exception of persons who had a history of cardiovascular disease, ILI slowed the decline in PF with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite weight regain, an effect that was stronger for older than younger participants and could translate into reductions in falls and disability. PMID:24986062

  6. Urinary levels of trace elements among primary school-aged children from Italy: The contribution of smoking habits of family members.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Canepari, Silvia; Vitali, Matteo

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study was to investigate the role of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure in domestic environment, the smoking policies adopted at home on urinary excretion of 23 trace elements present in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke (Li, Be, B, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Tl, Pb, Bi, U) among a sample of healthy Italian school-aged children. The levels of monitored trace elements in urine samples from 110 children (5-11years) living in a rural area and recruited in a cross-sectional study were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while information regarding demographic characteristics and ETS exposure of the participants were obtained from questionnaires. Univariate elaborations evidenced that Co and Mn levels increased in children exposed to ETS in domestic environment, but multiple linear regression analyses revealed the independent effect of the habit of cohabitant(s) smoker(s) of smoking at home when children is present on urinary concentrations of Li, Ti, V, Co, Ga and Sr. Besides, we found significant gender- and age-dependency of some monitored elements: females presented higher Cu and Pb levels, but lower Rb levels respect to males, while age displayed a significant negative independent effect on the Cr, Co, Rb, and Sn concentrations, but positive on Ga levels. Finally, u-creatinine was a significant predictor for almost all the analytes, but not for Mn, Cd, Sb, Ga. PMID:27016686

  7. Cannabis smoke can be a major risk factor for early-age laryngeal cancer--a molecular signaling-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower age group had relatively higher number of cannabis smokers. This study provides evidence for a direct association between cannabis smoking and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Higher expression of the EGFR cascade in cannabis smokers revealed that cannabis smoking may be a major cause for the early onset of aggressive laryngeal cancer. PMID:25736926

  8. Age and family relationship accentuate the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in relatives of patients with IDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, A.B.; Krischer, J.P.; Cuthbertson, D.D.

    1995-12-01

    The international community of diabetologists is rapidly becomine involved in intervention trials aimed at preventing insulin-dependent diabetes in high risk relatives. Whereas age and relationship to a proband with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus interacting with detected islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) are risk factors, their independent contribution to that risk remains unclear. In a prospective study of 6851 nondiabetic relatives of 2742 probands conducted between 1979-1993, we found age, but not relationship, to be a dramatic risk variable in ICA-positive persons as estimated by the Cox regression model. The 5-yr risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 66% for those found to have ICA detectable before age 10 yr, falling progressively to less than 16% for ICA-positive relatives over age 40 yr. In ICA-negative relatives, age and relationship are independent prognostic variables. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Diabetic kidney disease: a role for advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1)?

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Aowen; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients are postulated to be in a perpetual state of oxidative stress and inflammation at sites where chronic complications occur. The accumulation of AGEs derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources (such as the diet) have been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic complications, particularly nephropathy. There has been some interest in investigating the potential for reducing the AGE burden in chronic disease, through the action of AGE "clearance" receptors, such as the advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1). Reducing the burden of AGEs has been linked to attenuation of inflammation, slower progression of diabetic complications (in particular vascular and renal complications) and has been shown to extend lifespan. To date, however, there have been no direct investigations into whether AGE-R1 has any role in modulating normal kidney function, or specifically during the development and progression of diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge around the mechanistic function of AGE-R1 and the implications of this for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:27270766

  10. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

  11. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  12. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    SciTech Connect

    Barregard, Lars; Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  13. A general practice based survey of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and its relation to symptoms, sex, age, atopy, and smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016

  14. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  15. Assessment of skeletal and dental ages of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Sanamaika Queiroga; Topolski, Francielle; França, Suzana Nesi; Brücker, Márcia Rejane; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the skeletal and dental ages of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Therefore, panoramic and hand-wrist radiographs of 82 patients, aged between 5 and 15 years, were collected and divided into case and control groups. The case group consisted of 41 panoramic and 41 hand-wrist radiographs of T1DM patients, whereas the control group consisted of 41 panoramic and 41 hand-wrist radiographs of patients without T1DM. Skeletal age was assessed according to the method of Greulich and Pyle (1999), whereas dental age was assessed according to the method of Nolla (1960). Chi-square tests revealed no statistically significant differences between skeletal and dental ages between the case and control groups (p > 0.05). However, in the case group, the skeletal age of females was greater than that of age-matched males (p = 0.005). Considering that skeletal and dental growth of the case and control groups were closely related, clinical interventions involving orthodontics and dentomaxillofacial orthopedics should be equally performed both for healthy and specific patient groups, such as those with T1DM. PMID:25627889

  16. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. Methods ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. Results In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. Conclusions S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue. PMID:21982398

  17. The association between smoking and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis aged 30 to 49 years

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking may exacerbate and cause psoriasis. Moreover, smokers are more likely to develop insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim To assess the prevalence of MS and its components in patients with psoriasis, who smoke, compared with the general Polish population of smokers. Material and methods We studied 29 patients with psoriasis (female = 9, male = 20), smokers, aged 30 to 49 years. Metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using the IDF definition and compared to the results obtained in a representative sample of adult Poles in the NATPOL 2011 study in the same age group, including smokers. Results The results have shown that patients with psoriasis are more likely to be smokers (p < 0.0034) and the frequency of smoking in men is approximately 25% higher than in males of the control group (p < 0.0017). The prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis who smoke was 27.58% and in the control group 25.2% (p > 0.05). Mean body mass index was 26.07 kg/m2 in psoriasis patients and 25.59 kg/m2 in the control group (p > 0.05), and abdominal obesity was 88.82 cm and 90.02 cm (p > 0.05), respectively. There were no differences in hypertension (34.48% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.05) and mean HOMA-IR (1.80 vs. 1.77, p > 0.05). In lipid parameters, the differences were observed only in women with psoriasis – higher levels of HDL, triglycerides and ApoB/ApoA1 index compared with addicted women in the control group. Conclusions Men with psoriasis are more often addicted to smoking. Women with psoriasis who smoke have often disturbances of the lipid profile. PMID:26759540

  18. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001. PMID:20687040

  19. Multiscale entropy analysis of pulse wave velocity for assessing atherosclerosis in the aged and diabetic.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Hou-Jun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Chieh-Ju

    2011-10-01

    This study proposed a dynamic pulse wave velocity (PWV)-based biomedical parameter in assessing the degree of atherosclerosis for the aged and diabetic populations. Totally, 91 subjects were recruited from a single medical institution between July 2009 and October 2010. The subjects were divided into four groups: young healthy adults (Group 1, n = 22), healthy upper middle-aged adults (Group 2, n = 28), type 2 diabetics with satisfactory blood sugar control (Group 3, n = 21), and unsatisfactory blood sugar control (Group 4, n = 20). A self-developed six-channel electrocardiography (ECG)-PWV-based equipment was used to acquire 1000 successive recordings of PWV(foot) values within 30 min. The data, thus, obtained were analyzed with multiscale entropy (MSE). Large-scale MSE index (MEI(LS)) was chosen as the assessment parameter. Not only did MEI(LS) successfully differentiate between subjects in Groups 1 and 2, but it also showed a significant difference between Groups 3 and 4. Compared with the conventional parameter of PWV(foot) and MEI on R-R interval [i.e., MEI(RRI)] in evaluating the degree of atherosclerotic change, the dynamic parameter, MEI(LS) (PWV), could better reflect the impact of age and blood sugar control on the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:21693413

  20. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants' education, participants' wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81-3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30-85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13-37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929

  1. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Discussion Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26529593

  2. The Physiological Mechanisms of Diabetes and Aging on Brain Health and Cognition: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Talley, Michele; Pryor, Erica; Wadley, Virginia; Crowe, Michael; Morrison, Shannon; Vance, David

    2015-10-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals over the age of 65 years will experience some degree of cognitive impairment, and older adults with diabetes are at increased risk for these impairments. Such impairments can negatively affect activities of daily living and lead to a decrease in quality of life as well as increase caregiver burden. Cumulatively, the effects of diabetes and aging slowly diminish cognitive function, resulting in various degrees of cognitive impairment including dementia. In fact, older adults with diabetes have a 65% higher chance of developing Alzheimer disease than those without diabetes. This article reviews the synergistic effects of aging and diabetes on cognitive function. A discussion of the physiologic basis for these effects is included, in particular, the role of insulin in the brain. The final section of the article focuses on intervention strategies that can be used by nurses and allied healthcare providers to mitigate the influence of diabetes and aging so that optimal cognitive performance is maintained. Areas for future research are also discussed. PMID:26200187

  3. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants’ education, participants’ wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81–3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30–85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13–37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929

  4. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  5. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. PMID:26912037

  6. Work Stress, Sense of Coherence, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Prospective Study of Middle-Aged Swedish Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna-Karin; van den Donk, Maureen; Hilding, Agneta; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prospective influence of work stress on type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This population-based cohort included 3,205 women and 2,227 men, aged 35–56 years, with baseline normal glucose tolerance measured with oral glucose tolerance test. At follow-up 8–10 years later, T2D was diagnosed in 60 women and 111 men. Work stress factors evaluated by questionnaire (i.e., demands, decision latitude, job strain, shift work, overtime work, and also sense of coherence) were studied in association with T2D. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for age, education, BMI, physical activity, smoking, family history of diabetes, and psychological distress were calculated. RESULTS In women, low decision latitude was associated with T2D on its own (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.1–5.2]) and combined with high demands: job strain (OR 4.2 [2.0–8.7]), adjusted for all available potential confounders. Also, shift work increased the risk of T2D in women (OR 2.2 [1.0–4.7]) when adjusted for age, education, and psychological distress, although this risk was diluted after multifactor adjustment (OR 1.9 [0.8–4.4]). In men, high work demands and high strain decreased the risk of T2D (OR 0.5 [0.3–0.9]) for both measures, as did an active job (high demands and high decision latitude, OR 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). CONCLUSIONS Work stress and shift work may contribute to the development of T2D in women. In men, the risk was decreased by high work demands, high strain, and an active job. PMID:23637356

  7. Trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate, perchlorate, and nitrate by age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke over 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005-2012 were used to study the trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate (u-SCN), perchlorate (u-P8), and nitrate (u-NO3) by gender, race/ethnicity, active smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home for those aged 12-19 and ≥20years old. For those aged ≥20years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 (i) were lower for males than females (p<0.01), and (ii) were higher for non-Hispanic white (NHW) than non-Hispanic black (NHB) (p<0.01). Also, for those aged ≥20years NHB had higher adjusted levels than Mexican American (MA) for u-SCN (p<0.01) but NHB had lower adjusted levels than MA for u-P8 (p<0.01) and u-NO3 (p<0.01). For those aged 12-19years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 did not vary by gender (p>0.05), and adjusted levels of u-P8 and u-NO3 for NHB were lower than for NHW (p<0.01) as well as higher for NHB than MA for u-SCN (p<0.01) and lower for NHB than MA (p<0.01) for u-P8 and u-NO3. Among those aged ≥20years, active smoking was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner and active smoking was associated with lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner. Exposure to ETS was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p=0.02) and lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) among ≥20years old. Adjusted levels of u-P8 decreased over 2005-2012 among both 12-19 (p<0.01) and ≥20years old (p=0.04). There was borderline increase in the adjusted levels of u-NO3 for those aged ≥20years (p=0.05) over 2005-2012. PMID:26994809

  8. Measurements of Trace Gases and Particles in Fresh and Aged Smoke from a Chaparral Fire in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Alvarado, M. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Coe, H.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    On November 17th 2009 we used a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, Licor CO2 analyzer, and a chemiluminescence ozone instrument to measure the initial emissions from a 100 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, U.S.A. We also measured the post emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for a distance corresponding to about 4.5 hours of smoke aging. The light scattering to CO2 ratio increased by a factor of ~2.7 over 4 hours: similar to observations in a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of organic aerosol (OA) was confirmed by AMS. However, in the California plume, a decrease in OA was observed by AMS along with a concurrent increase in the fraction of thickly coated particles as measured by the SP2. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating may be explained by a combination of coagulation and evaporation processes. The latter may have been promoted in the California plume because it diluted in a “clean,” low relative humidity (11-26%) environment compared to the Mexican plume. AFTIR measured significant changes in gas phase constituents. The molar ratio of O3 to CO increased from approximately zero to 0.102 in 4.5 hours. Large growth factors for organic acids were also observed over the same aging period: acetic acid and formic acid increased by factors of 1.68 and 7.13, respectively. Inorganic species measured by the AMS also increased with plume aging. While the mass ratio of NH4+ to CO2 increased by ~2.3 x 10-4 in about 4 hours, the NH3/CO2 decreased by ~4.1 x 10-4, with ammonium accounting for ~55% of the gaseous ammonia lost (by mass). Conversion of NOx to PAN was observed coincident with formation of particle nitrate. A rapid decay in C2H4 was consistent with an in-plume average OH of ~5.40 x 106 molecules

  9. Ten-year experience in management of diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis: 140 episodes at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Yordam, Nuren; Gönç, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgün; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Ozön, Alev

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty episodes in 112 patients (58 boys) with diabetic ketoacidosis (96 episodes) and diabetic ketosis (44 episodes) were studied to elucidate the clinical and laboratory risk factors for altered level of consciousness at presentation and to analyze the outcome of a distinct protocol in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The patients were analyzed according to demographic data and clinical and laboratory findings at admission. The treatment protocol involved use of 0.45% sodium chloride (NaCl) in 2.5% dextrose as the initial fluid therapy following volume expansion. Dextrose content of the fluid was doubled once the serum glucose level fell below 250 mg/dl. The mean ages at presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis were 10.3 +/- 4.4 and 10.2 +/- 4.0 years, respectively. Thirty-one percent of patients had altered consciousness at presentation. The level of consciousness correlated negatively with serum bicarbonate level (r=-0.485; p<0.001). A serum bicarbonate level below 15 mmol/L was a risk factor for altered consciousness. There was no correlation between effective osmolality and the level of consciousness. Serum effective osmolality above 320 mOsm/kg H2O did not appear to be a risk factor for altered consciousness. No mortality or any signs of clinical brain edema were observed in patients treated with the distinct treatment protocol. In conclusion, acidosis appears to be the major factor in the pathogenesis of altered consciousness at presentation. Serum effective osmolality does not seem to be a risk factor as suggested previously. Dextrose added to the infusion fluid early in treatment seems to prevent the development of brain edema, and this may be due to a protective effect of higher osmolality in the resultant solution. PMID:16363342

  10. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Dejemli, Anissa; Delvin, Edgard; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal “programming” effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns. Methods In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity) and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function). Results Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use) and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration) characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006), and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06) than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Conclusions Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring. PMID:26599278

  11. Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: Evidence for interaction with multiple genes

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect models, SNP x AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154

  12. Lymphocyte cAMP and ageing: significance of subset composition, plasma noradrenaline, regular physical training and long-term smoking.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J H; Gustafsson, F; Toft, J; Christensen, N J

    1996-11-01

    1. We studied 37 healthy men at rest in the supine. position to examine the effect of ageing, smoking and physical training of beta 2-adrenoceptor function, plasma catecholamines and the proportions of various lymphocyte subsets. 2. In 14 young subjects the proportion of natural killer cells was correlated with cAMP production in lymphocytes and inversely correlated with plasma noradrenaline level. 3. In 16 elderly non-smokers plasma noradrenaline was negatively correlated with the natural killer cell subset CD3-CD16+. Lymphocyte cAMP responses did not differ between young and elderly non-smokers, whereas plasma noradrenaline increased slightly but significantly with age. Physical training did not influence either plasma noradrenaline or adrenaline at rest or cAMP in lymphocytes. 4. In seven elderly long-term smokers cAMP production and the viability of lymphocytes were reduced. Plasma noradrenaline attained its highest values in long-term smokers. 5. It is concluded that cAMP production and plasma noradrenaline are related to lymphocyte subset composition. The greater the proportion of natural killer cells and related subsets, the higher is cAMP production and the lower is plasma noradrenaline. Thus, the inverse correlation between lymphocyte cAMP and plasma noradrenaline is indirect and most likely mediated by variability in lymphocyte subset composition. In elderly subjects, reduced cAMP production was observed in long-term smokers, and this abnormality was probably due to a reduced viability of lymphocytes and especially of natural killer cells. The negative correlation between the proportion of natural killer cells and plasma noradrenaline at rest contracts with a well-known mobilizing effect of adrenaline on natural killer cells. PMID:8942401

  13. Impaired Musculoskeletal Response to Age and Exercise in PPARβ−/− Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, He; Desvergne, Beatrice; Ferrari, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Fragility fractures are recognized complication of diabetes, but yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This is particularly pronounced in type 2 diabetes in which the propensity to fall is increased but bone mass is not necessarily low. Thus, whether factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes directly impact on the musculoskeletal system remains to be investigated. PPARβ−/− mice have reduced metabolic activity and are glucose intolerant. We examined changes in bone and muscle in PPARβ−/− mice and investigated both the mechanism behind those changes with age as well as their response to exercise. Compared with their wild type, PPARβ−/− mice had an accelerated and parallel decline in both muscle and bone strength with age. These changes were accompanied by increased myostatin expression, low bone formation, and increased resorption. In addition, mesenchymal cells from PPARβ−/− had a reduced proliferation capacity and appeared to differentiate into more of an adipogenic phenotype. Concomitantly we observed an increased expression of PPARγ, characteristic of adipocytes. The anabolic responses of muscle and bone to exercise were also diminished in PPARβ−/− mice. The periosteal bone formation response to direct bone compression was, however, maintained, indicating that PPARβ controls periosteal bone formation through muscle contraction and/or metabolism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPARβ deficiency leads to glucose intolerance, decreased muscle function, and reduced bone strength. On a molecular level, PPARβ appears to regulate myostatin and PPARγ expression in muscle and bone, thereby providing potential new targets to reverse bone fragility in patients with metabolic disturbances. PMID:25279796

  14. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus. PMID:19271313

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  16. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  17. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giuseppina; Pintaudi, Basilio; Giorda, Carlo; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Suraci, Concetta; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. PMID:25873960

  18. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuseppina; Pintaudi, Basilio; Giorda, Carlo; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Suraci, Concetta; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. PMID:25873960

  19. Hyperinsulinemia/diabetes, hearing, and aging in the University of Wisconsin calorie restriction monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Cynthia G; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Colman, Ricki J; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Beasley, T Mark; Weindruch, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of hyperinsulinemia/Type 2 diabetes mellitus (HI-T2DM) on hearing impairment using rhesus monkeys to obtain control over diet and lifestyle factors that confound human studies. The study is a retrospective evaluation of rhesus monkeys from the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC) study on caloric restriction and aging. The research questions were the following: 1. Is HI-T2DM related to hearing impairment? 2. If so, what is the site of lesion in the auditory system? and 3. What physiological factors affect the risk of hearing loss in HI-T2DM? Three groups of eight monkeys each were matched by sex and age; the caloric restricted (CR) monkeys had a reduced risk of diabetes, the normal control (NL) group had a normal risk, and the hyperinsulinemia/diabetes (HI-D) group had already developed HI-T2DM. Auditory testing included distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) with f2 frequencies from 2211 to 8837 Hz and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) obtained with clicks and tone bursts (8, 16, and 32 kHz). DPOAEs had signal-to-noise ratios 8-17 dB larger in the NL group than in the HI-D and CR groups, signifying that cochlear function was best in the NL group. ABR thresholds were 5-8 dB better in the NL group than in the HI-D group, although no significant differences across the groups were evident for the thresholds, latencies, interwave intervals, or amplitudes. Correlations were significant for quadratic relations between body mass index (BMI) and DPOAE, with largest DPOAEs for animals in the middle of the BMI range. ABR thresholds elicited with 16 and 32 kHz signals were significantly correlated, positively with BMI and HbA1c, and negatively with KG (glucose tolerance), SI (insulin sensitivity index) and DI (disposition index). These findings suggest that the hearing loss associated with HI-T2DM is predominantly cochlear, and auditory structures underlying the higher frequencies are at

  20. Predicting the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Age of Onset through Modelling Genetic Risk Variants with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  1. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs when an imbalance ... to form on the ovaries. Women who have PCOS are at an increased risk of developing type ...

  2. Family roles and smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160

  3. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W M; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs. PMID:26337083

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae oropharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations. PMID:26575615

  5. Vitamin C nutriture in newly diagnosed diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Paik, Hee Young; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C intake, and diabetes in a nested case-control study. A cross-sectional survey of diet and health was conducted in 2,048 adults with an age of 30 y or older in Yonchon County, Korea. An oral glucose tolerance test was administered to all participants. One hundred cases of newly diagnosed diabetes were identified. Two healthy controls for each case matched with age, gender, drinking status, and smoking status were selected among the survey participants. L-Ascorbic acid levels were analyzed in fasting serum samples and one 24-h dietary recall was performed. Dietary vitamin C intake of persons with diabetes was 50.1±47.6 mg/d and that of controls was 55.1±41.1 mg/d. People with diabetes (22.3±16.8 µmol/L) have lower serum ascorbic acid levels than their controls (26.3±17.0 µmol/L) and the difference was significant by paired t-test (p<0.01). The association between diabetes and serum ascorbic acid level was still significant in non-smokers (24.2±17.8 µmol/L for the diabetes group and 29.5±16.7 µmol/L for the control group, p<0.01) but not in smokers (19.4±15.7 µmol/L for the diabetes group and 21.2±16.0 µmol/L for the control group). Our results suggest that diabetes and smoking interactively affect serum ascorbic acid levels. Since this population had poor nutritional status of vitamin C, further investigation of association between serum ascorbic acid level and diabetes and smoking by the level of vitamin C consumption is warranted. PMID:20924142

  6. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  7. Smoking-specific communication and children's smoking onset: an extension of the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno C P; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether maternal smoking-specific communication and parental smoking related to smoking cognitions (i.e. attitude, self-efficacy and social norm) derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour in association with smoking onset during preadolescence. A total of 1478 pairs of mothers and children participated (mean age: 10.11; standard deviation = 0.78). Structural equation models in Mplus were used to examine whether smoking-specific communication influences children's smoking cognitions, which in turn, affect smoking onset. A positive association was found between pro-smoking attitudes and smoking onset. Smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were related to smoking cognitions. Specifically, frequency of communication was negatively associated with pro-smoking attitudes, social norms of mother and best friend. Quality of communication related negatively to pro-smoking attitudes and positively to self-efficacy and norms of friends. Parental smoking was positively associated with pro-smoking attitudes and norms of mother and (best) friends. Additionally, more frequent communication and higher levels of parental smoking were associated with higher smoking onset. In conclusion, smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were associated with smoking cognitions and smoking onset. Already during preadolescence, parents contribute to shaping the smoking cognitions of their children, which may be predictive of smoking later in life. PMID:22519750

  8. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  9. Diagnosis of retinopathy in children younger than 12 years of age: implications for the diabetic eye screening guidelines in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A; Wharton, H M; Mills, A; Gibson, J M; Clarke, M; Dodson, P M

    2016-07-01

    AimTo assess whether the current starting age of 12 is suitable for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening and whether diabetes duration should be taken into account when deciding at what age to start screening patients.Materials and methodsA retrospective analysis of 143 patients aged 12 years or younger who attended diabetic eye screening for the first time in the Birmingham, Solihull and Black Country Diabetic Eye Screening Programme was performed.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 10.7 (7-12) years with 73 out of 143 aged below 12 years and 70 were 12 years of age. 98% had type 1 diabetes and mean diabetes duration was 5 (1 month-11 years) years. For those younger than 12 years, 7/73 (9.6%) had background DR (BDR), of these mean diabetes duration was 7 years (6-8). The youngest patient to present with DR was aged 8 years. In those aged 12 years, 5/70 (7.1%) had BDR; of these mean diabetes duration was 8 years (6-11). No patient developed DR before 6 years duration in either group.ConclusionsThe results show that no patient younger than the age of 12 had sight-threatening DR (STDR), but BDR was identified. Based on the current mission statement of the Diabetic Eye Screening Programme to identify STDR, 12 years of age is confirmed as the right age to start screening, but if it is important to diabetic management to identify first development of DR, then screening should begin after 6 years of diabetes diagnosis. PMID:27080488

  10. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Takis, Alexandros; Alonistiotis, Dimitrios; Panagiotidis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Background The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04) compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first time. PMID:24596452

  11. Infection and smoking are associated with decreased plasma concentration of the anti-aging protein, soluble α-klotho

    PubMed Central

    Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of soluble α-klotho are different between women with microbial invasion of the intra-amniotic cavity (MIAC) and those without MIAC among preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups:1) PTL with MIAC (n=14); 2) PTL without MIAC (n=79); 3) pPROM with MIAC (n=30); and 4) pPROM without MIAC (n=33). MIAC was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria or genital mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained within 48 hours from maternal blood collection. Plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho was significantly lower in patients with MIAC than in those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1117.8; p <0.001); 2) Among patients with PTL, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1138.9; p=0.007); 3) Among patients with pPROM, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (766.4 vs. 1001.6; p=0.045); 4) There was no significant difference in the median plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho between PPROM without MIAC and PTL without MIAC (1001.6 pg/mL vs. 1138.9 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.5); 5) After adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, tobacco use, gestational age at venipuncture), soluble α-klotho remained significantly associated with MIAC (p= 0.02); and 6) Among patients without MIAC, smoking was significantly associated with a lower median plasma concentration soluble α-klotho than in non-smokers (794.2 pg/mL vs. 1382.0 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001); however, this difference was not observed in patients with MIAC. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection

  12. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  13. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) were 2·23 (95 % CI 1·24, 3·99) for total sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  14. Smoking and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  15. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes. PMID:16698112

  16. The role of collagen crosslinks in ageing and diabetes - the good, the bad, and the ugly

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Jess G.; Gautieri, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Summary The non-enzymatic reaction of proteins with glucose (glycation) is a topic of rapidly growing importance in human health and medicine. There is increasing evidence that this reaction plays a central role in ageing and disease of connective tissues. Of particular interest are changes in type-I collagens, long-lived proteins that form the mechanical backbone of connective tissues in nearly every human organ. Despite considerable correlative evidence relating extracellular matrix (ECM) glycation to disease, little is known of how ECM modification by glucose impacts matrix mechanics and damage, cell-matrix interactions, and matrix turnover during aging. More daunting is to understand how these factors interact to cumulatively affect local repair of matrix damage, progression of tissue disease, or systemic health and longevity. This focused review will summarize what is currently known regarding collagen glycation as a potential driver of connective tissue disease. We concentrate attention on tendon as an affected connective tissue with large clinical relevance, and as a tissue that can serve as a useful model tissue for investigation into glycation as a potentially critical player in tissue fibrosis related to ageing and diabetes. PMID:25489547

  17. Mechanism of Lysine Oxidation in Human Lens Crystallins during Aging and in Diabetes*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xingjun; Zhang, Jianye; Theves, Mathilde; Strauch, Christopher; Nemet, Ina; Liu, Xiaoqin; Qian, Juan; Giblin, Frank J.; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative mechanisms during nuclear sclerosis of the lens are poorly understood, in particular metal-catalyzed oxidation. The lysyl oxidation product adipic semialdehyde (allysine, ALL) and its oxidized end-product 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) were determined as a function of age and presence of diabetes. Surprisingly, whereas both ALL and 2-AAA increased with age and strongly correlated with cataract grade and protein absorbance at 350 nm, only ALL formation but not 2-AAA was increased by diabetes. To clarify the mechanism of oxidation, rabbit lenses were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) for 48 h, and proteins were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for ALL, 2-AAA, and multiple glycation products. Upon exposure to HBO, rabbit lenses were swollen, and nuclei were yellow. Protein-bound ALL increased 8-fold in the nuclear protein fractions versus controls. A dramatic increase in methyl-glyoxal hydroimidazolone and carboxyethyl-lysine but no increase of 2-AAA occurred, suggesting more drastic conditions are needed to oxidize ALL into 2-AAA. Indeed the latter formed only upon depletion of glutathione and was catalyzed by H2O2. Neither carboxymethyl-lysine nor glyoxal hydroimidazolone, two markers of glyco-/lipoxidation, nor markers of lenticular glycemia (fructose-lysine, glucospane) were elevated by HBO, excluding significant lipid peroxidation and glucose involvement. The findings strongly implicate dicarbonyl/metal catalyzed oxidation of lysine to allysine, whereby low GSH combined with ascorbate-derived H2O2 likely contributes toward 2-AAA formation, since virtually no 2-AAA formed in the presence of methylglyoxal instead of ascorbate. An important translational conclusion is that chelating agents might help delay nuclear sclerosis. PMID:19854833

  18. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  19. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  20. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  1. Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18–45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Main outcome measures Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants’ comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Results Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. ‘Smoking is not doing harm right now’ was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0–2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, ‘smoking helps me cope’ and social aspects of smoking. Conclusions Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit

  2. Susceptibility of Diabetic Rats to Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Inhaled Photochemically-Aged Atmosphere and Ozone (O3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Susceptibility of Diabetic Rats to Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Inhaled Photochemically-Aged Atmosphere and Ozone (O3)MC Schladweiler1, SJ Snow2, QT Krantz1, C King1, JD Krug2, N Modak2, A Henriquez3, V Bass4, DJ Miller3, JE Richards1, EH Boykin1, R Jaskot1, MI Gilmour1 and ...

  3. Short-lived diabetes in the young-adult ZDF rat does not exacerbate neuronal Ca(2+) biomarkers of aging.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; DeMoll, Chris; Anderson, Katie L; Griggs, Ryan B; Taylor, Bradley K; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2015-09-24

    Results from clinical studies provide evidence that cognitive changes relatively late in life may be traced to antecedent conditions including diabetes, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and an atherogenic diet. As such, several traits of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) could be considered pathogenic factors of aging, contributing to age-dependent cognitive decline and our susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. It appears that both the duration of metabolic condition and the age of the individual, together can contribute to the potential impact on peripheral as well as brain health. Because of robust evidence that in animal models of aging, Ca(2+) dysregulation alters neuronal health, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory processes, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral metabolic dysregulation could exacerbate Ca(2+) dysfunction in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Using intracellular/ extracellular electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques, we show that Ca(2+)levels at rest or during synaptic stimulation, the Ca(2+)-dependent afterhyperpolarization, baseline field potentials, and short-term synaptic plasticity were not significantly altered in young-adult male Zucker diabetic fatty rats compare to their lean counterparts. Our observations suggest that early phases of T2DM characterized by high levels of glucose and insulin may be too transient to alter hippocampal CA1 physiology in this animal model of diabetes. These results are supported by clinical data showing that longer T2DM duration can have greater negative impact on cognitive functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25451110

  4. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  5. Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ahmad, Najlaa A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.; David, Satish K.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra

    2014-01-01

    Aims The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. Methodology A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25–44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population. PMID:24586457

  6. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  7. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  8. DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Limited options for clinical management of patients with juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus call for a novel therapeutic paradigm. Two innovative studies support endoplasmic reticulum as an emerging target for combating both autoimmune and heritable forms of this disease. PMID:24393784

  9. Associations between smoking and tooth loss according to reason for tooth loss

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Xiaodan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Chen, Chaoru; Tezal, Mine; Genco, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with tooth loss. However, smoking's relationship to the specific reason for tooth loss in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,106) who joined a Women's Health Initiative ancillary study (The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study) underwent oral examinations for assessment of the number of missing teeth, as well as the self-reported reasons for tooth loss. The authors obtained information about smoking status via a self-administered questionnaire. The authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression to assess smoking's association with overall tooth loss, as well as with tooth loss due to periodontal disease (PD) and with tooth loss due to caries. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes diagnosis, calcium supplement use and dental visit frequency, the authors found that heavy smokers (≥ 26 pack-years) were significantly more likely to report having experienced tooth loss compared with never smokers (OR = 1.82; 95 percent CI, 1.10-3.00). Smoking status, packs smoked per day, years of smoking, pack-years and years since quitting smoking were significantly associated with tooth loss due to PD. For pack-years, the association for heavy smokers compared with that for never smokers was OR = 6.83 (95 percent CI, 3.40-13.72). The study results showed no significant associations between smoking and tooth loss due to caries. Conclusions and Practical Implications Smoking may be a major factor in tooth loss due to PD. However, smoking appears to be a less important factor in tooth loss due to caries. Further study is needed to explore the etiologies by which smoking is associated with different types of tooth loss. Dentists should counsel their patients about the impact of smoking on oral health, including the risk of tooth loss due to PD. PMID:23449901

  10. Pharmacologic management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mimi S; Coppenrath, Valerie A; Dallinga, Bree A

    2015-02-01

    The numbers of women of childbearing age with pregestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes existing before pregnancy) are increasing, primarily because more patients are developing type 2 diabetes at younger ages. The teratogenicity associated with hyperglycemia in early pregnancy is well documented, and tight glucose control minimizes the risk of congenital malformation. Preconception planning is essential; thus contraception that does not worsen complications of diabetes is desirable. In addition, because contraceptives are not 100% effective, the treatment of elevated blood glucose levels, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these women requires consideration of unplanned pregnancy. We summarized the literature to aid clinicians in choosing individualized treatment that minimizes risk in case pregnancy occurs and maximizes benefit in preventing the complications of diabetes. In women with well-controlled diabetes without vascular disease, all contraceptive methods are safe. Intrauterine devices are recommended due to their minimal effects on risk factors for diabetic complications and their lack of reliance on patient adherence for efficacy. Among insulins, the insulin analogs-insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin detemir-offer patients greater convenience than regular insulin and NPH insulin, and they are safe in case of unplanned pregnancy. Of the noninsulin agents, glyburide and metformin are the safest during pregnancy, but many of the other agents pose minimal risk as long as they are withdrawn during early pregnancy. The risks and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in women with compelling indications must be weighed individually. In hypertensive patients at a high risk for unplanned pregnancy, nifedipine should be considered due to literature supporting its safety during early pregnancy. Pravastatin is recommended for women with dyslipidemia who are using effective contraception because there have been no reports of birth defects with

  11. Aging--Let's Look Before We Leap: The Effects of Physical Activity on Smoking and Drinking Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    1981-01-01

    Drinking and smoking habits of a group of college students did not change after a 15-week period of exercises. Results indicate a conscious commitment to changing life-styles may be an important factor and should be considered before physical activites are added to drug and alcohol abuse programs. (Author/JAC)

  12. Cancer risk in patients aged 30 years and above with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetic monotherapy: a cohort study using metformin as the comparator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Kok, Victor C; Chien, Ching-Hsuan; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces incident cancer development. Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of subsequent cancer development in diabetic cohorts receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. We conducted a population-based study in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic monotherapy. Methods We identified a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetics aged ≥30 years receiving hypoglycemic monotherapy (n=7,325) from the 1998–2007 Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset. Patients were grouped according to the antidiabetic therapy they received into metformin (n=2,223), sulfonylurea (n=3,965), glitazone (n=53), meglitinide (n=128), acarbose (n=150), and insulin (n=806) groups. Patients with preexisting cancer were excluded. All patients were followed up until cancer development, dropout, death, or until December 31, 2008. Cox’s model was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking-related comorbidities, alcohol use disorders, morbid obesity, pancreatitis, hypertension, monthly income, and urbanization level. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative cancer incidence. Two-sided P-values <0.05 were required to reject the null hypothesis. Results The overall median follow-up duration was 2.5 years (interquartile range, 3.6 years). Totally, 367 and 124 cancers developed in the sulfonylurea and metformin groups, respectively, representing an adjusted HR of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.67; P<0.005). No significant differences were observed between other groups. Increased adjusted HRs were observed for colorectal cancer (adjusted HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.15–3.27; P<0.05) and lung cancer (adjusted HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00–3.07; P<0.05). Conclusion Metformin monotherapy may be associated with a reduction in the risk for cancer development compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy. Moreover, the use of an average defined daily dose of

  13. Suggested mechanism for the selective excretion of glucosylated albumin. The effects of diabetes mellitus and aging on this process and the origins of diabetic microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, A; Kowluru, R; Bitensky, M W; Corwin, E J; Solomon, S S; Johnson, J D

    1987-11-01

    In previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat, Williams and coworkers reported the phenomenon of selective urinary excretion of glucosylated albumin (editing, i.e., the percent glucosylation of urinary albumin is more than that of plasma albumin) by the mammalian kidney. Ghiggeri and coworkers subsequently found that the extent of editing is reduced in human diabetics. Moreover, the reduction in editing in diabetes correlates inversely with levels of microalbuminuria. We also find reduction in the extent of editing in diabetic humans. We find a striking inverse correlation not only with the magnitude of microalbuminuria but also with the extent of plasma albumin glucosylation. In contrast, we found little correlation between the reduction in editing and the duration of diabetes in human subjects. Stz induced diabetes in the Sprague-Dawley rat is associated with a striking and rapid reduction in editing which develops virtually with the same kinetics exhibited by the appearance of hyperglycemia. This loss of editing is rapidly reversed by daily administration of insulin but not by aldose reductase inhibitors. Mannitol infusion in anesthetized Wistar rats resulted in an increase in urine volume, GFR, and microalbuminuria, and was also accompanied by a marked reduction in editing. This reduction was rapidly reversed by a cessation of mannitol infusion. We propose here that glucosylated albumin (in contrast to unmodified albumin) is not reabsorbed by the proximal tubule, and thus, is preferentially excreted in the urine. We postulate that the increase in GFR which emerges as a consequence of increased plasma osmolality in diabetes mellitus delivers more albumin to the proximal tubule than can be reabsorbed. This results in a dilution of excreted glucosylated albumin molecules by excreted unmodified albumin, which appears as the early microscopic albuminuria of diabetes. Paradoxically, the fall in apparent editing is accompanied by an absolute increase in the total

  14. Age at diagnosis predicts deterioration in glycaemic control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Mark A; Lind, Marcus; Raman, Sripriya; Patton, Susana R; Lipska, Kasia J; Fridlington, Amanda G; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Wu, Yue; Spertus, John A; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor glycemic control early in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases the risk for microvascular complications. However, predictors of deteriorating control after diagnosis have not been described, making it difficult to identify high-risk patients and proactively provide aggressive interventions. Objective We examined whether diagnostic age, gender, and race were associated with deteriorating glycemic control during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Participants 2218 pediatric patients with T1DM. Methods We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of pediatric patients with T1DM from the Midwest USA, 1993–2009, evaluating within-patient glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) trajectories constructed from all available HbA1c values within 5 years of diagnosis. Results 52.6% of patients were male; 86.1% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. The mean diagnostic age was 9.0±4.1 years. The mean number of HbA1c values/year/participant was 2.4±0.9. HbA1c trajectories differed markedly across age groups, with older patients experiencing greater deterioration than their younger counterparts (p<0.001). HbA1c trajectories, stratified by age, varied markedly by race (p for race×diagnostic age <0.001). Non-Hispanic African-American patients experienced higher initial HbA1c (8.7% vs 7.6% (71.6 vs 59.6 mmol/mol); p<0.001), and greater deterioration in HbA1c than non-Hispanic Caucasian patients across diagnostic ages (rise of 2.04% vs 0.99% per year (22.3 vs 10.8 mmol/mol/year); p<0.0001). Conclusions Older diagnostic age and black race are major risk factors for deterioration in glycemic control early in the course of T1DM. These findings can inform efforts to explore the reasons behind these differences and develop preventive interventions for high-risk patients. PMID:25452876

  15. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  16. Kallistatin protects against diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by suppressing AGE-RAGE-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson W L; Wu, Hao Jia; Li, Rui Xi; Yam, Irene; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Leung, Joseph C K; Lan, Hui Yao; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney C W

    2016-02-01

    Kallistatin is a serine protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Since oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, we studied the effect and mechanisms of action of kallistatin superinduction. Using ultrasound-microbubble-mediated gene transfer, kallistatin overexpression was induced in kidney tubules. In db/db mice, kallistatin overexpression reduced serum creatinine and BUN levels, ameliorated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury, and attenuated renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling. Additionally, downstream PAI-1 and collagens I and IV expression were reduced and kallistatin partially suppressed renal inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and decreasing tissue kallikrein activity. Kallistatin lowered blood pressure and attenuated oxidative stress as evidenced by suppressed levels of NADPH oxidase 4, and oxidative markers (nitrotyrosine, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and malondialdehyde) in diabetic renal tissue. Kallistatin also inhibited RAGE expression in the diabetic kidney and AGE-stimulated cultured proximal tubular cells. Reduced AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation reflected an anti-oxidative mechanism via the AGE-RAGE-reactive oxygen species axis. These results indicate a renoprotective role of kallistatin against diabetic nephropathy by multiple mechanisms including suppression of oxidative stress, anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory actions, and blood pressure lowering. PMID:26536000

  17. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  18. Age plays an important role in the relationship between smoking status and obesity risk: a large scale cross-sectional study of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Sun, Hang; Zhao, Yi Fan; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of age plays in the relationship between smoking status and obesity in both Chinese men and women. Methods: From Chinese Physical and Psychological Database, participants were divided into non-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass were measured. The mean, standard deviation and frequency of these indicators were calculated for each age bracket. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc test analyses were used to detect the difference among these three groups. Results: In men, from 19 to 24 years old, BMI, WC and fat free mass of current smokers were higher than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). However, fat mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers but higher than that of former smokers (P<0.01). From 25 to 34 years old, BMI and fat mass of former smokers were higher than non-smokers and current smokers (P<0.01). In addition, WC and fat free mass of non-smokers were lower than that of current smokers and former smokers (P<0.01). From 45 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of former smokers were higher than that of current smokers (P<0.01). From 55 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). In women, smoking status might not be significantly related to obesity (P>0.05). Conclusion: For young men, smoking might have an effect on increasing fat free mass, BMI and WC, and decreasing fat mass and fat percentage. For middle and older men, smoking might have an effect on decreasing fat free mass, fat mass, BMI, WC, and fat percentage. Obesity risk should be paid more attention in smoking cessation programs for those former smokers. PMID:26770514

  19. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  20. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  1. Racial Disparity of Eye Examinations Among the U.S. Working-Age Population With Diabetes: 2002–2009

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yingnan; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Shi, Lizheng

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes care differs across racial and ethnic groups. This study aimed to assess the racial disparity of eye examinations among U.S. adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Working-age adults (age 18–64 years) with diabetes were studied using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component (2002–2009) including the Diabetes Care Survey. Racial and ethnic groups were classified as non-Hispanic whites and minorities. People reporting one or more dilated eye examination were considered to have received an eye examination in a particular year. Eye examination rates were compared between racial/ethnic groups for each year, and were weighted to national estimates. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for racial/ethnic difference were assessed annually using logistic regression models. Other influencing factors associated with eye examination were also explored. RESULTS Whites had consistently higher unadjusted eye examination rates than minority populations across all 8 years. The unadjusted rates increased from 56% in 2002 to 59% in 2009 among whites, while the rates in minorities decreased from 56% in 2002 to 49% in 2009. The largest significant racial gap of 15% was observed in 2008, followed by 11%, 10%, and 7% in 2006, 2009, and 2005, respectively (P < 0.05). Minorities were less likely to receive eye examination (2006: aOR 0.75 [95% CI 0.57–0.99]; 2008: 0.61 [0.45–0.84]). CONCLUSIONS The racial/ethnic differences in eye examinations for patients with diabetes have persisted over the last decade. National programs to improve screening and monitoring of diabetic retinopathy are needed to target minority populations. PMID:24574354

  2. Burden of Hypertension and Diabetes among Urban Population Aged ≥ 60 years in South Delhi: A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandav, Chandrakant S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is going through a demographic transition, and the number of elderly is expected to increase both in absolute numbers, as well as in proportion. The elderly are one of the most vulnerable and high–risk group in terms of health status in any society, and more so for non- communicable diseases. Aims To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among elderly persons and association with socio-demographic variables; & to assess the awareness, treatment and control status of those with diabetes and hypertension. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in a resettlement colony of South-east Delhi in Dakshinpuri Extension, Dr. Ambedkar Nagar. Elderly persons aged 60 years and above were selected by cluster random sampling. Information about self-reported diseases, socio-demographic variables was collected; fasting blood sugar and blood pressure were measured. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were calculated and association was tested by Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results A total of 710 elderly persons participated in the study. Diabetes was seen in 24.0% and 67% were hypertensive. Isolated hypertension was detected in 25.9%. No statistically significant difference by gender (p=0.11), age (p=0.16), education (p=0.31) and economic dependency (p=0.28), was seen in both diabetes and hypertension. Out of 167 persons with diabetes, 62.3% were on treatment and 33.6% were under control; while out of 477 hypertensives, 41% were under treatment and only one-third of them had their blood pressure under control. Conclusion This study highlighted a significant burden of non-communicable diseases amongst elderly persons in a low-middle class community in Delhi. It also showed the lack of awareness about their disease conditions and need for screening, diagnostic and treatment services at the primary level. PMID:27134900

  3. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A.; Burant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent “lifestyle” factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. Methods. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50–85 years, was included from the combined 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Results. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Conclusions. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. PMID:25711528

  4. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Ibrahim, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk. PMID:26989695

  5. Who smokes in smoke-free public places in China? Findings from a 21 city survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R

    2016-02-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free public places was 41.2%. Of those who smoked in smoke-free public places, 45.9% had been advised to stop smoking. Participants stated that no-smoking warnings/signs with 'please' in the statement had a better likelihood of gaining compliance and preventing smoking in public spaces. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, education, occupation, type of smoking, age of smoking initiation, smoking situation, stress, household smoking restrictions and city population were all associated with smoking in smoke-free public places. Interestingly local smoke-free regulations were not associated with smoking in public places. The findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in public places in China should emphasize strong enforcement, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of second hand smoke. PMID:26546594

  6. Fathers’ intelligence measured at age 18–20 years is associated with offspring smoking: linking the Swedish 1969 conscription cohort to the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987

  7. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  8. Mobile Applications for Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Expert-Based Usability Evaluation Considering the Special Requirements of Diabetes Patients Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Objective We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. Methods We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. Results In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion “comprehensibility” (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of “fault tolerance” (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of

  9. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  10. Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Lundblad, Mia; Ramsjo, Margareta; Kang, Ju-Hee; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine. PMID:25977991

  11. Timing of Complementary Food Introduction and Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary STUDY (SNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Crume, Tessa L.; Crandell, Jamie; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana; Fangman, Mary T.; Pettitt, David J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; O'Connor, Rebecca; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5-month earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared to those who were not (9.0 ± 0.2 vs. 9.5 ± 0.1; p=0.02), independent of HLA-risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA-risk status found that children with a high risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age of diagnosis=9.3 ± 0.1, 9.1 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.2 for introduction at ≤ 6 months, between 7 and 11 months, and ≤12 months, respectively; p=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA-risk status. PMID:25117987

  12. Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).

    PubMed

    Crume, T L; Crandell, J; Norris, J M; Dabelea, D; Fangman, M T; Pettitt, D J; Dolan, L; Rodriguez, B L; O'Connor, R; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2014-11-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ⩽6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ⩾12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status. PMID:25117987

  13. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  14. Asymmetric large-for-gestational-age infants of type 1 diabetic women: morbidity and abdominal growth.

    PubMed

    Bollepalli, Sureka; Dolan, Lawrence M; Miodovnik, Menachem; Feghali, Maisa; Khoury, Jane C

    2010-09-01

    We sought to examine neonatal morbidity in four groups of offspring (asymmetric large for gestational age [LGA], symmetric LGA, asymmetric non-LGA, symmetric non-LGA) exposed in utero to maternal type 1 diabetes, and the association between rate of fetal abdominal circumference growth and asymmetric LGA. We performed a secondary analysis of 302 singleton pregnancies. Neonatal morbidity (respiratory distress syndrome, polycythemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, acidosis, and composite morbidity [any of the five]) was assessed. Serial ultrasound examinations after 20 weeks' gestation were available for 35 fetuses. Logistic regression and general linear mixed modeling were used for analysis. Asymmetric LGA infants had 3.5-, 2.2-, and 3.2-fold greater odds of hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and composite morbidity, respectively, compared with symmetric non-LGA infants. The rate of growth of the abdominal circumference in asymmetric LGA infants (1.11 cm/wk) was greater than for both the symmetric LGA infants (0.87 cm/wk, P = 0.09) and the symmetric non-LGA infants (0.87 cm/wk, P = 0.03). Asymmetric LGA infants are at higher risk for morbidity than symmetric LGA and non-LGA infants. Intrauterine growth rate of the abdominal circumference may potentially be used as a marker to identify the asymmetric LGA and thereby aid in the identification of newborns at greatest risk for perinatal complications. PMID:20225174

  15. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, survey periods, and birth cohorts. The analytical sample was 37,609 dentate (ie, with at least 1 permanent tooth) adults aged 25 years or older. We applied hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified random-effects models for the trend analysis. Results The estimated number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes increased more with age than that among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (z = 4.05, P < .001) or Mexican Americans with diabetes (z = 4.38, P < .001). During 1971–2012, there was a significant decreasing trend in the number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (slope = −0.20, P < .001) and non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes (slope = −0.37, P < .001). However, adults with diabetes had about twice the tooth loss as did those without diabetes. Conclusion Substantial differences in tooth loss between adults with and without diabetes and across racial/ethnic groups persisted over time. Appropriate dental care and tooth retention need to be further promoted among adults with diabetes. PMID:26632952

  16. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... or car Making sure people looking after your children (e.g., nannies, babysitters, day care) do not smoke Choosing smokefree restaurants Avoiding indoor public places that allow smoking Teaching ...

  17. Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Rong, Shi Song; Xu, Qihua; Tang, Fang Yao; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Hong; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Chen, Li Jia; Brelén, Mårten E.; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00–1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44–1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13–1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11–1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96–1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44–1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11–1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association. PMID:25238063

  18. Histopathological lesions in the pancreas of the BB Wistar rat as a function of age and duration of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Yates, A; Sharma, H; Thibert, P

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic histopathology was studied in 121 BBWd, 43 BBWnd, and 33 Wistar rats. Insulitis was the most common inflammatory lesion in both BBW and BBWnd rats. The incidence was inversely associated with age and with duration of diabetes in BBWd rats, but there was no age-related pattern in BBWnd rats. Small end-stage islets were typical of BBWd rats but were not seen in BBWnd rats. Several BBWd rats showed hyperplastic islets months after the onset of diabetes, a pattern that is also seen in a small percentage of human JOD patients. Several non-specific exocrine inflammatory lesions occurred in both BBWd and BBWnd rats: acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, eosinophilic infiltrates, granulomatous lesions and acute and/or chronic interstitial inflammation. Only chronic interstitial inflammation was seen in outbred Wistar rats. PMID:3882779

  19. Disparities in Diabetes-Related Preventable Hospitalizations among Working-Age Native Hawaiians and Asians in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Deborah T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Chen, John J; Salvail, Florentina R; Miyamura, Jill; Mau, Marjorie K

    2014-01-01

    Elderly (65+) Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women have a higher risk of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than Whites even when demographic factors and the higher diabetes prevalence in these populations is considered. The study objective was to determine if similar disparities are seen among the non-elderly (< 65). We used discharge data for all non-maternity hospitalizations by working-age adults (18-64 years) in Hawai‘i from December 2006 to December 2010. Annual diabetes-related preventable hospitalization rates (by population diabetes prevalence) were compared by race/ethnicity (Japanese, Chinese, Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White) and gender. Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) were calculated relative to Whites using multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, residence location, and age. After adjusting for ethnic-specific prevalence of diabetes and demographic factors, preventable hospitalizations rates were significantly higher for Native Hawaiians males (aRR:1.48; 95%CI:1.08–2.05) compared to Whites, but significantly lower for Chinese men (aRR:0.43;95%CI:0.30–0.61) and women (aRR:0.18;95%CI: 0.08–0.37), Japanese men (aRR:0.33;95%CI: 0.25–0.44) and women (aRR:0.34; 95%CI:0.23–0.51), and Filipino men (aRR:0.35;95%CI:0.28–0.43) and women (aRR:0.47;95%CI: 0.36–0.62). Rates for Native Hawaiian females did not differ significantly from Whites. Disparities in diabetes-related preventable hospitalizations were seen for working-age (18–64) Native Hawaiian men even when their higher population-level diabetes prevalence was considered. Further research is needed to determine factors affecting these disparities and to develop targeted interventions to reduce them. Significantly lower preventable hospitalization rates were seen among Asian groups compared to Whites. A better understanding of these findings may provide guidance for improving rates among Asian elderly as well as other non

  20. Emerging therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Emerson, M Vaughn; Lauer, Andreas K

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading causes of vision loss in the industrialized world. The mainstay of treatment for both conditions has been thermal laser photocoagulation, while there have been recent advances in the treatment of CNV using photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. While both of these treatments have prevented further vision loss in a subset of patients, vision improvement is rare. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A therapy has revolutionized the treatment of both conditions. Pegaptanib, an anti-VEGF aptamer, prevents vision loss in CNV, although the performance is similar to that of photodynamic therapy. Ranibizumab, an antibody fragment, and bevacizumab, a full-length humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, have both shown promising results, with improvements in visual acuity in the treatment of both diseases. VEGF trap, a modified soluble VEGF receptor analog, binds VEGF more tightly than all other anti-VEGF therapies, and has also shown promising results in early trials. Other treatment strategies to decrease the effect of VEGF have used small interfering RNA to inhibit VEGF production and VEGF receptor production. Corticosteroids have shown efficacy in controlled trials, including anacortave acetate in the treatment and prevention of CNV, and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and the fluocinolone acetonide implant in the treatment of DME. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vatalanib, inhibit downstream effects of VEGF, and have been effective in the treatment of CNV in early studies. Squalamine lactate inhibits plasma membrane ion channels with downstream effects on VEGF, and has shown promising results with systemic administration. Initial results are also encouraging for other growth factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor administered via an adenoviral vector. Ruboxistaurin, which decreases protein

  1. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  2. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  3. Age- and diabetes-related nonenzymatic crosslinks in collagen fibrils: candidate amino acids involved in Advanced Glycation End-products.

    PubMed

    Gautieri, Alfonso; Redaelli, Alberto; Buehler, Markus J; Vesentini, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Ageing and diabetes share a common deleterious phenomenon, the formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), which accumulate predominantly in collagen due to its low turnover. Though the general picture of glycation has been identified, the detailed knowledge of which collagen amino acids are involved in AGEs is still missing. In this work we use an atomistic model of a collagen fibril to pinpoint, for the first time, the precise location of amino acids involved in the most relevant AGE, glucosepane. The results show that there are 14 specific lysine-arginine pairs that, due to their relative position and configuration, are likely to form glucosepane. We find that several residues involved in AGE crosslinks are within key collagen domains, such as binding sites for integrins, proteoglycans and collagenase, hence providing molecular-level explanations of previous experimental results showing decreased collagen affinity for key molecules. Altogether, these findings reveal the molecular mechanism by which glycation affects the biological properties of collagen tissues, which in turn contribute to age- and diabetes-related pathological states. PMID:24060753

  4. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  5. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  6. Water pipe (Sisha) smoking in cafes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Israel, Ebenezer; El-Setouhy, Maged; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Aoun, El Saeed Ali; Mikhail, Nabiel; Mohamed, Mostafa K

    2003-12-01

    Shisha café patrons in Cairo, Egypt were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding smoking and health. The median age of initiation of Shisha smoking is 20 years. Shisha smokers know about the hazards of smoking and believe that Shisha smoking is less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Over half the Shisha smokers have tried to quit in the past year. The younger adults who smoke Shisha also tend to smoke more often with friends, smoke cigarettes in addition to Shisha and prefer fruit flavored tobacco as compared to tobacco mixed with molasses favored by Shisha smokers who are older. Heavy Shisha smoking was not related to age. PMID:15119471

  7. Altered connexin 43 expression underlies age-dependent decrease of regulatory T cell suppressor function in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kuczma, Michal; Wang, Cong-Yi; Ignatowicz, Leszek; Gourdie, Robert; Kraj, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most extensively studied autoimmune diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells are still not well understood. In this study, we show that regulatory T cells (T(regs)) in NOD mice undergo age-dependent loss of suppressor functions exacerbated by the decreased ability of activated effector T cells to upregulate Foxp3 and generate T(regs) in the peripheral organs. This age-dependent loss is associated with reduced intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions, which is caused by impaired upregulation and decreased expression of connexin 43. Regulatory functions can be corrected, even in T cells isolated from aged, diabetic mice, by a synergistic activity of retinoic acid, TGF-β, and IL-2, which enhance connexin 43 and Foxp3 expression in T(regs) and restore the ability of conventional CD4(+) T cells to upregulate Foxp3 and generate peripherally derived T(regs). Moreover, we demonstrate that suppression mediated by T(regs) from diabetic mice is enhanced by a novel reagent, which facilitates gap junction aggregation. In summary, our report identifies gap junction-mediated intercellular communication as an important component of the T(reg) suppression mechanism compromised in NOD mice and suggests how T(reg) mediated immune regulation can be improved. PMID:25911751

  8. The Geography of Diabetes among the General Adults Aged 35 Years and Older in Bangladesh: Recent Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Gruebner, Oliver; Kraemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas) and region of residence (divided into seven divisions) among general adults (35+ years of age) in Bangladesh. Methods The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L) ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%), followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2%) and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%). Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables). Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity), overweight/obesity and hypertension. Conclusions Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing

  9. Motives for Smoking in Movies Affect Future Smoking Risk in Middle School Students: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven; Setodji, Claude; Haviland, Amelia; Primack, Brian; Scharf, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked to adolescent smoking uptake. However, beyond linking amount of exposure to smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, whether the way that smoking is portrayed in movies matters for influencing adolescent smoking has not been investigated. This study experimentally examined how motivation for smoking depicted in movies affects self-reported future smoking risk (a composite measure with items that assess smoking refusal self-efficacy and smoking intentions) among early adolescents. Methods A randomized laboratory experiment was used. Adolescents were exposed to movie scenes depicting one of three movie smoking motives: social smoking motive (characters smoked to facilitate social interaction); relaxation smoking motive (characters smoked to relax); or no smoking motive (characters smoked with no apparent motive, i.e., in neutral contexts and/or with neutral affect). Responses to these movie scenes were contrasted (within subjects) to participants’ responses to control movie scenes in which no smoking was present; these control scenes matched to the smoking scenes with the same characters in similar situations but where no smoking was present. A total of 358 adolescents, aged 11–14 years, participated. Results Compared with participants exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking with no clear motive, adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for social motives and adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for relaxation motives had significantly greater chances of having increases in their future smoking risk. Conclusions Exposure to movies that portray smoking motives places adolescents at particular risk for future smoking. PMID:22074766

  10. Middle-aged and older Chinese men and women in Singapore who smoke have less healthy diets and lifestyles than nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Can-Lan; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2005-10-01

    Although studies in Western populations have shown that smokers have decreased dietary intakes of antioxidants and other health-related nutrients, this has not been established in oriental populations. This study aimed to identify differences in dietary and lifestyle characteristics between current, former, and never-smokers among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. The subjects, 45-74 y old, were participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort that enrolled 63,257 (27,959 men and 35,298 women) Chinese in Singapore between 1993 and 1998. Data on current dietary habits (using a validated, semiquantitative FFQ) and other lifestyle factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Mean daily intakes of various nutrients were estimated using a food composition table that was specifically developed for this population. The current smoking rates were 36% in men and 6% in women; an additional 22% of men and 3% of women were former smokers. In both sexes, current smokers were less educated, had lower BMI, led a more sedentary lifestyle, and drank more alcohol and coffee than those who never smoked. Current smokers had dose-dependent decreases in the intakes of a wide range of antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and calcium, but increases in the intakes of cholesterol and nitrosamines compared with people who never smoked. Former smokers had dietary intakes that either were similar to never-smokers or intermediate between current and never-smokers. Our results are consistent with findings among Western populations, and suggest that the unhealthy diet and lifestyle in smokers occur across diverse cultures. PMID:16177215

  11. Effect of Habitual Khat Chewing on Glycemic Control, Body Mass Index, and Age at Diagnosis of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharafi, Butheinah A; Gunaid, Abdallah A

    2015-01-01

    Khat chewing is common in Yemen. We conducted this study to see if it affected diabetes control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied 1540 patients with type 2 DM attending an endocrinology clinic in Sana’a, Yemen, of which 997 were khat chewers (KC) and 543 were non-khat chewers (NKC). The patients answered a questionnaire regarding khat chewing. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. KC had a higher mean HbA1c of 9.8 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.6–10) than the NKC, with a mean of 9.1 (95% CI 8.9–9.4) (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) 1.74, P < 0.001) after multivariate regression analysis. KC also had a lower mean BMI, 26.9 (95% CI 26.6–27.2), than the NKC, mean BMI 27.6 (95% CI 27.1–28) (P < 0.01). The mean age at diagnosis of DM among the KC group was 43.3 (10.1) and among the NKC group was 45.9 (11.8) (AOR 1.4 P < 0.008) after multivariate regression analysis. KC patients had a higher mean HbA1c, a lower BMI, and a younger age at diagnosis of type 2 DM when compared with NKC. PMID:26064075

  12. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  13. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  14. Chorangiosis: the potential role of smoking and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Metin; Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Eralp, Ayhan; Duzcan, Ender

    2009-01-01

    Chorangiosis is considered to be strongly associated with various fetal, maternal, and placental disorders, including pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hypertension, and major congenital anomalies, and has been found to correlate with increased fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the pathologic effects of maternal smoking and air pollution on the pathogenesis of chorangiosis. We investigated 92 placentas macroscopically and microscopically over a 3-month period (March 2006-May 2006) at Denizli State Hospital to identify the frequency of chorangiosis and the potential role of maternal smoking and air pollution. Placental changes were examined by light microscopy after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical evaluation of CD 34 and CD 68; muscle-specific actin was used to confirm the diagnosis. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (group I), 31 were thought to have been exposed to air pollution (group II), and 28 were living in rural areas free of air pollution and maternal smoking (group III). Chorangiosis was found in 14% (13/92) of all placentas: 7 (53.8%) cases were assigned to group I, 5 (38.5%) to group II, and 1 (7.7%) to group III. Vascular changes were found mainly in the smoking and air pollution groups. There appeared to be no correlation of these vascular changes with placental weight, parity, gestational age, major congenital anomalies, and maternal factors, including diabetes and pre-eclampsia. We presume that smoking and air pollution may contribute to the development of chorangiosis. We suggest that chorangiosis may be an adaptive response to maternal hypoxia, and studies addressing the role of smoking and air pollution in chorangiosis may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:18635319

  15. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  16. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A; Rubio, Miguel A; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  17. Autogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venousautogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistulae: effect of age, diabetes,fistulae: effect of age, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on theatherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on the long-term outcomelong-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Papalois, Vassilios E; Ndzengue, Albert; Choi, Peter; Hakim, Nadey S

    2008-01-01

    Age, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors forAge, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors for creating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. Wecreating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. We retrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenousretrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenous brachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Differentbrachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Different groups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-twogroups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-two percent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% werepercent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% were diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths,diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths, and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean,and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean, 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (mean 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (70 patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old,patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old, diabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were notdiabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were not associated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patencyassociated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patency rate of the AVFs.rate of the AVFs. PMID:19731852

  18. Interrelation of Cadmium, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Disease (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-15

    Cadmium biomarker levels are associated with both cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease. In this cross-sectional survey, we explore whether the association between cadmium and cardiovascular disease differs between cigarette smoking states. A cross-sectional analysis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2003 to 2012 was performed accounting for the nationally representative complex sampling design. All participants 45 to 79 years old with blood and urinary cadmium levels were included (n = 12,511). We explored the inter-relationships of blood and urine cadmium levels with cigarette smoking and a composite cardiovascular outcome that included self-reported myocardial infarction or stroke or both. We used multivariable logistic regressing models to further adjust for age, income, gender, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, diabetes, smoking intensity, and time period of smoking cessation. Of the 12,511 participants, 1,330 (8.5%) had previous myocardial infarction or stroke or both. The crude prevalence ratio (PR) comparing those in the lowest tertile of blood cadmium with those in the highest tertile for the composite outcome was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 2.01). After adjustment for age, gender, income, self-reported diabetes, self-reported hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, and smoking status, the PR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.84). The adjusted PRs for each smoking subgroup were 1.54 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.18) for never-smokers, 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.23) for current smokers, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.78) for former smokers. These descriptive data from a nationally representative sample suggest that cadmium is related to cardiovascular outcomes even after adjustment for smoking status. PMID:27316775

  19. Smoking-attributable mortality in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; An, Qiang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Howard, Barbara V; Lee, Elisa T; Zhao, Jinying

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. American Indians have the highest proportion of smoking in the United States. However, few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on disease mortality in this ethnically important but traditionally understudied minority population. Here we estimated the association of cigarette smoking with cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 4549 American Indians (aged 45-74 years) followed for about 20 years (1989-2008). Hazard ratio and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with cigarette smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for sex, study site, age, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, lipids, renal function, hypertension or diabetes status at baseline, and interaction between current smoker and study site. We found that current smoking was significantly associated with cancer mortality (HR 5.0, [1.9-13.4]) in men, (HR 3.9 [1.6-9.7] in women) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, [1.2-2.6] in men, HR 1.6, [1.1-2.4] in women). PAR for cancer and all-cause mortality in men were 41.0 and 18.4 %, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers in women were 24.9 and 10.9 %, respectively. Current smoking also significantly increases the risk of CVD deaths in women (HR 2.2 [1.1, 4.4]), but not men (HR 1.2 [0.6-2.4]). PAR for CVD mortality in women was 14.9 %. In summary, current smoking significantly increases the risk of CVD (in women), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians, independent of known risk factors. Culturally specific smoking cessation programs are urgently needed to reduce smoking-related premature deaths. PMID:25968176

  20. Novel application of a multiscale entropy index as a sensitive tool for detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in the aged and diabetic.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chen, Guan-Hong; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Jian-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI) in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS), followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI) analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes. PMID:23509600

  1. Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chen, Guan-Hong; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Jian-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI) in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS), followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI) analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes. PMID:23509600

  2. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  3. Smoking and older age associated with mumps in an outbreak in a group of highly-vaccinated individuals attending a youth club party, the Netherlands, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ladbury, G; Ostendorf, S; Waegemaekers, T; van Binnendijk, R; Boot, H; Hahne, S

    2014-01-01

    We describe a mumps outbreak in a highly-vaccinated population attending a party at a youth club. In a retrospective cohort study with 60 of approximately 100 participants responding, vaccination status was verified for 58/59 respondents, of whom 54 were vaccinated twice and four once. The attack rate was 22% (13 cases, all vaccinated), with smoking at the party (risk ratio (RR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–6.0, p=0.001) and age ≥21 years (RR 4.7; 95% CI: 2.1–10.2, p<0.0001) as risk factors for disease in the binominal regression analysis. Mild upper respiratory illness was also highly prevalent in those who did not meet the mumps case definition (n=46) after the party, suggesting that mumps virus infection may cause mild disease in vaccinated individuals. Our investigation adds toevidence that crowded social events and smoking may facilitate spread of mumps virus among vaccinated populations, with waning immunity playing a role. The suggestion that mumps virus infection in vaccinated individuals may manifest as mild upper respiratory illness could have implications for transmission and warrants further investigation. PMID:24786261

  4. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8). PMID:27087182

  5. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents. PMID:24935397

  7. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace. PMID:3539634

  8. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  9. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  10. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  11. Risk of Malignant Neoplasms of Kidney and Bladder in a Cohort Study of the Diabetic Population in Taiwan With Age, Sex, and Geographic Area Stratifications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Fen; Chen, Shwe-Winn; Chang, Ya-Hui; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes has been reported to increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of kidney and bladder, but the studies’ results are still inconclusive. Age, sex, and geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of above neoplasms are also scarce in the literature. We prospectively investigated the age, sex, geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of kidney and bladder neoplasms in diabetic population of Taiwan. Diabetic patients (n = 615,532) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 614,871) were linked to inpatient claims (2000–2008) to identify the admissions for malignant neoplasm of kidney (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 189) and bladder (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 188). The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to evaluate the incidence density. We also estimated the age, sex, and geographical area-specific relative risks of above malignancy in relation to diabetes with Cox proportional hazard regression model. The overall incidence density of malignant neoplasm of kidney for diabetic men and women were 3.87 and 4.28 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively; the corresponding figures for malignant neoplasm of bladder were 5.73 and 3.25 per 10,000 patient-years. Compared with the controls, diabetic men were at significantly increased hazards of kidney (covariate adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.46) and bladder aHR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.23). Diabetic women, on the contrary, only experienced significantly elevated hazard of kidney neoplasm (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.26). Diabetic men aged >65 years showed the most significantly increased hazard of developing neoplasm of kidney (aHR: 1.40) and bladder (aHR: 1.13). The most significantly increased hazard of kidney neoplasm was noted for women diabetic patients aged >65 years. There was also a significant interactive effect of

  12. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  13. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Rei-ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  14. Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Furusawa, Chisato; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-03-01

    Although soft-shelled turtle eggs (STE) have been used as a folk medicine for revitalization and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, the scientific evidence to support the use of STE in this manner is scarce. To clarify the physiological evidence, STE was administered to diabetic rats and the inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are known to increase with the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, were examined. STE and citric acid were administered to diabetic rats for 3 months, and serum N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contents were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the administration of STE did not affect the body weight, glycoalbumin or ketone body levels, it significantly reduced the serum level of CML. The accumulation of AGEs, which was measured by fluorescence intensity in the auricle skin and the lower gums, was also reduced by the administration of STE to a similar extent to that observed with citric acid. This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID:27013779

  15. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  16. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  17. Obesity and Life Expectancy with and without Diabetes in Adults Aged 55 Years and Older in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; Peeters, Anna; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods and Findings The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI −6.1 to −0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI −9.0 to −0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. Conclusions Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated

  18. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  19. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  20. A Special Need to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Children (n=665, ages 12-15) with moderate learning difficulties or emotional and behavioral difficulties in the United Kingdom were interviewed concerning smoking behaviors, and 109 teachers completed questionnaires. Findings revealed that children with emotional and behavioral difficulties had high smoking rates, over 60% of subjects' parents…

  1. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) inhibits proximal tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy by suppressing advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor (RAGE) axis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-03-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, and it could block the development and progression of experimental diabetic retinopathy. However, a role for PEDF in early experimental diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis stimulates oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions in renal tubular cells, thereby playing a role in diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study investigated whether PEDF could prevent AGE-elicited tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy. Human proximal tubular cells were incubated with or without AGE-bovine serum albumin in the presence or absence of PEDF. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with or without intravenous injection of PEDF for 4 weeks. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with dihydroethidium staining. PEDF or antibodies raised against RAGE inhibited the AGE-induced RAGE gene expression and subsequently reduced ROS generation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibronectin and type IV collagen mRNA levels in proximal tubular cells. RAGE gene expression, ROS generation and MCP-1 and TGF-β mRNA levels were significantly increased in diabetic kidney, which were suppressed by administration of PEDF. Our present data suggest that PEDF could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulation of RAGE expression. Administration of PEDF may offer a promising strategy for halting the development of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21115116

  2. Small Molecule Kaempferol Promotes Insulin Sensitivity and Preserved Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Middle-Aged Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalidy, Hana; Moore, William; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Aihua; Ali, Mostafa; Suh, Kyung-Shin; Zhen, Wei; Cheng, Zhiyong; Jia, Zhenquan; Hulver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and a progressive decline in functional β-cell mass are hallmarks of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, searching for natural, low-cost compounds to target these two defects could be a promising strategy to prevent the pathogenesis of T2D. Here, we show that dietary intake of flavonol kaempferol (0.05% in the diet) significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and circulating lipid profile, which were associated with the improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in middle-aged obese mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Kaempferol treatment reversed HF diet impaired glucose transport-4 (Glut4) and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) expression in both muscle and adipose tissues from obese mice. In vitro, kaempferol increased lipolysis and prevented high fatty acid-impaired glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, AMPK activity, and Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Using another mouse model of T2D generated by HF diet feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that kaempferol treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet β-cell mass. These results demonstrate that kaempferol may be a naturally occurring anti-diabetic agent by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and protecting against pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. PMID:26064984

  3. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Beginning in Adolescence Predict Insomnia in the Mid Thirties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insomnia is increasingly recognized as a public health concern in modern society. Insomnia diagnoses appear to be increasing and are associated with poor health outcomes. They may cost $100 billion annually in health services. Objective Given the adverse consequences of insomnia such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression, the present study was designed to examine the relationship of the trajectories of earlier cigarette smoking and later insomnia. The ultimate goal is to reduce the prevalence of insomnia. Methods 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans, 60% females) were surveyed at 6 points in time. We employed the growth mixture model to obtain the trajectories of cigarette smoking from age 14 to 32. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the trajectories of smoking and insomnia. Results Males were less likely to have insomnia than females (Adjusted odds ratio: AOR=0.34, p<.05). A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the chronic smoking trajectory group (AOR=2.69, p<.05) and for the moderate smoking trajectory group (AOR=5.33, p<.01) was associated with an increased likelihood of having insomnia at age 36 compared with the BPP of the no or low smoking trajectory group. Conclusions Prevention and treatment programs for individuals who suffer from insomnia should be implemented in parallel with programs for smoking cessation. From a public health perspective, our longitudinal study that examined the association between earlier smoking trajectories and later insomnia suggests that treatments designed to reduce or cease smoking may lessen the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia. PMID:27008539

  4. Association Between Smoking and Physician-Diagnosed Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Male Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sounghoon; Kim, Hyeongsu; Kim, Vitna; Lee, Kunsei; Jeong, Hyoseon; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Soon-Ae; Shin, Eunyoung; Park, Minsu; Ko, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction, this study used Community Health Survey data from 2009 on 92,082 males over the age of 30 years. Using multiple logistic regression, association index between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction was calculated after adjusting the effects of age, hypertension, and diabetes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction in the smoking group were 1.12 (1.02–1.24) and 1.21 (1.06–1.38) compared to the non-smoking group. The values of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction were 0.84 (0.74–0.94) and 0.96 (0.82–1.12) in the current-smoking subgroup, 1.38 (1.24–1.53) and 1.45 (1.26–1.67) in the ex-smoking subgroup, 1.39 (1.18–1.63) and 1.85 (1.53–2.24) in the 10- to 19-year smokers groups, 1.39 (1.22–1.58) and 1.36 (1.15–1.60) in the 30- to 40-year smokers groups, and 0.53 (0.44–0.63) and 0.47 (0.36–0.63) in those who had smoked for over 50 years. These results showed smoking was a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction in Korean males. This objective evidence should guide policy-making and public health interventions in the fields of smoking prevention and prohibition. PMID:26821036

  5. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children ...

  6. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  7. [A need to implement new tools for diagnosing tobacco-addition syndrome and readiness/motivation to quit smoking in the working-age population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    High rates of tobacco use is still observed in working-age population in Poland. The present level of the state tobacco control has been achieved through adopting legal regulations and population-based interventions. In Poland a sufficient contribution of health professionals to the diagnosis of the tobacco-addition syndrome (TAS) and the application of the 5A's (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange follow-up) brief intervention, has not been confirmed by explicit research results. Systemic solutions of the health care system of the professional control, specialist health care, health professional trainings and reference centres have not as yet been elaborated. The tools for diagnosing tobacco dependence and motivation to quit smoking, developed over 30 years ago and recommended by experts to be used in clinical and research practice, have not met the current addiction criteria. In this paper other tools than those previously recommended - tests developed in the first decade of the 21st century (including Cigarette Dependence Scale and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale), reflecting modern concepts of nicotine dependence are presented. In the literature on the readiness/motivation to change health behaviors, a new approach dominates. The motivational interviewing (MI) by Miller and Rollnick concentrates on a smoking person and his or her internal motivation. Motivational interviewing is recommended by the World Health Organization as a 5R's (relevance, risks, rewards, roadblocks, repetition) brief motivational advice, addressed to tobacco users who are unwilling to make a quit attempt. In Poland new research studies on the implementation of new diagnostic tools and updating of binding guidelines should be undertaken, to strengthen primary health care in treating tobacco dependence, and to incorporate MI and 5R's into trainings in TAS diagnosing and treating addressed to health professionals. PMID:27044722

  8. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  9. The effect of regulatory T-cell depletion on the spectrum of organ-specific autoimmune diseases in nonobese diabetic mice at different ages.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Mami; Nagayama, Yuji; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Yu, Liping; Eisenbarth, George S; Abiru, Norio

    2011-09-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and to a lesser extent thyroiditis and sialitis. Imbalance between effector T cells (Teffs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the disease pathogenesis in NOD mice, but previous studies have shown the various outcomes by different timing and methods of Treg-depletion. This study was, therefore, designed to compare the consequences of Treg-depletion by the same method (anti-CD25 antibody) on the spectrum of organ-specific autoimmune diseases in NOD mice of different ages. Treg-depletion by anti-CD25 antibody at 10 days of age accelerated development of all three diseases we examined (insulitis/diabetes, thyroiditis, and sialitis); Treg-depletion at 4 weeks of age accelerated only diabetes but not thyroiditis or sialitis; and Treg-depletion at 12 weeks of age hastened only development of thyroiditis and exhibited little influence on diabetes or sialitis. Increased levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) were, however, observed in mice depleted of Tregs at 10 days of age, not in those at 4 weeks. Thus, the consequences of Treg-depletion on the spectrum of organ-specific autoimmune diseases depend on the timing of anti-CD25 antibody injection in NOD mice. Aging gradually tips balance between Teffs and Tregs toward Teff-dominance for diabetes, but this balance for thyroiditis and sialitis likely alters more intricately. Our data also suggest that the levels of IAA are not necessarily correlated with diabetes development. PMID:21306188

  10. The methylation of the LEPR/LEPROT genotype at the promoter and body regions influence concentrations of leptin in girls and BMI at age 18 years if their mother smoked during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Hasan; Holloway, John W

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the leptin receptor genotype (LEPR/LEPROT) links gestational smoking and leptin serum levels and BMI later in life, we focused on female offspring, 18 years of age, from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IOWBC). Leptin binds to the leptin receptor encoded by the LEPR/LEPROT genotype. Using general linear models, we tested a two-stage model. First, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) acting as methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) depending on gestational smoking were related to differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In stage 2, we tested whether the selected CpG sites, in interaction with other SNPs (modifiable genetic variants, modGV), are associated with serum leptin and BMI (stage 2). Children from the IOWBC were followed from birth to age 18. Information on gestational smoking was gathered upon delivery. SNPs tagging LEPR and LEPROT genes were genotyped. Data on LEPR/LEPROT DNA-M and leptin were obtained from blood samples drawn at age 18; to determine BMI, height and weight were ascertained. Blood samples were provided by 238 girls. Of the 21 CpG sites, interactions between gestational smoking and SNPs were detected for 16 CpGs. Methylation of seven of the 16 CpGs were, in interaction with modGVs, associated with leptin levels at age 18 years. Two CpGs survived a multiple testing penalty and were also associated with BMI. This two-stage model may explain why maternal smoking has a long-term effect on leptin levels and BMI in girls at age 18 years. PMID:23875062

  11. Body mass index and health status in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jerant, A; Bertakis, K D; Franks, P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: There is controversy regarding the existence of a body mass index (BMI) mortality paradox in diabetes, whereby the optimal BMI category is higher than it is in non-diabetic persons. To explore possible pathways to a mortality paradox, we examined the relationship of BMI with physical and mental health status in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. Subjects/Methods: We examined adjusted SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary (PCS-12 and MCS-12) scores by BMI (kg m−2) category (underweight, <20; normal weight, 20 to <25; overweight, 25 to <30; obese, 30 to <35; severely obese ⩾35) in adult diabetic and non-diabetic respondents to the 2000–2011 United States national Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (N=119 161). Adjustors were age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, education, smoking, comorbidity, urbanicity, geographic region and survey year. Results: In non-diabetic persons the adjusted mean PCS-12 score was highest (that is, most optimal) in the normal-weight category, whereas for diabetic persons the optimal adjusted mean PCS-12 score was in the overweight category (adjusted difference between non-diabetic and diabetic persons in the difference in PCS-12 means for overweight versus normal-weight category=0.8 points, 95% confidence interval; CI 0.1, 1.6; P=0.03). This paradoxical pattern was not evident for the MCS-12, and the adjusted difference between non-diabetic and diabetic persons in the difference in MCS-12 means for overweight versus obese persons was not significant (−0.3 points, 95% CI −0.9, 0.4; P=0.43). The findings were not significantly moderated by smoking status, cancer diagnosis or time period. Conclusions: The optimal BMI category for physical health status (but not mental health status) was higher among diabetic than non-diabetic persons. The findings are consistent with a BMI physical health status paradox in diabetes and, in turn, a mortality paradox. PMID:25915741

  12. Oklahoma Researchers Go to the Source for Valuable Information on Teen Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Vicki L.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Tall Chief, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Focus group discussions with Native-American adolescents aged 11 to 17 in Oklahoma examined why teen smokers started smoking, family and peer influences on smoking, reasons for continuing to smoke, reasons not to smoke, effectiveness of strategies to prevent adolescents from smoking, and awareness of the health risks of smoking. (SV)

  13. The Subject Is Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Presents a guide to direct teachers of all grade levels to antismoking resources on the Internet. The paper discusses the importance of basic knowledge and facts about smoking and health risks, beginning at an early age; tobacco marketing awareness; and social action to reinforce knowledge. (SM)

  14. Understanding the links between education and smoking.

    PubMed

    Maralani, Vida

    2014-11-01

    This study extends the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between education and smoking by focusing on the life course links between experiences from adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood. Differences in smoking by completed education are apparent at ages 12-18, long before that education is acquired. I use characteristics from the teenage years, including social networks, future expectations, and school experiences measured before the start of smoking regularly to predict smoking in adulthood. Results show that school policies, peers, and youths' mortality expectations predict smoking in adulthood but that college aspirations and analytical skills do not. I also show that smoking status at age 16 predicts both completed education and adult smoking, controlling for an extensive set of covariates. Overall, educational inequalities in smoking are better understood as a bundling of advantageous statuses that develops in childhood, rather than the effect of education producing better health. PMID:25131272

  15. Salacia chinensis L. extract ameliorates abnormal glucose metabolism and improves the bone strength and accumulation of AGEs in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Tagawa, Tomoya; Gotoh, Kentaroh; Oikawa, Norihisa; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shinagawa, Masatoshi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Ichimaru, Kenta; Kinoshita, Sho; Furusawa, Chisato; Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Masuda, Shuichi; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-06-15

    Although extracts of the roots and stems of Salacia chinensis have been used in folk medicines for chronic diseases such as rheumatism, irregular menstruation, asthma and diabetes mellitus, little is known about the mechanism by which Salacia chinensis extract (SCE) ameliorates these diseases. To clarify whether SCE ameliorates the progression of lifestyle-related diseases, the inhibitory effect of SCE on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was analyzed in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Although the oral administration of SCE did not ameliorate the diabetes-induced decrease in body weight, it ameliorated the increase in glycoalbumin levels in diabetic rats. An analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) demonstrated that the levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) were highest in the femurs and that they increased by the induction of diabetes. The administration of SCE also ameliorated the decreased femur strength and the accumulation of CML. Furthermore, when all of the carbohydrates in the chow of diabetic rats were replaced with free glucose, the administration of SCE significantly ameliorated a diabetes-induced increase in glycoalbumin and decrease in serum creatinine level and body weight. This study provides evidence to support that SCE ameliorates diabetes-induced abnormalities by improving the uptake of glucose by various organs. PMID:27121272

  16. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  17. Paediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

  18. The AGE-RAGE Axis and Its Relationship to Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Rodríguez, Ma. Etzabel; Uribarri, Jaime; Solorio-Meza, Sergio E.; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha E.; Cai, Weijing; Torres-Graciano, Sofía; Rangel-Salazar, Rubén; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was the simultaneous measurement of all the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis as well as several non-invasive markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Materials and Methods In 80 newly diagnosed diabetic patients we measured serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and peripheral mononuclear (PMNC) RAGE and AGER1 mRNA together with ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also assessed cardiovascular function by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness. Univariant correlation analysis was used to determine correlation between the variables in the study and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between the AGE-RAGE axis components and FMD, IMT and arterial stiffness. Results Serum CML correlated positively with sRAGE, PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MDA, but inversely with PMNC AGER1. sRAGE and RAGE was positively correlated with AGER; IMT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, and sRAGE and arterial stiffness had correlation with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, CML, sRAGE, AGER1 and RAGE. In multivariate analysis we found a significant relationship between CML with PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR; sRAGE with VCAM-1 and MDA; PMNC RAGE with PMNC AGER1and CML; PMNC AGER1 with PMNC RAGE; FMD with sRAGE, CML and HbA1c; IMT with sRAGE, and arterial stiffness with sRAGE, sCML and AGER1 Conclusions We found significant and strong associations between the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis and also found significant association between AGE-RAGE axis markers, especially sRAGE with several noninvasive markers of cardiovascular disease risk. sRAGE, an easily measured parameter in blood, may potentially be used as a surrogate marker of AGEs-RAGE in patients with diabetes. PMID:27434539

  19. Accurate assessment of early gestational age in normal and diabetic women by serum human placental lactogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Aspillaga, M O; Lind, T

    1983-08-01

    Serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were assayed and fetal crown-rump length (CRL) was determined by sonar in three groups of pregnant women--35 with uncomplicated pregnancies, 13 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 21 who represented a general pregnancy population. Each patient had a regular cycle and recorded last menstrual period, ovulated spontaneously, and was delivered of a single live baby. Serum hPL concentrations within the range 0.01-0.80 microU/ml in patients in the first group gave estimates of gestation with an SD of 6.3 days which was the same as the SD derived from CRL measurements. When the hPL regression equation was applied to the diabetic mothers the difference between the gestational age estimated from hPL and that estimated from LMP had a mean value of - 0.9 days with an SD of 6.2 days; this difference was not significantly different from zero. The third group of patients had a mean difference between hPL and LMP derived gestational age of 0.7 days (+/- 6.7 SD). Serum hPL offers a method of estimating gestation sufficiently precise to be used as a practical alternative to sonar measurements of CRL. PMID:6135831

  20. Ultrasonic Stimulation of Mouse Skin Reverses the Healing Delays in Diabetes and Aging by Activation of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher A M; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Chronic skin-healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong well-being, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed, and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of the skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in the skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds. PMID:26079528

  1. Ultrasonic stimulation of mouse skin reverses the healing delays in diabetes and aging by activation of Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, James A; Williamson, Rosalind C; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher AM; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds. PMID:26079528

  2. A survey on smoking habits and attitudes among adolescents in Greece.

    PubMed

    Piperakis, Stylianos M; Garagouni-Araiou, Fotini; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Piperakis, Alexander S; Iakovidou-Kritsi, Zafiroula; Triga, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate smoking habits among 699 secondary school students, along with their attitudes toward smoking and their perceptions on the consequences of tobacco use in their health. Our results indicate that Greek adolescents begin to smoke mainly due to curiosity and for stress reasons. Furthermore, having friends who smoke is highly associated with smoking and intention for smoking. Likewise, paternal smoking seems to reinforce students' intention for smoking. On the contrary, parental disapproval of smoking leads to anti-smoking behavior. Adolescents' attitudes toward smoking are also related to a series of similar factors such as parental educational status, parental smoking, and parental disapproval of smoking, friends who smoke, and, finally, adolescents' age, smoking behavior, and intention for smoking. The impact of tobacco use in human health seems to be understood better by older students. All these factors must be taken into account for a successful implementation of an anti-smoking intervention program. PMID:18540285

  3. Beta-D-glucoside protects against advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-mediated diabetic responses by suppressing ERK and inducing PPAR gamma DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2012-12-15

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), due to excessive amounts of 3- or 4-carbon sugars derived from glucose; cause multiple consequences in diabetic patients and older persons. The transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), is down regulated in the diabetic condition. Drugs targeting PPARγ were developed for diabetes therapy. We found that AGE inhibited PPARγ activity in different cell types induced by PPARγ activators, like troglitazone, rosiglitazone, oleamide, and anandamide. AGE induced translocation of PPARγ from nucleus to cytoplasm, increased on activation of ERK in cells. Antioxidants that inhibit AGE-induced NF-κB activation by preventing ROI generation were unable to protect AGE-mediated decrease in PPARγ activity. Only mangiferin, a β-D-glucoside, prevented AGE-mediated decrease in PPARγ activity and inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and cytoplasmic translocation of PPARγ. Mangiferin interacts with PPARγ and enhanced its DNA binding activity as predicted by in silico and shown by in vitro DNA-binding activity. Overall, the data suggest that (i) mangiferin inhibited AGE-induced ERK activation thereby inhibited PPARγ phosphorylation and cytoplasmic translocation; (ii) mangiferin interacts with PPARγ and enhances its DNA-binding ability. With these dual effects, mangiferin can be a likely candidate for developing therapeutic drug against diabetes. PMID:23058985

  4. Oral advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) promote insulin resistance and diabetes by depleting the antioxidant defenses AGE receptor-1 and sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weijing; Ramdas, Maya; Zhu, Li; Chen, Xue; Striker, Gary E; Vlassara, Helen

    2012-09-25

    The epidemics of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect the first world as well as less-developed countries, and now affect children as well. Persistently elevated oxidative stress and inflammation (OS/Infl) precede these polygenic conditions. A hallmark of contemporary lifestyle is a preference for thermally processed nutrients, replete with pro-OS/Infl advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which enhance appetite and cause overnutrition. We propose that chronic ingestion of oral AGEs promotes IR and T2D. The mechanism(s) involved in these findings were assessed in four generations of C57BL6 mice fed isocaloric diets with or without AGEs [synthetic methyl-glyoxal-derivatives (MG(+))]. F3/MG(+) mice manifested increased adiposity and premature IR, marked by severe deficiency of anti-AGE advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1) and of survival factor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and liver. Impaired 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was associated with marked changes in insulin receptor (InsR), IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt activation, and a macrophage and adipocyte shift to a pro-OS/inflammatory (M1) phenotype. These features were absent in F3/MG(-) mice. MG stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to suppressed AGER1 and SIRT1, and altered InsR, IRS-1, IRS-2 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB) p65 acetylation. Gene modulation revealed these effects to be coregulated by AGER1 and SIRT1. Thus, prolonged oral exposure to MG-AGEs can deplete host-defenses AGER1 and SIRT1, raise basal OS/Infl, and increase susceptibility to dysmetabolic IR. Because exposure to AGEs can be decreased, these insights provide an important framework for alleviating a major lifestyle-linked disease epidemic. PMID:22908267

  5. Characterization of trace organic compounds associated with aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in a controlled atmosphere—volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Jenkins, Roger A.

    In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke (ADSS) were determined in a controlled atmosphere, where ADSS is the sole source of target compounds. The ADSS was generated in a 30 m 3 environmental test chamber using a variety of cigarettes, including the Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarette and eight commercial brands, and a total of 24 experimental runs were conducted. Target analytes were divided into three groups, i.e. vapor and particulate phase markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds (VOC) including carbonyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The VOC samples were collected on triple sorbent traps, and then analyzed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), while the carbonyl compounds were sampled on DNPH cartridges, being analyzed by HPLC. ETS particles in the chamber were collected by high volume sampling, and then used for the determination of PAHs by GC/MS. Among more than 30 target VOCs, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde. The results from the chamber study were further used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP), a vapor phase ETS marker. The ratios appeared to be in generally good agreement with published values in the literature. This suggests that the characteristic ratios may be useful for quantifying the impact of ETS on the VOC concentrations in 'real world' indoor environments, which are affected by a complex mixture of components from multiple sources. The yields of ETS markers from this study are all slightly lower than those estimated by other studies, while VOC yields are in reasonable agreement in many cases with values in the literature. Among 16 target PAHs, chrysene appeared to be most abundant, followed by benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The average contents of BaP and

  6. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  7. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  8. Role of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes: Correlation with Age and Glycemic Condition in Diabetic Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Swaleha; Ajmal, Mohd; Siddiqui, Sheelu Shafiq; Moin, Shagufta; Owais, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic inflammatory disease involving insulin producing β-cells destroyed by the conjoined action of auto reactive T-cells, inflammatory cytokines and monocytic cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the status of pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers and possible correlation of these factors towards outcome of the disease. Methods The study was carried out on 29 T1D subjects and 20 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of oxidative stress markers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were estimated employing biochemical assays. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as by IL-1β & IL-17 in the serum were determined by ELISA, while the expression of TNF-α, IL-23 & IFN-γ was ascertained by qRT-PCR. Results The onset of T1D disease was accompanied with elevation in levels of Plasma malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content and nitric oxide while plasma vitamin C, reduced glutathione and erythrocyte sulfhydryl groups were found to be significantly decreased in T1D patients as compared to healthy control subjects. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-s-transferase showed a significant suppression in the erythrocytes of T1D patients as compared to healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-17A were significantly augmented (***p≤.001) on one hand, while expression of T cell based cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-23 was also up-regulated (*p≤.05) as compared to healthy human subjects. Conclusion The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific biochemical markers in the serum of the patient can be exploited as potential markers for type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The study suggests that level of inflammatory markers is up-regulated in T1D patients in an age dependent manner. PMID:27575603

  9. HbA1c Alone Is a Poor Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects with Pre-Diabetes but Is Suitable for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Seán R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement is recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence suggests discordance between HbA1c and FPG. In this study we examine a range of metabolic risk features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine which assay more accurately identifies individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,047 men and women aged 46-73 years. Binary and multinomial logistic regression were employed to examine risk feature associations with pre-diabetes [either HbA1c levels 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol) or impaired FPG levels 5.6-6.9 mmol/l] and type 2 diabetes [either HbA1c levels >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol) or FPG levels >7.0 mmol/l]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to discriminate pre-diabetes and diabetes defined by FPG. Results Stronger associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were observed in pre-diabetic subjects diagnosed by FPG compared to those detected by HbA1c. Individuals with type 2 diabetes exhibited cardiometabolic profiles that were broadly similar according to diagnosis by either assay. Pre-diabetic participants classified by both assays displayed a more pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic, hypertensive and insulin resistant profile. Odds ratios of having three or more metabolic syndrome features were also noticeably increased (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.8-5.8) when compared to subjects diagnosed by either HbA1c (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) or FPG (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1) separately. Conclusions In middle-aged Caucasian-Europeans, HbA1c alone is a poor indicator of cardiometabolic risk but is suitable for diagnosing diabetes. Combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be of additional benefit for detecting individuals at highest odds of

  10. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  11. Young Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated with the Development of Celiac Disease—Associated Antibodies in Children Living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pall, Harpreet; Newhook, Leigh A.; Aaron, Hillary; Curtis, Joseph; Randell, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of positive antibodies to endomysium (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in children with type 1 diabetes living in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), and to examine clinical features associated with positive antibodies. Methods: Patients were recruited from the pediatric diabetes clinic. One hundred sixty-seven children with type 1 diabetes from the 280 children followed at the clinic were prospectively screened for celiac disease using EMA and tTG. The variables of Irish descent, age at onset of diabetes, duration of diabetes, sex, family history of celiac disease, hemoglobin A1C (A1C), ferritin, gastrointestinal symptoms, and body mass index were compiled for all patients. The group of patients with positive antibodies to EMA and/or tTG was compared to the group with negative antibodies. Results: The prevalence of patients with positive antibodies to EMA and/or tTG was 16.8% (n = 28). One patient had also been previously diagnosed with symptomatic celiac disease. The two statistically significant variables with positive antibodies were an earlier age at onset of diabetes (Mann-Whitney U two-tailed test: mean difference 3.2 years, 95% CI 1.7–4.8 years, p < 0.0001) and longer duration of diabetes (Mann-Whitney U two-tailed test: mean difference 2.9 years, 95% CI 1.3–4.4 years, p < 0.0001). Irish descent was associated with positive antibodies but did not reach statistical significance. On logistic regression analysis performed with these three variables together, only age at onset of diabetes remained significant. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of celiac disease-associated antibodies in children living in NL with type 1 diabetes. Unlike other clinical features, an earlier age at onset of diabetes was predictive for positive antibodies. As the majority of children with positive antibodies did not have signs or symptoms of celiac disease, routine screening for celiac disease in

  12. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection: results from the D:A:D Study

    PubMed Central

    Petoumenos, K; Worm, S; Reiss, P; de Wit, S; d’Arminio Monforte, A; Sabin, C; Friis-Moller, N; Weber, R; Mercie, P; Pradier, C; El-Sadr, W; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Law, MG

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV-infection. Design Patients who reported smoking status, and no previous CVD prior to enrolment into D:A:D were included. Smoking status is collected at each visit as current smoker (yes/no) and ever smoker (yes/no). Duration since stopping smoking was calculated for persons who had reported current smoking during follow-up and no current smoking subsequently. Endpoints were: myocardial infarction (MI); coronary heart disease (CHD – MI plus invasive coronary artery procedure or death from other CHD); CVD (CVD – CHD plus carotid artery endarterectomy or stroke); and all-cause mortality. Methods Event rates were calculated for never, previous and current smokers, and smokers who stopped during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were determined using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, cohort, calendar year, family history of CVD, diabetes, lipids, blood pressure and antiretroviral treatment. Results 27,136 patients had smoking status reported, with a total of 432, 600, 746 and 1902 MI, CHD, CVD and mortality events respectively. The adjusted IRR of CVD in patients who stopped smoking during follow-up decreased from 2.32 within the first year of stopping to 1.49 after 3+ years compared to those who never smoked. Similar trends were observed for the MI and CHD endpoints. Reductions in risk were less pronounced for all cause mortality. Conclusion The risk of CVD events in HIV-positive patients decreased with increasing time since stopping smoking. Smoking cessation efforts should be a priority in the management of HIV positive patients. PMID:21251183

  13. Cross-linking of the extracellular matrix by the maillard reaction in aging and diabetes: an update on "a puzzle nearing resolution".

    PubMed

    Monnier, Vincent M; Mustata, Georgian T; Biemel, Klaus L; Reihl, Oliver; Lederer, Marcus O; Zhenyu, Dai; Sell, David R

    2005-06-01

    The aging extracellular matrix is characterized by an age-related increase in insolubilization, yellowing, and stiffening, all of which can be mimicked by the Maillard reaction in vitro. These phenomena are accelerated in metabolic diseases such as diabetes and end-stage renal disease, which have in common with physiological aging the accumulation of various glycation products and cross-links. Eight years ago we concluded that the evidence favored oxidative cross-linking in experimental diabetes [Monnier, V.M. et al. 1996. The mechanism of collagen cross-linking in diabetes: a puzzle nearing completion. Diabetes 45(Suppl. 3): 67-72] and proposed a major role for a putative non-UV active cross-link derived from glucose. Below, we provide an update of the field that leads to the conclusion that, while oxidation might be important for Maillard reaction-mediated cross-linking via Strecker degradation and allysine formation, the single most important collagen cross-link known to date in diabetes and aging is glucosepane, a lysyl-arginine cross-link that forms under nonoxidative conditions. PMID:16037276

  14. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  15. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  16. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Take Action: Stress and Cravings Deal with stress. Manage stress by creating peaceful times in your daily schedule. ... also check out these tips for dealing with stress as you quit . Manage cravings. When you quit smoking, the urge to ...

  17. β2-adrenergic receptor and UCP3 variants modulate the relationship between age and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pinelli, Michele; Giacchetti, Manuela; Acquaviva, Fabio; Cocozza, Sergio; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Lapice, Emanuela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Romano, Geremia; Vaccaro, Olga; Monticelli, Antonella

    2006-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and other complex diseases are the product of complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental causes. To cope with such a complexity, all the statistical and conceptual strategies available should be used. The working hypothesis of this study was that two well-known T2DM risk factors could have diverse effect in individuals carrying different genotypes. In particular, our effort was to investigate if a well-defined group of genes, involved in peripheral energy expenditure, could modify the impact of two environmental factors like age and obesity on the risk to develop diabetes. To achieve this aim we exploited a multianalytical approach also using dimensionality reduction strategy and conservative significance correction strategies. Methods We collected clinical data and characterised five genetic variants and 2 environmental factors of 342 ambulatory T2DM patients and 305 unrelated non-diabetic controls. To take in account the role of one of the major co-morbidity conditions we stratified the whole sample according to the presence of obesity, over and above the 30 Kg/m2 BMI threshold. Results By monofactorial analyses the ADRB2-27 Glu27 homozygotes had a lower frequency of diabetes when compared with Gln27 carriers (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36 – 0.91). This difference was even more marked in the obese subsample. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method in the non-obese subsample showed an interaction among age, ADRB2-16 and UCP3 polymorphisms. In individuals that were UCP3 T-carriers and ADRB2-16 Arg-carriers the OR increased from 1 in the youngest to 10.84 (95% CI 4.54–25.85) in the oldest. On the contrary, in the ADRB2-16 GlyGly and UCP3 CC double homozygote subjects, the OR for the disease was 1.10 (95% CI 0.53–2.27) in the youngest and 1.61 (95% CI 0.55–4.71) in the oldest. Conclusion Although our results should be confirmed by

  18. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function. PMID:26933035

  19. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  20. 2-Aminoadipic acid is a marker of protein carbonyl oxidation in the aging human skin: effects of diabetes, renal failure and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Sell, David R.; Strauch, Christopher M.; Shen, Wei; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ϵ-amino group of lysine residues in longlived proteins oxidatively deaminates with age forming the carbonyl compound, allysine (α-aminoadipic acid-δ-semialdehyde), which can further oxidize into 2-aminoadipic acid. In the present study, we measured both products in insoluble human skin collagen from n=117 individuals of age range 10–90 years, of which n=61 and n=56 were non-diabetic and diabetic respectively, and a total of n=61 individuals had either acute or chronic renal failure. Allysine was reduced by borohydride into 6-hydroxynorleucine and both products were measured in acid hydrolysates by selective ion monitoring gas chromatography (GC)-MS. The results showed that 2-aminoadipic acid (P<0.0001), but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (P=0.14), significantly increased with age reaching levels of 1 and 0.3 mmol/mol lysine at late age respectively. Diabetes in the absence of renal failure significantly (P<0.0001) increased 2-aminoadipic acid up to <3 mmol/mol, but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (levels<0.4 mmol/mol, P=0.18). Renal failure even in the absence of diabetes markedly increased levels reaching up to <0.5 and 8 mmol/mol for 6-hydroxynorleucine and 2-aminoadipic acid respectively. Septicaemia significantly (P<0.0001) elevated 2-aminoadipic acid in non-diabetic, but not diabetic individuals, and mildly correlated with other glycoxidation markers, carboxymethyl-lysine and the methylglyoxal-derived products, carboxyethyl-lysine, argpyrimidine and MODIC (methylglyoxal-derived imidazolium cross-link). These results provide support for the presence of metal-catalysed oxidation (the Suyama pathway) in diabetes and the possible activation of myeloperoxidase during sepsis. We conclude that 2-aminoadipic acid is a more reliable marker for protein oxidation than its precursor, allysine. Its mechanism of formation in each of these conditions needs to be elucidated. PMID:17313367

  1. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  2. Increased blood viscosity in diabetic proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lowe, G D; Ghafour, I M; Belch, J J; Forbes, C D; Foulds, W S; MacCuish, A C

    1986-02-01

    Blood rheology and haemostasis were assessed in 18 diabetics with proliferative retinopathy and in 18 diabetics without proliferative retinopathy, matched for age, sex, smoking habit and type, duration and treatment of diabetes. Proliferative retinopathy was associated with significantly higher levels of blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, which were related to higher levels of plasma viscosity and fibrinogen. Blood urea, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and white cell count were also significantly higher, whereas haematocrit, red cell deformability and several other haematological and biochemical variables did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. In view of these findings, and of our recent demonstration that increased blood viscosity also exists in those patients with retinal vein occlusion who develop a similar proliferative retinopathy, we suggest that hyperviscosity may contribute to retinal ischaemia and hence proliferative retinopathy. PMID:3698481

  3. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  4. Smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between sensation seeking, peer smoking, and smoking among young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensation seeking is a strong correlate of smoking among adolescents, yet the research on mediators of this association is not well established. The proposed model of the present study includes antecedent variables (sensation seeking), mediators (perceived peer smoking, outcome expectancies including negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite-and-weight control), and one outcome variable (smoking cigarettes during the past 30 days). Methods: Self-reported data obtained from Hungarian high-school students (ninth grade, N = 2,565, mean age 15.3 years, SD = 0.56) were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Before testing of the main model, the construct validity of mediators (outcome expectancy scales) was supported with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling. The final model was tested with structural equation modeling, and the goodness-of-fit indices and the proportion of direct and indirect effects were analyzed. Results: Our mediational model had an excellent model fit, and this study supported both the proposed sensation seeking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways and sensation seeking→perceived peer smoking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways. The total indirect effect explains 76% of sensation seeking and smoking association. Results support the notion that positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. Discussion: Results support the notion that perceived peer smoking, positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. PMID:19959571

  5. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  6. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  7. Effect of Age and Diabetes on the Response of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells to Fibrin Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Stolzing, A.; Colley, H.; Scutt, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are showing increasing promise in applications such as tissue engineering and cell therapy. MSC are low in number in bone marrow, and therefore in vitro expansion is often necessary. In vivo, stem cells often reside within a niche acting to protect the cells. These niches are composed of niche cells, stem cells, and extracellular matrix. When blood vessels are damaged, a fibrin clot forms as part of the wound healing response. The clot constitutes a form of stem cell niche as it appears to maintain the stem cell phenotype while supporting MSC proliferation and differentiation during healing. This is particularly appropriate as fibrin is increasingly being suggested as a scaffold meaning that fibrin-based tissue engineering may to some extent recapitulate wound healing. Here, we describe how fibrin modulates the clonogenic capacity of MSC derived from young/old human donors and normal/diabetic rats. Fibrin was prepared using different concentrations to modulate the stiffness of the substrate. MSC were expanded on these scaffolds and analysed. MSC showed an increased self-renewal on soft surfaces. Old and diabetic cells lost the ability to react to these signals and can no longer adapt to the changed environment. PMID:22194749

  8. Water-Pipe Smoking and Albuminuria: New Dog with Old Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ishtiaque, Iqra; Shafique, Kashif; Ul-Haq, Zia; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Ishtiaque, Afra

    2014-01-01

    Water-pipe (WP) smoking is on rise worldwide for the past few years, particularly among younger individuals. Growing evidence indicates that WP smoking is as harmful as cigarette smoking. To date, most of the research has focused on acute health effects of WP smoking, and evidence remains limited when it comes to chronic health effects in relation to long-term WP smoking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between WP smoking and albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. This analysis was conducted on data of a population-based cross-sectional study—the Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). The study sample was recruited from three sites in Pakistan. Trained nurses carried out individual interviews and obtained the information on demographics, lifestyle factors, and past and current medical history. Measurements of complete blood count, lipid profile, fasting glucose level, and 24-hour albuminuria were also made by using blood and urine samples. Albumin excretion was classified into three categories using standard cut-offs: normal excretion, high-normal excretion and microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between WP smoking and albuminuria. The final analysis included data from 1,626 health individuals, of which 829 (51.0%) were males and 797 (49.0%) females. Of 1,626 individuals, 267 (16.4%) were current WP smokers and 1,359 (83.6%) were non-WP smokers. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria (OR  =  2.33, 95% CI 1.68-3.22, p-value <0.001) and microalbuminuria (OR  =  1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.58, p-value 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, social class, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria and microalbuminuria when analysis was stratified on hypertension and diabetes mellitus categories. WP smoking has a strong association with albuminuria in apparently healthy

  9. Fully automated detection of diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration from optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Pratul P.; Kim, Leo A.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Comer, Grant M.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel fully automated algorithm for the detection of retinal diseases via optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Our algorithm utilizes multiscale histograms of oriented gradient descriptors as feature vectors of a support vector machine based classifier. The spectral domain OCT data sets used for cross-validation consisted of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects: 15 normal subjects, 15 patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 15 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Our classifier correctly identified 100% of cases with AMD, 100% cases with DME, and 86.67% cases of normal subjects. This algorithm is a potentially impactful tool for the remote diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:25360373

  10. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  11. Analysis of complex mixtures--cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, Michael; Klus, Hubert

    2005-07-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke is a complex mixture that is inhaled into the respiratory system. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of mainstream smoke are reviewed and briefly compared with that of sidestream smoke. Special attention is paid to ageing effects and artifact formation during the sampling and testing of cigarette smoke, with specific examples of artifact formation during sampling discussed (nitrogen dioxide, methyl nitrite, etc.). Historically, the generation of cigarette smoke for chemical and biological testing has been based on standard smoke generation procedures that are intended for product comparisons. More recently, emerging global regulations have called for alternative smoke generation methods, with emphasis on results relevant to conditions of product use, e.g., estimates of maximum smoke emissions. Strategies for establishing such alternative smoke generation methods are discussed and the potential effects of alternative smoking conditions on analytical accuracy and precision are addressed. Current regulatory requirements that include Hoffmann analyte analysis (i.e., constituents reported to be associated with the risks of cigarette smoking) are also summarized and the potential effect of alternative smoke generation methods on individual constituent yields considered. Finally, a limited critique of emerging regulation that relates to mainstream cigarette smoke measurements, including a discussion of recent WHO recommendations, is offered. PMID:16092717

  12. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity. PMID:27221478

  13. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  14. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  15. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  16. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  17. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  18. Predictors of Smoking Cessation and Duration: Implication for Smoking Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Etedali, Farshad; Sereshti, Nafiseh; Sabour, Elnaz; Samani, Marzieh Dehghani; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Piri; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few articles studding the factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Iranian smokers. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between socio-demographic factors and smoking behavior, such as number of failed smoking cessation and duration of abstinence in Iranian population. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 673 participants was conducted in a local government health-care center. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic information including, age, marital status, education, income, and job. Furthermore, information on smoking cigarettes including number of smoking per day, duration of smoking, cigarettes brand, nicotine concentration, and history of cessation was obtained. Results: Mean ± SD of age and daily cigarette consumption were 39.7 ± 1.1 and 22.1 ± 1.1 respectively. Failure rate of smoking cessation was higher in the lower age group (odds ratios [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1, 7.7) and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3, 4.5) and duration of smoking more than 30 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2, 9.3) and foreign cigarette brand (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.7). Length time of cessation was prominent in participants with lower age group (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.3, 22.1), and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5, 4.9) and lower in smokers with duration of smoking more than 10 and 10-19 years (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12, 0.89), (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17, 0.76), respectively. Conclusions: The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response. PMID:23776723

  19. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  20. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  1. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  2. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  3. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  4. [Cardiovascular trials in diabetes: past and present. Invited lecture of the XXXVth National Congress of the Spanish Society of Cardiology].

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, K

    2000-12-01

    The risk of coronary heart disease in subjects with Type2 diabetes is 2-4 times higher than in non-diabetic subjects of the same age. About 20% of patients with clinically established coronary heart disease have diabetes and the prognosis is much worse in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients. Trial evidence suggests that good blood glucose control reduces the risk of myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and improves prognosis after it. Trial evidence indicates that the benefit from antihypertensive treatment is at least as good in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients, and that diabetic patients with coronary heart disease or other form of atherosclerotic vascular disease should be treated with lipid-lowering drugs (usually with statins), if their LDL cholesterol levels on diet remain> 3.0 mmol/l (115 mg/dl). Trial evidence supports the use of aspirin in middle-aged or elderly diabetic patients. All diabetic patients should be advised to stop smoking. PMID:11171476

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Disorders in Spouses of Diabetic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jichao; Lu, Jieli; Wang, Weiqing; Mu, Yiming; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Lulu; Shi, Lixin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Wu, Shengli; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Ye, Zhen; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Dai, Meng; Wang, Tiange; Zhang, Di; Lai, Shenghan; Ning, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Pairs of spouses share common lifestyle factors. In a cross-sectional analysis, we investigated whether spouses of diabetic individuals had a higher prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders in a community-based population of Chinese adults aged 40 years or older between 2011 and 2012. A total of 34,805 pairs of spouses were identified. All participants underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test and provided detailed clinical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle information. Diabetes and multiple cardiometabolic disorders were defined according to standard criteria. Compared with participants whose spouses did not have diabetes, participants whose spouses had diabetes had higher odds of having diabetes (for men, odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.45; for women, OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.47), obesity (for men, OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.59; for women, OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.35), metabolic syndrome (for men, OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.42; for women, OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20), and cardiovascular disease (for men, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34; for women, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.35). The associations were independent of age, body mass index, education, family history of diabetes, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and diet. Spousal diabetes was simple and valuable information for identifying individuals at risk for diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:27530336

  6. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  8. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD. PMID:27082868

  9. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II among Iranian elderly population and its association with other age-related diseases, 2012.

    PubMed

    Taheri Tanjani, Parisa; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Esmail Mottlagh, Mohammad; Najafi, Farid

    2015-01-01

    DM type II is one of the most common chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of DM and its association with other age-related diseases in Iran, 2012. In this cross-sectional study, people aged 60 years and over were selected using multistage sampling method. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 items) questionnaires were used. History of common disorders was taken through self-report, medical records and the results of clinical examinations. A total of 1350 old people were studied. DM type II was found in 297 (22.0%) subjects and 371 (27.5%) of subjects were not aware of their DM status. Hypertension (55.6%), high serum cholesterol (51.8%), malnutrition (40.1%), Alzheimer's disease (16.9%), weight loss within past year (16.1%), weight gain within past year (11.7%), frailty (64.6%), insomnia (50.1%), and vision problems (62.6%) were significantly more common in diabetics. Those who were not aware of their status of DM either were between diabetics and non-diabetics or more similar to non-diabetics. Considering high prevalence of age-related diseases among Iranian elderly people, in particular women and those with DM type II, preventive measures are recommended so as to decrease and control DM type II and its consequent complications. PMID:25623857

  10. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports participation, exposure to peer smoking, and smoking behavior. The primary outcome was smoking status (never smoked, tried smoking, experimental/current smoker). Ordinal logistic regression was used separately for non-Hispanic White (n = 122) and non-White (n = 189; 70.4% Black, 14.3% Hispanic, and 15.3% other) adolescents. Among White adolescents, sports participants had significantly lower odds of smoking than non-sports participants, independent of age, gender, and peer smoking. For non-Whites, the adjusted effect of sports participation on smoking depended upon exposure to peers who smoke. Compared with non-sport participants with no exposure to peer smoking, sports participants with no exposure to peer smoking had significantly lower odds of smoking, whereas sports participants with exposure to peer smoking had significantly higher odds of smoking. Sports appear to be protective against smoking among non-Hispanic White adolescents, but among non-White adolescents exposure to peer smoking influences this protection. Interventions incorporating sports to prevent smoking should consider these racial/ethnic differences to address disparities in smoking-related disease. PMID:22698897

  11. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  12. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  13. Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affected by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Display Premature Aging and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyeon; Piao, Ying; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Chung, Dalhee; Han, Yu Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Jun, Eun Jeong; Shim, Jae-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUC-MSCs) of Wharton's jelly origin undergo adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. Recent studies have consistently shown their therapeutic potential in various human disease models. However, the biological effects of major pregnancy complications on the cellular properties of hUC-MSCs remain to be studied. In this study, we compared the basic properties of hUC-MSCs obtained from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients (GDM-UC-MSCs) and normal pregnant women (N-UC-MSCs). Assessments of cumulative cell growth, MSC marker expression, cellular senescence, and mitochondrial function-related gene expression were performed using a cell count assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and cell-based mitochondrial functional assay system. When compared with N-UC-MSCs, GDM-UC-MSCs showed decreased cell growth and earlier cellular senescence with accumulation of p16 and p53, even though they expressed similar levels of CD105, CD90, and CD73 MSC marker proteins. GDM-UC-MSCs also displayed significantly lower osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials than N-UC-MSCs. Furthermore, GDM-UC-MSCs exhibited a low mitochondrial activity and significantly reduced expression of the mitochondrial function regulatory genes ND2, ND9, COX1, PGC-1α, and TFAM. Here, we report intriguing and novel evidence that maternal metabolic derangement during gestation affects the biological properties of fetal cells, which may be a component of fetal programming. Our findings also underscore the importance of the critical assessment of the biological impact of maternal–fetal conditions in biological studies and clinical applications of hUC-MSCs. PMID:25437179

  14. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  15. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  16. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Linda G; Malak, Malakeh Z

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to describe the habits, attitudes, and practices related to smoking among students of Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. Students (n = 650) were recruited in randomly selected, cluster samples drawn from the medical and engineering colleges of JUST. They were made familiar with a modified Arabic version of the World Health Organisation Smoking Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Smoking Questionnaire to study their habits, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to smoking. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 28.6% (50.2% among males and 6.5% among females). Friends, not family, were the main source of the first smoking, and this most often occurred after 15 years of age (82.3%). Males preferred smoking in the cafeteria, females in the bathroom. The main advantage of smoking for males was calming down, while for females it was independence. Non-smokers chose not to smoke because of health and hatred of the habit. The non-smokers had more positive attitudes against smoking and were more aware of the adverse effects of smoking. The reasons smokers gave for starting smoking were pleasure, followed by stress and curiosity. Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit smoking in the future. Some smokers disagreed with some criticisms against smoking, and reasons why they did not want to quit included social attitudes, addiction, and not knowing how to quit. Results of this study may provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program in the university and encourage policy makers to limit smoking in the university by strengthening the policies against smoking. PMID:12379297

  17. Selective contribution of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors to cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D; Zentai, C; Perz, S; Rathmann, W; Haastert, B; Meisinger, C; Löwel, H

    2006-04-01

    Both cardiac autonomic dysfunction adn cardiovascular risk factors are related to and excess risk of mortality. We sought to determine whether the major cardiovascular risk factors are associated with diminished heart rate variability (HRV), prolonged QTc interval, or increased QT dispersion (QTD). Male (n = 1030) and female (n = 957) subjects, aged 55-74 years, who participated in the population-based MONICA Augsburg survey 1989/90 were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and low physical activity. Lowest quartiles for time domain indexes of HRV (SD of R-R intervals [SDNN], max-min difference), QTc > 440 ms, and QTD > 60 ms determined from 12-lead resting ECG were used as cutpoints. In men, after adjustment for age and alcohol consumption, significant independent determinants for the lowest quartiles of SDNN were diabetes, obesity, and smoking. Independent contributors to prolonged QTc were hypertension, obesity, smoking, and low physical activity, whereas for increased QTD it was only hypertension. In women, diabetes was the only contributor to low SDNN, and hypertension was the only determinant of prolonged QTc. In conclusion, diabetes is the primary determinant of reduced HRV in the general population, while hypertension is the primary contributor to prolonged QTc in both sexes. However, obesity and smoking contribute to autonomic dysfunction in men but not women. Thus, a selectivity and sex-related differences exist among the various cardiovascular risk factors as to their influence on autonomic dysfunction. PMID:16710813

  18. Beyond Diabetes: Does Obesity-Induced Oxidative Stress Drive the Aging Process?

    PubMed

    Salmon, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous correlative data, a causative role for oxidative stress in mammalian longevity has remained elusive. However, there is strong evidence that increased oxidative stress is associated with exacerbation of many diseases and pathologies that are also strongly related to advanced age. Obesity, or increased fat accumulation, is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide and is associated with not only metabolic dysfunction but also increased levels of oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, obesity is also associated with significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease, neurological decline and cancer among many other diseases as well as a significantly increased risk of mortality. In this review, we investigate the possible interpretation that the increased incidence of these diseases in obesity may be due to chronic oxidative stress mediating segmental acceleration of the aging process. Understanding how obesity can alter cellular physiology beyond that directly related to metabolic function could open new therapeutic areas of approach to extend the period of healthy aging among people of all body composition. PMID:27438860

  19. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  20. The effect of age on clinical outcomes and health status in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Trial (BARI 2D)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Hlatky, Mark A.; Faxon, David; Ramanathan, Kodangudi; Adler, Dale; Mooradian, Arshag; Rihal, Charanjit; Stone, Roslyn A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine the extent to which effectiveness of cardiac and diabetes treatment strategies varies by patient age. Background The impact of age on the effectiveness of revascularization and hyperglycemia treatments has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods In BARI 2D, 2368 patients with documented stable heart disease and type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive prompt revascularization versus initial medical therapy with deferred revascularization and insulin-sensitization versus insulin-provision for hyperglycemia treatment. Patients were followed for an average of 5.3 years. Cox regression and mixed models were used to investigate the effect of age and randomized treatment assignment on clinical and health status outcomes. Results The effect of prompt revascularization versus medical therapy did not differ by age for death (interaction p=0.99), major cardiovascular events (interaction p=0.081), angina (interaction p=0.9